Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Automatism: Automatic, mechanical, and apparently undirected behavior which is outside of conscious control.Kaolin: The most common mineral of a group of hydrated aluminum silicates, approximately H2Al2Si2O8-H2O. It is prepared for pharmaceutical and medicinal purposes by levigating with water to remove sand, etc. (From Merck Index, 11th ed) The name is derived from Kao-ling (Chinese: "high ridge"), the original site. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Behavior: The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.Sexual Behavior: Sexual activities of humans.Emetics: Agents that cause vomiting. They may act directly on the gastrointestinal tract, bringing about emesis through local irritant effects, or indirectly, through their effects on the chemoreceptor trigger zone in the postremal area near the medulla.Pica: The persistent eating of nonnutritive substances for a period of at least one month. (DSM-IV)Sexual Behavior, Animal: Sexual activities of animals.Behavior Therapy: The application of modern theories of learning and conditioning in the treatment of behavior disorders.Child Behavior: Any observable response or action of a child from 24 months through 12 years of age. For neonates or children younger than 24 months, INFANT BEHAVIOR is available.Vertebral Artery: The first branch of the SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY with distribution to muscles of the NECK; VERTEBRAE; SPINAL CORD; CEREBELLUM; and interior of the CEREBRUM.Choice Behavior: The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.Exploratory Behavior: The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.Lateral Medullary Syndrome: INFARCTION of the dorsolateral aspect of MEDULLA OBLONGATA in the BRAIN STEM. It is caused by occlusion of the VERTEBRAL ARTERY and/or the posterior inferior cerebellar artery. Clinical manifestations vary with the size of infarction, but may include loss of pain and temperature sensation in the ipsilateral face and contralateral body below the chin; ipsilateral HORNER SYNDROME; ipsilateral ATAXIA; DYSARTHRIA; VERTIGO; nausea, hiccup; dysphagia; and VOCAL CORD PARALYSIS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p801)Adolescent Behavior: Any observable response or action of an adolescent.Mangifera: A plant genus of the family ANACARDIACEAE best known for the edible fruit.Child Behavior Disorders: Disturbances considered to be pathological based on age and stage appropriateness, e.g., conduct disturbances and anaclitic depression. This concept does not include psychoneuroses, psychoses, or personality disorders with fixed patterns.Maternal Behavior: The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a mother.Psychological Techniques: Methods used in the diagnosis and treatment of behavioral, personality, and mental disorders.Stereotyped Behavior: Relatively invariant mode of behavior elicited or determined by a particular situation; may be verbal, postural, or expressive.Cerebellum: The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.Crows: Common name for the largest birds in the order PASSERIFORMES, family Corvidae. These omnivorous black birds comprise most of the species in the genus Corvus, along with ravens and jackdaws (which are often also referred to as crows).Reinforcement (Psychology): The strengthening of a conditioned response.Fenthion: Potent cholinesterase inhibitor used as an insecticide and acaricide.Cerebellar Diseases: Diseases that affect the structure or function of the cerebellum. Cardinal manifestations of cerebellar dysfunction include dysmetria, GAIT ATAXIA, and MUSCLE HYPOTONIA.Aggression: Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism.Mobile Applications: Computer programs or software installed on mobile electronic devices which support a wide range of functions and uses which include television, telephone, video, music, word processing, and Internet service.Ageusia: Complete or severe loss of the subjective sense of taste, frequently accompanied by OLFACTION DISORDERS.Agonistic Behavior: Any behavior associated with conflict between two individuals.Intracranial Aneurysm: Abnormal outpouching in the wall of intracranial blood vessels. Most common are the saccular (berry) aneurysms located at branch points in CIRCLE OF WILLIS at the base of the brain. Vessel rupture results in SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Giant aneurysms (>2.5 cm in diameter) may compress adjacent structures, including the OCULOMOTOR NERVE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p841)Risk-Taking: Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Reinforcement, Social: The strengthening of a response with a social reward such as a nod of approval, a parent's love or attention.Nesting Behavior: Animal behavior associated with the nest; includes construction, effects of size and material; behavior of the adult during the nesting period and the effect of the nest on the behavior of the young.Wit and Humor as Topic: The faculty of expressing the amusing, clever, or comical or the keen perception and cleverly apt expression of connections between ideas that awaken amusement and pleasure. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Punishment: The application of an unpleasant stimulus or penalty for the purpose of eliminating or correcting undesirable behavior.Bezoars: Concretions of swallowed hair, fruit or vegetable fibers, or similar substances found in the alimentary canal.Self-Injurious Behavior: Behavior in which persons hurt or harm themselves without the motive of suicide or of sexual deviation.Intellectual Disability: Subnormal intellectual functioning which originates during the developmental period. This has multiple potential etiologies, including genetic defects and perinatal insults. Intelligence quotient (IQ) scores are commonly used to determine whether an individual has an intellectual disability. IQ scores between 70 and 79 are in the borderline range. Scores below 67 are in the disabled range. (from Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p28)Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Posterior Cerebral Artery: Artery formed by the bifurcation of the BASILAR ARTERY. Branches of the posterior cerebral artery supply portions of the OCCIPITAL LOBE; PARIETAL LOBE; inferior temporal gyrus, brainstem, and CHOROID PLEXUS.Appetitive Behavior: Animal searching behavior. The variable introductory phase of an instinctive behavior pattern or sequence, e.g., looking for food, or sequential courtship patterns prior to mating.Social Behavior Disorders: Behaviors which are at variance with the expected social norm and which affect other individuals.Predatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.Vocational Guidance: Systematic efforts to assist individuals in selecting an occupation or suitable employment on the basis of aptitude, education, etc.United StatesVomiting: The forcible expulsion of the contents of the STOMACH through the MOUTH.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Nobel PrizeBehavior, Addictive: The observable, measurable, and often pathological activity of an organism that portrays its inability to overcome a habit resulting in an insatiable craving for a substance or for performing certain acts. The addictive behavior includes the emotional and physical overdependence on the object of habit in increasing amount or frequency.Impulsive Behavior: An act performed without delay, reflection, voluntary direction or obvious control in response to a stimulus.Polygalacturonase: A cell wall-degrading enzyme found in microorganisms and higher plants. It catalyzes the random hydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-D-galactosiduronic linkages in pectate and other galacturonans. EC 3.2.1.15.Drinking Behavior: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of water and other liquids; includes rhythmic patterns of drinking (time intervals - onset and duration), frequency and satiety.Aneurysm, Ruptured: The tearing or bursting of the weakened wall of the aneurysmal sac, usually heralded by sudden worsening pain. The great danger of a ruptured aneurysm is the large amount of blood spilling into the surrounding tissues and cavities, causing HEMORRHAGIC SHOCK.Tannins: Polyphenolic compounds with molecular weights of around 500-3000 daltons and containing enough hydroxyl groups (1-2 per 100 MW) for effective cross linking of other compounds (ASTRINGENTS). The two main types are HYDROLYZABLE TANNINS and CONDENSED TANNINS. Historically, the term has applied to many compounds and plant extracts able to render skin COLLAGEN impervious to degradation. The word tannin derives from the Celtic word for OAK TREE which was used for leather processing.Illness Behavior: Coordinate set of non-specific behavioral responses to non-psychiatric illness. These may include loss of APPETITE or LIBIDO; disinterest in ACTIVITIES OF DAILY LIVING; or withdrawal from social interaction.Vertebral Artery Dissection: Splitting of the vessel wall in the VERTEBRAL ARTERY. Interstitial hemorrhage into the media of the vessel wall can lead to occlusion of the vertebral artery, aneurysm formation, or THROMBOEMBOLISM. Vertebral artery dissection is often associated with TRAUMA and injuries to the head-neck region but can occur spontaneously.Concept Formation: A cognitive process involving the formation of ideas generalized from the knowledge of qualities, aspects, and relations of objects.Models, Psychological: Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Interpersonal Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.Philosophy, MedicalEthical Analysis: The use of systematic methods of ethical examination, such as CASUISTRY or ETHICAL THEORY, in reasoning about moral problems.Biflavonoids: Dimers (homo and hetero) of FLAVONOIDS.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Compulsive Behavior: The behavior of performing an act persistently and repetitively without it leading to reward or pleasure. The act is usually a small, circumscribed behavior, almost ritualistic, yet not pathologically disturbing. Examples of compulsive behavior include twirling of hair, checking something constantly, not wanting pennies in change, straightening tilted pictures, etc.Risk Reduction Behavior: Reduction of high-risk choices and adoption of low-risk quantity and frequency alternatives.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Consummatory Behavior: An act which constitutes the termination of a given instinctive behavior pattern or sequence.Radiography, Abdominal: Radiographic visualization of the body between the thorax and the pelvis, i.e., within the peritoneal cavity.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Thinking: Mental activity, not predominantly perceptual, by which one apprehends some aspect of an object or situation based on past learning and experience.Communication: The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.Anemia, Iron-Deficiency: Anemia characterized by decreased or absent iron stores, low serum iron concentration, low transferrin saturation, and low hemoglobin concentration or hematocrit value. The erythrocytes are hypochromic and microcytic and the iron binding capacity is increased.Infant Behavior: Any observable response or action of a neonate or infant up through the age of 23 months.Adaptation, Psychological: A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Grooming: An animal's cleaning and caring for the body surface. This includes preening, the cleaning and oiling of feathers with the bill or of hair with the tongue.Cerebral Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the brain after injection of a contrast medium.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Basilar Artery: The artery formed by the union of the right and left vertebral arteries; it runs from the lower to the upper border of the pons, where it bifurcates into the two posterior cerebral arteries.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Moral Obligations: Duties that are based in ETHICS, rather than in law.Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders: Includes two similar disorders: oppositional defiant disorder and CONDUCT DISORDERS. Symptoms occurring in children with these disorders include: defiance of authority figures, angry outbursts, and other antisocial behaviors.Chemistry Techniques, Analytical: Methodologies used for the isolation, identification, detection, and quantitation of chemical substances.Anxiety: Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.Self Concept: A person's view of himself.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Biological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Physician-Patient Relations: The interactions between physician and patient.Cues: Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Madagascar: One of the Indian Ocean Islands off the southeast coast of Africa. Its capital is Antananarivo. It was formerly called the Malagasy Republic. Discovered by the Portuguese in 1500, its history has been tied predominantly to the French, becoming a French protectorate in 1882, a French colony in 1896, and a territory within the French union in 1946. The Malagasy Republic was established in the French Community in 1958 but it achieved independence in 1960. Its name was changed to Madagascar in 1975. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p714)Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Escape Reaction: Innate response elicited by sensory stimuli associated with a threatening situation, or actual confrontation with an enemy.Value of Life: The intrinsic moral worth ascribed to a living being. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Aluminum Silicates: Any of the numerous types of clay which contain varying proportions of Al2O3 and SiO2. They are made synthetically by heating aluminum fluoride at 1000-2000 degrees C with silica and water vapor. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Paternal Behavior: The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a father.Ice: The solid substance formed by the FREEZING of water.District of Columbia: A federal area located between Maryland and Virginia on the Potomac river; it is coextensive with Washington, D.C., which is the capital of the United States.Personal Autonomy: Self-directing freedom and especially moral independence. An ethical principle holds that the autonomy of persons ought to be respected. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Motivation: Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.Parents: Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Decision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.Anemia, Hypochromic: Anemia characterized by a decrease in the ratio of the weight of hemoglobin to the volume of the erythrocyte, i.e., the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration is less than normal. The individual cells contain less hemoglobin than they could have under optimal conditions. Hypochromic anemia may be caused by iron deficiency from a low iron intake, diminished iron absorption, or excessive iron loss. It can also be caused by infections or other diseases, therapeutic drugs, lead poisoning, and other conditions. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Miale, Laboratory Medicine: Hematology, 6th ed, p393)Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Aneurysm, Dissecting: Aneurysm caused by a tear in the TUNICA INTIMA of a blood vessel leading to interstitial HEMORRHAGE, and splitting (dissecting) of the vessel wall, often involving the AORTA. Dissection between the intima and media causes luminal occlusion. Dissection at the media, or between the media and the outer adventitia causes aneurismal dilation.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Culture: A collective expression for all behavior patterns acquired and socially transmitted through symbols. Culture includes customs, traditions, and language.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.History, 21st Century: Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.Swimming: An activity in which the body is propelled through water by specific movement of the arms and/or the legs. Swimming as propulsion through water by the movement of limbs, tail, or fins of animals is often studied as a form of PHYSICAL EXERTION or endurance.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Parenting: Performing the role of a parent by care-giving, nurturance, and protection of the child by a natural or substitute parent. The parent supports the child by exercising authority and through consistent, empathic, appropriate behavior in response to the child's needs. PARENTING differs from CHILD REARING in that in child rearing the emphasis is on the act of training or bringing up the children and the interaction between the parent and child, while parenting emphasizes the responsibility and qualities of exemplary behavior of the parent.Great BritainLead PoisoningDangerous Behavior: Actions which have a high risk of being harmful or injurious to oneself or others.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Proanthocyanidins: Dimers and oligomers of flavan-3-ol units (CATECHIN analogs) linked mainly through C4 to C8 bonds to leucoanthocyanidins. They are structurally similar to ANTHOCYANINS but are the result of a different fork in biosynthetic pathways.Focus Groups: A method of data collection and a QUALITATIVE RESEARCH tool in which a small group of individuals are brought together and allowed to interact in a discussion of their opinions about topics, issues, or questions.Perception: The process by which the nature and meaning of sensory stimuli are recognized and interpreted.Cerebral Revascularization: Microsurgical revascularization to improve intracranial circulation. It usually involves joining the extracranial circulation to the intracranial circulation but may include extracranial revascularization (e.g., subclavian-vertebral artery bypass, subclavian-external carotid artery bypass). It is performed by joining two arteries (direct anastomosis or use of graft) or by free autologous transplantation of highly vascularized tissue to the surface of the brain.Spatial Behavior: Reactions of an individual or groups of individuals with relation to the immediate surrounding area including the animate or inanimate objects within that area.Conditioning, Operant: Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.Foreign Bodies: Inanimate objects that become enclosed in the body.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Memory: Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Hair: A filament-like structure consisting of a shaft which projects to the surface of the SKIN from a root which is softer than the shaft and lodges in the cavity of a HAIR FOLLICLE. It is found on most surfaces of the body.Imitative Behavior: The mimicking of the behavior of one individual by another.Affect: The feeling-tone accompaniment of an idea or mental representation. It is the most direct psychic derivative of instinct and the psychic representative of the various bodily changes by means of which instincts manifest themselves.ChileReaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Verbal Behavior: Includes both producing and responding to words, either written or spoken.Copulation: Sexual union of a male and a female in non-human species.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Xanthones: A group of XANTHENES that contain a 9-keto OXYGEN.Drug-Seeking Behavior: Activities performed to obtain licit or illicit substances.Marriage: The social institution involving legal and/or religious sanction whereby individuals are joined together.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Unsafe Sex: Sexual behaviors which are high-risk for contracting SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES or for producing PREGNANCY.Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Parent-Child Relations: The interactions between parent and child.Problem Solving: A learning situation involving more than one alternative from which a selection is made in order to attain a specific goal.Antisocial Personality Disorder: A personality disorder whose essential feature is a pervasive pattern of disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood. The individual must be at least age 18 and must have a history of some symptoms of CONDUCT DISORDER before age 15. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Locomotion: Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Competitive Behavior: The direct struggle between individuals for environmental necessities or for a common goal.Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.Reward: An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Video Recording: The storing or preserving of video signals for television to be played back later via a transmitter or receiver. Recordings may be made on magnetic tape or discs (VIDEODISC RECORDING).Maze Learning: Learning the correct route through a maze to obtain reinforcement. It is used for human or animal populations. (Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 6th ed)Peer Group: Group composed of associates of same species, approximately the same age, and usually of similar rank or social status.Information Seeking Behavior: How information is gathered in personal, academic or work environments and the resources used.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Interdisciplinary Communication: Communication, in the sense of cross-fertilization of ideas, involving two or more academic disciplines (such as the disciplines that comprise the cross-disciplinary field of bioethics, including the health and biological sciences, the humanities, and the social sciences and law). Also includes problems in communication stemming from differences in patterns of language usage in different academic or medical disciplines.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Sexual Partners: Married or single individuals who share sexual relations.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Juvenile Delinquency: The antisocial acts of children or persons under age which are illegal or lawfully interpreted as constituting delinquency.Rhizobium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that activate PLANT ROOT NODULATION in leguminous plants. Members of this genus are nitrogen-fixing and common soil inhabitants.Sucking Behavior: Any suction exerted by the mouth; response of the mammalian infant to draw milk from the breast. Includes sucking on inanimate objects. Not to be used for thumb sucking, which is indexed under fingersucking.Semantics: The relationships between symbols and their meanings.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Extinction, Psychological: The procedure of presenting the conditioned stimulus without REINFORCEMENT to an organism previously conditioned. It refers also to the diminution of a conditioned response resulting from this procedure.Play and Playthings: Spontaneous or voluntary recreational activities pursued for enjoyment and accessories or equipment used in the activities; includes games, toys, etc.Avoidance Learning: A response to a cue that is instrumental in avoiding a noxious experience.Sedentary Lifestyle: Usual level of physical activity that is less than 30 minutes of moderate-intensity activity on most days of the week.Pregnancy Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Ethics, Medical: The principles of professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the physician, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the physician in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Mother-Child Relations: Interaction between a mother and child.Vocalization, Animal: Sounds used in animal communication.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Autistic Disorder: A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)Embolization, Therapeutic: A method of hemostasis utilizing various agents such as Gelfoam, silastic, metal, glass, or plastic pellets, autologous clot, fat, and muscle as emboli. It has been used in the treatment of spinal cord and INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS, renal arteriovenous fistulas, gastrointestinal bleeding, epistaxis, hypersplenism, certain highly vascular tumors, traumatic rupture of blood vessels, and control of operative hemorrhage.Condoms: A sheath that is worn over the penis during sexual behavior in order to prevent pregnancy or spread of sexually transmitted disease.Teaching: The educational process of instructing.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
"Pica Box" that should be easily accessible to the individual when they feel like engaging in pica. Behavior-based treatment ... These things can be placed in a " ... Even today, what could be classified as pica behavior is a ... The term pica originates in the Latin word for magpie, a bird that is famed for its unusual eating behaviors, where it is known ... First, there is pica as a result of social attention. A strategy might be used of ignoring the person's behavior or giving them ...
Rather, the cause of their behavior varies and may include a variety of psychiatric diagnosis. Examples of disorders on the ... Only in the final moments do therapists pay a visit, and they oversimplify things by suggesting exercise and journaling!" TV ... the large number of Pica-like cases where subjects claim they consume materials that are known to be fatal when swallowed in ... The series focuses on people with unusual compulsive behaviors. These range from eating specific non-food items to ritualistic ...
Neutering will decrease or eliminate this behavior in many cases, suggesting that the behavior is linked to sex hormones. When ... This condition, pica, can threaten their health, depending on the amount and toxicity of the items eaten. Though cats usually ... Some cats like to eat or chew on other things, most commonly wool, but also plastic, cables, paper, string, aluminum foil, or ... Leyhausen, Paul (1978). Cat Behavior: The Predatory and Social Behavior of Domestic and Wild Cats. New York: Garland STPM Pr. ...
Pica is also observed predominately during 6-8 months of a cat's life when territorial and sexual behaviors emerge. Pica may be ... The one thing that didn't come across clearly in the show was that Bumbley ate everything in sight and the house had to be " ... Cats also display pica behavior in their natural environments and there is evidence to support that this behavior has a ... Pica also affects domesticated animals. While drugs like Prozac are often able to diminish troublesome behaviors in pet dogs, ...
Since locomotion runs on the motivation to do and to act, the positive effects of making a behavior happen can be expanded to ... A study done by Pierro, Giacomantonio, Pica, Kruglanski, and Higgins (2011) examined the ways locomotion and assessment affects ... People who are geared towards the locomotion mode are focused on moving and getting things done. In contrast, those that are ... Pierro, Antonio; Giacomantonio, Mauro; Pica, Gennaro; Kruglanski, Arie W.; Higgins, E. Tory (1 January 2011). "On the ...
Specifically, these behaviors include such things as effective speech, self-help, using money, cooking, and reading, for ... 1981) Pica (Mace and Knight, 1986) Every human being must learn a set of skills that is beneficial for the environments and ... In other words, the behavior can be adapted to something else. In contrast, maladaptive behavior is a type of behavior that is ... Adaptive behavior refers to behavior that enables a person (usually used in the context of children) to get along in his or her ...
Strict behavior patterns and difficulty adjusting to new things are common symptoms in patients that are on the autistic ... Chatoor, I.; Hamburger, E.; Fullard, R.; Fivera, Y. (1994). "A survey of picky eating and pica behaviors in toddlers". ... A comparison of eating behaviors between children with and without Autism" Journal of Autism and Developmental Disabilities ... Due to the tie to ASD, children are less likely to outgrow their selective eating behaviors and most likely should meet with a ...
In Pabellon de Pica, one of the guano extraction fields in Tarapaca, a Chilean Navy raid against the port on 15 April 1879 ... Among other things, it would have protected the rights of migrants in both countries.[citation needed] In Bolivian Antofagasta ... Historians point out the Chilean soldiers' resentment towards their expulsion led to unlawful behavior during the war. ...
Me darling, says she, I can do no such thing. For me mother often told me it was committing sin. Me maidenhead to lose and me ... The necessity of eviction behavior is unclear. One hypothesis is that competing with host chicks leads to decreased cuckoo ... Eurasian magpie (Pica pica). *Scaly-breasted wren-babbler (Pnoepyga albiventer). *Pygmy wren-babbler (Pnoepyga pusilla) ... Another hypothesis is that decreased cuckoo chick weight is not selective pressure for eviction behavior. An analysis of ...
307.52 Pica 307.53 Rumination disorder 307.59 Feeding disorder of infancy or early childhood: Diagnosed if met by the following ... Other signs of motor skills disorders may be children that are clumsy or have excessive accidents, such as knocking things over ... Some symptoms that a child with intellectual disability might show are continued infant-like behavior, a lack of curiosity, the ... If treatment is necessary, the most effective choice for enuresis is behavior modification, which involves a special pad that ...
Mirror-induced behavior in the magpie (Pica pica): Evidence of self-recognition. Plos Biology, 6(8), 1642-1650. Gallup GG Jr ( ... things just happen to you, you just are in a dream. Yet, everything feels real…Secondary is based on language, has to do with ... However, hints at mirror-induced self-directed behavior have been obtained. Self-recognition study in the magpie It was ...
Prior, H.; Schwarz, A.; Güntürkün, O. (2008). "Mirror-induced behavior in the Magpie (Pica pica): evidence of self-recognition ... In the 19th century book, A Guide to the Scientific Knowledge of Things Familiar, a proverb concerning magpies is recited: "A ... as a subspecies of Pica pica. BirdLife International (2015). "Pica pica". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2015: e. ... Pica pica in the Flickr: Field Guide Birds of the World "Eurasian magpie media". Internet Bird Collection. Ageing and sexing ( ...
"Mirror-induced behavior in the Magpie (Pica pica): evidence of self-recognition". PLoS Biology. 6 (8): e202. doi:10.1371/ ... In the 19th century book, A Guide to the Scientific Knowledge of Things Familiar, a proverb concerning magpies is recited: "A ... NB - BirdLife International consider the North American black-billed magpie (Pica hudsonia) as a subspecies of Pica pica. ... "Pica mauritanica (Maghreb Magpie)". www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved 2018-01-22.. *^ Madge, S. (2009). "Arabian Magpie (Pica ...
Pica pica)". Journal of Comparative Psychology. 114 (2): 148-157. doi:10.1037/0735-7036.114.2.148.. ... Novel behaviors are not yet imitated.[8]. *8-12 months: Coordination of Secondary Circular Reactions - This is deemed the most ... where children reach for a thing at a place where it should not be. Older infants are less likely to make the A-not-B error ... type of error might be due to a failure in memory or the fact that infants usually tend to repeat a previous motor behavior.[1] ...
Many young children display pica, eating things that are not food. Even a small amount of a lead-containing product such as a ... Caravaggio is known to have exhibited violent behavior, a symptom commonly associated with lead poisoning. ... "All things considered. National Public Radio. August 25, 2009. Archived from the original on August 27, 2009. Retrieved August ... Two things make this otherwise attractive hypothesis impossible. First, the calcium carbonate deposit that formed so thickly ...
This circuit is essential for the initiation of behavior, motivation and goal orientation, which are the very things missing ... The interesting thing about this case study was that the patients did not show any functional deficit at the follow-up one year ... The behavior may be most evident after these patients have eaten part of their meals and no longer have strong appetites. ... loss of behavior and speech output, slowing and prolonged speech latency, and reduction of spontaneous thought content and ...
New York: Pica Press. p. 584. ISBN 0-87663-712-8. Slotten, Hugh Richard, ed., The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of ... What is this thing called science?. Hackett Pub. 1999. ISBN 978-0-87220-452-2. King Merton, Robert (1979). The Sociology of ... During the late 18th and early 19th century, the behavior of electricity and magnetism was studied by Luigi Galvani, Giovanni ... Darwin proposed that the features of all living things, including humans, were shaped by natural processes over long periods of ...
"Mirror-Induced Behavior in the Magpie (Pica pica): Evidence of Self-Recognition" (PDF). PLoS Biology. Public Library of Science ... Among other things, an animal must categorize if it is to apply learning about one object (e.g. Rex bit me) to new instances of ... Studies often focus on the behavior of animals in their natural environments and discuss the putative function of the behavior ... Skinner, B. F. (1932) The Behavior of Organisms Hull, C. L. (1943) The Principles of Behavior Skinner, B. F. About Behaviorism ...
Carlson, Neil (2013). "Ingestive Behavior". Physiology of Behavior. University of Massachusetts, Amherst: Pearson. pp. 428-432 ... Say No to Teasing: another concept is to emphasize that it is wrong to say hurtful things about other people's body sizes. Body ... Some disorders such as pica and rumination disorder occur more often in people with intellectual disabilities. Only one eating ... "Parental influences on children's eating behavior and relative weight". Journal of applied behavior analysis. 16 (4): 371-8. ...
Pica is a condition in which animals chew or eat unusual things such as fabric, plastic or wool. In cats, this can be fatal or ...
Barrows, Susanna; Room, Robin (1991). Drinking: Behavior and Belief in Modern History. University of California Press. p. 340. ... Before Christianity, they could not eat certain things from certain animals (uumajuit), but after eating they can now do ... but he also calls us to look out for each other and not do things that will cause our brothers and sisters to stumble. In ...
"Mirror-Induced Behavior in the Magpie (Pica pica): Evidence of Self-Recognition". PLOS Biology. 6 (8): e202. doi:10.1371/ ... By two years old, they also usually acquire gender category and age categories, saying things such as "I am a girl, not a boy" ... There were not any mark directed self-behaviors when the mark was present, in color, or in black.[16] Prior's et al.[16] data ... The behaviors of the magpies clearly contrasted with no mirror present. In the no-mirror trials, a non-reflective gray plate of ...
Counts of things, such as the number of people in a nation at a particular time, may also have an uncertainty due to data ... A hypothesis is a conjecture, based on knowledge obtained while formulating the question, that may explain any given behavior. ... Sambursky, Shmuel (ed.) (1974), "Physical Thought from the Presocratics to the Quantum Physicists", Physics Today, Pica Press, ... What is this thing called science?. Queensland University Press and Open University Press, 1976. ...
"Fact Sheets: Things to look out for if you are a vegetarian/vegan". Vegetarian Society. September 2015. Archived from the ... Dairy is a good example, as many vegetarians who consume it rationalize their behavior by pointing out that cows are not killed ... Many things have changed since the Vegetarian Society was founded way back in 1847, but fish have always been cold-blooded ... Another common view is that humans are morally conscious of their behavior in a way other animals are not, and therefore ...
... and delayed growth in infants and children that could impact their cognitive development and their behavior.[2] ... "Five Things Physicians and Patients Should Question", Choosing Wisely: an initiative of the ABIM Foundation, American ... pica. *brittle or grooved nails. *hair thinning. *Plummer-Vinson syndrome: painful atrophy of the mucous membrane covering the ...
Pica may seem like quirky behavior when cats eat weird things, but, because of the harm from eating non-edible material, cat ... When Cats Eat Weird Things, Or Pica, accounts for approximately 2.5% of abnormal behaviors in the domestic cat. The etiology of ... Pica - When Cats Eat Weird Things. June 07, 2019 By Arnold Plotnick, MS, DVM, ACVIM ... Because pica can be a sign of an underlying medical problem, like Toms anemia, cats displaying unusual ingestive behavior ...
It might be possible he has pica. Even though you might want to punish him, dont - instead, praise him when he eats things he ... Canine Behavior: A Guide for Veterinarians. Bonnie Beaver. Publisher: Saunders * ↑ Canine Behavior: A Guide for Veterinarians. ... Canine Behavior: A Guide for Veterinarians. Bonnie Beaver. Publisher: Saunder * ↑ Canine Behavior: A Guide for Veterinarians. ... Understand the cause of your dogs behavior. Most of the time, this will be obvious. Your dog is clearly afraid of thunder, a ...
The last thing you want to think about is the possibility that your partner could be cheating on you. But open your eyes ... ... Eating dirt is called pica. Its a mental health condition. But eating a laundry pod is not called anything but stupid! You ... heard me, the new thing? Try biting into one of those blue and red laundry pods for fun! Im not understanding it, ... ...
... and other things that arent food. Example: Because children have pica behavior, they may swallow harmful substances. ... There are some things you can do to reduce or avoid exposure while you wait for experts to remove lead paint from your home. ... Experts may do a descriptive study that provides information about the current health, attitude, or behavior of a group of ... Pica is a condition that makes you want to eat paint chips, dirt, ...
This article provides basic information about Pica. It is intended for informational purposes only and should not replace the ... Treatment of Pica. The first thing that must be done when the diagnosis of Pica is applied is to have a thorough health ... This is where the child replaces the behaviors of one disorder, in this case Pica, with the behaviors associated with another ... Other resources about Pica. Most of the time, children will outgrown this eating of substances. Societal standards, behavior ...
No one knows exactly why some cats exhibit pica behavior. Because pica has been associated with a variety of diseases including ... Eating inappropriate things may also be a result of stress, anxiety, or boredom. Neurological disorders and illnesses such as ... pica en bloedarmoede. Hier kun je al je vragen en problemen kwijt met betrekking tot de gezondheid van de kat. Raadpleeg uw ... en als ik door dat tekort of gebrek op te lossen ook de pica kan verhelpen, is dat alleen maar mooi meegenomen. mn DA zei dat ...
Chewing behavior - generalized pica Q: My 2 1/2 yr. old Maine Coon chews on both soft materials (nylon rug fiber, curtains, ... The ONE thing he does which I cant imagine is normal is his constant licking. Not himself, but ME! He licks me every time he ... may be exhibiting a "displacement" behavior. This would be a behavior that indicates an underlying stress the cat copes with by ... Licking behavior Q: I have a 15 month old male long hair cat. Hes very healthy, has a very large frame/paws, about 15 pounds ...
When cats eat non-food items it is called Pica. Pica can be dangerous if cats are eating things that could block digestion like ... So much for normal behavior. But sometimes youll spot your kitten doing things that seem a bit bizarre. Here are some ... When it comes to training your kitten, the most important thing to remember is that rewards work. Shouting most certainly does ... Why does my kitten suck on things?. Sometimes you might spot your kitten sucking on a blanket, or a toy; some people have even ...
In that case there is actually a benefit to her behavior.. But of course, if she was eating large rocks or weird plastic things ... Pica pica (which bird WAS probably named for such behavior). Magpies are bright-eyed, alert, and very intelligent, as was our ... Pica can even be a symptom of normal exploratory behavior.". Im tempted to add in "sibling rivalry, or being forced to wear ... One last thing before I turn it over to you and your experience with pica. Please, please dont correct the dog. If the dogs ...
Cat with pica disorder, which causes him to eat non-food items like trash bags, twine, cords and more, goes into a quiet foster ... Ufros behavior is very predictable, and all his wonderful characteristics outweigh having to keep things like plastic garbage ... But pica, an eating disorder that causes a compulsive appetite for things that are not food, once controlled his life. Pica is ... Cats pica behavior stops in foster home. Penny Nelson-Newman, a local Best Friends volunteer with experience fostering cats, ...
Your cat may have pica. Find out the symptoms of pica by visiting our website. ... What is Pica in Cats?. March 10, 2015. By Animal Behavior College 3 Comments ... As with some humans, cats are known to eat strange things. The urge to eat non-food items is known as pica, and is common for ... In any case, a cat needs to be examined by a veterinarian since pica can be caused by several things. ...
"Pica Box" that should be easily accessible to the individual when they feel like engaging in pica. Behavior-based treatment ... These things can be placed in a " ... Even today, what could be classified as pica behavior is a ... The term pica originates in the Latin word for magpie, a bird that is famed for its unusual eating behaviors, where it is known ... First, there is pica as a result of social attention. A strategy might be used of ignoring the persons behavior or giving them ...
Common Reasons for PICA Behavior. In the general population, it is thought that the most common reason for PICA behavior is ... Some small children routinely ingest nonedible items out of boredom, or simply due to the enjoyment of putting things into ... Considering the unusual items that might be consumed, it is no surprise that PICA is viewed as an extremely dangerous behavior ... The Prevalence of PICA. The prevalence of PICA activity is unknown, since it often goes unreported. However, it is most ...
When its a compulsive, chronic issue, we call it pica. That name, however, is just a description of the behavior. In humans, ... Why do dogs eat cardboard when they have real food to eat? Lots of dogs chew up things wed rather they didnt from time to ... Its normal and natural for a dog to want to chew things up, and giving them a safe outlet with chew toys or naturally-shed ... When a dog is exhibiting destructive behaviors, the root cause can be a lack of exercise or attention. We all get busy from ...
Pica may be attention-seeking behavior. If you get upset at your dog for eating things, they may be looking for any reaction ... Stress and separation anxiety can lead to unusual behaviors like pica, as can boredom or loneliness. Some dogs find it ... Stressed or frustrated dogs can develop compulsive disorders which show up as behaviors like pica. Its important to make sure ... If the behavior is a pattern, make sure your dog eats in a place where they do not feel that they must compete for food, away ...
In fact, some of the things that make you drool ... In these individuals, pica usually is a sign that the body is ... "In many cases, concerning eating behaviors disappear as deficiencies are corrected. If the behaviors arent caused by ... In fact, some of the things that make you drool could clog your digestive system so bad, youd be inhaling laxatives like air. ... Pica. Its rare and often occurs with other mental health disorders associated with impaired functioning (e.g., intellectual ...
In some rare cases, cats suffer from a disorder called pica. Thats when a cat chews and ingests things that arent food. Pica ... Cat Behavior 19 Comments Are you frustrated by your cats behavior? Thinks that your cat may have a behavior problem? Does she ... But how will I teach the things that shes not supposed to do, like life threatening things? My kitten picks up things off of ... If your cat appears to have a behavior problem, consider medical issues. Check out our list of 35 things that may be a sign ...
I was told that cats can get a type of obsessional behavior disorder (OCD) that can make them eat weird things like cat litter ... Pica in cats means eating non-nutritional objects. Pica can affect any animal including the human animal. It affects dogs more ... Pica In Cats. PoC Posted on May 25, 2012. by Michael Broad. August 31, 2012. ... Another version of pica is wool chewing or any kind of fabric. This damages clothes! It is reported to occur more often in ...
The only thing that has change since he started this behavior is when I changed his litter brand. Anyone? ... abnormal eating behaviors, weight loss, fever, and bloating. Feline pica, on the other hand, is believed to result from mineral ... But one thing Im confused about is she is hanging her head very low, as if she has no muscles. i stand up in front of her and ... If the behavior occurs once in a while but not often, then it may not be a cause for concern. Kittens in particular are very ...
... might influence aggressive behaviors and stereotypic /compulsive behaviors. Both aggressive and compulsive behaviors were lower ... Do not just spray one thing, although her favorite sucking spot is certainly the place to start. Rotate the items sprayed so ... "Pica" is the proper term for the ingestion of abnormal substances. Pica is the medieval Latin name for the magpie, a bird known ... If the behavior is new, look for triggers, such as cat aggression. Work to find solutions, such as separating feuding cats or ...
If you are a woman or a man whose eating behaviors are causing you significant distress or impairment, then it is time to seek ... eating things that are not considered food like chalk or dirt (pica); rumination disorder that involves eating food then ... When a negative emotion is triggered, substitute the unhealthy behavior with non-food related behavior. *For example, you might ... There may be things you used to like to do that you havent done in a while. If they still bring you joy, make plans to do them ...
If she puts other things like paper in her mouth or wants to chew on ice this is less likely related to hunger and ,a href="/ ... Rankin responded: Not uncommon.. This behavior can be sensory seeking and not completely related to true hunger. ... This behavior can be sensory seeking and not completely related to true hunger. If she puts other things like paper in her ... This behavior can be sensory seeking and not completely related to true hunger. If she puts other things like paper in her ...
... www.aspca.org/pet-care/virtual-pet-behaviorist/dog-behavior/pica-eating-things-arent-food ... Sounds like things are working out very nicely. Yeah, I definitely love a Shibas sense of humor. Sephy does way out things ... I dont think that is a breed thing but more of a puppy thing. Mine goes to the dog park daily weather permitting and the only ... Is that obsessive behavior and should I be doing something specific to counter-act this behavior. ...
  • Because pica has been associated with a variety of diseases including feline leukemia and feline immunodeficiency virus, a veterinarian should examine any cat with pica. (barfplaats.nl)
  • This is to help him in stressful situations, which are times that self-stimulatory behaviors can strike. (bellaonline.com)
  • Following the chart below - a person might have average intelligence, have little interest in other people, use limited verbal language, experience intense self-stimulatory behaviors such as hand-flapping, under-react to pain and over-react to sounds, have very good gross motor skills, and have weaknesses in fine motor skills. (cdc.gov)
  • Self-stimulatory behaviors (e.g., flapping arms over and over) are common among people with an ASD. (cdc.gov)
  • This, by the way, is why I wonder if compulsive grass eating might be considered a kind of pica. (patriciamcconnell.com)
  • If your German shepherd Dog or any other dog or mongrel is eating grass, this is a kind of pica, a behavior that is not necessarily fatal or harmful, as long as you garden is free from poisonous pants along with the grass that your dog can accidentally ingest. (blogspot.com)
  • Coprophagy is a specific type of pica, the eating of feces. (thepetwiki.com)
  • Another interesting finding is that defining amylophagy and geophagy as a type of pica may not be accurate in some cultures due to the residents of Madagascar see starch as a food item for normal consumption rather than as something that is physically craved by a subset of individuals. (emaxhealth.com)
  • People practicing forms of pica, such as geophagy, pagophagy and amylophagy, are more likely anemic, have low hemoglobin concentration in their blood, lower levels of red blood cells (hematocrit), or have lower plasma zinc levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pagophagia and other forms of pica are by nature habitual but may worsen when there are additional stresses in one's life. (verywellhealth.com)
  • Infants and children who may be considered for the diagnosis of Pica will typically eat paint, plastic parts of toys or other various items, string from clothes or other places, cloth, or even their own hair. (infobarrel.com)
  • The diagnosis of Pica is usually not given with these diagnoses unless the problems need special attention that will not be provided with the other diagnosis. (infobarrel.com)
  • The first thing that must be done when the diagnosis of Pica is applied is to have a thorough health screening. (infobarrel.com)
  • and therefore, a dirt diet may not just be a woman thing, and merits further investigation of both the etiology and health consequences of earth, raw starch, and other non-food consumption. (emaxhealth.com)
  • Kittens nurse fairly actively for the first seven weeks of their lives, with mom rebuffing them at the latter end of the period in order to 'teach' them to fend for themselves", explains Dr. Nick Dodman, Director of the Animal Behavior Clinic at the Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine at Tufts University, and author of book The Cat Who Cried for Help. (manhattancats.com)
  • For those kittens whose wool sucking has apparently faded into oblivion, however, vague memories of this behavior may persist throughout life, and in moments of stress or conflict, it may resurface as a comfort behavior. (manhattancats.com)
  • There is no clear explanation for this, but it's possible that kittens who have been weaned earlier are more likely to suck on things as a comfort. (hillspet.com)
  • Kittens in particular are very curious and will eat many things, much like a human child. (wisegeek.com)
  • Unfortunately, no definitive cause has been found for pica, but early weaning of kittens may be a contributing factor (see sidebar). (catwatchnewsletter.com)
  • It is a natural behavior for nursing mothers to eat the feces of their puppies or kittens. (vetsecure.com)
  • They had to be vigilant about keeping things out of his room and only allowing durable cat toys that he couldn't chew through. (bestfriends.org)
  • It's normal and natural for a dog to want to chew things up, and giving them a safe outlet with chew toys or naturally-shed antlers is important. (rover.com)
  • If she puts other things like paper in her mouth or wants to chew on ice this is less likely related to hunger and iron deficiency should be evaluated. (healthtap.com)
  • The data on the amount of people that have Pica is hard to determined and limited. (infobarrel.com)
  • Several people have written and asked about it over the years I have answered questions online and I have not been able to find an effective solution, except to limit the cat's access to the family member it is licking/sucking/biting on at times the behavior is likely to occur. (vetinfo.com)
  • However, because pica can occur in people who have lower than normal nutrient levels and poor nutrition (malnutrition), the health care provider should test blood levels of iron and zinc. (wikipedia.org)
  • Common cravings in people with pica include the urge to eat soil, coal, rust, chalk and paper, although people have been known to ingest a much broader spectrum of materials. (boredpanda.com)
  • Pica usually appears in people of a low mental age," Gregory O'Brien, professor of developmental psychiatry at Northumberland University, told the Guardian . (boredpanda.com)
  • When visiting a far-away country, most of us are hit by realizing that the people we meet show opinions, values, and behaviors that do not at all match our expectations. (frontiersin.org)
  • In a recent study published in the online journal PloS One, researchers wanting to delve more deeply into the social and biologic factors underlying pica, decided to perform an ethnographic study of people living in Madagascar who were known to partake in pica and amylophagy. (emaxhealth.com)
  • A survey of pica and amylophagy behaviors in a random sampling of 760 individuals in 167 households among two ethnic groups in 16 villages in the Makira Protected Area of Madagascar revealed that not only were many of the people partaking of pica and amylophagy, but geophagy as well. (emaxhealth.com)
  • Occasionally children or people in disturbed mental states swallow these sorts of things deliberately and it is remarkable how rarely they develop problems. (healthproadvice.com)
  • I confess, one thing that drives me crazy is when people who own a 20 year old cat say, "That's like a person being 140. (blogspot.com)
  • Even low levels can contribute to hypertension in older people or to "silent lead poisoning" in exposed children, which affects the developing brain and leads to visual-motor problems, lowered intelligence, shortened attention span, and antisocial behavior. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • I'm also one of those people who reads everything I can about things in my purview, and I'm obsessive about optimizing my systems. (offbeathome.com)
  • It was an acceptable thing that people did. (npr.org)
  • What people don't tend to realize is the extreme cost of this behavior, in both actual money and danger to pets. (callofship-travel.com)
  • it can mean the sufferer equally participates in some anorexic as well as bulimic behaviors (sometimes referred to as purge-type anorexia). (findmeacure.com)
  • Reports of cravings for cornstarch list a compulsion for starchy things because the pregnant woman enjoys the taste, texture or smell of starch. (emaxhealth.com)
  • Your obstetrician may refer you to a psychotherapist who specialized in treating pica during pregnancy so that you can learn proven techniques for controlling your cravings and resisting the urge to act on them. (surebaby.com)
  • After Ufro arrived at the Sanctuary, his caregivers carefully monitored him and kept a log of everything he tried to eat: the cotton stuffing from a stuffed mouse, trash bags, cat litter bags, twine that he unraveled from a scratching post, fuzz from a cushy cat bed and crinkly things, like paper. (bestfriends.org)
  • The single behavior problem that veterinarians are most asked about by pet owners is poor litter box habits. (showcatsonline.com)
  • Thus you can see that diagnosing pica is a bit squishy, but if a dog has a belly full of plastic because she will move heaven and earth to ingest it, it clearly needs to be addressed. (patriciamcconnell.com)
  • Keep your dog leashed outdoors so you can watch his behavior and interrupt if you see him about to ingest something he shouldn't. (thepetwiki.com)
  • Pica gets its name from the Latin word for "Magpie"-a species of bird known to ingest almost anything. (emaxhealth.com)
  • If the behaviors aren't caused by malnutrition or don't stop after nutritional treatment, a variety of behavioral interventions are available. (boredpanda.com)
  • We all get a little uncomfortable if we have to vary from our usual way of doing things, but if they really have a meltdown, that's a sign of a problem," Tristram H. Smith, PhD, a professor of neurodevelopmental and behavioral pediatrics at the University of Rochester Medical Center, told attn.com . (rd.com)
  • The expectation is that farm animals also display this behavior, but questions arise if the same principles apply to laboratory and pet animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pica can be life-threatening as the item, such as a rubber band, stones, articles of clothing, string, can cause intestinal blockages. (thepetwiki.com)
  • Not only do red hues stimulate, they can also engender aggressive behavior and agitation - they do, in fact, over stimulate. (tldp.com)