Thiazoles are heterocyclic organic compounds containing a sulfur atom and a nitrogen atom, which are bound by two carbon atoms to form a five-membered ring, and are widely found in various natural and synthetic substances, including some pharmaceuticals and vitamins.
3-((4-Amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)methyl)-5-(2- hydroxyethyl)-4-methylthiazolium chloride.
Compounds with a benzene ring fused to a thiazole ring.
One of the CYCLIC PEPTIDES from Streptomyces that is active against gram-positive bacteria. In veterinary medicine, it has been used in mastitis caused by gram-negative organisms and in dermatologic disorders.
The coenzyme form of Vitamin B1 present in many animal tissues. It is a required intermediate in the PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX and the KETOGLUTARATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX.
A potent nitrofuran derivative tumor initiator. It causes bladder tumors in all animals studied and is mutagenic to many bacteria.
3-((4-Amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)methyl)-4-methyl-5-(4,6,8,8-tetrahydroxy-3,5,7-trioxa-4,6,8-triphosphaoct-1-yl)thiazolium hydroxide, inner salt, P,P',P''-trioxide. The triphosphate ester of thiamine. In Leigh's disease, this compound is present in decreased amounts in the brain due to a metabolic block in its formation.
Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-nitrogen bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. Subclasses are the AMMONIA-LYASES, the AMIDINE-LYASES, the amine-lyases, and other carbon-nitrogen lyases. EC 4.3.
Quinolines are heterocyclic aromatic organic compounds consisting of a two-nitrogened benzene ring fused to a pyridine ring, which have been synthesized and used as building blocks for various medicinal drugs, particularly antibiotics and antimalarials.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Compounds of the general formula R:N.NR2, as resulting from the action of hydrazines with aldehydes or ketones. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Enzymes which transfer sulfur atoms to various acceptor molecules. EC 2.8.1.
Inorganic or organic compounds that contain sulfur as an integral part of the molecule.
Oxathiins are a class of synthetic heterocyclic organic compounds, specifically antibiotics, which contain a five-membered ring consisting of two oxygen atoms and three carbon atoms, often used in the treatment of various bacterial infections due to their broad-spectrum antibacterial activity.
Ring compounds having atoms other than carbon in their nuclei. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A quantitative prediction of the biological, ecotoxicological or pharmaceutical activity of a molecule. It is based upon structure and activity information gathered from a series of similar compounds.
Agents that are capable of inserting themselves between the successive bases in DNA, thus kinking, uncoiling or otherwise deforming it and therefore preventing its proper functioning. They are used in the study of DNA.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Cyclic compounds with a ring size of approximately 1-4 dozen atoms.
Substances elaborated by specific strains of bacteria that are lethal against other strains of the same or related species. They are protein or lipopolysaccharide-protein complexes used in taxonomy studies of bacteria.
Changing an open-chain hydrocarbon to a closed ring. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.
A class of enzymes that transfers nucleotidyl residues. EC 2.7.7.
The facilitation of biochemical reactions with the aid of naturally occurring catalysts such as ENZYMES.
Tests that demonstrate the relative effectiveness of chemotherapeutic agents against specific parasites.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Peptides whose amino and carboxy ends are linked together with a peptide bond forming a circular chain. Some of them are ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS. Some of them are biosynthesized non-ribosomally (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NON-RIBOSOMAL).
A family of 6-membered heterocyclic compounds occurring in nature in a wide variety of forms. They include several nucleic acid constituents (CYTOSINE; THYMINE; and URACIL) and form the basic structure of the barbiturates.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).

Carbon disulphide absorption during xanthate reagent mixing in a gold mine concentrator. (1/5377)

A xanthate reagent mixer at a gold mine concentrator was exposed to carbon disulphide by extensive skin contamination with xanthate powder and solution during the reagent mixing process. Absorption of carbon disulphide was confirmed by the detection of urinary 2-thiothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (TTCA). Drager colorimetric tube testing during subsequent mixing recorded a maximum concentration of at least 60 ppm carbon disulphide. An illness consisting of predominantly gastrointestinal symptoms began 20 h after the exposure. Although this may have been due to carbon disulphide toxicity this is by no means certain. The need for engineering controls, impervious protective clothing and full-face respirators with particulate and organic vapour cartridges is discussed. This episode occurred at another mine site, unrelated to Mount Isa Mines Limited.  (+info)

Acute troglitazone action in isolated perfused rat liver. (2/5377)

1. The thiazolidinedione compound, troglitazone, enhances insulin action and reduces plasma glucose concentrations when administered chronically to type 2 diabetic patients. 2. To analyse to what extent thiazolidinediones interfere with liver function, we examined the acute actions of troglitazone (0.61 and 3.15 microM) on hepatic glucose and lactate fluxes, bile secretion, and portal pressure under basal, insulin- and/or glucagon-stimulated conditions in isolated perfused rat livers. 3. During BSA-free perfusion, high dose troglitazone increased basal (P < 0.01), but inhibited glucagon-stimulated incremental glucose production by approximately 75% (10.0 +/- 2.5 vs control: 40.0 +/- 7.2 micromol g liver(-1), P < 0.01). In parallel, incremental lactate release rose approximately 6 fold (13.1 +/- 5.9 vs control: 2.2 +/- 0.8 mmol g liver(-1), P < 0.05), while bile secretion declined by approximately 67% [0.23 +/- 0.02 vs control: 0.70 +/- 0.05 mg g liver(-1) min(-1)), P < 0.001]. Low dose troglitazone infusion did not enhance the inhibitory effect of insulin on glucagon-stimulated glucose production, but rapidly increased lactate release (P < 0.0005) and portal venous pressure (+0.17 +/- 0.07 vs +0.54 +/- 0.07 cm buffer height, P < 0.0001). 4. These results indicate that troglitazone exerts both insulin-like and non-insulin-like hepatic effects, which are blunted by addition of albumin, possibly due to troglitazone binding.  (+info)

Heparin inhibits proliferation of myometrial and leiomyomal smooth muscle cells through the induction of alpha-smooth muscle actin, calponin h1 and p27. (3/5377)

Mast cells are widely distributed in human tissues, including the human uterus. However, the function of mast cells in uterine smooth muscle has not been clearly established. Mast cells possess secretory granules containing such substances as heparin, serotonin, histamine and many cytokines. To help establish the role of mast cells in the human myometrium, the action of heparin was investigated using smooth muscle cells (SMC) from normal myometrium and from leiomyoma. The proliferation of cultured myometrial and leiomyomal SMC was inhibited by heparin treatment. Flow cytometric analysis showed that the population in the G1 phase of the cell cycle increased under heparin treatment. Western blotting analysis showed that markers of SMC differentiation such as alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA), calponin h1 and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27 were induced by heparin, whereas cell-cycle-related gene products from the G1 phase of the cell cycle, such as cyclin E and cdk2, were not changed. Taken together, these results indicate that heparin inhibits the proliferation of myometrial and leiomyomal SMC through the induction of alpha-SMA, calponin h1 and p27. We suggest that heparin from mast cells may induce differentiation in uterine SMC and may influence tissue remodelling and reconstruction during physiological and pathophysiological events.  (+info)

Latrunculin-A causes mydriasis and cycloplegia in the cynomolgus monkey. (4/5377)

PURPOSE: To determine the effect of latrunculin (LAT)-A, which binds to G-actin and disassembles actin filaments, on the pupil, accommodation, and isolated ciliary muscle (CM) contraction in monkeys. METHODS: Pupil diameter (vernier calipers) and refraction (coincidence refractometry) were measured every 15 minutes from 0.75 to 3.5 hours after topical LAT-A 42 microg (approximately 10 microM in the anterior chamber [AC]). Refraction was measured every 5 minutes from 0.5 to 1.5 hours after intracameral injection of 10 microl of 50 microM LAT-A (approximately 5 microM in AC), with intramuscular infusion of 1.5 mg/kg pilocarpine HCl (PILO) during the first 15 minutes of measurements. Pupil diameter was measured at 1 and 2 hours, and refraction was measured every 5 minutes from 1 to 2 hours, after intravitreal injection of 20 microl of 1.25 mM LAT-A (approximately 10 microM in vitreous), with intramuscular infusion of 1.5 mg/kg PILO during the first 15 minutes of measurements (all after topical 2.5% phenylephrine), and contractile response of isolated CM strips, obtained <1 hour postmortem and mounted in a perfusion apparatus, to 10 microM PILO +/- LAT-A was measured at various concentrations. RESULTS: Topical LAT-A of 42 microg dilated the pupil without affecting refraction. Intracameral LAT-A of 5 microM inhibited miotic and accommodative responses to intramuscular PILO. Intravitreal LAT-A of 10 microM had no effect on accommodative or miotic responses to intramuscular PILO. LAT-A dose-dependently relaxed the PILO-contracted CM by up to 50% at 3 microM in both the longitudinal and circular vectors. CONCLUSIONS: In monkeys, LAT-A causes mydriasis and cycloplegia, perhaps related to its known ability to disrupt the actin microfilament network and consequently to affect cell contractility and adhesion. Effects of LAT-A on the iris and CM may have significant physiological and clinical implications.  (+info)

Mechanism of weight gain suppressing effect of ER-40133, an angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitor, in growing rats. (5/5377)

Effects of ER-40133, an inhibitor of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), on weight gain and sodium and potassium balance were studied in growing SD male rats. Thirty-two animals (seven weeks of age) were divided into two groups; one received a standard diet containing 0.227% sodium and the other a low (0.065%) sodium diet. They were divided into four subgroups; one control group and three treated groups receiving 3, 10 or 30 mg/kg of ER-40133, by gavage, once a day for five consecutive days. Body weight gain (average of the standard and low sodium diet groups) was -32% in the 3 mg/kg group,-74% in 10 mg/kg group and -99% in 30 mg/kg group, when compared with the control group. There was a highly linear correlation between suppression of body weight gain and reduction in sodium and potassium retention for both groups of animals given the standard and low sodium diet. The reduced sodium retention, the primary effect of ACE inhibitors, accounted for about 30% of suppressed weight gain, and the reduced potassium retention, the secondary effect of sodium deficiency, could account for the rest about 70% of weight suppression by ER-40133.  (+info)

p300 interacts with the N- and C-terminal part of PPARgamma2 in a ligand-independent and -dependent manner, respectively. (6/5377)

The nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) activates the transcription of multiple genes involved in intra- and extracellular lipid metabolism. Several cofactors are crucial for the stimulation or the silencing of nuclear receptor transcriptional activities. The two homologous cofactors p300 and CREB-binding protein (CBP) have been shown to co-activate the ligand-dependent transcriptional activities of several nuclear receptors as well as the ligand-independent transcriptional activity of the androgen receptor. We show here that the interaction between p300/CBP and PPARgamma is complex and involves multiple domains in each protein. p300/CBP not only bind in a ligand-dependent manner to the DEF region of PPARgamma but also bind directly in a ligand-independent manner to a region in the AB domain localized between residue 31 to 99. In transfection experiments, p300/CBP could thereby enhance the transcriptional activities of both the activating function (AF)-1 and AF-2 domains. p300/CBP displays itself at least two docking sites for PPARgamma located in its N terminus (between residues 1 and 113 for CBP) and in the middle of the protein (between residues 1099 and 1460).  (+info)

L-764406 is a partial agonist of human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma. The role of Cys313 in ligand binding. (7/5377)

Insulin-sensitizing thiazolidinedione (TZD) compounds are high affinity ligands for a member of the nuclear receptor family, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma. A scintillation proximity assay for measurement of 3H-radiolabeled TZD binding to human PPARgamma under homogeneous conditions was developed. Using this approach, a novel non-TZD compound (L-764406) was shown to be a potent (apparent binding IC50 of 70 nM) PPARgamma ligand. Preincubation of PPARgamma with L-764406 prevented binding of the [3H]TZD, suggesting a covalent interaction with the receptor; in addition, structurally related analogues of L-764406, which would be predicted not to interact with PPARgamma in a covalent fashion, did not displace [3H]TZD binding to PPARgamma. Covalent binding of L-764406 was proven by an observed molecular weight shift of a tryptic PPARgamma ligand binding domain (LBD) peptide by mass spectrometric analysis. A specific cysteine residue (Cys313 in helix 3 of hPPARgamma2) was identified as the attachment site for this compound. In protease protection experiments, the liganded receptor adopted a typical agonist conformation. L-764406 exhibited partial agonist activity in cells expressing a chimeric receptor containing the PPARgamma LBD and a cognate reporter gene and also induced the expression of the adipocyte-specific gene aP2 in 3T3-L1 cells. In contrast, L-764406 did not exhibit activity in cells transfected with chimeric receptors containing PPARalpha or PPARdelta LBDs. The partial agonist properties of L-764406 were also evident in a co-activator association assay, indicating that the increased transcription in cells was co-activator mediated. Thus, L-764406 is a novel non-TZD ligand for PPARgamma and is also the first known partial agonist for this receptor. The results suggest a critical functional role for Cys313, and helix 3, in contributing to ligand binding and subsequent agonist-induced conformational changes.  (+info)

Hemodynamic basis for the acute cardiac effects of troglitazone in isolated perfused rat hearts. (8/5377)

Troglitazone is a thiazolidinedione used for the treatment of NIDDM and potentially for other insulin-resistant disease states. Troglitazone has recently been shown to increase cardiac output and stroke volume in human subjects. These actions are thought to be mediated by the reduction of peripheral resistance, but a potential direct effect on cardiac function has not been studied. Therefore, we investigated the direct cardiac hemodynamic effects of troglitazone in isolated perfused rat hearts. Five groups of hearts were studied. Hearts were tested under isovolumetric contraction with a constant coronary flow, and troglitazone (0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 micromol) was administered by bolus injection. Peak isovolumetric left ventricular pressure (LVPmax), peak rate of rise of LVP (dP/dt(max)), and peak rate of fall of LVP (dP/dt(min)) were significantly increased 1 min after troglitazone administration in a dose-dependent manner, while the heart rate (HR) and coronary perfusion pressure (CPP) were significantly decreased (P < 0.05). HR was then fixed by pacing and/or CPP was fixed with nitroprusside to eliminate any effect of the two variables on the action of troglitazone. With constant HR and/or constant CPP, the effect of troglitazone on LVPmax, dP/dt(max), and dP/dt(min) was still unchanged. In addition, the positive inotropic, positive lusitropic, and negative chronotropic actions of troglitazone were not influenced even when hearts were pretreated with prazosin, propranolol, or nifedipine. In conclusion, troglitazone has direct positive inotropic, positive lusitropic, negative chronotropic, and coronary artery dilating effects. The inotropic and chronotropic actions of troglitazone are not mediated via adrenergic receptors or calcium channels. These findings have important clinical implications for diabetic patients with congestive heart failure.  (+info)

Thiazoles are organic compounds that contain a heterocyclic ring consisting of a nitrogen atom and a sulfur atom, along with two carbon atoms and two hydrogen atoms. They have the chemical formula C3H4NS. Thiazoles are present in various natural and synthetic substances, including some vitamins, drugs, and dyes. In the context of medicine, thiazole derivatives have been developed as pharmaceuticals for their diverse biological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, antifungal, antibacterial, and antihypertensive properties. Some well-known examples include thiazide diuretics (e.g., hydrochlorothiazide) used to treat high blood pressure and edema, and the antidiabetic drug pioglitazone.

Thiamine, also known as vitamin B1, is a water-soluble vitamin that plays a crucial role in certain metabolic reactions, particularly in the conversion of carbohydrates into energy in the body. It is essential for the proper functioning of the heart, nerves, and digestive system. Thiamine acts as a cofactor for enzymes involved in the synthesis of neurotransmitters and the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins. Deficiency in thiamine can lead to serious health complications, such as beriberi (a disease characterized by peripheral neuropathy, muscle wasting, and heart failure) and Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (a neurological disorder often seen in alcoholics due to chronic thiamine deficiency). Thiamine is found in various foods, including whole grains, legumes, pork, beef, and fortified foods.

Benzothiazoles are a class of heterocyclic organic compounds that contain a benzene fused to a thiazole ring. They have the chemical formula C7H5NS. Benzothiazoles and their derivatives have a wide range of applications in various industries, including pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, dyes, and materials science.

In the medical field, benzothiazoles have been studied for their potential therapeutic properties. Some benzothiazole derivatives have shown promising results as anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiviral, and anticancer agents. However, more research is needed to fully understand the medical potential of these compounds and to develop safe and effective drugs based on them.

It's important to note that while benzothiazoles themselves have some biological activity, most of the medical applications come from their derivatives, which are modified versions of the basic benzothiazole structure. These modifications can significantly alter the properties of the compound, leading to new therapeutic possibilities.

Thiostrepton is an antibiotic and antiproliferative agent that is derived from the bacterium Streptomyces azureus. It belongs to the family of thiostreptons, which are cyclic oligopeptides with unique structures and various biological activities. Thiostrepton has been used primarily in veterinary medicine for the treatment of infections caused by gram-positive bacteria, such as mastitis in cows.

In addition to its antibacterial properties, thiostrepton has also been found to have antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects on various cancer cells, including breast, ovarian, and colon cancer cells. These effects are thought to be mediated by the inhibition of protein synthesis and the regulation of gene expression. However, its use as a therapeutic agent in humans is still being investigated due to its potential toxicity and limited bioavailability.

It's worth noting that thiostrepton is not commonly used in clinical practice, and its medical definition is mainly related to its chemical structure, antibacterial properties, and potential anticancer effects.

Thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) is the active form of thiamine (vitamin B1) that plays a crucial role as a cofactor in various enzymatic reactions, particularly in carbohydrate metabolism. TPP is essential for the functioning of three key enzymes: pyruvate dehydrogenase, alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, and transketolase. These enzymes are involved in critical processes such as the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA, the oxidative decarboxylation of alpha-ketoglutarate in the Krebs cycle, and the pentose phosphate pathway, which is important for generating reducing equivalents (NADPH) and ribose sugars for nucleotide synthesis. A deficiency in thiamine or TPP can lead to severe neurological disorders, including beriberi and Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, which are often observed in alcoholics due to poor nutrition and impaired thiamine absorption.

I'm not able to find a medical definition for the acronym "FANFT." It is possible that it could be a specialized or obscure term, or perhaps it is used in a specific context within medical research or literature. In general, when searching for medical definitions, it is best to use established and well-known terminology. If "FANFT" is a term you have encountered in your studies or research, I would recommend checking the source material for additional context or reaching out to the author for clarification.

Thiamine triphosphate (TTP) is not a widely recognized or used medical term in the context of defining a specific disease, condition, or diagnostic marker. However, thiamine, also known as vitamin B1, is an essential nutrient that plays a crucial role in various bodily functions, including nerve function and energy metabolism.

Thiamine triphosphate (TTP) is a biochemical compound formed from thiamine and adenosine triphosphate (ATP). TTP acts as a cofactor for several enzymes involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates, amino acids, and neurotransmitters. Its exact physiological role and significance are still under investigation, but it is believed to have a role in neuronal excitability, synaptic plasticity, and energy homeostasis.

In summary, Thiamine Triphosphate (TTP) is a biochemical compound that plays a role in various metabolic processes, particularly in the nervous system. However, it does not have a specific medical definition as a disease or condition.

Carbon-nitrogen (C-N) lyases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the breakdown of a carbon-nitrogen bond, releasing an ammonia molecule and leaving a double bond. These enzymes play important roles in various biological processes, such as the biosynthesis and degradation of amino acids, nucleotides, and other biomolecules.

C-N lyases are classified based on the type of bond they cleave and the cofactors or prosthetic groups they use to catalyze the reaction. Some examples of C-N lyases include:

1. Alanine racemase: This enzyme catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine to D-alanine, which is an important component of bacterial cell walls.
2. Aspartate transcarbamylase: This enzyme catalyzes the transfer of a carbamoyl group from carbamoyl phosphate to aspartate, forming N-carbamoyl aspartate and inorganic phosphate. It is an important enzyme in the biosynthesis of pyrimidines.
3. Diaminopimelate decarboxylase: This enzyme catalyzes the decarboxylation of meso-diaminopimelate to form L-lysine, which is an essential amino acid for humans.
4. Glutamate decarboxylase: This enzyme catalyzes the decarboxylation of glutamate to form γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), a neurotransmitter in the brain.
5. Histidine decarboxylase: This enzyme catalyzes the decarboxylation of histidine to form histamine, which is involved in various physiological processes such as immune response and allergic reactions.

C-N lyases are important targets for drug development, particularly in the treatment of bacterial infections and neurological disorders.

Quinolines are a class of organic compounds that consist of a bicyclic structure made up of a benzene ring fused to a piperidine ring. They have a wide range of applications, but they are perhaps best known for their use in the synthesis of various medications, including antibiotics and antimalarial drugs.

Quinolone antibiotics, such as ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin, work by inhibiting the bacterial enzymes involved in DNA replication and repair. They are commonly used to treat a variety of bacterial infections, including urinary tract infections, pneumonia, and skin infections.

Quinoline-based antimalarial drugs, such as chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, work by inhibiting the parasite's ability to digest hemoglobin in the red blood cells. They are commonly used to prevent and treat malaria.

It is important to note that quinolines have been associated with serious side effects, including tendinitis and tendon rupture, nerve damage, and abnormal heart rhythms. As with any medication, it is important to use quinolines only under the supervision of a healthcare provider, and to follow their instructions carefully.

Molecular structure, in the context of biochemistry and molecular biology, refers to the arrangement and organization of atoms and chemical bonds within a molecule. It describes the three-dimensional layout of the constituent elements, including their spatial relationships, bond lengths, and angles. Understanding molecular structure is crucial for elucidating the functions and reactivities of biological macromolecules such as proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and carbohydrates. Various experimental techniques, like X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), are employed to determine molecular structures at atomic resolution, providing valuable insights into their biological roles and potential therapeutic targets.

A hydrazone is not a medical term per se, but rather a chemical compound. However, it's important for medical professionals to understand the properties and reactions of various chemical compounds, including hydrazones, in the context of pharmacology, toxicology, and medicinal chemistry. Here's a general definition:

Hydrazones are organic compounds that contain a functional group with the structure R1R2C=NNR3, where R1, R2, and R3 are hydrogen atoms or organic groups. They are formed by the condensation reaction of a carbonyl compound (aldehyde or ketone) with hydrazine or its derivatives. Hydrazones can exhibit various biological activities, such as antibacterial, antifungal, and anticancer properties. Some hydrazones are also used as intermediates in the synthesis of pharmaceuticals and other organic compounds.

Sulfurtransferases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of a sulfur group from one molecule to another. These enzymes play a crucial role in various biological processes, including the detoxification of harmful compounds and the synthesis of important metabolites. They can be found in many organisms, from bacteria to humans.

In humans, there are several types of sulfurtransferases, including cysteine conjugate beta-lyase, rhodanese, and 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) reductase. These enzymes have different substrates and functions, but they all share the ability to transfer a sulfur group from one molecule to another.

For example, rhodanese is an enzyme that transfers a sulfur atom from thiosulfate to cyanide, converting it to less toxic thiocyanate. This reaction is important in the detoxification of cyanide in the body.

Sulfurtransferases are also involved in the synthesis of various metabolites, such as iron-sulfur clusters and molybdenum cofactor, which are essential for the function of many enzymes.

Deficiencies or mutations in sulfurtransferase genes can lead to various diseases and disorders, highlighting their importance in human health.

Sulfur compounds refer to chemical substances that contain sulfur atoms. Sulfur can form bonds with many other elements, including carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen, among others. As a result, there is a wide variety of sulfur compounds with different structures and properties. Some common examples of sulfur compounds include hydrogen sulfide (H2S), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and sulfonic acids (R-SO3H).

In the medical field, sulfur compounds have various applications. For instance, some are used as drugs or drug precursors, while others are used in the production of medical devices or as disinfectants. Sulfur-containing amino acids, such as methionine and cysteine, are essential components of proteins and play crucial roles in many biological processes.

However, some sulfur compounds can also be harmful to human health. For example, exposure to high levels of hydrogen sulfide or sulfur dioxide can cause respiratory problems, while certain organosulfur compounds found in crude oil and coal tar have been linked to an increased risk of cancer. Therefore, it is essential to handle and dispose of sulfur compounds properly to minimize potential health hazards.

Oxathiins are a class of synthetic heterocyclic compounds that contain a sulfur atom and an oxygen atom in their structure. They are not commonly used as medications, but some oxathiin derivatives have been developed for use as antibiotics and anti-inflammatory agents.

One example of an oxathiin derivative is the antibiotic class called monobactams, which includes drugs such as aztreonam. Monobactams contain a unique monocyclic beta-lactam ring fused with an oxathiin ring and have been used to treat various bacterial infections.

However, it's important to note that the term "oxathiins" is not commonly used in medical terminology, and it's more frequently encountered in the context of chemistry or pharmacology research.

Heterocyclic compounds are organic compounds that contain at least one atom within the ring structure, other than carbon, such as nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur or phosphorus. These compounds make up a large class of naturally occurring and synthetic materials, including many drugs, pigments, vitamins, and antibiotics. The presence of the heteroatom in the ring can have significant effects on the physical and chemical properties of the compound, such as its reactivity, stability, and bonding characteristics. Examples of heterocyclic compounds include pyridine, pyrimidine, and furan.

Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) is a method used in toxicology and medicinal chemistry that attempts to establish mathematical relationships between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological activity. QSAR models are developed using statistical methods to analyze a set of compounds with known biological activities and their structural properties, which are represented as numerical or categorical descriptors. These models can then be used to predict the biological activity of new, structurally similar compounds.

QSAR models have been widely used in drug discovery and development, as well as in chemical risk assessment, to predict the potential toxicity of chemicals based on their structural properties. The accuracy and reliability of QSAR predictions depend on various factors, including the quality and diversity of the data used to develop the models, the choice of descriptors and statistical methods, and the applicability domain of the models.

In summary, QSAR is a quantitative method that uses mathematical relationships between chemical structure and biological activity to predict the potential toxicity or efficacy of new compounds based on their structural properties.

Intercalating agents are chemical substances that can be inserted between the stacked bases of DNA, creating a separation or "intercalation" of the base pairs. This property is often exploited in cancer chemotherapy, where intercalating agents like doxorubicin and daunorubicin are used to inhibit the replication and transcription of cancer cells by preventing the normal functioning of their DNA. However, these agents can also have toxic effects on normal cells, particularly those that divide rapidly, such as bone marrow and gut epithelial cells. Therefore, their use must be carefully monitored and balanced against their therapeutic benefits.

Fluorescent dyes are substances that emit light upon excitation by absorbing light of a shorter wavelength. In a medical context, these dyes are often used in various diagnostic tests and procedures to highlight or mark certain structures or substances within the body. For example, fluorescent dyes may be used in imaging techniques such as fluorescence microscopy or fluorescence angiography to help visualize cells, tissues, or blood vessels. These dyes can also be used in flow cytometry to identify and sort specific types of cells. The choice of fluorescent dye depends on the specific application and the desired properties, such as excitation and emission spectra, quantum yield, and photostability.

A Structure-Activity Relationship (SAR) in the context of medicinal chemistry and pharmacology refers to the relationship between the chemical structure of a drug or molecule and its biological activity or effect on a target protein, cell, or organism. SAR studies aim to identify patterns and correlations between structural features of a compound and its ability to interact with a specific biological target, leading to a desired therapeutic response or undesired side effects.

By analyzing the SAR, researchers can optimize the chemical structure of lead compounds to enhance their potency, selectivity, safety, and pharmacokinetic properties, ultimately guiding the design and development of novel drugs with improved efficacy and reduced toxicity.

Macrocyclic compounds are organic compounds containing a large ring structure, typically consisting of 12 or more atoms in the ring. These molecules can be found naturally occurring in some organisms, such as certain antibiotics and toxins, or they can be synthesized in the laboratory for various applications, including pharmaceuticals, catalysts, and materials science.

The term "macrocyclic" is used to distinguish these compounds from smaller ring structures, known as "cyclic" or "small-ring" compounds, which typically contain 5-7 atoms in the ring. Macrocyclic compounds can have a wide range of shapes and sizes, including crown ethers, cyclodextrins, calixarenes, and porphyrins, among others.

The unique structure of macrocyclic compounds often imparts special properties to them, such as the ability to bind selectively to specific ions or molecules, form stable complexes with metals, or act as catalysts for chemical reactions. These properties make macrocyclic compounds useful in a variety of applications, including drug delivery, chemical sensors, and environmental remediation.

Bacteriocins are ribosomally synthesized antimicrobial peptides produced by bacteria as a defense mechanism against other competing bacterial strains. They primarily target and inhibit the growth of closely related bacterial species, although some have a broader spectrum of activity. Bacteriocins can be classified into different types based on their structural features, molecular masses, and mechanisms of action.

These antimicrobial peptides often interact with the cell membrane of target bacteria, causing pore formation, depolarization, or disrupting cell wall biosynthesis, ultimately leading to bacterial cell death. Bacteriocins have gained interest in recent years as potential alternatives to conventional antibiotics due to their narrow spectrum of activity and reduced likelihood of inducing resistance. They are being explored for use in food preservation, agricultural applications, and as therapeutic agents in the medical field.

Cyclization is a chemical process that involves forming a cyclic structure or ring-shaped molecule from a linear or open-chain compound. In the context of medicinal chemistry and drug design, cyclization reactions are often used to synthesize complex molecules, including drugs, by creating rings or fused ring systems within the molecule's structure.

Cyclization can occur through various mechanisms, such as intramolecular nucleophilic substitution, electrophilic addition, or radical reactions. The resulting cyclized compounds may exhibit different chemical and biological properties compared to their linear precursors, making them valuable targets for drug discovery and development.

In some cases, the cyclization process can lead to the formation of stereocenters within the molecule, which can impact its three-dimensional shape and how it interacts with biological targets. Therefore, controlling the stereochemistry during cyclization reactions is crucial in medicinal chemistry to optimize the desired biological activity.

Overall, cyclization plays a significant role in the design and synthesis of many pharmaceutical compounds, enabling the creation of complex structures that can interact specifically with biological targets for therapeutic purposes.

Drug screening assays for antitumor agents are laboratory tests used to identify and evaluate the effectiveness of potential drugs or compounds that can inhibit the growth of tumor cells or induce their death. These assays are typically performed in vitro (in a test tube or petri dish) using cell cultures of various types of cancer cells.

The assays measure different parameters such as cell viability, proliferation, apoptosis (programmed cell death), and cytotoxicity to determine the ability of the drug to kill or inhibit the growth of tumor cells. The results of these assays can help researchers identify promising antitumor agents that can be further developed for clinical use in cancer treatment.

There are different types of drug screening assays for antitumor agents, including high-throughput screening (HTS) assays, which allow for the rapid and automated testing of a large number of compounds against various cancer cell lines. Other types of assays include phenotypic screening assays, target-based screening assays, and functional screening assays, each with its own advantages and limitations.

Overall, drug screening assays for antitumor agents play a critical role in the development of new cancer therapies by providing valuable information on the activity and safety of potential drugs, helping to identify effective treatments and reduce the time and cost associated with bringing new drugs to market.

Nucleotidyltransferases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of nucleotides to an acceptor molecule, such as RNA or DNA. These enzymes play crucial roles in various biological processes, including DNA replication, repair, and recombination, as well as RNA synthesis and modification.

The reaction catalyzed by nucleotidyltransferases typically involves the donation of a nucleoside triphosphate (NTP) to an acceptor molecule, resulting in the formation of a phosphodiester bond between the nucleotides. The reaction can be represented as follows:

NTP + acceptor → NMP + pyrophosphate

where NTP is the nucleoside triphosphate donor and NMP is the nucleoside monophosphate product.

There are several subclasses of nucleotidyltransferases, including polymerases, ligases, and terminases. These enzymes have distinct functions and substrate specificities, but all share the ability to transfer nucleotides to an acceptor molecule.

Examples of nucleotidyltransferases include DNA polymerase, RNA polymerase, reverse transcriptase, telomerase, and ligase. These enzymes are essential for maintaining genome stability and function, and their dysregulation has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer and neurodegenerative disorders.

Biocatalysis is the use of living organisms or their components, such as enzymes, to accelerate chemical reactions. In other words, it is the process by which biological systems, including cells, tissues, and organs, catalyze chemical transformations. Biocatalysts, such as enzymes, can increase the rate of a reaction by lowering the activation energy required for the reaction to occur. They are highly specific and efficient, making them valuable tools in various industries, including pharmaceuticals, food and beverage, and biofuels.

In medicine, biocatalysis is used in the production of drugs, such as antibiotics and hormones, as well as in diagnostic tests. Enzymes are also used in medical treatments, such as enzyme replacement therapy for genetic disorders that affect enzyme function. Overall, biocatalysis plays a critical role in many areas of medicine and healthcare.

Parasitic sensitivity tests, also known as parasite drug susceptibility tests, refer to laboratory methods used to determine the effectiveness of specific antiparasitic medications against a particular parasitic infection. These tests help healthcare providers identify which drugs are most likely to be effective in treating an individual's infection and which ones should be avoided due to resistance or increased risk of side effects.

There are several types of parasitic sensitivity tests, including:

1. In vitro susceptibility testing: This involves culturing the parasite in a laboratory setting and exposing it to different concentrations of antiparasitic drugs. The growth or survival of the parasite is then observed and compared to a control group that was not exposed to the drug. This helps identify the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the drug, which is the lowest concentration required to prevent the growth of the parasite.
2. Molecular testing: This involves analyzing the genetic material of the parasite to detect specific mutations or gene variations that are associated with resistance to certain antiparasitic drugs. This type of testing can be performed using a variety of methods, including polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing.
3. Phenotypic testing: This involves observing the effects of antiparasitic drugs on the growth or survival of the parasite in a laboratory setting. For example, a parasite may be grown in a culture medium and then exposed to different concentrations of a drug. The growth of the parasite is then monitored over time to determine the drug's effectiveness.

Parasitic sensitivity tests are important for guiding the treatment of many parasitic infections, including malaria, tuberculosis, and leishmaniasis. These tests can help healthcare providers choose the most effective antiparasitic drugs for their patients, reduce the risk of drug resistance, and improve treatment outcomes.

Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) is a non-invasive diagnostic technique that provides information about the biochemical composition of tissues, including their metabolic state. It is often used in conjunction with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to analyze various metabolites within body tissues, such as the brain, heart, liver, and muscles.

During MRS, a strong magnetic field, radio waves, and a computer are used to produce detailed images and data about the concentration of specific metabolites in the targeted tissue or organ. This technique can help detect abnormalities related to energy metabolism, neurotransmitter levels, pH balance, and other biochemical processes, which can be useful for diagnosing and monitoring various medical conditions, including cancer, neurological disorders, and metabolic diseases.

There are different types of MRS, such as Proton (^1^H) MRS, Phosphorus-31 (^31^P) MRS, and Carbon-13 (^13^C) MRS, each focusing on specific elements or metabolites within the body. The choice of MRS technique depends on the clinical question being addressed and the type of information needed for diagnosis or monitoring purposes.

Anti-bacterial agents, also known as antibiotics, are a type of medication used to treat infections caused by bacteria. These agents work by either killing the bacteria or inhibiting their growth and reproduction. There are several different classes of anti-bacterial agents, including penicillins, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, macrolides, and tetracyclines, among others. Each class of antibiotic has a specific mechanism of action and is used to treat certain types of bacterial infections. It's important to note that anti-bacterial agents are not effective against viral infections, such as the common cold or flu. Misuse and overuse of antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance, which is a significant global health concern.

A cell line that is derived from tumor cells and has been adapted to grow in culture. These cell lines are often used in research to study the characteristics of cancer cells, including their growth patterns, genetic changes, and responses to various treatments. They can be established from many different types of tumors, such as carcinomas, sarcomas, and leukemias. Once established, these cell lines can be grown and maintained indefinitely in the laboratory, allowing researchers to conduct experiments and studies that would not be feasible using primary tumor cells. It is important to note that tumor cell lines may not always accurately represent the behavior of the original tumor, as they can undergo genetic changes during their time in culture.

Peptides are short chains of amino acid residues linked by covalent bonds, known as peptide bonds. They are formed when two or more amino acids are joined together through a condensation reaction, which results in the elimination of a water molecule and the formation of an amide bond between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of another.

Peptides can vary in length from two to about fifty amino acids, and they are often classified based on their size. For example, dipeptides contain two amino acids, tripeptides contain three, and so on. Oligopeptides typically contain up to ten amino acids, while polypeptides can contain dozens or even hundreds of amino acids.

Peptides play many important roles in the body, including serving as hormones, neurotransmitters, enzymes, and antibiotics. They are also used in medical research and therapeutic applications, such as drug delivery and tissue engineering.

Cyclic peptides are a type of peptides in which the N-terminus and C-terminus of the peptide chain are linked to form a circular structure. This is in contrast to linear peptides, which have a straight peptide backbone with a free N-terminus and C-terminus. The cyclization of peptides can occur through various mechanisms, including the formation of an amide bond between the N-terminal amino group and the C-terminal carboxylic acid group (head-to-tail cyclization), or through the formation of a bond between side chain functional groups.

Cyclic peptides have unique structural and chemical properties that make them valuable in medical and therapeutic applications. For example, they are more resistant to degradation by enzymes compared to linear peptides, which can increase their stability and half-life in the body. Additionally, the cyclic structure allows for greater conformational rigidity, which can enhance their binding affinity and specificity to target molecules.

Cyclic peptides have been explored as potential therapeutics for a variety of diseases, including cancer, infectious diseases, and neurological disorders. They have also been used as tools in basic research to study protein-protein interactions and cell signaling pathways.

Pyrimidines are heterocyclic aromatic organic compounds similar to benzene and pyridine, containing two nitrogen atoms at positions 1 and 3 of the six-member ring. They are one of the two types of nucleobases found in nucleic acids, the other being purines. The pyrimidine bases include cytosine (C) and thymine (T) in DNA, and uracil (U) in RNA, which pair with guanine (G) and adenine (A), respectively, through hydrogen bonding to form the double helix structure of nucleic acids. Pyrimidines are also found in many other biomolecules and have various roles in cellular metabolism and genetic regulation.

Molecular models are three-dimensional representations of molecular structures that are used in the field of molecular biology and chemistry to visualize and understand the spatial arrangement of atoms and bonds within a molecule. These models can be physical or computer-generated and allow researchers to study the shape, size, and behavior of molecules, which is crucial for understanding their function and interactions with other molecules.

Physical molecular models are often made up of balls (representing atoms) connected by rods or sticks (representing bonds). These models can be constructed manually using materials such as plastic or wooden balls and rods, or they can be created using 3D printing technology.

Computer-generated molecular models, on the other hand, are created using specialized software that allows researchers to visualize and manipulate molecular structures in three dimensions. These models can be used to simulate molecular interactions, predict molecular behavior, and design new drugs or chemicals with specific properties. Overall, molecular models play a critical role in advancing our understanding of molecular structures and their functions.

'Escherichia coli' (E. coli) is a type of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that commonly inhabits the intestinal tract of humans and warm-blooded animals. It is a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae and one of the most well-studied prokaryotic model organisms in molecular biology.

While most E. coli strains are harmless and even beneficial to their hosts, some serotypes can cause various forms of gastrointestinal and extraintestinal illnesses in humans and animals. These pathogenic strains possess virulence factors that enable them to colonize and damage host tissues, leading to diseases such as diarrhea, urinary tract infections, pneumonia, and sepsis.

E. coli is a versatile organism with remarkable genetic diversity, which allows it to adapt to various environmental niches. It can be found in water, soil, food, and various man-made environments, making it an essential indicator of fecal contamination and a common cause of foodborne illnesses. The study of E. coli has contributed significantly to our understanding of fundamental biological processes, including DNA replication, gene regulation, and protein synthesis.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

"Salmonella enterica" serovar "Typhimurium" is a subspecies of the bacterial species Salmonella enterica, which is a gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium. It is a common cause of foodborne illness in humans and animals worldwide. The bacteria can be found in a variety of sources, including contaminated food and water, raw meat, poultry, eggs, and dairy products.

The infection caused by Salmonella Typhimurium is typically self-limiting and results in gastroenteritis, which is characterized by symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal cramps, fever, and vomiting. However, in some cases, the infection can spread to other parts of the body and cause more severe illness, particularly in young children, older adults, and people with weakened immune systems.

Salmonella Typhimurium is a major public health concern due to its ability to cause outbreaks of foodborne illness, as well as its potential to develop antibiotic resistance. Proper food handling, preparation, and storage practices can help prevent the spread of Salmonella Typhimurium and other foodborne pathogens.

A chemical model is a simplified representation or description of a chemical system, based on the laws of chemistry and physics. It is used to explain and predict the behavior of chemicals and chemical reactions. Chemical models can take many forms, including mathematical equations, diagrams, and computer simulations. They are often used in research, education, and industry to understand complex chemical processes and develop new products and technologies.

For example, a chemical model might be used to describe the way that atoms and molecules interact in a particular reaction, or to predict the properties of a new material. Chemical models can also be used to study the behavior of chemicals at the molecular level, such as how they bind to each other or how they are affected by changes in temperature or pressure.

It is important to note that chemical models are simplifications of reality and may not always accurately represent every aspect of a chemical system. They should be used with caution and validated against experimental data whenever possible.

Antineoplastic agents are a class of drugs used to treat malignant neoplasms or cancer. These agents work by inhibiting the growth and proliferation of cancer cells, either by killing them or preventing their division and replication. Antineoplastic agents can be classified based on their mechanism of action, such as alkylating agents, antimetabolites, topoisomerase inhibitors, mitotic inhibitors, and targeted therapy agents.

Alkylating agents work by adding alkyl groups to DNA, which can cause cross-linking of DNA strands and ultimately lead to cell death. Antimetabolites interfere with the metabolic processes necessary for DNA synthesis and replication, while topoisomerase inhibitors prevent the relaxation of supercoiled DNA during replication. Mitotic inhibitors disrupt the normal functioning of the mitotic spindle, which is essential for cell division. Targeted therapy agents are designed to target specific molecular abnormalities in cancer cells, such as mutated oncogenes or dysregulated signaling pathways.

It's important to note that antineoplastic agents can also affect normal cells and tissues, leading to various side effects such as nausea, vomiting, hair loss, and myelosuppression (suppression of bone marrow function). Therefore, the use of these drugs requires careful monitoring and management of their potential adverse effects.

'Escherichia coli (E. coli) proteins' refer to the various types of proteins that are produced and expressed by the bacterium Escherichia coli. These proteins play a critical role in the growth, development, and survival of the organism. They are involved in various cellular processes such as metabolism, DNA replication, transcription, translation, repair, and regulation.

E. coli is a gram-negative, facultative anaerobe that is commonly found in the intestines of warm-blooded organisms. It is widely used as a model organism in scientific research due to its well-studied genetics, rapid growth, and ability to be easily manipulated in the laboratory. As a result, many E. coli proteins have been identified, characterized, and studied in great detail.

Some examples of E. coli proteins include enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism such as lactase, sucrase, and maltose; proteins involved in DNA replication such as the polymerases, single-stranded binding proteins, and helicases; proteins involved in transcription such as RNA polymerase and sigma factors; proteins involved in translation such as ribosomal proteins, tRNAs, and aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases; and regulatory proteins such as global regulators, two-component systems, and transcription factors.

Understanding the structure, function, and regulation of E. coli proteins is essential for understanding the basic biology of this important organism, as well as for developing new strategies for combating bacterial infections and improving industrial processes involving bacteria.

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the genetic material present in the cells of organisms where it is responsible for the storage and transmission of hereditary information. DNA is a long molecule that consists of two strands coiled together to form a double helix. Each strand is made up of a series of four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - that are linked together by phosphate and sugar groups. The sequence of these bases along the length of the molecule encodes genetic information, with A always pairing with T and C always pairing with G. This base-pairing allows for the replication and transcription of DNA, which are essential processes in the functioning and reproduction of all living organisms.

... , or 1,3-thiazole, is a 5-membered heterocyclic compound that contains both sulfur and nitrogen. The term 'thiazole' ... Thiazole itself is a pale yellow liquid with a pyridine-like odor and the molecular formula C3H3NS. The thiazole ring is ... Thiazole can also be considered a functional group when part of a larger molecule. Thiazole rings are planar and aromatic. ... Certain thiazoles can be accessed through application of the Herz reaction. Thiazoles are generally formed via reactions of ...
Thiazole+tautomerase at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Portal: Biology (EC 5.3.99). ... Thiazole tautomerase (EC, tenI (gene)) is an enzyme with systematic name 2-(2-carboxy-4-methylthiazol-5-yl)ethyl ... Hazra AB, Han Y, Chatterjee A, Zhang Y, Lai RY, Ealick SE, Begley TP (June 2011). "A missing enzyme in thiamin thiazole ... ethyl phosphate The enzyme catalyses the irreversible aromatization of the thiazole moiety of 2-[(2R,5Z)-2-carboxy-4- ...
Thiazole+synthase at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Portal: Biology (EC 2.8.1). ... Thiazole synthase (EC, thiG (gene)) is an enzyme with systematic name 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate:thiol ... Hazra AB, Han Y, Chatterjee A, Zhang Y, Lai RY, Ealick SE, Begley TP (June 2011). "A missing enzyme in thiamin thiazole ... Park JH, Dorrestein PC, Zhai H, Kinsland C, McLafferty FW, Begley TP (October 2003). "Biosynthesis of the thiazole moiety of ...
The Cook-Heilbron thiazole synthesis highlights the formation of 5-aminothiazoles through the chemical reaction of α- ... Thiazoles are found in a number of pharmacological compounds such as tiazofurin and dasatinib (antineoplastic agents), ... A couple of the compounds that were analysed for in vivo anti-cancer activity contained thiazole derivatives that had been ... Variation of substituents at the 2nd and 4th position of the thiazole is introduced by selecting different combinations of ...
Park, Jin-Hun; El-Gamal, Mohammed I.; Lee, Yong Sup; Oh, Chang-Hyun (2011-12-01). "New imidazo[2,1-b]thiazole derivatives: ... thiazole-5-sulfonyl)tryptamine as a Potent, Selective, and Orally Active 5-HT6 Receptor Agonist". Journal of Medicinal ... thiazole moiety". European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 45 (1): 63-68. doi:10.1016/j.ejmech.2009.09.024. PMID 19939519. ... thiazole derivatives". European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 42 (3): 320-326. doi:10.1016/j.ejmech.2006.10.012. PMID ...
They feature thiazoles, thiazone, thianthrene, and phenothiazonethioanthrone subunits. Being nonionic, sulfur dyes are ...
Rouf A, Tanyeli C (June 2015). "Bioactive thiazole and benzothiazole derivatives". European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 97 ...
Thiazole, an analog with the oxygen replaced by a sulfur. Benzoxazole, where the oxazole is fused to a benzene ring. Pyrrole, ... Oxazoles are aromatic compounds but less so than the thiazoles. Oxazole is a weak base; its conjugate acid has a pKa of 0.8, ... Oxazoles are not as abundant in biomolecules as the related thiazoles with oxygen replaced by a sulfur atom. With a pKa of 0.8 ...
... s consist of a 5-membered 1,3-thiazole ring fused to a benzene ring. The nine atoms of the bicycle and the ... Benzothiazoles are related to thiazoles, which lack the fused benzene ring. Benzoxazoles, which substitute an oxygen for the ... The heterocyclic core of the molecule is readily substituted at the unique methyne centre in the thiazole ring. It is a ... structurally related to thiazoles, thiophene, thiazoline and thienyl derivatives from chemical group 29, miscellaneous". EFSA ...
The thiazoles are used for the vulcanization of thick articles, and as basic accelerator in EPDM compounds (ethylene-propylene- ... Another important group of primary accelerators is formed by the thiazoles. The two main products are mercaptobenzothiazole ( ...
Gabriel also investigated oxazole, thiazole, and their derivatives. Gabriel reported what became the Robinson-Gabriel Synthesis ...
"Thiazole and oxazole peptides: Biosynthesis and molecular machinery". Natural Product Reports. 16 (2): 249-263. doi:10.1039/ ...
Thiazole orange does show toxicity at this dose. TO (Thiazole Orange) SYBR Green I SYBR Green II SYBR Gold YO (Oxazole Yellow) ... Thiazole Orange has been shown to be three to four times less mutagenic than ethidium bromide whereas SYBR Safe is four to five ... Evenson WE; Boden LM; Muzikar KA; O'Leary DJ (2012). "1H and 13C NMR Assignments for the Cyanine Dyes SYBR Safe and Thiazole ... SYBR Safe has a very similar structure to thiazole orange, which has a methyl group attached to the charged nitrogen, whereas ...
Zhu LP, Ye DY, Tang Y (January 2007). "Structure-based 3D-QSAR studies on thiazoles as 5-HT3 receptor antagonists". Journal of ...
The molecule contains three rings: thiazole, piperidine and oxadiazole. Other functional groups included are an ether, ... Thiazoles, Piperidines, Acetamides, Ethers, Organofluorides, All stub articles, Pharmacology stubs). ...
... thiazole derivatives". Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry. 26 (8): 1986-1995. doi:10.1016/j.bmc.2018.02.048. ISSN 0968-0896. PMID ...
Thiazoles and isothiazoles contain a sulfur and a nitrogen atom in the ring. Dithiolanes have two sulfur atoms. A large group ...
... is a heterocyclic amine featuring a thiazole core. It can also be considered a cyclic isothiourea. It possesses ...
Thiazole - an analogue with 2 double bonds Thiazolidine - an analogue with no double bonds Oxazoline - an analogue with O in ... The amino acid cysteine is produced industrially from substituted thiazole. 2-Aminothiazoline-4-carboxylic acid is an ...
In this study they used thiazole orange as the indicator. The helicase unwinds the dsDNA to make ssDNA. The fluorescence ... Biancardi, Alessandro; Tarita, Biver; Alberto, Marini; Benedetta, Mennucci; Fernando, Secco (2011). "Thiazole orange (TO) as a ... intensity of thiazole orange has a greater affinity for dsDNA than ssDNA and its fluorescence intensity increases when it is ...
The thiazole ring is formed in a reaction catalysed by thiazole synthase (EC The ultimate precursors are 1-deoxy-D- ... The thiazole is substituted with methyl and hydroxyethyl side chains. Thiamine is stable at acidic pH, but it is unstable in ... The thiazole and pyrimidine moieties are biosynthesized separately and are then combined to form ThMP by the action of thiamine ... Thiamine and its metabolites (2-methyl-4-amino-5-pyrimidine carboxylic acid, 4-methyl-thiazole-5-acetic acid, and others) are ...
This process converts cysteine and serine/threonine residues into thiazole and (methyl)oxazole heterocycles (as seen to the ... Melby, Joel O.; Nard, Nathan J.; Mitchell, Douglas A. (2011). "Thiazole/Oxazole-modified microcins: Complex natural products ... it can be classified further as a thiazole/oxazole-modified microcin (TOMM) or a linear azole-containing peptide (LAP). The ... Structure Elucidation of Ribosomally Synthesized Thiazole/Oxazole Peptides from Bacillus amyloliquefaciensFZB42". Organic ...
Thiazole Thiazoline International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (2014). Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry: IUPAC ...
M. Bravar; Jelencic, J.; Dabetic, M. (1988). "Kinetics of additive-containing sulfur-thiazole vulcanization of styrene- ...
Thus, the thiazole ring is the "reagent portion" of the molecule. The C2 of this ring is capable of acting as an acid by ... The part of TPP molecule that is most commonly involved in reactions is the thiazole ring, which contains nitrogen and sulfur. ... TPP consists of a pyrimidine ring which is connected to a thiazole ring, which is in turn connected to a pyrophosphate ( ...
Shilai, M.; Kondo, Y.; Sakamoto, T. (2001). "Selective metallation of thiophene and thiazole rings with magnesium amide base". ...
Thiazole and isothiazole, analogues without the carbonyl group or oxygen atom. Oxazole and isoxazole, analogues without the ...
The bromoketone array in that intermediate constitutes a classical starting function for construction of thiazoles. Reaction of ... Thiazoles, AbbVie brands, Astellas Pharma, Vinyl compounds). ...
"Impact of Preferential π-Binding in Catalyst-Transfer Polycondensation of Thiazole Derivatives". ACS Macro Lett. 5 (12): 1411- ...
... thiazole and peptide alkaloids, and other miscellaneous alkaloids". Nat. Prod. Rep. 17 (1): 57-84. doi:10.1039/a809403i. PMID ...
Thiazole, or 1,3-thiazole, is a 5-membered heterocyclic compound that contains both sulfur and nitrogen. The term thiazole ... Thiazole itself is a pale yellow liquid with a pyridine-like odor and the molecular formula C3H3NS. The thiazole ring is ... Thiazole can also be considered a functional group when part of a larger molecule. Thiazole rings are planar and aromatic. ... Certain thiazoles can be accessed through application of the Herz reaction. Thiazoles are generally formed via reactions of ...
4-methyl-5-(2-phosphonatooxyethyl)thiazole(2−) (CHEBI:58296) is conjugate base of 4-methyl-5-(2-phosphonooxyethyl)thiazole ( ... 4-methyl-5-(2-phosphonooxyethyl)thiazole (CHEBI:17857) is conjugate acid of 4-methyl-5-(2-phosphonatooxyethyl)thiazole(2−) ( ... CHEBI:58296 - 4-methyl-5-(2-phosphonatooxyethyl)thiazole(2−). Main. ChEBI Ontology. Automatic Xrefs. Reactions. Pathways. ... 4-methyl-5-(2-phosphonatooxyethyl)thiazole(2−) (CHEBI:58296) has role Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolite (CHEBI:75772) 4- ...
... -. Notes. *This display requires that Java be installed on your system and your browser to ...
Structure, properties, spectra, suppliers and links for: 5-(2-Bromoethyl)-4-methyl-1,3-thiazole.
Chemical Name: 3-(4-chlorobenzyl)-1-(1,3-thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-pyrrolidinedione ...
... Molecular Formula: C20H12Cl2N2O2S3 ... 3,5-bis[[2-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-oxo-ethyl]sulfanyl]-1,2-thiazole-4-carbonitrile ...
... thiazole-4-carboxylate , C12H11ClN2O2S , CID 12603732 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, ...
Synthesis of 2-Alkoxy-Substituted Thiophenes, 1,3-Thiazoles, and Related S-Heterocycles via Lawessons Reagent-Mediated ...
3-thiazole. An open source of chemical information available to the public online since 2005. ... List of Reports Available for 2-Bromo-4,5-dimethyl-1,3-thiazole ... Complete supplier list of 2-Bromo-4,5-dimethyl-1,3-thiazole. ... 3-thiazole 6-Bromo-4,4-dimethylthiochroman 4-Bromo-2,3-dimethylthiophene 2-Bromo-3,5-dimethylthiophene N-(3-Bromo-2,6- ... Home ,, Chemical Listing ,, B >> 2-Bromo-4,5-dimethyl-1,3-thiazole ...
... thiazole 3835-41-4 from AK Scientific, in San Francisco, California ...
By using (S)-2-amino-1,3-propanediol as a linker, thiazole orange (TO) was incorporated in a dimeric form into DNA. The green ... By using (S)-2-amino-1,3-propanediol as a linker, thiazole orange (TO) was incorporated in a dimeric form into DNA. The green ...
"Thiazoles" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Thiazoles" by people in this website by year, and whether " ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Thiazoles" by people in Profiles. ...
View New Thiazoles or All Thiazolesproducts to refine by size, purity, and various physical properties. ... thiazole-2-carbaldehyde thiazole-2-carboxylic acid thiazole-4-carboxylic acid thiazole-5-carbaldehyde thiazole-5-carbonitrile ... Chemistry Heterocyclic Building Blocks Thiazoles Thiazoles. Thiazole, also known as 1,3-thiazole, is a type of heterocyclic ... thiazole 2-(methylthio)thiazole 2-(thiazol-4-yl)acetic acid 2-(trifluoromethyl)thiazole 2-bromo-4-methylthiazole 2-bromo-5- ...
3-thiazole-5-carboxylic acid. We enable science by offering product choice, services, process excellence and our people make it ...
... references and reaction samples of the Hantzsch Thiazole Synthesis ...
Global Thiazoles Market : Latest Innovations, Drivers and Industry Status 2022 to 2028 According to research, ... This record analysis is done to determine Thiazoles market share over the projected timeline and focuses on historical and ... the global market for Global Thiazoles Market is expected to grow from 2022 to 2028. ...
RESPONSE- IF SWALLOWED: Call a POISON CENTER/doctor if you feel unwell. Rinse mouth. IF ON SKIN: Wash with plenty of water. IF INHALED: Remove person to fresh air and keep comfortable for breathing. IF IN EYES: Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes. Remove contact lenses, if present and easy to do. Continue rinsing. Call a POISON CENTER/doctor if you feel unwell. If skin irritation occurs: Get medical advice/attention. If eye irritation persists: Get medical advice/attention. Take off contaminated clothing and wash it before reuse. In case of fire: Use appropriate media to extinguish ...
Home / Heterocycles / 2-Isopropyl-4-(methylaminomethyl)thiazole. Heterocycles, Thiazoles. 2-Isopropyl-4-(methylaminomethyl) ... Product Name: 2-Isopropyl-4-(methylaminomethyl)thiazole. CAS No.: 154212-60-9 Molecular Weight: 170.28. MDL No.: MFCD06797969 ...
Vulcanization is the name originally given to the process Charles Goodyear discovered by mixing sulfur with natural rubber and subjecting it to heat to transform a plastic substance into an elastic substance. Years later it was learned that the sulfur actually crosslinks the chains of the rubber molecules. Eventually chemicals other than sulfur were used to crosslink elastomers, resulting in the term crosslinking to become synonymous with vulcanization. Vulcanization is normally achieved with time and temperature activation of specific chemicals which react with polymeric materials, producing a crosslinked network of molecular chains with visco-elastic properties. Sulfur-bearing accelerators make the sulfur-vulcanization process safer and more efficient. Crosslinking is also achieved by organic peroxides, which may be made more efficient thru the use of coagents.
5-Dimethyl-2-isopropyl thiazole (53498-30-9) like chemical properties, structure, molecular formula, molecular weight, physical ... thiazole, 4,5-dimethyl-2-(1-methylethyl)- ; thiazole, 4,5-dimethyl-2-isopropyl ; 2-isopropyl-4,5-dimethyl-1,3-thiazole ; 4,5- ... dimethyl-2-(methylethyl)-1,3-thiazole ; 4,5-dimethyl-2-isopropyl thiazole ; 4,5-dimethyl-2-(propan-2-yl)-1,3-thiazole ...
Contact with us through our representative or submit a business inquiry online.. Contact Us. ...
Nadtoka O. Photoinduced spatial orientational order in methacrylic thiazole containing azopolymers / Oksana Nadtoka, Vladimir ...
Ethylparaben (ethyl para-hydroxybenzoate) is the ethyl ester of p-hydroxybenzoic acid. Its formula is HO-C6H4-CO-O-CH2CH3. It is a member of the class of compounds known as parabens. It is used as an antifungal preservative. As a food additive, it has E number E214. Sodium ethyl para-hydroxybenzoate, the sodium salt of ethylparaben, has the same uses and is given the E number E215. ...
In order to find novel pyrazine- and thiazole-based derivatives with potent antioxidant properties, eight pyrazine-thiazole bi- ... Synthesis and Antioxidant Properties of Pyrazine-Thiazole Bi-heteroaryl Compounds Xiaoping Zhanga(. ), Guiyong Jina, Zhifei ... Synthesis and Antioxidant Properties of Pyrazine-Thiazole Bi-heteroaryl Compounds[J]. Chinese Journal of Organic Chemistry, ... Key words: pyrazine-thiazole, oxidative cross-dehydrogenative coupling, antioxidant, DNA, free radical ...
Keywords: antimicrobial activity, ATPase, docking, pyridine, thiazole, triazole, HERG K+ CHANNELS, BIOLOGICAL EVALUATION, 1,2,4 ... Synthesis, antimicrobial activity and modeling studies of thiazoles bearing pyridyl and triazolyl scaffolds ... thiazoles were synthesized following a multi-step synthetic procedure. All the compounds were screened with a panel of gram ...
Copy For Citation Beduoğlu A., SEVİM A. M., BAYIR Z. 27th European Colloquıum On Heterocyclıc Chemıstry (ECHC 2016), 3 - 06 July 2016 ...
Copyright ©. Kingston Chemistry All rights reserved ...
5-(Bromomethyl)-2-methyl-4-(trifluoromethyl)-1,3-thiazole. REF: 54-PC7493CAS: 1000339-73-0 - - -. 187.00 €~418.00 €. Tue 17 Oct ... 5-Bromomethyl-2-methyl-4-(trifluoromethyl)-1,3-thiazole. REF: 10-034965CAS: 1000339-73-0 95.0%. 292.00 €~1,324.00 €. Wed 18 Oct ... 5-(Bromomethyl)-2-methyl-4-(trifluoromethyl)-1,3-thiazole. REF: 3D-FB95430CAS: 1000339-73-0 Min. 95%. To inquire. Tue 21 Nov 23 ... 5-(Bromomethyl)-2-methyl-4-(trifluoromethyl)-1,3-thiazole is a useful research chemical. Buy high-quality 5-(Bromomethyl)-2- ...
... thiazole-5-carboxylate at CymitQuimica. Ask now for a quotation ... thiazole-5-carboxylate. Please use instead the cart to request ... Methyl 4-bromo-2-(2,4-dichlorophenylsulfonyl)thiazole-5-carboxylate. CAS: 1000575-58-5 Ref. 3D-AQB57558. 1g. To inquire. ... Buy high-quality Methyl 4-bromo-2-(2,4-dichlorophenylsulfonyl)thiazole-5-carboxylate from Cymit Quimica for a variety of ... We also offer Methyl 4-bromo-2-(2,4-dichlorophenylsulfonyl)thiazole-5-carboxylate in bulk quantities in addition to our ...
  • Various laboratory methods exist for the organic synthesis of thiazoles. (
  • Prominent is the Hantzsch thiazole synthesis, which is a reaction between haloketones and thioamides. (
  • There are multiple laboratory techniques available for the organic synthesis of thiazoles, with the most notable being the Hantzsch thiazole synthesis, which involves a reaction between haloketones and thioamides. (
  • Synthesis and Antioxidant Properties of Pyrazine-Thiazole Bi-heteroaryl Compounds[J]. Chinese Journal of Organic Chemistry , 2021, 41(6): 2445-2453. (
  • Gomha, S. M., T. A. Farghaly, E. M. H. Abbas, and N. T. Alqurashi, 'Terephthalaldehyde: An Effecient Key Precursor for Novel Synthesis of Some Interesting Bis-thiazoles and Bis-triazolopyrimidinones', Journal of Hetrocyclic Chemistry, vol. 55, pp. 750-755, 2018. (
  • Crosslinked sulfonated polyacrylamide (Cross-PAA-SO3H) tethered to nano-Fe3O4 as a superior catalyst for the synthesis of 1,3-thiazoles by: Hossein Shahbazi-Alavi, et al. (
  • Thiazoles are members of the azoles, heterocycles that include imidazoles and oxazoles. (
  • Methyl 4-bromo-2-(2,4-dichlorophenylsulfonyl)thiazole-5-carboxylate is a useful research chemical. (
  • Buy high-quality Methyl 4-bromo-2-(2,4-dichlorophenylsulfonyl)thiazole-5-carboxylate from Cymit Quimica for a variety of research applications. (
  • 4-bromine-2-Methyl carboxylate thiazole-13C_Wuxi Beita Pharmatech Co., Ltd. (
  • Thiazole itself is a pale yellow liquid with a pyridine-like odor and the molecular formula C3H3NS. (
  • in one study, a very mild reaction of a 2-(dimethylamino)thiazole with dimethyl acetylenedicarboxylate (DMAD) to a pyridine was found to proceed through a zwitterionic intermediate in a formal [2+2]cycloaddition to a cyclobutene, then to a 1,3-thiazepine in a 4-electron electrocyclic ring opening and then to a 7-thia-2-azanorcaradiene in a 6-electron electrocyclic ring, closing before extruding the sulfur atom. (
  • Thiazole, or 1,3-thiazole, is a 5-membered heterocyclic compound that contains both sulfur and nitrogen. (
  • Thiazole, also known as 1,3-thiazole, is a type of heterocyclic compound that includes both nitrogen and sulfur atoms. (
  • The term 'thiazole' also refers to a large family of derivatives. (
  • Thiazoles are found in a variety of specialized products, often fused with benzene derivatives, the so-called benzothiazoles. (
  • Other important thiazole derivatives are benzothiazoles, for example, the firefly chemical luciferin. (
  • In order to find novel pyrazine- and thiazole-based derivatives with potent antioxidant properties, eight pyrazine-thiazole bi-heteroaryl compounds were designed and prepared via active group splicing method between pyrazine- N - oxides and thiazoles. (
  • Nano-Fe3O4 attached to Crosslinked sulfonated polyacrylamide (Cross-PAA-SO3H) as a superior catalyst has been utilized for the preparation of 3-alkyl-4-phenyl-1,3-thiazole-2(3H)-thione derivatives through a three-component reactions of phenacyl bromide or 4-methoxyphenacyl bromide, carbon disulfide. (
  • Thiazole rings exhibit planarity and aromaticity, with more extensive pi-electron delocalization than their oxazole counterparts, resulting in greater aromaticity for thiazoles. (
  • In addition, it was found that the antioxidant activity of pyrazine-thiazole bi-heteroaryl compounds was significantly higher than that of pyrazine-oxazole bi-heteroaryl compound. (
  • In this study, novel 4-(5-((2/3/4-substituted benzyl)thio)-4-(4-substituted phenyl)-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)-2-(pyridin-3/4-yl)thiazoles were synthesized following a multi-step synthetic procedure. (
  • The thiazole ring is notable as a component of the vitamin thiamine (B1). (
  • Thiazoles find applications in peptide research and serve as a fundamental component in biologically active natural products such as thiamine (vitamin B1), bacitracin, and the penicillins, as well as in a wide range of synthetic drugs, dyes, and industrial chemicals. (
  • These enzymes all use thiamine's thiazole ring to activate and transfer a 2-carbon unit (aldehyde), which provides precursors for other synthetic pathways and also provides energy for the cell. (
  • Thiazoles are generally formed via reactions of cysteine, which provides the N-C-C-S backbone of the ring. (
  • some of the oxidation takes place at sulfur, leading to non-aromatic sulfoxide/sulfone: Thiazole N-oxides are useful in Palladium-catalysed C-H arylations, where the N-oxide is able to shift the reactivity to reliably favor the 2-position, and allows for these reactions to be carried out under much more mild conditions. (
  • Snapshots of catalysis: Structure of covalently bound substrate trapped in Mycobacterium tuberculosis thiazole synthase (ThiG). (
  • Nadtoka O. Photoinduced spatial orientational order in methacrylic thiazole containing azopolymers / Oksana Nadtoka, Vladimir Syromyatnikov // Chemistry & Chemical Technology. (
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Thiazoles" by people in this website by year, and whether "Thiazoles" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (
  • According to research, the global market for Global Thiazoles Market is expected to grow from 2022 to 2028. (
  • 2-(tert-Butyldimethylsilyl)thiazole (CAS# 137382-38-8) is a useful research chemical. (
  • We report a newly synthesized donor (D)-acceptor (A)type semiconducting copolymer, consisting of thiophene as an electron-donating unit and thiazole as an electron-accepting unit (PQTBTz-TT-C8) for the active layer of the organic field-effect transistors (OFETs). (
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Thiazoles" by people in Profiles. (
  • This record analysis is done to determine Thiazoles market share over the projected timeline and focuses on historical and current industry trends to analyze the market. (
  • Thiophene-Thiazole-Based Semiconducting Copolymers for High-Performanc" by Jong Won Chung, Won-Tae Park et al. (
  • In addition to vitamin B1, the thiazole ring is found in epothilone. (
  • Drug cytotoxicity was determined using the colorimetric methyl thiazole tetrazolium bromide (MTT) proliferation assay. (
  • The thiazole ring is notable as a component of the vitamin thiamine (B1). (
  • Several biosynthesis routes lead to the thiazole ring as required for the formation of thiamine. (
  • In this study, a series of Schiff bases of 2-amino thiazoles were synthesized and evaluated for their anti-tubercular activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv strain by Microplate Alamar Blue assay (MABA) method. (
  • With a pKa of 2.5 for the conjugate acid, thiazoles are far less basic than imidazole (pKa =7). (
  • We describe the discovery and evaluation of a new class of potent and selective RORγt inverse agonists based on a thiazole core. (
  • Genetic Toxicity Evaluation of 2-(2-Methylpropyl) Thiazole in Salmonella/E.coli Mutagenicity Test or Ames Test. (
  • Moreover, this review aimed to provide greater insights into the rational design of more potent pharmaceutical molecules based on 2,4,5-trisubstituted thiazole in the future. (
  • Sulfur of the thiazole is derived from cysteine. (
  • some of the oxidation takes place at sulfur, leading to non-aromatic sulfoxide/sulfone: Thiazole N-oxides are useful in Palladium-catalysed C-H arylations, where the N-oxide is able to shift the reactivity to reliably favor the 2-position, and allows for these reactions to be carried out under much more mild conditions. (
  • Thiazoles are very important functional groups in medicinal chemistry. (
  • Thiazole can also be considered a functional group when part of a larger molecule. (
  • An overview of Genetic Toxicology Bacterial Mutagenicity study conclusions related to 2-(2-Methylpropyl) thiazole (18640-74-9). (
  • Another widely used thiazole derivative is the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug Meloxicam. (
  • This review covers related literature in the past 20 years, which reported the 2,4,5-trisubstituted thiazole as a privileged scaffold in drug design and activity im-provement. (
  • Thiazoles are members of the azoles, heterocycles that include imidazoles and oxazoles. (
  • Commercial significant thiazoles include mainly dyes and fungicides. (
  • All these results build an information base that can be invested in the design of thiazole-based biofilm inhibitors. (