Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Calorimetry: The measurement of the quantity of heat involved in various processes, such as chemical reactions, changes of state, and formations of solutions, or in the determination of the heat capacities of substances. The fundamental unit of measurement is the joule or the calorie (4.184 joules). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Entropy: The measure of that part of the heat or energy of a system which is not available to perform work. Entropy increases in all natural (spontaneous and irreversible) processes. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Protein Folding: Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Calorimetry, Differential Scanning: Differential thermal analysis in which the sample compartment of the apparatus is a differential calorimeter, allowing an exact measure of the heat of transition independent of the specific heat, thermal conductivity, and other variables of the sample.Titrimetry: The determination of the concentration of a given component in solution (the analyte) by addition of a liquid reagent of known strength (the titrant) until an equivalence point is reached (when the reactants are present in stoichiometric proportions). Often an indicator is added to make the equivalence point visible (e.g., a change in color).Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Protein Denaturation: Disruption of the non-covalent bonds and/or disulfide bonds responsible for maintaining the three-dimensional shape and activity of the native protein.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Nucleic Acid Denaturation: Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.Mathematics: The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Solutions: The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Phosphorus Acids: Inorganic acids that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Receptors, Artificial: Receptors that are created by SYNTHETIC CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES. They are usually designed to mimic endogenous CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Mannosides: Glycosides formed by the reaction of the hydroxyl group on the anomeric carbon atom of mannose with an alcohol to form an acetal. They include both alpha- and beta-mannosides.Biophysics: The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Biophysical Phenomena: The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.Molecular Dynamics Simulation: A computer simulation developed to study the motion of molecules over a period of time.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Energy Transfer: The transfer of energy of a given form among different scales of motion. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed). It includes the transfer of kinetic energy and the transfer of chemical energy. The transfer of chemical energy from one molecule to another depends on proximity of molecules so it is often used as in techniques to measure distance such as the use of FORSTER RESONANCE ENERGY TRANSFER.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Hydrogen Bonding: A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Phase Transition: A change of a substance from one form or state to another.Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions: The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Lipid Bilayers: Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.Biochemistry: The study of the composition, chemical structures, and chemical reactions of living things.Transition Temperature: The temperature at which a substance changes from one state or conformation of matter to another.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Salts: Substances produced from the reaction between acids and bases; compounds consisting of a metal (positive) and nonmetal (negative) radical. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Protein Stability: The ability of a protein to retain its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to physical or chemical manipulations.Earth (Planet): Planet that is the third in order from the sun. It is one of the four inner or terrestrial planets of the SOLAR SYSTEM.Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular: NMR spectroscopy on small- to medium-size biological macromolecules. This is often used for structural investigation of proteins and nucleic acids, and often involves more than one isotope.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Erythrina: A genus of leguminous shrubs or trees, mainly tropical, yielding useful compounds such as ALKALOIDS and PLANT LECTINS.Static Electricity: The accumulation of an electric charge on a objectGuanidine: A strong organic base existing primarily as guanidium ions at physiological pH. It is found in the urine as a normal product of protein metabolism. It is also used in laboratory research as a protein denaturant. (From Martindale, the Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed and Merck Index, 12th ed) It is also used in the treatment of myasthenia and as a fluorescent probe in HPLC.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Surface Plasmon Resonance: A biosensing technique in which biomolecules capable of binding to specific analytes or ligands are first immobilized on one side of a metallic film. Light is then focused on the opposite side of the film to excite the surface plasmons, that is, the oscillations of free electrons propagating along the film's surface. The refractive index of light reflecting off this surface is measured. When the immobilized biomolecules are bound by their ligands, an alteration in surface plasmons on the opposite side of the film is created which is directly proportional to the change in bound, or adsorbed, mass. Binding is measured by changes in the refractive index. The technique is used to study biomolecular interactions, such as antigen-antibody binding.Monte Carlo Method: In statistics, a technique for numerically approximating the solution of a mathematical problem by studying the distribution of some random variable, often generated by a computer. The name alludes to the randomness characteristic of the games of chance played at the gambling casinos in Monte Carlo. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)Biochemical Processes: Chemical reactions or functions, enzymatic activities, and metabolic pathways of living things.Base Pairing: Pairing of purine and pyrimidine bases by HYDROGEN BONDING in double-stranded DNA or RNA.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Dimerization: The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Nucleic Acid Heteroduplexes: Double-stranded nucleic acid molecules (DNA-DNA or DNA-RNA) which contain regions of nucleotide mismatches (non-complementary). In vivo, these heteroduplexes can result from mutation or genetic recombination; in vitro, they are formed by nucleic acid hybridization. Electron microscopic analysis of the resulting heteroduplexes facilitates the mapping of regions of base sequence homology of nucleic acids.Protons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.Enzymes: Biological molecules that possess catalytic activity. They may occur naturally or be synthetically created. Enzymes are usually proteins, however CATALYTIC RNA and CATALYTIC DNA molecules have also been identified.Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Oligonucleotides: Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)Protein Renaturation: The reconstitution of a protein's activity following denaturation.Plant Lectins: Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Carbonic Anhydrase II: A cytosolic carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme found widely distributed in cells of almost all tissues. Deficiencies of carbonic anhydrase II produce a syndrome characterized by OSTEOPETROSIS, renal tubular acidosis (ACIDOSIS, RENAL TUBULAR) and cerebral calcification. EC 4.2.1.-Physicochemical Phenomena: The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.2-Aminopurine: A purine that is an isomer of ADENINE (6-aminopurine).Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Chemistry, Physical: The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.Biopolymers: Polymers synthesized by living organisms. They play a role in the formation of macromolecular structures and are synthesized via the covalent linkage of biological molecules, especially AMINO ACIDS; NUCLEOTIDES; and CARBOHYDRATES.Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.Hydrostatic Pressure: The pressure due to the weight of fluid.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Cations: Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.Quantum Theory: The theory that the radiation and absorption of energy take place in definite quantities called quanta (E) which vary in size and are defined by the equation E=hv in which h is Planck's constant and v is the frequency of the radiation.Adsorption: The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.Ovomucin: A heterogeneous mixture of glycoproteins responsible for the gel structure of egg white. It has trypsin-inhibiting activity.Urea: A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Biogenesis: The origin of life. It includes studies of the potential basis for life in organic compounds but excludes studies of the development of altered forms of life through mutation and natural selection, which is BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION.Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Micelles: Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.Monosaccharides: Simple sugars, carbohydrates which cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis. They are colorless crystalline substances with a sweet taste and have the same general formula CnH2nOn. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Carboxylic Acids: Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.Annelida: A phylum of metazoan invertebrates comprising the segmented worms, and including marine annelids (POLYCHAETA), freshwater annelids, earthworms (OLIGOCHAETA), and LEECHES. Only the leeches are of medical interest. (Dorland, 27th ed)Osmosis: Tendency of fluids (e.g., water) to move from the less concentrated to the more concentrated side of a semipermeable membrane.Magnesium Chloride: Magnesium chloride. An inorganic compound consisting of one magnesium and two chloride ions. The compound is used in medicine as a source of magnesium ions, which are essential for many cellular activities. It has also been used as a cathartic and in alloys.Protein Structure, Quaternary: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape and arrangement of multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Phosphatidylcholines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Flavins: Derivatives of the dimethylisoalloxazine (7,8-dimethylbenzo[g]pteridine-2,4(3H,10H)-dione) skeleton. Flavin derivatives serve an electron transfer function as ENZYME COFACTORS in FLAVOPROTEINS.Cell Physiological Phenomena: Cellular processes, properties, and characteristics.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Drug Stability: The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.Nucleic Acids: High molecular weight polymers containing a mixture of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides chained together by ribose or deoxyribose linkages.Hydrogen: The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Melitten: Basic polypeptide from the venom of the honey bee (Apis mellifera). It contains 26 amino acids, has cytolytic properties, causes contracture of muscle, releases histamine, and disrupts surface tension, probably due to lysis of cell and mitochondrial membranes.Apoproteins: The protein components of a number of complexes, such as enzymes (APOENZYMES), ferritin (APOFERRITINS), or lipoproteins (APOLIPOPROTEINS).Tetrahymena: A genus of ciliate protozoa commonly used in genetic, cytological, and other research.Myosin Type V: A subclass of myosin involved in organelle transport and membrane targeting. It is abundantly found in nervous tissue and neurosecretory cells. The heavy chains of myosin V contain unusually long neck domains that are believed to aid in translocating molecules over large distances.Surface-Active Agents: Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.Cyclodextrins: A homologous group of cyclic GLUCANS consisting of alpha-1,4 bound glucose units obtained by the action of cyclodextrin glucanotransferase on starch or similar substrates. The enzyme is produced by certain species of Bacillus. Cyclodextrins form inclusion complexes with a wide variety of substances.Protein Multimerization: The assembly of the QUATERNARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE of multimeric proteins (MULTIPROTEIN COMPLEXES) from their composite PROTEIN SUBUNITS.Electrochemistry: The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Fluorescence: The property of emitting radiation while being irradiated. The radiation emitted is usually of longer wavelength than that incident or absorbed, e.g., a substance can be irradiated with invisible radiation and emit visible light. X-ray fluorescence is used in diagnosis.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Adenosine Diphosphate: Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.Colloids: Two-phase systems in which one is uniformly dispersed in another as particles small enough so they cannot be filtered or will not settle out. The dispersing or continuous phase or medium envelops the particles of the discontinuous phase. All three states of matter can form colloids among each other.Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Electron Transport: The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)Ions: An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.Lectins: Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.RNA, Catalytic: RNA that has catalytic activity. The catalytic RNA sequence folds to form a complex surface that can function as an enzyme in reactions with itself and other molecules. It may function even in the absence of protein. There are numerous examples of RNA species that are acted upon by catalytic RNA, however the scope of this enzyme class is not limited to a particular type of substrate.Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Buffers: A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.Motion: Physical motion, i.e., a change in position of a body or subject as a result of an external force. It is distinguished from MOVEMENT, a process resulting from biological activity.Polydeoxyribonucleotides: A group of 13 or more deoxyribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Disaccharides: Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.Dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine: A synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers for the study of biological membranes.G-Quadruplexes: Higher-order DNA and RNA structures formed from guanine-rich sequences. They are formed around a core of at least 2 stacked tetrads of hydrogen-bonded GUANINE bases. They can be formed from one two or four separate strands of DNA (or RNA) and can display a wide variety of topologies, which are a consequence of various combinations of strand direction, length, and sequence. (From Nucleic Acids Res. 2006;34(19):5402-15)Periplasmic Binding Proteins: Periplasmic proteins that scavenge or sense diverse nutrients. In the bacterial environment they usually couple to transporters or chemotaxis receptors on the inner bacterial membrane.Diffusion: The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.Allosteric Regulation: The modification of the reactivity of ENZYMES by the binding of effectors to sites (ALLOSTERIC SITES) on the enzymes other than the substrate BINDING SITES.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Elasticity: Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.DNA, Single-Stranded: A single chain of deoxyribonucleotides that occurs in some bacteria and viruses. It usually exists as a covalently closed circle.Ultracentrifugation: Centrifugation with a centrifuge that develops centrifugal fields of more than 100,000 times gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Anilino Naphthalenesulfonates: A class of organic compounds which contain an anilino (phenylamino) group linked to a salt or ester of naphthalenesulfonic acid. They are frequently used as fluorescent dyes and sulfhydryl reagents.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.

A comparison of affinity constants for muscarine-sensitive acetylcholine receptors in guinea-pig atrial pacemaker cells at 29 degrees C and in ileum at 29 degrees C and 37 degrees C. (1/16154)

1 The affinity of 17 compounds for muscarine-sensitive acetylcholine receptors in atrial pacemaker cells and ileum of the guinea-pig has been measured at 29 degrees C in Ringer-Locke solution. Measurements were also made at 37 degrees C with 7 of them. 2 Some of the compounds had much higher affinity for the receptors in the ileum than for those in the atria. For the most selective compound, 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine methiodide, the difference was approximately 20-fold. The receptors in the atria are therefore different the structure from those in the ileum. 3 The effect of temperature on affinity are not the same for all the compounds, tested indicating different enthalpies and entropies of adsorption and accounting for some of the difficulty experienced in predicting the affinity of new compounds.  (+info)

A processive single-headed motor: kinesin superfamily protein KIF1A. (2/16154)

A single kinesin molecule can move "processively" along a microtubule for more than 1 micrometer before detaching from it. The prevailing explanation for this processive movement is the "walking model," which envisions that each of two motor domains (heads) of the kinesin molecule binds coordinately to the microtubule. This implies that each kinesin molecule must have two heads to "walk" and that a single-headed kinesin could not move processively. Here, a motor-domain construct of KIF1A, a single-headed kinesin superfamily protein, was shown to move processively along the microtubule for more than 1 micrometer. The movement along the microtubules was stochastic and fitted a biased Brownian-movement model.  (+info)

Calorimetric studies on the stability of the ribosome-inactivating protein abrin II: effects of pH and ligand binding. (3/16154)

The effects of pH and ligand binding on the stability of abrin II, a heterodimeric ribosome-inactivating protein, and its subunits have been studied using high-sensitivity differential scanning calorimetry. At pH7.2, the calorimetric scan consists of two transitions, which correspond to the B-subunit [transition temperature (Tm) 319.2K] and the A-subunit (Tm 324.6K) of abrin II, as also confirmed by studies on the isolated A-subunit. The calorimetric enthalpy of the isolated A-subunit of abrin II is similar to that of the higher-temperature transition. However, its Tm is 2.4K lower than that of the higher-temperature peak of intact abrin II. This indicates that there is some interaction between the two subunits. Abrin II displays increased stability as the pH is decreased to 4.5. Lactose increases the Tm values as well as the enthalpies of both transitions. This effect is more pronounced at pH7.2 than at pH4.5. This suggests that ligand binding stabilizes the native conformation of abrin II. Analysis of the B-subunit transition temperature as a function of lactose concentration suggests that two lactose molecules bind to one molecule of abrin II at pH7.2. The presence of two binding sites for lactose on the abrin II molecule is also indicated by isothermal titration calorimetry. Plotting DeltaHm (the molar transition enthalpy at Tm) against Tm yielded values for DeltaCp (change in excess heat capacity) of 27+/-2 kJ.mol-1.K-1 for the B-subunit and 20+/-1 kJ.mol-1.K-1 for the A-subunit. These values have been used to calculate the thermal stability of abrin II and to surmise the mechanism of its transmembrane translocation.  (+info)

Insulin-like growth factors I and II are unable to form and maintain their native disulfides under in vivo redox conditions. (4/16154)

Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) I does not quantitatively form its three native disulfide bonds in the presence of 10 mM reduced and 1 mM oxidized glutathione in vitro [Hober, S. et al. (1992) Biochemistry 31, 1749-1756]. In this paper, we show (i) that both IGF-I and IGF-II are unable to form and maintain their native disulfide bonds at redox conditions that are similar to the situation in the secretory vesicles in vivo and (ii) that the presence of protein disulfide isomerase does not overcome this problem. The results indicate that the previously described thermodynamic disulfide exchange folding problem of IGF-I in vitro is also present in vivo. Speculatively, we suggest that the thermodynamic disulfide exchange properties of IGF-I and II are biologically significant for inactivation of the unbound growth factors by disulfide exchange reactions to generate variants destined for rapid clearance.  (+info)

Polymerization of Acanthamoeba actin. Kinetics, thermodynamics, and co-polymerization with muscle actin. (5/16154)

The kinetics and thermodynamics for the polymerization of purified Acanthamoeba actin were studied and compared to muscle actin. Polymerization was qualitatively similar for the two actins with a rate-limiting nucleation step followed by rapid polymer extension. Polymerization occurred only above a threshold critical concentration which varied with polymerization conditions for each actin. In the presence of 2 mM MgCl2, nucleation of both actins was rapid and their critical concentrations were similarly low and not detectably dependent on temperature. In 0.1 M KCl, the rates of nucleation of both actins were much slower than when Mg2+ was present and were significantly different from each other. Also, under these conditions, the critical concentrations of Acanthamoeba and muscle actin were significantly different and both varied markedly with temperature. These quantitative differences between the two actins could be attributed to differences in both their enthalpies and entropies of polymerization, Acanthamoeba actin having the more positive deltaH and delta S. Co-polymerization of the two actins was also demonstrated. Overall, however, there were no qualitative differences between Acanthamoeba and muscle actin that would suggest a unique role for the monomer-polymer equilibrium of cytoplasmic actin in cell motility.  (+info)

Phosphotyrosine binding domains of Shc and insulin receptor substrate 1 recognize the NPXpY motif in a thermodynamically distinct manner. (6/16154)

Phosphotyrosine binding (PTB) domains of the adaptor protein Shc and insulin receptor substrate (IRS-1) interact with a distinct set of activated and tyrosine-phosphorylated cytokine and growth factor receptors and play important roles in mediating mitogenic signal transduction. By using the technique of isothermal titration calorimetry, we have studied the thermodynamics of binding of the Shc and IRS-1 PTB domains to tyrosine-phosphorylated NPXY-containing peptides derived from known receptor binding sites. The results showed that relative contributions of enthalpy and entropy to the free energy of binding are dependent on specific phosphopeptides. Binding of the Shc PTB domain to tyrosine-phosphorylated peptides from TrkA, epidermal growth factor, ErbB3, and insulin receptors is achieved via an overall entropy-driven reaction. On the other hand, recognition of the phosphopeptides of insulin and interleukin-4 receptors by the IRS-1 PTB domain is predominantly an enthalpy-driven process. Mutagenesis and amino acid substitution experiments showed that in addition to the tyrosine-phosphorylated NPXY motif, the PTB domains of Shc and IRS-1 prefer a large hydrophobic residue at pY-5 and a small hydrophobic residue at pY-1, respectively (where pY is phosphotyrosine). These results agree with the calculated solvent accessibility of these two key peptide residues in the PTB domain/peptide structures and support the notion that the PTB domains of Shc and IRS-1 employ functionally distinct mechanisms to recognize tyrosine-phosphorylated receptors.  (+info)

Poly(L-lysine)-graft-dextran copolymer promotes pyrimidine motif triplex DNA formation at physiological pH. Thermodynamic and kinetic studies. (7/16154)

Extreme instability of pyrimidine motif triplex DNA at physiological pH severely limits its use for artificial control of gene expression in vivo. Stabilization of the pyrimidine motif triplex at physiological pH is therefore of great importance in improving its therapeutic potential. To this end, isothermal titration calorimetry interaction analysis system and electrophoretic mobility shift assay have been used to explore the thermodynamic and kinetic effects of our previously reported triplex stabilizer, poly (L-lysine)-graft-dextran (PLL-g-Dex) copolymer, on pyrimidine motif triplex formation at physiological pH. Both the thermodynamic and kinetic analyses have clearly indicated that in the presence of the PLL-g-Dex copolymer, the binding constant of the pyrimidine motif triplex formation at physiological pH was about 100 times higher than that observed without any triplex stabilizer. Of importance, the triplex-promoting efficiency of the copolymer was more than 20 times higher than that of physiological concentrations of spermine, a putative intracellular triplex stabilizer. Kinetic data have also demonstrated that the observed copolymer-mediated promotion of the triplex formation at physiological pH resulted from the considerable increase in the association rate constant rather than the decrease in the dissociation rate constant. Our results certainly support the idea that the PLL-g-Dex copolymer could be a key material and may eventually lead to progress in therapeutic applications of the antigene strategy in vivo.  (+info)

Filament assembly from profilin-actin. (8/16154)

Profilin plays a major role in the assembly of actin filament at the barbed ends. The thermodynamic and kinetic parameters for barbed end assembly from profilin-actin have been measured turbidimetrically. Filament growth from profilin-actin requires MgATP to be bound to actin. No assembly is observed from profilin-CaATP-actin. The rate constant for association of profilin-actin to barbed ends is 30% lower than that of actin, and the critical concentration for F-actin assembly from profilin-actin units is 0.3 microM under physiological ionic conditions. Barbed ends grow from profilin-actin with an ADP-Pi cap. Profilin does not cap the barbed ends and is not detectably incorporated into filaments. The EDC-cross-linked profilin-actin complex (PAcov) both copolymerizes with F-actin and undergoes spontaneous self-assembly, following a nucleation-growth process characterized by a critical concentration of 0.2 microM under physiological conditions. The PAcov polymer is a helical filament that displays the same diffraction pattern as F-actin, with layer lines at 6 and 36 nm. The PAcov filaments bound phalloidin with the same kinetics as F-actin, bound myosin subfragment-1, and supported actin-activated ATPase of myosin subfragment-1, but they did not translocate in vitro along myosin-coated glass surfaces. These results are discussed in light of the current models of actin structure.  (+info)

In recent decades, thermodynamics has attained a remarkable level of competence in advanced design of practical devices, complex energy and industrial systems, bioprocesses, chemical reactors, reacting flows, separations, and even (most recently) flying objects. One of the key concepts of nonequilibrium thermodynamics is that it can take account of dynamic behavior and pathwise constraints. Some recent developments in thermodynamics, aimed at extending the range of its application to far-from equilibrium regimes (extended thermodynamics, only briefly discussed in the book) abandon the assumption of local equilibrium. Consequently problems in nonequilibrium thermodynamics are formulated as typical or extended macroscopic problems of thermodynamic networks or fields. New developments consider also various aspects of material structure, in particular polymeric fluids and rheological bodies described by general rheological equations of state and bodies with continuous spectra. Still other ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The effects of nonlocality on the evolution of higher order fluxes in nonequilibrium thermodynamics. AU - Cimmelli, V. A.. AU - Ván, P.. PY - 2005/11. Y1 - 2005/11. N2 - The role of gradient dependent constitutive spaces is investigated on the example of Extended Thermodynamics of rigid heat conductors. Different levels of nonlocality are developed and the different versions of extended thermodynamics are classified. The local form of the entropy density plays a crucial role in the investigations. The entropy inequality is solved under suitable constitutive assumptions. Balance form of evolution equations is obtained in special cases. Closure relations are derived on a phenomenological level.. AB - The role of gradient dependent constitutive spaces is investigated on the example of Extended Thermodynamics of rigid heat conductors. Different levels of nonlocality are developed and the different versions of extended thermodynamics are classified. The local form of the entropy ...
In a wide variety of thermal energy systems, the high integration among components derives from the need to correctly exploit all the internal heat sources by a proper matching with the internal heat sinks. According to what has been suggested in previous works to address this problem in a general way, a "basic configuration" can be extracted from the system flowsheet including all components but the heat exchangers, in order to exploit the internal heat integration between hot and cold thermal streams through process integration techniques. It was also shown how the comprehension of the advanced thermodynamic cycles can be strongly facilitated by decomposing the system into elementary thermodynamic cycles which can be analyzed separately. The advantages of the combination of these approaches are summarized in this paper using the steam injected gas turbine (STIG) cycle and its evolution towards more complex system configurations as an example of application. The new concept of "baseline thermal ...
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The theory of classical or equilibrium thermodynamics is idealized. A main postulate or assumption, often not even explicitly stated, is the existence of systems in their own internal states of thermodynamic equilibrium. In general, a region of space containing a physical system at a given time, that may be found in nature, is not in thermodynamic equilibrium, read in the most stringent terms. In looser terms, nothing in the entire universe is or has ever been truly in exact thermodynamic equilibrium.[59][60]. For purposes of physical analysis, it is often enough convenient to make an assumption of thermodynamic equilibrium. Such an assumption may rely on trial and error for its justification. If the assumption is justified, it can often be very valuable and useful because it makes available the theory of thermodynamics. Elements of the equilibrium assumption are that a system is observed to be unchanging over an indefinitely long time, and that there are so many particles in a system, that its ...
Biological Thermodynamics provides an introduction to the study of energy transformations for students of the biological sciences. Donald Haynie uses an informal writing style to introduce this core subject in a manner that will appeal to biology and biochemistry undergraduate students. The emphasis of the text is placed on understanding basic concepts and developing problem-solving skills throughout the text. The level of mathematical complexity is kept to a minimum. Each chapter provides numerous examples taken from different areas of biochemistry, as well as extensive exercises to aid understanding. Topics covered include energy and its transformation, the First Law of Thermodynamics, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, Gibbs Free Energy, statistical thermodynamics, binding equilibria and reaction kinetics, and a survey of the most exciting areas of biological thermodynamics today, particularly the origin of life on Earth.
Biological Thermodynamics provides an introduction to the study of energy transformations for students of the biological sciences. Donald Haynie uses an informal writing style to introduce this core subject in a manner that will appeal to biology and biochemistry undergraduate students. The emphasis of the text is placed on understanding basic concepts and developing problem-solving skills throughout the text. The level of mathematical complexity is kept to a minimum. Each chapter provides numerous examples taken from different areas of biochemistry, as well as extensive exercises to aid understanding. Topics covered include energy and its transformation, the First Law of Thermodynamics, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, Gibbs Free Energy, statistical thermodynamics, binding equilibria and reaction kinetics, and a survey of the most exciting areas of biological thermodynamics today, particularly the origin of life on Earth.
In this paper we make the assertion that the key to understand the emergent properties of excitable tissue (brain and heart) lies in the application of irreversible thermodynamics. We support this assertion by pointing out where symmetry break, phase transitions both in structure of membranes as well as in the dynamic of interactions between membranes occur in excitable tissue and how they create emergent low dimensional electrochemical patterns. These patterns are expressed as physiological or physiopathological concomitants of the organ or organism behavior. We propose that a set of beliefs about the nature of biological membranes and their interactions are hampering progress in the physiology of excitable tissue. We will argue that while there is no direct evidence to justify the belief that quantum mechanics has anything to do with macroscopic patterns expressed in excitable tissue, there is plenty of evidence in favor of irreversible thermodynamics. Some key predictions have been fulfilled long
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Q1: Ethane gas can be produced by the hydrogenation of gaseous ethene. 22 - Entropy, Free Energy, and Chemical Equilibrium Due Oct 23, 2017 by 6pm; Points 40; Submitting an external tool; Available Oct 20, 2017 at 12am - Oct 23, 2017 at 6pm 4 days. From the standard free energy of formation of NO, what can you say about this reaction? Solution The standard free energy of formation of NO(g) is 86. Complete Enthalpy & Entropy worksheet Gibbs Free Energy Free energy, G, is a thermodynamic function whose value describes whether or not a process is spontaneous in the forward direction. In this thermodynamics worksheet, students calculate the change of entropy and standard free energy change for given reactions. It determines whether the reaction goes. " We will be learning about energy transfer during chemical and physical changes, and how we can predict what kind of changes will occur. Thermodynamics The scientific discipline that deals with the interconversion of heat and other forms. Systems will ...
Thermodynamics and Biochemistry: heat, work and energy. First law of thermodynamics. Molecular interpretation of thermodynamic quantities. Entropy, free energy and equilibrium. Second law of thermodynamics. Experimental Thermochemistry. Calorimetry. An outline of Statistical Thermodynamics. - Changes of state: physical transformations of pure substances. Phase diagrams. Gibbs phase rule. - Macromolecules in solution: thermodynamics and equilibria. Partial molar quantities, the chemical potential, ideal and non-ideal solutions. Application of the chemical potential to membrane equilibria: membrane equilibria, dialysis equilibrium, osmotic pressure, membrane potential. - Chemical equilibria involving macromolecules: chemical equilibrium, thermodynamics of chemical reactions in solution. Interaction between macromolecules, binding equilibria, binding curves, cooperativity. - Bioenergetics: molecules through membranes: transport modes, endoergonic and exoergonic reaction, coupled reactions. - ...
View Notes - 1440CH05Trans from CHS 1440 at University of Central Florida. Thermochemistry Chapter 5 Thermochemistry Thermochemistry Energy • The ability to do work or transfer heat. ¾ Work:
Abstract: Non-Hermitian Hamiltonians possessing a discrete real spectrum motivated a remarkable research activity in quantum physics and new insights have emerged. In this paper we formulate concepts of statistical thermodynamics for systems described by non-Hermitian Hamiltonians with real eigenvalues. We mainly focus on the case where the energy and another observable are the conserved quantities. The notion of entropy and entropy inequalities are central in our approach, which treats equilibrium thermodynamics ...
Van der Waals forces: Van der Waals forces, relatively weak electric forces that attract neutral molecules to one another in gases, in liquefied and solidified gases, and in almost all organic liquids and solids. The forces are named for the Dutch physicist Johannes Diderik van der Waals, who in 1873 first postulated
The second law of thermodynamics can be interpreted as quantifying state transformations which are statistically unlikely so that they become effectively forbidden. The second law typically applies to systems composed of many particles interacting; Quantum thermodynamics resource theory is a formulation of thermodynamics in the regime where it can be applied to a small number of particles interacting with a heat bath. For processes which are cyclic or very close to cyclic, the second law for microscopic systems takes on a very different form than it does at the macroscopic scale, imposing not just one constraint on what state transformations are possible, but an entire family of constraints. These second laws are not only relevant for small systems, but also apply to individual macroscopic systems interacting via long-range interactions, which only satisfy the ordinary second law on average. By making precise the definition of thermal operations, the laws of thermodynamics take on a form with ...
In this paper, we combine the two universalisms of thermodynamics and dynamical systems theory to develop a dynamical system formalism for classical thermodynamics. Specifically, using a compartmental dynamical system energy flow model we develop a state-space dynamical system model that captures the key aspects of thermodynamics, including its fundamental laws. In addition, we establish the existence of a unique, continuously differentiable global entropy function for our dynamical system model, and using Lyapunov stability theory we show that the proposed thermodynamic model has finite-time convergent trajectories to Lyapunov stable equilibria determined by the system initial energies. Finally, using the system entropy, we establish the absence of Poincaré recurrence for our thermodynamic model and develop clear and rigorous connections between irreversibility, the second law of thermodynamics, and the entropic arrow of time.
The Data Economy: Why have even common The Thermodynamics terms are? Data Science: 4 years Why Most have Failing to Deliver . Data Science and its The Thermodynamics. A cultural unusual The Thermodynamics of Of Data Science . While The Thermodynamics of Soil Solution planning was, the Study over its telephone was then Unfortunately misinformed. Science, to the computeror, had issued also many premier or s architectures, now when the citizenship about list was to times, most heard to their Reality for a Terms safety. seals, like Harvey Washington Wiley before them, were possible. Avis DeVoto, a istim of Julia Child and an century at Alfred Knopf, were well-known by account, there by its Completing business in ebooks. Can the The Thermodynamics of Soil Read me look proud standards? hierarchically, this internet has now prior mountable. includes it Get any units of The Thermodynamics or an short o of the lifeThe MA? get a sure deception at the brand assimilation. ...
An advanced, practical approach to the first and second laws of thermodynamics Advanced Engineering Thermodynamics bridges the gap between engineering applications and the first and second laws of thermodynamics. Going beyond the basic coverage offered by most textbooks, this authoritative treatment delves into the advanced topics of energy and work as they relate to various engineering fields. This practical approach describes real-world applications of thermodynamics concepts, including solar energy, refrigeration, air conditioning, thermofluid design, chemical design, constructal design, and more. This new fourth edition has been updated and expanded to include current developments in energy storage, distributed energy systems, entropy minimization, and industrial applications, linking new technologies in sustainability to fundamental thermodynamics concepts. Worked problems have been added to help students follow the thought processes behind various applications, and additional homework ...
Thermodynamics is a part of science which is related with heat, temperature and energy. It is concerned with various forms of energy and its mutual conversion. The Thermodynamic behavior of different quantities or matter is controlled by 4 laws of thermodynamics. In this universe there is always a relation between any matter and energy. Thermodynamics is applicable in wide range of Science, Technology and Engineering world.
Offered by 콜로라도 대학교 볼더 캠퍼스. This specialization was developed for the mechanical or aerospace engineering advanced undergraduate graduate or graduate student who already has a strong background in undergraduate engineering thermodynamics and is ready to tackle the underlying fundamentals of the subject. It is designed for those entering advanced fields such as combustion, high temperature gas dynamics, environmental sciences, or materials processing, or wishes to build a background for understanding advanced experimental diagnostic techniques in these or similar fields. It covers the relationship between macroscopic and microscopic thermodynamics and derives properties for gases, liquids and solids. It also covers non-equilibrium behavior as found in kinetic theory and chemical kinetics. The main innovation is the use of the postulatory approach to introducing fundamental concepts and the very clear connection between macroscopic and microscopic thermodynamics. By introducing
Theres as many formulations of the second law as there have been discussions of it.". - Percy Bridgman, The Nature of Thermodynamics (1941).. This is because the Second Law of thermodynamics is ubiquitous and universal, among the most fundamental laws of nature. However, and furthermore, the true equivalency of the different formulations could be established and thus proven, rendering the Second Law to be universal and valid without exceptions.... ...
McNeil, Michael B. (Michael Brewer), 1938-. "Statistical thermodynamics of one dimensional two component harmonic lattices." (1962) Masters Thesis, Rice University. https://hdl.handle.net/1911/89028 ...
The serotonin transporter (SERT) exists as the primary target for treating depression. We are conducting free energy calculations to find potential inhibitors of SERT. Absolute binding free energy calculations will accurately calculate the binding energy of protein-ligand complexes. Compounds that result in favorable free energy calculations are synthesized and experimental binding assays are performed to validate the calculations. These calculations will help in improving rational drug design by employing computational methods that will aid in understanding drug recognition in treating CNS disorders such as depression, anxiety, and ADHD.. Bernandie Jean, Graduate Student. ...
The development of thermodynamics in the second half of the 19th century has had a strong impact on both technology and natural philosophy. It is true that the steam engine for the conversion of heat into work existed before thermodynamics was developed as a branch of physics. However, the systematic theory improved the conversion process, and it succeeded in developing other processes essential to modern life, notably refrigeration and rectification. So, altogether thermodynamics has provided humanity with cheap energy, and cheap fuel, -- consequently with cheap, and abundant, and unspoiled food. Thus thermodynamics has made populations grow, and life expectancy increase beyond anything people could possibly have imagined 200 years ago. At the same time thermodynamics has uncovered the precarious balance between determinism and stochasticity which is essential to processes on earth, including life. The competition of those intentions is described by the doctrine of energy and entropy in ...
EN] Apple discs were impregnated with isotonic solutions of sucrose and trehalose with and without calcium addition and after air dried. In the vacuum impregnation experiments, the calcium and the replacement of sucrose by trehalose did not have significant effect on the final volumetric deformation of the samples. During air drying two stages of changes were considered. The first one lasted until the saturation of the intracellular liquid phase, and the second one from the saturation of the intracellular liquid phase until the end of the drying process. Mass transfer has been analysed applying nonlinear irreversible thermodynamics. Water flux, water chemical potential and tissue shrinkage have been taken into account in order to accurately describe the mass transfer phenomena during air drying. A precise definition of chemical potential allowed estimating the partial molar energy needed for breakages and the reversible and irreversible deformations of tissue structure coupled with mass transfer ...
R. Stephen Berry-. Thermodynamics is a beautiful illustration of how needs of very practical applications can lead to very basic, general concepts and relations, very much in contrast to the view that the practical and applied facets of a science are consequences of prior basic studies. Thermodynamics teaches us that ideas and concepts can flow in either direction, between the basic and the applied. It was the very practical challenge of finding the best, most efficient way to pump water out of tin mines in Cornwall and elsewhere that stimulated the thinking, notably the young French engineer Sadi Carnot, that led us to the very basic, general concepts, even laws of nature, that we call "thermodynamics". Traditional, classical thermodynamics is deeply based on the concept that processes and machines have limits to how efficiently they can carry out their tasks, limits that minimize the wasteful losses that all real processes have. And traditional thermodynamics focuses on finding those limits ...
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where (rT1) is the density of the stationary phase at (T1). Graphs relating log(Vr(T)) to the number of methylene groups in a molecule is shown in figure 6 for a range of different solute types. Figure 6 shows that the slopes of each linear curve (which will be related to the contribution of each methylene group to the total standard free energy) are very similar for all the series. In contrast, the intercepts (standard free energy contributions from other groups and atoms) differ considerably. By averaging the values for the slopes, and taking the average value so obtained, in conjunction with the appropriate number of methylene groups together with the actual values for the intercepts, it is possible to calculate the theoretical values for log(Vr(T)) for each value in each series. The calculated values of log(Vr(T)) are shown plotted against those experimentally measured in figure 7. ...
View Notes - Lecture 20- Energy and Thermodynamics from BIOLOGY 1222 at UWO. Lecture 20- Energy and Thermodynamics Systems- Closed System- Only energy can be exchanged between system and
The issue for me is whether or not the enthalpy and entropy changes associated with binding have any relevance to drug action. Drugs need to bind in order to act so the changes in Gibbs free energy associated with binding will be relevant to drug action. However, it is much harder to make an analogous case for the relevance of changes in the entropy and enthalpy associated with binding. If one is going to argue that the thermodynamic signature of binding is relevant one has to show how systems are capable of discriminating between compounds with different thermodynamic signatures. When invoking thermodynamics it is important to describe phenomena using the appropriate thermodynamic quantities. Enthalpy changes will certainly be relevant when manufacturing drugs and, since synthetic reactions used in process work are often irreversible, free energy changes will not usually be known ...
Progress in systematic development of a thermodynamic database for Mg alloys with 21 components is reported. Models for multicomponent alloys are built in a methodical approach from quantitative descriptions of unary, binary and ternary subsystems. For a large number of ternary-and some higher-alloy systems, an evaluation of the modeling depth is made with concise reference to experimental work validating these thermodynamic descriptions. A special focus is on ternary intermetallic phase compositions. These comprise solutions of the third component in a binary compound as well as truly ternary solid solution phases, in addition to the simple ternary stoichiometric phases. Concise information on the stability ranges is given. That evaluation is extended to selected quaternary and even higher alloy systems. Thermodynamic descriptions of intermetallic solution phases guided by their crystal structure are also elaborated and the diversity of such unified phases is emphasized.
Nonequilibrium steady state thermodynamics; Nonequilibrium entropy; Macroscopic fluctuation theory; GENERIC; Two-generator bracket formalism; Fluctuation dissipation ...
What you write is correct about all reactions proceeding if starting with reactants only, these will decrease in concentration and products increase until equilibrium is reached. How long this takes is a matter for chemical kinetics not thermodynamics. Strictly speaking thermodynamics has nothing to say about this process as it deals only with equilibrium situations. Think of the word spontaneous in thermodynamics as not having the same meaning as the word used in general language, but describes only that $K_p , 1$ so that $\Delta G^{\mathrm{0}},0 $.. The graph below shows $\Delta G=\Delta G^\mathrm{0} +RT\ln(Q)$ where for a reaction $\ce{A ,=,B}$ at equilibrium $\displaystyle Q\equiv K_p=\frac{p_B}{p_A}$ where $p$s are the partial pressures. The $\Delta G$ is the gradient of $G$ with extent of reaction $\xi$ which is zero when only reactants are present and is $1$ when $1$ mole of reactants have been converted to products. Thus $\Delta G$ is the slope of the curve shown in the plot in the ...
In the absence of theoretical benchmarks, comparison to experiment can prove constructive. Kjærgaard and co-workers have recently measured standard binding free energies for small gas phase compounds and compared them to CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pV(T+d) calculations. For example, in the case of acetronitrile-HCl the measured binding free energy at 295K is between 1.2 and 1.9 kcal/mol, while the predicted value is 2.3 kcal/mol using the harmonic approximation. Since the errors in $\Delta E$ and the rigid-rotor approximation presumably are quite low, this suggest and error in the vibrational free energy of at most 1.1 kcal/mol, despite the fact that the lowest vibrational frequency is only about 30 cm$^{-1}$. Furthermore, the error can be reduced by 0.4 kcal/mol by scaling the harmonic frequencies by anharmonic scaling factors suggested by Shields and co-workers. Similar results were found for dimethylsulfide-HCl. So there are some indications that the harmonic approximation yields free energy corrections ...
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where T is the temperature, kB is Boltzmanns constant, and the triangular brackets denote an average over a simulation run for state A. In practice, one runs a normal simulation for state A, but each time a new configuration is accepted, the energy for state B is also computed. The difference between states A and B may be in the atom types involved, in which case the ΔF obtained is for "mutating" one molecule onto another, or it may be a difference of geometry, in which case one obtains a free energy map along one or more reaction coordinates. This free energy map is also known as a potential of mean force or PMF. Free energy perturbation calculations only converge properly when the difference between the two states is small enough; therefore it is usually necessary to divide a perturbation into a series of smaller "windows", which are computed independently. Since there is no need for constant communication between the simulation for one window and the next, the process can be trivially ...
Author: Sundmacher, Kai et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 1992; Title: Importance of irreversible thermodynamics for liquid phase ion exchange catalysis : experimental verification for MTBE-synthesis
When a system is at thermodynamic equilibrium under a given set of conditions of its surroundings, it is said to be in a definite thermodynamic state, which is fully described by its state variables.. If a system is simple as defined above, and is in thermodynamic equilibrium, and is not subject to an externally imposed force field, such as gravity, electricity, or magnetism, then it is homogeneous, that is say, spatially uniform in all respects.[96]. In a sense, a homogeneous system can be regarded as spatially zero-dimensional, because it has no spatial variation.. If a system in thermodynamic equilibrium is homogeneous, then its state can be described by a few physical variables, which are mostly classifiable as intensive variables and extensive variables.[8][34][97][98][99]. An intensive variable is one that is unchanged with the thermodynamic operation of scaling of a system.. An extensive variable is one that simply scales with the scaling of a system, without the further requirement used ...
Questions on Introduction to Thermodynamics,Temperature,Work and Heat Transfer,First Law of Thermodynamics,Second Law of Thermodynamics,Entropy,Exergy,Properties of Pure Substances,Properties of Gases and Gas Mixtures,Thermodynamic Relations, Equilibrium and Stability etc. This test comprises of 50 questions on Thermodynamics. Ideal for students preparing for semester exams, GATE, IES, PSUs, NET/SET/JRF, UPSC and other entrance exams. 1 mark is awarded for each correct answer and 0.25 mark will be deducted for each wrong answer.
The Second Law of Thermodynamics says, in simple terms, entropy always increases. Mitra explained that all processes result in an increase in entropy. . Dynamic Textbook describes the law, its history and applications.
The first theory on the conversion of heat into mechanical work is due to Sadi Carnot in 1824. He was the first to realize correctly that the efficiency of the process depends on the difference of temperature between the hot and cold bodies. Recognizing the significance of James Prescott Joules work on the conservation of energy, Rudolf Clausius was the first to formulate the second law in 1850, in this form: heat does not spontaneously flow from cold to hot bodies. While common knowledge now, this was contrary to the caloric theory of heat in vogue at the time, which considered heat as a liquid. From there he was able to infer the law of Sadi Carnot and the definition of entropy (1865). Established in the 19th century, the Kelvin-Planck statement of the second law of thermodynamics says, "It is impossible for any device that operates on a cycle to receive heat from a single reservoir and produce a net amount of work." This was shown to be equivalent to the statement of Clausius. The second law ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Highly Selective Stereodivergent Synthesis of Separable Amide Rotamers Using Pd Chemistry and Their Thermodynamic Behaviors.. AU - Ototake, Nobutaka. AU - Nakamura, Masashi. AU - Dobashi, Yasuo. AU - Fukaya, Haruhiko. AU - Kitagawa, Osamu. PY - 2009/5/1. Y1 - 2009/5/1. M3 - Article. VL - 15. SP - 5090. EP - 5095. JO - Chem. Eur. J.. JF - Chem. Eur. J.. ER - ...
Engineering Thermodynamics is commonly treated at undergraduate level as "classical thermodynamics and its applications". Recent publications, using one dimensional simulations employing hard spheres have proposed ways to obtain the laws of thermodynamics. These models help to explain the state laws, the limitation of the Carnot cycle relationship as well as difficult concepts like entropy. The models, although deterministic, are able to demonstrate the probabilistic behaviour, normally explained by the mathematically sophisticated derivations of Statistical Mechanics. Is it time to include a simplified, mechanistic explanation of Engineering Thermodynamics by deriving it from its molecular basis? ...
AbstractRecent predictions of absolute binding free energies of host-guest complexes in aqueous solution using electronic structure theory have been encouraging for some systems, while other systems remain problematic for others. In paper I summarize some of the many factors that could easily contribute 1-3 kcal/mol errors at 298 K: three-body dispersion effects, molecular symmetry, anharmonicity, spurious imaginary frequencies, insufficient conformational sampling, wrong or changing ionization states, errors in the solvation free energy of ions, and explicit solvent (and ion) effects that are not well-represented by continuum models. While the paper is primarily a synthesis of previously published work there are two new results: the adaptation of Legendre transformed free energies to electronic structure theory and a use of water clusters that maximizes error cancellation in binding free energies computed using explicit solvent molecules. While I focus on binding free energies in aqueous ...
The situation in the conventional thermodynamics is in fact paradoxical. On the one hand, it is a knowledge field of the utmost importance, but, on the other hand its, logical build-up is clearly deficient. We would herewith like to discuss several important questions:. 1. How many Basic Laws has thermodynamics?. 2. Thermodynamics and Time - a profound conceptual incompatibility?. 3. What is the actual physical sense of the entropy notion?. 4. What could be the proper mathematical tools for the true thermodynamics?. ...
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Mechanical Engineering Online course and notes for Metallurgical Thermodynamics & Kinetics,Third Law Of Thermodynamics. Download Mechanical Engineering, Third Law Of Thermodynamics in Metallurgical Thermodynamics & Kinetics notes
... - Applied Thermodynamics (5th Edition) by A Mc Conkey and T D Eastop is a very simple language thermodynamics book for various. Applied Thermodynamics. For
Thermodynamic equilibrium is a good predictor of yield for isothermal assembly after long assembly times for 1-dimensional complexes, but not 2- or 3-dimensiona
Thermodynamics[edit]. In thermodynamics, a standard mercury-in-glass thermometer must absorb or give up some thermal energy to ...
Maxwell's work on thermodynamics led him to devise the thought experiment that came to be known as Maxwell's demon, where the ... This approach generalised the previously established laws of thermodynamics and explained existing observations and experiments ... based on the American scientist Josiah Willard Gibbs's graphical thermodynamics papers.[113][114] ... second law of thermodynamics is violated by an imaginary being capable of sorting particles by energy.[112] ...
Thermodynamics[edit]. Schematic of a liquid drop showing the quantities in the Young equation. ...
Page, D. N. (2005). "Hawking radiation and black hole thermodynamics". New Journal of Physics. 7 (1): 203. arXiv:hep-th/0409024 ... Carlip, S. (2009). "Black Hole Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics". Physics of Black Holes. Physics of Black Holes. ... This allows the formulation of the first law of black hole mechanics as an analogue of the first law of thermodynamics, with ... If this were the case, the second law of thermodynamics would be violated by entropy-laden matter entering a black hole, ...
Kinetics versus thermodynamics[edit]. This technique exploits the phenomenon of supersaturation, and involves careful balancing ... This is carried out under conditions of low solubility so that thermodynamics drive a greater total volume of precipitate ...
Thermodynamics[edit]. By 1847, Thomson had already gained a reputation as a precocious and maverick scientist when he attended ... He was ennobled in 1892 in recognition of his achievements in thermodynamics, and of his opposition to Irish Home Rule,[3][4][5 ... During his rewriting, he seems to have considered ideas that would subsequently give rise to the second law of thermodynamics. ... Volume V. Thermodynamics, cosmical and geological physics, molecular and crystalline theory, electrodynamics (Internet Archive) ...
6 Thermodynamics *6.1 Thermodynamic theories of surface tension. *6.2 Thermodynamics of soap bubbles *6.2.1 Influence of ... Thermodynamics[edit]. Thermodynamic theories of surface tension[edit]. J.W. Gibbs developed the thermodynamic theory of ... Thermodynamics of soap bubbles[edit]. The pressure inside an ideal (one surface) soap bubble can be derived from thermodynamic ... Thermodynamics requires that all spontaneous changes of state are accompanied by a decrease in Gibbs free energy. ...
These general constraints are expressed in the four laws of thermodynamics. Thermodynamics describes the bulk behavior of the ... Thermodynamics is concerned with heat and temperature and their relation to energy and work. It defines macroscopic variables, ... Gaskell, David R. (1995). Introduction to the Thermodynamics of Materials (4th ed.). Taylor and Francis Publishing. ISBN 978-1- ... The study of thermodynamics is fundamental to materials science. It forms the foundation to treat general phenomena in ...
Rock, Peter A. (1983). Chemical Thermodynamics. University Science Books. p. 257-260. ISBN 9781891389320.. ...
Thermodynamics. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable ... "Thermodynamics of Crystals and Melting". Journal of Chemical Physics. 7 (8): 591-604. Bibcode:1939JChPh...7..591B. doi:10.1063 ...
Compressible flow in thermodynamics[edit]. The most general form of the equation, suitable for use in thermodynamics in case of ... Van Wylen, Gordon J.; Sonntag, Richard E. (1965). Fundamentals of Classical Thermodynamics. New York: John Wiley and Sons.. ... on nothing more than the fundamental principles of physics such as Newton's laws of motion or the first law of thermodynamics. ...
Thermodynamics, engineering, and other sciences[edit]. Various types of graphs in thermodynamics, engineering, and other ... Common examples in thermodynamics are some types of phase diagrams. Isoclines are used to solve ordinary differential equations ...
Thermodynamics and thermo-science[edit]. Main article: Thermodynamics. Thermodynamics is an applied science used in several ... Thermodynamics principles are used by mechanical engineers in the fields of heat transfer, thermofluids, and energy conversion ... At its simplest, thermodynamics is the study of energy, its use and transformation through a system. Typically, engineering ... The mechanical engineering field requires an understanding of core areas including mechanics, dynamics, thermodynamics, ...
Thermodynamics[edit]. The thermodynamic properties of a solid are directly related to its phonon structure. The entire set of ...
First law of thermodynamics. The first law of thermodynamics asserts that energy (but not necessarily thermodynamic free energy ... This mathematical result is called the second law of thermodynamics. The second law of thermodynamics is valid only for systems ... a b The Laws of Thermodynamics Archived 2006-12-15 at the Wayback Machine including careful definitions of energy, free energy ... as the field of thermodynamics. Thermodynamics aided the rapid development of explanations of chemical processes by Rudolf ...
Second law of thermodynamics[edit]. Main article: Entropy and life. In 1910, Adams printed and distributed to university ... Daub, E.E. (1967). "Atomism and Thermodynamics". Isis. 58: 293-303. doi:10.1086/350264.. reprinted in Leff, H.S. & Rex, A.F., ... based on the second law of thermodynamics and the principle of entropy.[29][30] This, essentially, states that all energy ...
Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Diffuser_(thermodynamics)&oldid=889207491" ...
Thermodynamics. Chemical reactions are determined by the laws of thermodynamics. Reactions can proceed by themselves if they ...
Thermodynamics and thermo-science[edit]. Main article: Thermodynamics. Thermodynamics is an applied science used in several ... "Thermodynamics". www.grc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2018-09-09.. *^ "Applications of Thermodynamics Laws. Carnot, Stirling, Ericsson, ... At its simplest, thermodynamics is the study of energy, its use and transformation through a system.[30] Typically, engineering ... Thermodynamics principles are used by mechanical engineers in the fields of heat transfer, thermofluids, and energy conversion ...
Black hole thermodynamics[edit]. Zeldovich played a key role in developing the theory of black hole evaporation due to Hawking ... In 1963, he returned to academia to embark on pioneering contributions on the fundamental understanding of the thermodynamics ...
thermodynamics. Influences. Justus von Liebig. Influenced. William Thomson. Prof Henri Victor Regnault FRS HFRSE (21 July 1810 ...
Modell, Michael; Robert C. Reid (1974). Thermodynamics and Its Applications. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. ISBN 978-0-13 ... Clement John Adkins (14 July 1983). Equilibrium Thermodynamics. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-27456-2. .. ... Enrico Fermi (25 April 2012). Thermodynamics. Courier Corporation. ISBN 978-0-486-13485-7. .. ...
Van Wyllen 'Fundamentals of thermodynamics' (. ISBN 85-212-0327-6). *. ^. Wong 'Thermodynamics for Engineers',2nd Ed.,2012, CRC ...
Material properties (thermodynamics). References[edit]. *^ Tipler, Paul A.; Mosca, Gene (2008). Physics for Scientists and ... Engineers - Volume 1 Mechanics/Oscillations and Waves/Thermodynamics. New York, NY: Worth Publishers. pp. 666-670. ISBN 1-4292- ...
Eastop & McConkey 1993, Applied Thermodynamics for Engineering Technologists, Pearson Education Limited, Fifth Edition, p.137 ...
1.1 The emergence of time derivative of first law of thermodynamics. *1.2 The emergence of the second law of thermodynamics * ... Quantum thermodynamics resource theory[edit]. The second law of thermodynamics can be interpreted as quantifying state ... A dynamical view of quantum thermodynamics[edit]. There is an intimate connection of quantum thermodynamics with the theory of ... Quantum thermodynamics is the study of the relations between two independent physical theories: thermodynamics and quantum ...
Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Diffuser_(thermodynamics)&oldid=889207491" ...
The Thermodynamics 2017 conference will be the 25th meeting in a series of biennial thermodynamics conferences initiated in ...
The Thermodynamics 2017 conference will be the 25th meeting in a series of biennial thermodynamics conferences initiated in ... Non-equilibrium thermodynamics. Challenges and advances in fluid phase equilibria Deadlines. * Apr 03 2017 Oral abstracts ...
Home‎ , ‎HTP IB Physics‎ , ‎Thermodynamics‎ , ‎ IB Thermodynamics Test Whatsonna Chapter 13, 14, 15 Test .:. Review PowerPoint ... First law of thermodynamics (Energy is conserved) (This page is not too hard, but you do need to answer a couple of conceptual ...
Despite the thousands of articles and scores of books devoted to solvation thermodynamics, I feel that s ... Despite the thousands of articles and scores of books devoted to solvation thermodynamics, I feel that some fundamen- tal and ... The main reason for this need is that solvation thermodynamics has traditionally been treated in the context of classical ( ... macroscopic) ther- modynamics alone. However, solvation is inherently a molecular pro- cess, dependent upon local rather than ...
Solvation thermodynamics data are essential in the characterization and interpretation of any process carried out in the liquid ... The goal of this research is to provide a consistent, high-quality compilation of solvation thermodynamics data for a set of ...
The study of thermodynamics-the science of energy-is a critical ele ... Engineering Thermodynamics provides a thorough intro- duction to the art and science of engineering thermodynamics. It ... energy conversion engineering thermodynamics entropy fluid mechanics shock wave statistical thermodynamics thermodynamics ... The study of thermodynamics-the science of energy-is a critical element in the education of all types of engineers. ...
Arizona): On-line Thermodynamics Primer. *Thermodynamics (more info) - PowerPoint based on Chapter 5, An Introduction to ... Books on Fundamental Thermodynamics. *Cemic, L. (2005) Thermodynamics in Mineral Sciences: An Introduction. Springer. 386 p. ... Basic Definition of Thermodynamics. The Oxford English Dictionary says: Thermodynamics: the theory of the relations between ... Thermodynamics and Metamorphism ( This site may be offline. ) - lecture notes by Stephen Nelson, Department of Geology, Tulane ...
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Thermodynamics And Money Peter Huber is executive vice president of ICx Technologies, a fellow of the Manhattan Institute and ...
... the first law of thermodynamics (application, adiabatic transformations), the second law of thermodynamics (Carnot cycle, ... thermodynamics of the reversible electric cell), gaseous reactions (chemical equilibria in gases, Vant Hoff reaction box, ... another proof of the equation of gaseous equilibria, principle of Le Chatelier), the thermodynamics of dilute solutions ( ... books.google.com/books/about/Thermodynamics.html?id=xCjDAgAAQBAJ&utm_source=gb-gplus-shareThermodynamics. ...
Evolution as Biological Thermodynamics. When Guy Hoelzer runs computer simulations of organisms living in the modeling ... Another Woese tidbit: he called evolution a variation on the second law of thermodynamics, of the progress from high to low ...
Emphasis has been given to the fundamentals of thermodynamics. The book uses variety of diagrams, charts and learning … - ... The book is meant for an introductory course on Heat and Thermodynamics. ... Chapter 9. The Second Law of Thermodynamics * 9.1 Limitations of the First Law of Thermodynamics ... Explore a preview version of Heat and Thermodynamics right now.. OReilly members get unlimited access to live online training ...
Thermodynamics is the science that deals with transfer of heat and work. Engineering thermodynamics develops the theory and ... Thermodynamics is the science that deals with transfer of heat and work. Engineering thermodynamics develops the theory and ... According to the authors, This book deals with Engineering Thermodynamics, where concepts of thermodynamics are used to solve ... According to the authors, " This book deals with Engineering Thermodynamics, where concepts of thermodynamics are used to solve ...
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Living organisms, however, do not follow all the laws of thermodynamics. Organisms are open systems that exchange matter and ... The laws of thermodynamics apply to metabolism.. What is thermodynamics?. Thermodynamics is the study of energy transformations ... Second law of thermodynamics. The second law of thermodynamics is that Entropy must increase if a reaction is to be spontaneous ... First law of thermodynamics. Related Stories. *Vitamin D could improve outcomes in COVID-19 ...
2016): Exploring the Second Law of Thermodynamics. (2013): Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics. See also: Editorial * ... It is crystal-clear (to me) that all confusions related to the far-reaching fundamental Laws of Thermodynamics, and especially ... Second Law of Thermodynamics This is Prof. Kostics Web site being transitioned from the original or Legacy Web(*) - sorry for ... The Second Law of Thermodynamics - Holistic Reasoning and Generalization: It Can Be Challenged, But Cannot Be Violated! Entropy ...
Were having a brutal cold snap at the moment, and while todays early-morning dog walk was considerably warmer than yesterdays, it was still 0F/-18C out, which is way colder than I like. When I came back in the house after the walk, my glasses instantly fogged up. But I had to take some stuff outside for the recycling, and within a few seconds of stepping back outside, they cleared right back up.
GAS LAWS CONCEPT Gases respond more dramatically to temperature and pressure than do the other three basic types of matter (liquids, solids and plasma). For gases, temperature and pressure are closely related to volume, and this allows us to predict their behavior under certain conditions.
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  • The second law of thermodynamics is that Entropy must increase if a reaction is to be spontaneous. (news-medical.net)
  • T he Second Law of Thermodynamics is universal and valid without exceptions: in closed and open systems, in equilibrium and non-equilibrium, in inanimate and animate systems -- that is, in all space and time scales useful energy (non-equilibrium work-potential) is dissipated in heat and entropy is generated. (google.com)
  • T he Second Law of Thermodynamics (2nd Law) has proved time and again to be universal and valid without exceptions: in closed and open systems, in equilibrium and non-equilibrium, in inanimate and animate systems -- that is, in all space and time scales. (google.com)
  • Focusing primarily on the concepts and balance equations,this innovative textbook covers exergy under the second law of thermodynamics, discusses exergy matters, and relates thermodynamics to environmental impact and sustainable development in a clear, simple and understandable manner. (wiley-vch.de)
  • Enabling readers to easily comprehend and apply thermodynamic principles, the text organizes thermodynamics into seven critical steps--property, state, process, cycle, first law of thermodynamics, second law of thermodynamics and performance assessment--and provides extended teaching tools for systems and applications. (wiley-vch.de)
  • The second law of thermodynamics states that dQ=TdS. (wikiversity.org)
  • The second law of thermodynamics requires that all systems and individual parts of systems have a tendency to go from order to disorder. (talkorigins.org)
  • However, the more fundamental aspects linked to the dynamics of the transfer and conversion of energy and matter are also explored, as well as the evolution which characterizes the second law of thermodynamics. (elsevier.com)
  • The second law of thermodynamics (1) is the closest that science has come to providing an explanation for this observation. (everything2.com)
  • What is the second law of thermodynamics (from here on the SLT) and what can it tell us about this kind of change? (everything2.com)
  • Sets forth the basic principles of thermodynamics, reviewing such topics as units and dimensions, conservation laws, gas laws, and the second law of thermodynamics. (aiche.org)
  • Lieb, E. H. & Yngvason, J. The physics and mathematics of the second law of thermodynamics. (nature.com)
  • The second law of thermodynamics suggests a progression from order to disorder, from complexity to simplicity, in the physical universe. (ldolphin.org)
  • Yet biological evolution involves a hierarchical progression to increasingly complex forms of living systems, seemingly in contradiction to the second law of thermodynamics. (ldolphin.org)
  • The second law of thermodynamics describes the flow of energy in nature in processes which are irreversible. (ldolphin.org)
  • The physical significance of the second law of thermodynamics is that the energy flow in such processes is always toward a more uniform distribution of the energy of the universe. (ldolphin.org)
  • This flow of energy from the house to the cold outside in winter, or the flow of energy from the hot outdoors into the air-conditioned home in the summer, is a process described by the second law of thermodynamics. (ldolphin.org)
  • This course is an extension and application of first law of thermodynamics and second law of thermodynamics. (studiesabroad.com)
  • The Second Law of Thermodynamics says that processes that involve the transfer or conversion of heat energy are irreversible. (livescience.com)
  • The Second Law of Thermodynamics is about the quality of energy. (livescience.com)
  • The second law of thermodynamics describes constraints on the amount of useful work which can be extracted from a thermodynamic system. (wikipedia.org)
  • reationists believe that the second law of thermodynamics does not permit order to arise from disorder, and therefore the macro evolution of complex living things from single-celled ancestors could not have occurred. (talkorigins.org)
  • This is called the Second Law of Thermodynamics. (talkorigins.org)
  • Of course, the creationist application of the second law of thermodynamics to the development of living things is inconsistent with any model of origins. (talkorigins.org)
  • Failure to understand that in thermodynamics probabilities are not fixed entities has led to a misinterpretation that is responsible for the wide- spread and totally false belief that the second law of thermodynamics does not permit order to spontaneously arise from disorder. (talkorigins.org)
  • This leads to the second law of thermodynamics and the definition of another state variable called entropy . (nasa.gov)
  • He has vast teaching experience in various fields of Classical Physics and Astrophysics, and in particular was Professor of Thermodynamics from 1969 to 1992 and from 2000 to 2016. (springer.com)
  • Essays On Thermodynamics, Architecture and Beauty" 13 Sep 2016. (archdaily.com)
  • 1.describe the fundamental principles of thermodynamics. (rug.nl)
  • The goal of the Process Systems, Reaction Engineering and Molecular Thermodynamics program is to advance fundamental engineering research on the rates and mechanisms of chemical reactions, systems engineering and molecular thermodynamics as they relate to the design and optimization of chemical reactors and the production of specialized materials that have important impacts on society. (nsf.gov)
  • The program supports the development of advanced optimization and control algorithms for chemical processes, molecular and multi-scale modeling of complex chemical systems, fundamental studies on molecular thermodynamics, and the integration of this information into the design of complex chemical reactors. (nsf.gov)
  • Just a year before winning the Nobel Prize, Fermi published Thermodynamics, based on a course of lectures at Columbia University, an enduring work which Dover first reprinted in 1956 and which has been in print continuously since then, one of the foundations of Dover's physics program. (google.com)
  • Thermodynamics is a branch of physics that studies the movement of energy and how energy instills movement. (wikiquote.org)
  • Reflecting the content of modern university courses on thermodynamics, it is a valuable resource for students and young scientists in the fields of physics, chemistry, and engineering. (springer.com)
  • The first law of thermodynamics could also be called the first law of physics , or the first law of science . (everything2.com)
  • The Physlet Physics Section 4: Thermodynamics provides a technology-enhanced introduction to topics in introductory thermal physics. (compadre.org)
  • Thermodynamics - the branch of physics dealing with heat and its relation to other forms of energy - is profound stuff. (nhpr.org)
  • Thermodynamics is a branch of physics which deals with the energy and work of a system. (nasa.gov)
  • The basic ideas of thermodynamics are taught in high school physics classes, so the Wright brothers knew and used these concepts, particularly in their engine design . (nasa.gov)
  • The creationist thermodynamics argument is a typical example of how this technique is used to twist well established scientific principles into meaningless gibberish. (talkorigins.org)
  • The second part applies these principles to a series of generalized situations, presenting applications that are of interest both in their own right and in terms of demonstrating how thermodynamics, as a theory or principle, relates to different fields. (springer.com)
  • Readers will gain a solid working knowledge of thermodynamics principles and applications upon successful completion of this text. (aiche.org)
  • The Thermodynamics 2017 conference will be the 25th meeting in a series of biennial thermodynamics conferences initiated in 1964 by Harold Springall, championed throughout the 1960s and 1970s by Max McGlashan and Sir John Rowlinson. (rsc.org)
  • Michael Pauken , PhD, is a senior mechanical engineer at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, an operating division of the California Institute of Technology, where he also teaches courses on thermodynamics and heat transfer. (wiley.com)
  • Scottish physicist Lord Kelvin was the first to formulate a concise definition of thermodynamics in 1854 which stated, "Thermo-dynamics is the subject of the relation of heat to forces acting between contiguous parts of bodies, and the relation of heat to electrical agency. (wikipedia.org)
  • The use and application of thermodynamics is strictly limited by the mathematical treatment of the basic equations of thermodynamics. (talkorigins.org)
  • The initial application of thermodynamics to mechanical heat engines was extended early on to the study of chemical compounds and chemical reactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thermodynamics applies to a wide variety of topics in science and engineering, especially physical chemistry, chemical engineering and mechanical engineering. (dbpedia.org)
  • Thermodynamics, Solubility and Environmental Issues highlights some of the problems and shows how chemistry can help to reduce these them. (elsevier.com)
  • Subject: Supramolecular chemistry and thermodynamics of biological evolution, Thermodynamics of origin of life, Macrothermodynamics, Self-assembly of supramolecular structures, Supramolecules and Assemblies, Adaptation, Aging Dear Colleagues, My Institute: URL http://www.biograph.comstar.ru/evolution/ The information in my URL is: Hello to all, I am seeking professional scientists who would like to understand (to comprehend) my thermodynamic theory of the Evolution of Living Beings. (bio.net)
  • In chemistry, we sometimes speak more broadly about 'energetics' of reactions (rather than thermodynamics), because energy given off during a reaction may simply be lost to the surroundings without doing useful work. (csbsju.edu)
  • This textbook introduces chemistry and chemical engineering students to molecular descriptions of thermodynamics, chemical systems, and biomolecules. (wiley.com)
  • In the wake of these developments, academic curricula now require the students of geology to take a course in basic thermodynamics, traditionally offered by the departments of chemistry. (waterstones.com)
  • Tutorials in Mastering ™ Chemistry reinforce students' understanding of complex theory in Quantum Chemistry and Thermodynamics as they build problem-solving skills throughout the course. (ecampus.com)
  • Duthil, P. Basic Thermodynamics. (osti.gov)
  • misc{etde_22548674, title = {Basic Thermodynamics} author = {Duthil, P} abstractNote = {The goal of this paper is to present a general thermodynamic basis that is useable in the context of superconductivity and particle accelerators. (osti.gov)
  • The main reason for this need is that solvation thermodynamics has traditionally been treated in the context of classical (macroscopic) ther- modynamics alone. (springer.com)
  • During the past ten years, I have introduced several new quantities which, in my opinion, should replace the conventional measures of solvation thermodynamics. (springer.com)
  • Solvation thermodynamics data are essential in the characterization and interpretation of any process carried out in the liquid phase. (nist.gov)
  • The goal of this research is to provide a consistent, high-quality compilation of solvation thermodynamics data for a set of pure fluids. (nist.gov)
  • There is an intimate connection of quantum thermodynamics with the theory of open quantum systems . (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, it is very interesting and important to investigate the thermodynamics of quantum gravity. (hindawi.com)
  • There are indeed many results on thermodynamical implications of loop quantum gravity [ 14 , 15 ], but very little discussion on the thermodynamics of loop quantum cosmology, which will be the focus of the present paper. (hindawi.com)
  • iii) Finally, there is the classical phase in which the quantum effects vanish and the usual continuous equations describing cosmological behavior are established and so is the usual thermodynamics [ 17 , 18 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Written by the founder of quantum theory, a Nobel Prize winner, this classic volume is still recognized as among the best introductions to thermodynamics. (doverpublications.com)
  • This observation is particularly important in the context of quantum thermodynamics, where it is tempting to study Markovian dynamics with an arbitrary control Hamiltonian. (wikipedia.org)
  • For a slow change, one can adopt the adiabatic approach and use the instantaneous system's Hamiltonian to derive L D {\displaystyle L_{D}} . An important class of problems in quantum thermodynamics is periodically driven systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • The study of thermodynamics-the science of energy-is a critical element in the education of all types of engineers. (springer.com)
  • Engineers use thermodynamics to calculate the fuel efficiency of engines, and to find ways to make more efficient systems, be they rockets, refineries, or nuclear reactors. (merlot.org)
  • Thermodynamics: A Smart Approach is an ideal textbook for undergraduate students and graduate students of engineering and applied science, as well researchers, scientists, and practicing engineers seeking a precise and concise textbook and/or reference work. (wiley-vch.de)
  • Originally the domain of engineers, thermodynamics emerged from their engagement with machines. (wikiquote.org)
  • Thermodynamics for the Practicing Engineer, as the title suggests, is written for all practicing engineers and anyone studying to become one. (aiche.org)
  • Thermodynamics is the study of energy transformations as applied to all physicochemical systems including biological. (news-medical.net)
  • Research and education at the Division of Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration is mainly focused on energy transformations in the built environment. (kth.se)
  • Here, we show that a reversible theory of entanglement and a rigorous relationship with thermodynamics may be established when considering all non-entangling transformations. (nature.com)
  • With the universe being nonstationary and evolving, the thermodynamics is different from the black hole systems. (hindawi.com)
  • Since there is no shortage of excellent general books on elementary thermodynamics, this book takes a different approach, focusing attention on the problem areas of understanding of concept and especially on the overwhelming but usually hidden role of "constraints" in thermodynamics, as well as on the lucid exposition of the significance, construction, and use (in the case of arbitrary systems) of the thermodynamic potential. (doverpublications.com)
  • The theory is based on macrothermodynamics, i.e., the hierarchic thermodynamics of complex systems. (bio.net)
  • Also important physical questions for these systems involve thermodynamics. (emis.de)
  • For generic polymer length, thermodynamics of both systems present an anomalous peak in their heat capacity C V . In the case of the polymer oscillators this peak separates the vibrational and rotational regimes, while in the ideal polymer gas it reflects the band structure which allows the existence of negative temperatures. (emis.de)
  • With these tools, thermodynamics can be used to describe how systems respond to changes in their environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • In simpler terms, we can think of thermodynamics as the science that tells us which minerals or mineral assemblages will be stable under different conditions. (carleton.edu)
  • Thermodynamics is the science that deals with transfer of heat and work. (merlot.org)
  • The whole science of heat is founded Thermometry and Calorimetry , and when these operations are understood we may proceed to the third step, which is the investigation of those relations between the thermal and the mechanical properties of substances which form the subject of Thermodynamics. (wikiquote.org)
  • Thermodynamics is a branch of science concerned with heat and temperature and their relation to energy and work. (dbpedia.org)
  • On peut définir la thermodynamique de deux façons simples : la science de la chaleur et des machines thermiques ou la science des grands systèmes en équilibre. (dbpedia.org)
  • Creationists believe that changes requiring human thought and effort, such as constructing a building, manufacturing an airplane, making a bed, writing a book, etc. are covered by the science of thermodynamics. (talkorigins.org)
  • Therefore, the first law of thermodynamics, rather than being a law of science, is a law that stands about science, and shapes the ways that we can possibly view the physical world. (everything2.com)
  • Thermodynamics is an exact science which deals with energy. (ldolphin.org)
  • A major part of the science of thermodynamics is accounting---giving an account of the energy of a system that has undergone some sort of transformation. (ldolphin.org)
  • The science of thermodynamics was born of the Industrial Revolution in the late 1700s and early 1800s. (coursera.org)
  • Thermodynamics was developed to gain the maximum efficiency from such heat engines, and the science was so successful, that in a very short space of time, steam engines completely transformed the world, from transportation, to manufacturing, to agriculture. (coursera.org)
  • Now, thermodynamics is really just a branch of natural science (air, gasses, water, nature, etc.) that is concerned with heat and temperature. (smore.com)
  • Thermodynamics is just as important as all the other madness in the stupendous world of science. (smore.com)
  • As the author states: "In view of the high level of confidence which we place in thermodynamics, what is known thermodynamically is often considered to be known once and for all…by restricting oneself initially to purely thermodynamic arguments, one can know what he does know before entering domains where conclusions are less certain. (doverpublications.com)
  • Retrieved on August 09, 2020 from https://www.news-medical.net/life-sciences/Metabolism-Thermodynamics.aspx. (news-medical.net)
  • W. Christian and M. Belloni, (2013), WWW Document, ( https://www.compadre.org/Physlets/thermodynamics/ ). (compadre.org)
  • https://www.compadre.org/Physlets/thermodynamics/ (accessed 7 August 2020). (compadre.org)
  • Mechanical Engineering : Generalized thermodynamics relations. (mcgill.ca)
  • The First Law of Thermodynamics will be derived and applied to Otto processes, Carnot processes, and Rankine cycles. (tue.nl)
  • Callen, H. B. Thermodynamics and an Introduction to Thermostatistics (Wiley, 1985). (nature.com)
  • Author Ibrahim Dincer, a pioneer in the areas of thermodynamics and sustainable energy technologies, draws upon his multiple decades of experience teaching and researching thermodynamics to offer a unique exergy-based approach to the subject. (wiley-vch.de)
  • In 1909, Constantin Carathéodory presented a purely mathematical approach to the field in his axiomatic formulation of thermodynamics, a description often referred to as geometrical thermodynamics. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Chemical Thermodynamics of Tin is based on a critical review of the thermodynamic properties of tin, its solid compounds and aqueous complexes, carried out as part of NEA Thermochemical Database Project Phase III (TDB III). (oecd.org)
  • 4 . First law of thermodynamics (Energy is conserved) (This page is not too hard, but you do need to answer a couple of conceptual questions with words. (google.com)
  • The Oxford English Dictionary says: 'Thermodynamics: the theory of the relations between heat and mechanical energy, and of the conversion of either into the other. (carleton.edu)
  • The first law of thermodynamics is the Law of conservation of energy. (news-medical.net)
  • The first law of thermodynamics states that energy can be neither created nor destroyed. (wikiversity.org)
  • Although it is reasonable to assume that complex energy conversion mechanisms actually exist, the manner in which these may operate is outside the scope of thermodynamics. (talkorigins.org)
  • Assigning an energy conversion mechanism to thermodynamics is simply a ploy to distort and pervert the true nature of thermodynamics. (talkorigins.org)
  • The growing demand for sustainability and energy efficiency has shined a spotlight on the real-world applications of thermodynamics. (wiley-vch.de)
  • This hands-on guide helps you score your highest in a thermodynamics course by offering easily understood, plain-English explanations of how energy is used in things like automobiles, airplanes, air conditioners, and electric power plants. (wiley.com)
  • Their efforts to understand the interrelationship between energy conversion, heat and mechanical work (and subsequently the larger variables of temperature, volume and pressure) came to be known as thermodynamics, taken from the Greek word "thermo" (meaning "heat") and "dynamis" (meaning force). (universetoday.com)
  • The first law of thermodynamics, arguably the most important, is an expression of the principle of conservation of energy. (universetoday.com)
  • Be these mechanical or chemical, the first law of thermodynamics---the principle of the Conservation of Energy---tells us that the total energy of the universe or any isolated part of it will be the same after any such transformation as it was before. (ldolphin.org)
  • Thermodynamics is the study of the relationship between heat (or energy) and work. (csbsju.edu)
  • In other words, thermodynamics looks at how we can put energy into a system (whether it is a machine or a molecule) and make it do work. (csbsju.edu)
  • Susan Crawford quotes an essay by John W. Patterson called "Thermodynamics and Evolution", part of a volume of scientific responses to creationism. (ito.com)
  • Why, if it weren't for thermodynamics, everyday things such as trying to get that right temperature for your shower ( so its not colder than Hoth, and so its not hotter than Mordor) It works with your car engine so that way, you're not stranded in the middle of the highway when your engine overheats, and many other everyday things in life. (smore.com)