White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
CD4 Lymphocyte Count
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Blood Cell Count
AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections
Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most common include PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptosporidiosis, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and infections with Mycobacterium avium complex, Microsporidium, and Cytomegalovirus.
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active
Lymphocyte Culture Test, Mixed
Measure of histocompatibility at the HL-A locus. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from two individuals are mixed together in tissue culture for several days. Lymphocytes from incompatible individuals will stimulate each other to proliferate significantly (measured by tritiated thymidine uptake) whereas those from compatible individuals will not. In the one-way MLC test, the lymphocytes from one of the individuals are inactivated (usually by treatment with MITOMYCIN or radiation) thereby allowing only the untreated remaining population of cells to proliferate in response to foreign histocompatibility antigens.
Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell
A chronic leukemia characterized by abnormal B-lymphocytes and often generalized lymphadenopathy. In patients presenting predominately with blood and bone marrow involvement it is called chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL); in those predominately with enlarged lymph nodes it is called small lymphocytic lymphoma. These terms represent spectrums of the same disease.
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
The in vitro formation of clusters consisting of a cell (usually a lymphocyte) surrounded by antigenic cells or antigen-bearing particles (usually erythrocytes, which may or may not be coated with antibody or antibody and complement). The rosette-forming cell may be an antibody-forming cell, a memory cell, a T-cell, a cell bearing surface cytophilic antibodies, or a monocyte possessing Fc receptors. Rosette formation can be used to identify specific populations of these cells.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Killer Cells, Natural
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell
A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by an azido group. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA during reverse transcription. It improves immunologic function, partially reverses the HIV-induced neurological dysfunction, and improves certain other clinical abnormalities associated with AIDS. Its principal toxic effect is dose-dependent suppression of bone marrow, resulting in anemia and leukopenia.
Immune Adherence Reaction
A method for the detection of very small quantities of antibody in which the antigen-antibody-complement complex adheres to indicator cells, usually primate erythrocytes or nonprimate blood platelets. The reaction is dependent on the number of bound C3 molecules on the C3b receptor sites of the indicator cell.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
Rare, chronic, papulo-vesicular disease characterized by an intensely pruritic eruption consisting of various combinations of symmetrical, erythematous, papular, vesicular, or bullous lesions. The disease is strongly associated with the presence of HLA-B8 and HLA-DR3 antigens. A variety of different autoantibodies has been detected in small numbers in patients with dermatitis herpetiformis.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.
Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.
Receptors, Lymphocyte Homing
Cell surface glycoproteins on lymphocytes and other leukocytes that mediate adhesion to specialized blood vessels called high endothelial venules. Several different classes of lymphocyte homing receptors have been identified, and they appear to target different surface molecules (addressins) on high endothelial venules in different tissues. The adhesion plays a crucial role in the trafficking of lymphocytes.
A prodromal phase of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Laboratory criteria separating AIDS-related complex (ARC) from AIDS include elevated or hyperactive B-cell humoral immune responses, compared to depressed or normal antibody reactivity in AIDS; follicular or mixed hyperplasia in ARC lymph nodes, leading to lymphocyte degeneration and depletion more typical of AIDS; evolving succession of histopathological lesions such as localization of Kaposi's sarcoma, signaling the transition to the full-blown AIDS.
Lymphocyte Function-Associated Antigen-1
An integrin heterodimer widely expressed on cells of hematopoietic origin. CD11A ANTIGEN comprises the alpha chain and the CD18 antigen (ANTIGENS, CD18) the beta chain. Lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 is a major receptor of T-CELLS; B-CELLS; and GRANULOCYTES. It mediates the leukocyte adhesion reactions underlying cytolytic conjugate formation, helper T-cell interactions, and antibody-dependent killing by NATURAL KILLER CELLS and granulocytes. Intracellular adhesion molecule-1 has been defined as a ligand for lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1.
A pulmonary disease in humans occurring in immunodeficient or malnourished patients or infants, characterized by DYSPNEA, tachypnea, and HYPOXEMIA. Pneumocystis pneumonia is a frequently seen opportunistic infection in AIDS. It is caused by the fungus PNEUMOCYSTIS JIROVECII. The disease is also found in other MAMMALS where it is caused by related species of Pneumocystis.
Predictive Value of Tests
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.
Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte
Cytotoxicity Tests, Immunologic
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
Colony Count, Microbial
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Severe Combined Immunodeficiency
Group of rare congenital disorders characterized by impairment of both humoral and cell-mediated immunity, leukopenia, and low or absent antibody levels. It is inherited as an X-linked or autosomal recessive defect. Mutations occurring in many different genes cause human Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID).
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Sensitivity and Specificity
Deliberate prevention or diminution of the host's immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of immunosuppressive agents (drugs or radiation) or by lymphocyte depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of antigen and immunosuppressive drugs.
A malignant disease characterized by progressive enlargement of the lymph nodes, spleen, and general lymphoid tissue. In the classical variant, giant usually multinucleate Hodgkin's and REED-STERNBERG CELLS are present; in the nodular lymphocyte predominant variant, lymphocytic and histiocytic cells are seen.
An 11-kDa protein associated with the outer membrane of many cells including lymphocytes. It is the small subunit of the MHC class I molecule. Association with beta 2-microglobulin is generally required for the transport of class I heavy chains from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface. Beta 2-microglobulin is present in small amounts in serum, csf, and urine of normal people, and to a much greater degree in the urine and plasma of patients with tubular proteinemia, renal failure, or kidney transplants.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid
Drug Therapy, Combination
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
HIV Core Protein p24
A major core protein of the human immunodeficiency virus encoded by the HIV gag gene. HIV-seropositive individuals mount a significant immune response to p24 and thus detection of antibodies to p24 is one basis for determining HIV infection by ELISA and Western blot assays. The protein is also being investigated as a potential HIV immunogen in vaccines.
Molecular Sequence Data
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A nitrogen mustard alkylating agent used as antineoplastic for chronic lymphocytic leukemia, Hodgkin's disease, and others. Although it is less toxic than most other nitrogen mustards, it has been listed as a known carcinogen in the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985). (Merck Index, 11th ed)
Polymerase Chain Reaction
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A multicentric, malignant neoplastic vascular proliferation characterized by the development of bluish-red cutaneous nodules, usually on the lower extremities, most often on the toes or feet, and slowly increasing in size and number and spreading to more proximal areas. The tumors have endothelium-lined channels and vascular spaces admixed with variably sized aggregates of spindle-shaped cells, and often remain confined to the skin and subcutaneous tissue, but widespread visceral involvement may occur. Kaposi's sarcoma occurs spontaneously in Jewish and Italian males in Europe and the United States. An aggressive variant in young children is endemic in some areas of Africa. A third form occurs in about 0.04% of kidney transplant patients. There is also a high incidence in AIDS patients. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, pp2105-7) HHV-8 is the suspected cause.
B-cell lymphoid tumors that occur in association with AIDS. Patients often present with an advanced stage of disease and highly malignant subtypes including BURKITT LYMPHOMA; IMMUNOBLASTIC LARGE-CELL LYMPHOMA; PRIMARY EFFUSION LYMPHOMA; and DIFFUSE, LARGE B-CELL, LYMPHOMA. The tumors are often disseminated in unusual extranodal sites and chromosomal abnormalities are frequently present. It is likely that polyclonal B-cell lymphoproliferation in AIDS is a complex result of EBV infection, HIV antigenic stimulation, and T-cell-dependent HIV activation.
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived
Severity of Illness Index
A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Mice, Inbred Strains
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
A progressive, malignant disease of the blood-forming organs, characterized by distorted proliferation and development of leukocytes and their precursors in the blood and bone marrow. Leukemias were originally termed acute or chronic based on life expectancy but now are classified according to cellular maturity. Acute leukemias consist of predominately immature cells; chronic leukemias are composed of more mature cells. (From The Merck Manual, 2006)
Drug Administration Schedule
Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic
A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.
Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
Transfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.
Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.
Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.
A very low count of these cells is found after therapy with immuno-suppressive glucocorticoids. Also, non-classical slan+ ... Complete blood count Hematopoiesis Lymphocyte Neutrophil granulocyte Phagocyte Nichols, Barbara A.; Bainton, Dorothy Ford; ... A monocyte count is part of a complete blood count and is expressed either as a percentage of monocytes among all white blood ... CMML patients are characterized by a persistent monocyte count of > 1000/ microL of blood. Analysis of monocyte subsets has ...
Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare infection
Some age adjustment is necessary when clinicians interpret CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts in children less than 2 years of age. ... Isoniazid and pyrazinamide are not effective for the therapy of MAC. Therapy should continue for the lifetime of the patient if ... Blood cultures are not routinely recommended for asymptomatic persons, even for those who have CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts less ... The risk of MAC is inversely related to the patient's CD4 count and increases significantly when the CD4 count decreases below ...
If lymphocyte counts are low in people taking those types of drugs, the use of prophylactic antibiotics is recommended to ... Physical therapy is useful to maintain strength and general cardiovascular health. Horseback therapy and exercises in a ... In the general population, very low lymphocyte counts are associated with an increased risk for infection. Such individuals ... As lymphocytes develop from stem cells in the bone marrow into mature lymphocytes in the periphery, they rearrange special ...
However, the lymphocyte counts take longer to decrease to normal levels with idelalisib. It is not recommended as a first-line ... Idelalisib is intended to be used in patients who have received at least two prior systemic therapies. "Zydelig EPAR". European ... idelalisib is to be used in patients for whom rituximab alone would be considered appropriate therapy due to other existing ... both in patients who have received at least two prior systemic therapies. Clinical symptoms include diarrhea, fever, fatigue, ...
... lymphocyte count and the occurrence of clinical events. The progressive decline in T-CD4 + lymphocyte counts is characterized ... Non-adherence of HIV antiretroviral therapy increases the risk of drug suppression and resistance (Bangsberg, D. R., Moss, A. R ... It is therefore recommended that reductions greater than 25% in T-CD4 + lymphocyte counts are suspected of immunological ... in absolute CD4 T-lymphocyte counts, with no clinical significance. ...
White blood cell
Defined as total lymphocyte count below 1.0x109/L, the cells most commonly affected are CD4+ T cells. Like neutropenia, ... Medications - chemotherapy (antilymphocyte globulin therapy, alemtuzumab, glucocorticoids). *Radiation. *Major surgery. * ... Lymphocyte. Main article: Lymphocyte. Lymphocytes are much more common in the lymphatic system than in blood. Lymphocytes are ... Lymphocyte. 30%. Small lymphocytes 7-8. Large lymphocytes 12-15. *B cells: releases antibodies and assists activation of T ...
Lutetium (177Lu) chloride
... low blood platelet counts), leucopenia (low white blood cell counts), lymphopenia (low levels of lymphocytes, a particular type ... 177Lu radiolabeled cancer therapies Lilotomab Lutetium (177Lu) oxodotreotide "Lumark EPAR". European Medicines Agency. ... The most common side effects are anaemia (low red blood cell counts), thrombocytopenia ( ... either as an anti-cancer therapy or for scintigraphy (medical imaging). It is an isotopomer of lutetium(III) chloride ...
Alternatively, only granulocytes, macrophages and monocytes may be removed, leaving the lymphocyte count largely unchanged. ... It is a therapy of last resort, and its use is controversial and rare. Leukapheresis is used in evolving CAR-T cell therapy to ... acute leukemias have a more variable white cell count whereas chronic cases typically have higher white cell counts). This can ... Leukapheresis may be performed to decrease a very high white blood cell count, to obtain blood cells from a patient (autologous ...
Severe combined immunodeficiency
A full blood lymphocyte count is often considered a reliable manner of diagnosing SCID, but higher lymphocyte counts in ... Trial treatments of SCID have been gene therapy's first success; since 1999, gene therapy has restored the immune systems of at ... Press release from the European Society of Gene Therapy Cavazzana-Calvo M, Fischer A (2007). "Gene therapy for severe combined ... SCID involves defective antibody response due to either direct involvement with B lymphocytes or through improper B lymphocyte ...
This increase in blood eosinophil count is often associated with abnormal T-lymphocyte clones (e.g. increased numbers of CD4 ... Presence of these clones may be associated with tissue injury but in any case suggests specific therapy be directed at reducing ... Diagnosis is by complete blood count (CBC). However, in some cases, a more accurate absolute eosinophil count may be needed. ... Elevations in blood eosinophil counts can be transient, sustained, recurrent, or cyclical. Eosinophil counts in human blood ...
"Specific lymphocyte subsets predict response to adoptive cell therapy using expanded autologous tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes ... as TILs in the stroma surrounding the tumor cells do not count. TILs are often found floating around the tumor without actual ... Lymphocyte Tumor-Infiltrating Dendritic Cell Cancer Immunotherapy CAR T-Cell therapy T-cells Teixeira, Luis; Rothé, Françoise; ... In summary of TIL therapy clinical trials, TIL therapy was found to induce complete and durable regression of metastatic ...
... ranging from about 50 to 100 white blood cells/mcL with a lymphocyte predominance. Cell counts are typically lower in late ... Two examples of penicillin therapies include: Aqueous penicillin G 3-4 million units every four hours for 10 to 14 days. One ... Also, infection with HIV has been found to cause penicillin therapy to fail more often. Therefore, neurosyphilis has once again ... Buitrago-Garcia, D; Martí-Carvajal, AJ; Jimenez, A; Conterno, LO; Pardo, R (27 May 2019). "Antibiotic therapy for adults with ...
Complete blood count
Blood counts are closely monitored in people undergoing chemotherapy or radiation therapy for cancer, because these treatments ... An elevated lymphocyte count (lymphocytosis) is associated with viral infection and lymphoproliferative disorders like chronic ... A complete blood count (CBC), also known as a full blood count (FBC), is a set of medical laboratory tests that provide ... A reticulocyte count is sometimes performed as part of a complete blood count, usually to investigate the cause of a person's ...
White blood cell
Defined as total lymphocyte count below 1.0x109/L, the cells most commonly affected are CD4+ T cells. Like neutropenia, ... antilymphocyte globulin therapy, alemtuzumab, glucocorticoids) Radiation Major surgery Miscellaneous - ECMO, kidney or bone ... and thus the white blood cell count is an important subset of the complete blood count. The normal white cell count is usually ... TLC- (Total leucocyte count): Normal TLC in an adult person is 6000-8000 WBC/mm^3 of blood. DLC- (Differential leucocyte count ...
Dose-limiting toxicities included low lymphocyte, neutrophil, and thrombocyte count as well as hepatotoxicity. According to the ... IL-21 has been tried as therapy for alleviating allergic responses. It was shown to be successful in decreasing pro- ... Søndergaard H, Skak K (December 2009). "IL-21: roles in immunopathology and cancer therapy". Tissue Antigens. 74 (6): 467-79. ... "Interleukin 21 and its receptor are involved in NK cell expansion and regulation of lymphocyte function". Nature. 408 (6808): ...
HIV set point
"Fluctuations in HIV-1 viral load are correlated to CD4+ T-lymphocyte count during the natural course of infection". Journal of ... The only effective way to lower the set point is through highly active antiretroviral therapy. The set point is not completely ...
HIV's cytotoxic activity toward CD4+ lymphocytes is classified as AIDS once a given patient's CD4+ cell count falls below 200.[ ... Apoptosis is known to be one of the primary mechanisms of targeted cancer therapy. Luminescent iridium complex-peptide ... It can be interpreted by counting, measuring, and analyzing the cells of the Sub/G1 cell population. When HeLA cells are ... In a healthy individual, the number of CD4+ lymphocytes is in balance with the cells generated by the bone marrow; however, in ...
Unlike many forms of SCID, absolute lymphocyte count is normal and thymus is present. ZAP70 deficiency SCID is ... ZAP-70 Deficiency at Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy Professional Edition "UpToDate". www.uptodate.com. GeneReviews/NCBI/ ...
Lymphocyte count , 600/µl or , 8%. *Male. *Albumin , 4.0 g/dl. *White blood count ≥ 15,000/µl ... Radiation therapy directed above the diaphragm to the neck, chest or underarms is called mantle field radiation. Radiation to ... Lymphocyte-rich. Is a rare subtype, show many features which may cause diagnostic confusion with nodular lymphocyte predominant ... Lymphocyte depleted. Is a rare subtype, composed of large numbers of often pleomorphic RS cells with only few reactive ...
AIDS-defining clinical condition
... a CD4+ T-cell count below 200 cells/µL a CD4+ T-cell percentage of total lymphocytes of less than 14% or one of the defining ... undergone high-dose corticoid therapy or other immunosuppressive/cytotoxic therapy in the three months before the onset of the ... in 1987 and expanded the AIDS surveillance case definition to include all HIV-infected persons with CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts of ...
Leukocyte adhesion deficiency-1
... so their counts can be high. It also impairs immune cell interaction, immune recognition, and cell-killing lymphocyte functions ... Because the CD18 gene has been cloned and sequenced, this disorder is a potential candidate for gene therapy. As of 2010[update ... Candotti F, Fischer A. Gene therapy. In: Ochs HD, Smith CIE, Puck JM, eds. Primary immunodeficiency diseases: a molecular and ... including lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1), complement receptor 3 (CR-3), and complement receptor 4 (CR-4). The ...
CDC classification system for HIV infection
A CD4+ T-cell count below 200 cells/μl (or a CD4+ T-cell percentage of total lymphocytes of less than 14%) OR he/she has one of ... undergone high-dose corticoid therapy or other immunosuppressive/cytotoxic therapy in the three months before the onset of the ... in 1987 and expanded the AIDS surveillance case definition to include all HIV-infected persons with CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts of ... or a CD4+ T-cell percentage of total lymphocytes of less than 14%). Due to the additional knowledge of the progression of HIV ...
When the CD4 lymphocyte count falls below 200 cells/ml of blood, the HIV host has progressed to AIDS, a condition ... In the ob/ob mouse, mutations in the leptin gene resulted in the obese phenotype opening the possibility of leptin therapy for ...
William V. Judy
In non-responders, the blood Coenzyme Q10 levels increased only two-fold, and the lymphocyte counts remained essentially ... The relapse after the withdrawal of short-term Coenzyme Q10 therapy tended to be a rapid relapse followed by deterioration of ... The results of this early study showed that long-term Coenzyme Q10 therapy is safe, is effective in chronic heart failure ... In the cancer patients with low cardiac function prior to the initiation of therapy, Coenzyme Q10 treatment did not produce the ...
Epstein Barr virus serology can be tested for those who may have infectious mononucleosis with a typical lymphocyte count in ... Brook I (2007). "Microbiology and principles of antimicrobial therapy for head and neck infections". Infect Dis Clin North Am ( ... Individuals who fail penicillin therapy may respond to treatment effective against beta-lactamase producing bacteria such as ... Tonsillopharyngitis at Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy Professional Edition Wetmore 2007, pp. 756-57. Thuma 2001, p. ??? ...
Sparse lymphocytes, and plasma cells in particular, may exist just after exiting small blood vessels deep within the underlying ... Relationship of leukocyte counts in junctional epithelium, sulcus depth, and connective tissue inflammation scores". J. ... Silva, GL; Soares, RV; Zenóbio, EG (1 September 2008). "Periodontal abscess during supportive periodontal therapy: a review of ... There is a dense infiltrate of plasma cells, other lymphocytes and macrophages. The clusters of perivascular plasma cells still ...
... and G-CSF or GM-CSF therapy improves blood neutrophil counts. As WHIM syndrome is a molecular disease arising from gain-of- ... Myelokathexis refers to retention (kathexis) of neutrophils in the bone marrow (myelo). In addition, lymphocytes and IgG ... syndrome demonstrated that plerixafor could increase white blood cell counts and continues to be a promising targeted therapy. ... Nov 2011). "The CXCR4 antagonist plerixafor is a potential therapy for myelokathexis, WHIM syndrome". Blood. 118 (18): 4963-6. ...
Isotopes of lutetium
... low blood platelet counts), leucopenia (low white blood cell counts), lymphopenia (low levels of lymphocytes, a particular type ... either as an anti-cancer therapy or for scintigraphy (medical radio-imaging). Its most common side effects are anaemia (low red ...
Consolidation therapy or intensification therapy to eliminate any remaining leukemia cells. There are many different approaches ... Some people diagnosed with leukemia do not have high white blood cell counts visible during a regular blood count. This less- ... Most lymphocytic leukemias involve a specific subtype of lymphocyte, the B cell. In myeloid or myelogenous leukemias, the ... Treatment may involve some combination of chemotherapy, radiation therapy, targeted therapy, and bone marrow transplant, in ...
Possible non-specific laboratory indicators of EVD include a low platelet count; an initially decreased white blood cell count ... such as lymphocytes, also undergo programmed cell death leading to an abnormally low concentration of lymphocytes in the blood. ... "Experimental therapies: growing interest in the use of whole blood or plasma from recovered Ebola patients (convalescent ... It is expected that more people will be identified as surveillance activities increase. By 15 June the case count had ...
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
Lunzen, J.; Fehse, B.; Hauber, J. (2011). "Gene Therapy Strategies: Can We Eradicate HIV?". Current HIV/AIDS Reports. 8 (2): 78 ... expansion of HSC and their progeny is sufficient to normalize the blood cell counts and re-initiate the immune system. The ... This is due to a therapeutic immune reaction of the grafted donor T lymphocytes against the diseased bone marrow of the ... As of 2013[update], there were at least two commercialized allogeneic cell therapies, Prochymal and Cartistem. ...
Index of HIV/AIDS-related articles
... complementary and alternative therapy - complete blood count (CBC) - computed tomography scan (C-T scan) - concomitant drugs - ... T cells (T lymphocytes) - T lymphocyte proliferation assay - T lymphocytes - T suppressor cells - T4 cell - T4 cells (T-helper ... B-cell lymphoma - B cells - B lymphocytes (B cells) - bactericidal - bacteriostatic - bacterium - baculovirus - baseline - ... GAG - gamma globulin - gamma interferon - ganglion - GART - gastrointestinal (GI) - gene - gene therapy - genetic engineering ...
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
"Advances in Therapy. 37 (1): 41-60. doi:10.1007/s12325-019-01128-9. PMC 6979461. PMID 31673990.. ... A chest X-ray and complete blood count may be useful to exclude other conditions at the time of diagnosis. Characteristic ... Those who smoke additionally have Tc1 lymphocyte involvement and some people with COPD have eosinophil involvement similar to ... "Advances in combination therapy for asthma and COPD. Wiley. p. 251. ISBN 978-1-119-97846-6. .. ...
T-lymphocyte therapies are still in the experimental stage; few are even in clinical trials, none have been FDA approved, and ... including accurate lymphocyte and granulocyte counts) and immunoglobulin levels (the three most important types of antibodies: ... Virus-specific T-Lymphocytes (VST) therapy is used for patients who have received hematopoietic stem cell transplantation that ... In these disorders both T lymphocytes and often B lymphocytes, regulators of adaptive immunity, are dysfunctional or decreased ...
எயிட்சு - தமிழ் விக்கிப்பீடியா
... cell count that precludes a survival response to modern antiretroviral therapy?". AIDS 17 (5): 711-720. பப்மெட் 12646794. ... Alimonti JB, Ball TB, Fowke KR (2003). "Mechanisms of CD4+ T lymphocyte cell death in human immunodeficiency virus infection ... Yarchoan R, Tosatom G, Littlem RF (2005). "Therapy insight: AIDS-related malignancies - the influence of antiviral therapy on ... Luft BJ, Chua A (2000). "Central Nervous System Toxoplasmosis in HIV Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, and Therapy". Curr. Infect. Dis. ...
For example, Lymphocyte T-Cell Immune Modulator inhibits viral growth in the murine model of influenza. ... Wilson JC, von Itzstein M (July 2003). "Recent strategies in the search for new anti-influenza therapies". Current Drug Targets ... no accurate count. N/A. H1N1. N/A 2009 flu pandemic. 2009-2010. 105,700-395,600. 0.03%. H1N1. N/A ... Typically, biologics do not target metabolic pathways like anti-viral drugs, but stimulate immune cells such as lymphocytes, ...
... a modern perspective on a traditional therapy". Clin. Infect. Dis. 32 (11): 1567-76. doi:10.1086/320518. PMID 11340528.. ... as well as increasing the proportion of T lymphocytes and natural killer cells. LAB products might aid in the treatment ... but most companies that give a number report the viable cell count at the date of manufacture, a number that could be much ... results from an imbalance in the colonic microbiota caused by antibiotic therapy. These microbial community alterations ...
Laboratory criteria include a decreased lymphocyte count consistent with viremia. However a definitive laboratory diagnosis can ... "Arthritis Research & Therapy. 15 (1): R9. doi:10.1186/ar4137. PMC 3672753. PMID 23302155.. ... August 2009). "Prophylaxis and therapy for Chikungunya virus infection". The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 200 (4): 516-23. ... "Chikungunya fever: epidemiology, clinical syndrome, pathogenesis and therapy". Antiviral Research. 99 (3): 345-70. doi:10.1016 ...
"Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy. 8 (2): 181-90. doi:10.1517/147125126.96.36.199. PMC 2789278. PMID 18194074.. ... For severely low platelet counts, patients may require platelet transfusions or removal of the spleen. For patients with ... and genomic instability in lymphocytes". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 207 (6): 1145-52. doi:10.1084/jem.20091245. PMC ... Studies of correcting Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome with gene therapy using a lentivirus have begun. Proof-of-principle for ...
Abdominal attacks have also been known to cause a significant increase in the patient's white blood cell count, usually in the ... Chronic cases require steroid therapy, which generally leads to a good response. In cases where allergic attack is progressing ... As the symptoms begin to diminish, the white count slowly begins to decrease, returning to normal when the attack subsides. As ... Routine blood tests (complete blood count, electrolytes, renal function, liver enzymes) are typically performed. Mast cell ...
... suggests areas of importance for novel therapy research. Increasing evidence also indicates that MCs participate in ...
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia
Radiation therapyEdit. Radiation therapy (or radiotherapy) is used on painful bony areas, in high disease burdens, or as part ... B lymphocytes or T lymphocytes). Cytogenetic testing on the marrow samples can help classify disease and predict how aggressive ... White blood cell count at diagnosis of greater than 30,000 (B-ALL) or 100,000 (T-ALL) is associated with worse outcomes ... Chemotherapy, stem cell transplantation, radiation therapy, targeted therapy. Prognosis. Children: 90% five-year survival ...
Importantly, the use of drugs (whether chemotherapy, hormonal therapy or targeted therapy) constitutes systemic therapy for ... Neutropenia (a decrease of the neutrophil granulocyte count below 0.5 x 109/litre) can be improved with synthetic G-CSF ( ... especially lymphocytes), chemotherapy drugs often find use in a host of diseases that result from harmful overactivity of the ... Cytotoxics and targeted therapies. Targeted therapies are a relatively new class of cancer drugs that can overcome many ...
Primary central nervous system lymphoma
Mean CD4+ count at time of diagnosis is ~50/uL. In immunocompromised patients, prognosis is usually poor. In immunocompetent ... Leucovorin is often given for the duration of the therapy. Standard chemotherapeutic regimens for lymphoma such as CHOP are ... which affects the CD4+ lymphocyte population and the level of immunosuppression. The optimal treatment plan for patients ... Extended survival has been seen, however, in a subgroup of AIDS patients with CD4 counts of more than 200 and no concurrent ...
Early goal directed therapy. Early goal directed therapy (EGDT) is an approach to the management of severe sepsis during ... However, platelet transfusion is suggested for platelet counts below (10 × 109/L) without any risk of bleeding, or (20 × 109/L ... of the lymphocytes, possibly with a toxic effect on mitochondrial function. Although etomidate has a minimal effect on the ... "Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy. 10 (6): 701-6. doi:10.1586/eri.12.50. PMC 3488423. PMID 22734959.. ...
IELs: intraepithelial lymphocytes). *^ a b Lionetti E, Francavilla R, Pavone P, Pavone L, Francavilla T, Pulvirenti A, Giugno R ... Schuppan D, Junker Y, Barisani D (December 2009). "Celiac disease: from pathogenesis to novel therapies". Gastroenterology. 137 ... by full blood count and iron studies), folic acid and vitamin B12 deficiency and hypocalcaemia (low calcium levels, often due ... Therefore, these forms of the receptor are more likely to activate T lymphocytes and initiate the autoimmune process. ...
A part of the "near-field" close to the transmitter, forms part of the changing electromagnetic field, but does not count as ... Cleary, S. F.; Liu, L. M.; Merchant, R. E. (1990). "In vitro lymphocyte proliferation induced by radio-frequency ... Radiation therapy. *Radioactivity in the life sciences. *Radioactive contamination. *Radiobiology. *Biological dose units and ...
For instance, CMF-therapy for breast cancer (where the cumulative dose is typically less than 20 grams of cyclophosphamide) ... Most people develop side effects. Common side effects include low white blood cell counts, loss of appetite, vomiting, hair ... "Immunosuppressive effect of cyclophosphamide on white blood cells and lymphocyte subpopulations from peripheral blood of Balb/c ... Floyd JD, Nguyen DT, Lobins RL, Bashir Q, Doll DC, Perry MC (October 2005). "Cardiotoxicity of cancer therapy". Journal of ...
HIV's cytotoxic activity toward CD4+ lymphocytes is classified as AIDS once a given patient's CD4+ cell count falls below 200.[ ... Apoptosis is known to be one of the primary mechanisms of targeted cancer therapy. Luminescent iridium complex-peptide ... It can be interpreted by counting, measuring, and analyzing the cells of the Sub/G1 cell population. When HeLA cells are ... In a healthy individual, the number of CD4+ lymphocytes is in balance with the cells generated by the bone marrow; however, in ...
Systemic lupus erythematosus
Blood-hematologic disorder-hemolytic anemia (low red blood cell count), leukopenia (white blood cell count,4000/µl), ... Necrosis is increased in T lymphocytes.. Tingible body macrophages (TBMs) - large phagocytic cells in the germinal centers of ... Useful medication for the disease was first found in 1894, when quinine was first reported as an effective therapy. Four years ... Anemia is common in children with SLE and develops in about 50% of cases. Low platelet and white blood cell counts may ...
Within the lymphocyte pool, cladribine targets B cells more than T cells. Both HCL and B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia are ... After the first two years of active treatment no further therapy may need to be given, as cladribine has been shown to be ... After treatment, people with MS are monitored with regular blood tests, looking specifically at the white cell count and liver ... As a purine analogue, it is taken up into rapidly proliferating cells like lymphocytes to be incorporated into DNA synthesis. ...
Athletes may have slightly elevated natural killer cell count and cytolytic action, but these are unlikely to be clinically ... When compared to psychological or pharmacological therapies, exercise appears to be no more effective, though this conclusion ... can suppress the immune system by decreasing the concentration of lymphocytes. The immune systems of athletes and ... Mattson MP (2014). "Interventions that improve body and brain bioenergetics for Parkinson's disease risk reduction and therapy ...
... cause related therapy; re-examination for response to therapy; definitive therapy; and maintenance) are similar for both types ... An impaired ability of peripheral blood lymphocytes to react to chemotactic stimuli is found in the majority of patients ... A significant reduction in the aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans count following PDT suggests that the use of PDT in ... Photodynamic Therapy (PDT): This potentially has all the advantages of low-level LASER therapy, which allows the disinfection ...
Diagnosis is by complete blood count (CBC). However, in some cases, a more accurate absolute eosinophil count may be needed. ... 11". The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy (18th ed.). Whitehouse Station, New Jersey: Merck Research Laboratories. pp. ... Lymphocyte-variant hypereosinophilia. *Systemic mastocytosis. *Systemic autoimmune diseases*Systemic lupus erythematosus ... Eosinophilia is a condition in which the eosinophil count in the peripheral blood exceeds 5.0×108/l (500/μL). Eosinophils ...
Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor
G-CSF when given early after exposure to radiation may improve white blood cell counts, and is stockpiled for use in radiation ... G-CSF was first trialled as a therapy for neutropenia induced by chemotherapy in 1988. The treatment was well tolerated and a ... "Spontaneous production of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in vitro by human B-lineage lymphocytes is a distinctive marker ... "Combination therapy of human umbilical cord blood cells and granulocyte colony stimulating factor reduces histopathological ...
Mannan oligosaccharide-based nutritional supplements
This resulted in a reduction in faecal E. coli counts and improvements in faecal score in calves fed MOS. These improvements ... Research shows an increase in serum lymphocytes and lower plasma neutrophils when adult dogs were supplemented with MOS and FOS ... Keithley J, Swanson B (2005). "Glucomannan and obesity: a critical review". Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine. 11 (6 ... "Effects of mannan oligosaccharides on performance and microorganism fecal counts of calves following an enhanced-growth feeding ...
T helper cell
"CD4 Count". www.aids.gov. Retrieved 2015-04-30.. *^ Said E.A.; Dupuy F.P.; Trautmann L.; Zhang Y.; Shi Y.; El-Far M.; Hill B.J ... continuous therapy can delay the time at which this fall happens. Therapy can also better manage the course of AIDS if and when ... These effects are primarily due to the loss of any helper T cell that can interact with the B lymphocyte correctly. Another ... Sallusto F, Lenig D, Förster R, Lipp M, Lanzavecchia A (1999). "Two subsets of memory T lymphocytes with distinct homing ...
Low lymphocyte count a risk factor for infections for people taking HCV therapy | aidsmap
Infections during peginterferon/ribavirin therapy are associated with magnitude of decline in absolute lymphocyte count: ... Low lymphocyte count a risk factor for infections for people taking HCV therapy ... Absolute lymphocyte count fell to below 0.5x109/l in 107 patients, including 34 patients who also had nadir neutrophil counts ... absolute lymphocyte count] (in addition to ANC [absolute neutrophil count]) carefully during treatment….another question worthy ...
Safety Study of TXA127 to Elevate CD4+ T-Lymphocyte Counts in HIV-Infected Patients on Stable HAART Therapy - Tabular View -...
Safety Study of TXA127 to Elevate CD4+ T-Lymphocyte Counts in HIV-Infected Patients on Stable HAART Therapy. This study has ... Safety Study of TXA127 to Elevate CD4+ T-Lymphocyte Counts in HIV-Infected Patients on Stable HAART Therapy. ... and its ability to increase T-lymphocyte counts, specifically CD4+ T-lymphocytes, in persons infected with human ... CD4+ T-lymphocyte count less than 250 per mm3;. *Successful response to HAART (defined as an HIV RNA viral load of ,50 copies ...
Safety Study of TXA127 to Elevate CD4+ T-Lymphocyte Counts in HIV-Infected Patients on Stable HAART Therapy - Full Text View -...
Safety Study of TXA127 to Elevate CD4+ T-Lymphocyte Counts in HIV-Infected Patients on Stable HAART Therapy. The safety and ... and its ability to increase T-lymphocyte counts, specifically CD4+ T-lymphocytes, in persons infected with human ... CD4+ T-lymphocyte count less than 250 per mm3;. *Successful response to HAART (defined as an HIV RNA viral load of ,50 copies ... A Phase I Evaluation of the Safety and Biologic Activity of TXA127 in HIV-Infected Subjects With CD4+ T-Lymphocyte Counts Less ...
U.S. Trends in Antiretroviral Therapy Use, HIV RNA Plasma Viral Loads, and CD4 T-Lymphocyte Cell Counts Among HIV-Infected...
U.S. Trends in Antiretroviral Therapy Use, HIV RNA Plasma Viral Loads, and CD4 T-Lymphocyte Cell Counts Among HIV-Infected ... U.S. Trends in Antiretroviral Therapy Use, HIV RNA Plasma Viral Loads, and CD4 T-Lymphocyte Cell Counts Among HIV-Infected ... HIV-infected adults with 1 or more HIV RNA plasma viral load (HIV VL) or CD4 T-lymphocyte (CD4) cell count measured in any ... Annual rates of antiretroviral therapy use, HIV VL, and CD4 cell count at death. ...
Changes in Plasma HIV RNA Levels and CD4+ Lymphocyte Counts Predict Both Response to Antiretroviral Therapy and Therapeutic...
Markers are needed for assessing response to antiretroviral therapy over time. The CD4+ lymphocyte count is one such surrogate ... Changes in Plasma HIV RNA Levels and CD4+ Lymphocyte Counts Predict Both Response to Antiretroviral Therapy and Therapeutic ... Changes in Plasma HIV RNA Levels and CD4+ Lymphocyte Counts Predict Both Response to Antiretroviral Therapy and Therapeutic ... in addition to the CD4+ lymphocyte count, has a role in guiding the management of antiretroviral therapy. ...
Association between CD4+ Lymphocyte Count and Left Ventricular Diastolic Function and Geometry in Newly Diagnosed Highly...
Lymphocyte Count and Left Ventricular Diastolic Function and Geometry in Newly Diagnosed Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy ( ... lymphocyte count with clinical and echocardiograghic parameters. A correlation study of CD4+ lymphocyte count with some ... CD4+ lymphocyte count and opportunistic infection are the major indicators for the clinical staging of HIV infection  and ... CD4 T-helper lymphocyte count was estimated using the flow cytometry method. Both biochemical and hematological parameters were ...
P2.146 CD4 Lymphocytes Count At First Presentation of HIV Positive Patients Accessing Antiretroviral Therapy At a District...
P2.146 CD4 Lymphocytes Count At First Presentation of HIV Positive Patients Accessing Antiretroviral Therapy At a District ... P2.146 CD4 Lymphocytes Count At First Presentation of HIV Positive Patients Accessing Antiretroviral Therapy At a District ... The study determined the CD4 lymphocytes count levels of HIV positive patient at first presentation at STI/HIV Clinic at ... Less than a quarter (18.8%, 116/883) of patients came with CD4 count of 500 cells/mm3 or more. 70.9% came with CD4 count of ...
Welcome to CDC stacks | Determining eligibility for antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings using total lymphocyte...
CD4+ T lymphocyte (CD4) cell count testing is the standard method for determining eligibility for antiretroviral therapy (ART ... Determining eligibility for antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings using total lymphocyte counts, hemoglobin and ... Total lymphocyte counts (TLCs) have not proven sufficiently accurate in identifying subjects with low CD4 counts. We developed ... Utility of routine viral load, CD4 cell count, and clinical monitoring among adults with HIV receiving antiretroviral therapy ...
Use of total lymphocyte count (TLC) for monitoring response to antiretroviral therapy | HTB | HIV i-Base
Use of total lymphocyte count (TLC) for monitoring response to antiretroviral therapy. 3 February 2004. Related: Diagnostics. ... Use of total lymphocyte count (TLC) for monitoring response to antiretroviral therapy ... Schreibman T, Friedland G. Use of total lymphocyte count for monitoring response to antiretroviral therapy. Clinical Infectious ... A number of previous studies indicate that the total lymphocyte count (TLC) may be useful as a surrogate marker of immune ...
Saxagliptin Hydrochloride Monograph for Professionals - Drugs.com
Reduction in Lymphocyte Counts. Dose-related mean decreases in absolute lymphocyte count reported with saxagliptin dosages of 5 ... Consider potential risks and benefits of saxagliptin therapy prior to use in patients at higher risk for heart failure.1 42 ... measure lymphocyte count.1. Sensitivity Reactions. Risk of serious allergic and hypersensitivity reactions (e.g., anaphylaxis, ... Importance of informing patients about possibility of heart failure with saxagliptin therapy.1 2 42 Importance of patients ...
Temporal Profile of Lymphocyte Counts and Relationship with Infections with Fingolimod Therapy - Certara
Temporal Profile of Lymphocyte Counts and Relationship with Infections with Fingolimod Therapy. ... Home / Temporal Profile of Lymphocyte Counts and Relationship with Infections with Fingolimod Therapy ... is to evaluate lymphocyte dynamics during and after fingolimod therapy and assess the relationship between lymphocyte counts ... Because fingolimod reduces blood lymphocyte counts via redistribution in secondary lymphoid organs, peripheral blood lymphocyte ...
Frontiers | Neutrophil Heterogeneity in Cancer: From Biology to Therapies | Immunology
Neutrophil Count to Lymphocyte Count Ratio (NLR). Circulating neutrophil counts are systematically monitored by oncologists ... Change in neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio in response to targeted therapy for metastatic renal cell carcinoma as a ... Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and Platelet-to-Lymphocyte ratio (PLR) as prognostic markers in patients with non-small ... Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio, and their dynamic changes during chemotherapy is useful to ...
hodgkin's disease lymphocyte predominant nodular drug therapy 2000:2010[pubdate] *count=100 - BioMedLib™ search engine
1 hodgkins disease lymphocyte predominant nodular drug therapy 2000:2010[pubdate] *count=100 14 results Searchbox Export PDF ... Concept C0013217: pharmacologic therapy; details. *. hodgkins disease lymphocyte predominant nodular expanded to all its ... Hodgkin Disease / drug therapy. Lymphoma, B-Cell / drug therapy. *[MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Bleomycin / administration & dosage ... Title] Rituximab monotherapy in relapsed lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkins lymphoma.. *Nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkins ...
nodular lymphocyte predominant hodgkin's lymphoma drug therapy 2000:2010[pubdate] *count=100 - BioMedLib™ search engine
1 nodular lymphocyte predominant hodgkins lymphoma drug therapy 2000:2010[pubdate] *count=100 21 results Searchbox Export PDF ... Novel therapies, such as rituximab, may be useful for children with CD20+ nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma. ... Lymphocytes / pathology. Lymphoma, B-Cell / drug therapy. Lymphoma, B-Cell / mortality. Lymphoma, B-Cell / pathology. Male. ... Concept C0013217: pharmacologic therapy; details. *. nodular lymphocyte predominant hodgkins lymphoma expanded to all its ...
May 2004 - Volume 12 - Issue 3 : Infectious Diseases in Clinical Practice
When to Begin Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy? Evidence Supporting Initiation of Therapy at CD4 Lymphocyte Counts ... CD4 T-Lymphocyte Recovery in Individuals With Advanced HIV-1 Infection Receiving Potent Antiretroviral Therapy for 4 Years: The ... When Should Antiretroviral Therapy be Started for HIV Infection? Interpreting the Evidence From Observational Studies. ... Comparison of Four-Drug Regimens and Pairs of Sequential Three-Drug Regimens as Initial Therapy for HIV-1 Infection. ...
Palbociclib With Endocrine Therapy for HR+ Breast Carcinoma
Lymphocyte count decreased. 26 (16). 12 (7). 12 (7). 2 (1). 0 (0). ... breast cancer in combination with endocrine therapy as either first- or second-line therapy. Uncomplicated neutropenia is ... This phase II trial was designed to determine the feasibility of adjuvant palbociclib and endocrine therapy for early breast ... A Phase II Feasibility Study of Palbociclib in Combination With Adjuvant Endocrine Therapy for Hormone Receptor-Positive ...
A Study of a Combination of Four Drugs in Patients With Recent HIV Infection - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Drug Therapy, Combination. HIV Protease Inhibitors. CD4 Lymphocyte Count. Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors. Anti-HIV Agents. ... Prior exposure to antiretroviral therapy.. *Therapy with immunomodulating agents such as systemic corticosteroids, interleukins ... Foscarnet or therapy with other agents with documented in vitro or in vivo activity against HIV-1. ... Concurrent therapy with rifampin, rifabutin, terfenadine, astemizole, ketoconazole, itraconazole, cisapride, triazolam, ...
Viremia copy-years predicts mortality among treatment-naive HIV-infected patients initiating antiretroviral therapy
... cross-sectional VL measures and time-updated CD4+ T-lymphocyte count in ART-treated patients, suggesting cumulative HIV ... cross-sectional VL measures and time-updated CD4+ T-lymphocyte count in ART-treated patients, suggesting cumulative HIV ... Viremia copy-years predicts mortality among treatment-naive HIV-infected patients initiating antiretroviral therapy Clin Infect ... the cumulative effect of exposure to HIV replication on mortality following initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy ( ...
Combination antiretroviral therapy and th... & related info | Mendeley
CD4 Lymphocyte Count. *Combination. *Drug Therapy. *Female. *Follow-Up Studies. *HIV Infections/*complications/drug therapy ... Combination antiretroviral therapy was defined as any combination regimen of antiretroviral drugs that included a protease ... Combination antiretroviral therapy and the risk of myocardial infarction. *Friis-Moller N ... The incidence of myocardial infarction increased with longer exposure to combination antiretroviral therapy (adjusted relative ...
Science Clips - Volume 11, Issue 24 June 18, 2019
... prescribed combination antiretroviral therapy; median CD4 lymphocyte count 468 cells/muL; 76% with viral load , 400 HIV-1 RNA ... METHODS: The Study to Understand the Natural History of HIV/AIDS in the Era of Effective Therapy (SUN) was a prospective cohort ... Because of the high cost of cancer therapy, many cancer survivors are more likely to face substantial out-of-pocket health care ... Glucose, Albumin, Alp, Lymphocyte Percentage, Hgb, and Mchc Decreased with Age, Whereas Neutrophil and Monocyte Percentages, ...
Low lymphocyte count a risk factor for infections for people taking HCV therapy. News ... Triple-drug HCV therapy comes with high risk of serious adverse events for people with cirrhosis. News ... Fear of future health problems encourage people to start and complete HCV therapy but concern about side-effects is a deterrent ... Interferon-free therapy alters lipid metabolism, glucose homeostasis in chronic HCV patients. Editors pick ...
Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy and T-Cell Infusion in Treating Patients With Metastatic Kidney Cancer - Tabular View -...
Absolute neutrophil count (ANC) ,= 0.75 x 10^9/L. *Absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) ,= 0.5 X 10^9/L ... Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy and T-Cell Infusion in Treating Patients With Metastatic Kidney Cancer. The safety and ... The stem cells are then returned to the patient to replace the blood-forming cells that were destroyed by the radiation therapy ... STEREOTACTIC BODY RADIATION THERAPY (SBRT): Patients undergo standard of care SBRT over 1-2 weeks according to tumor volume and ...
Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy and T-Cell Infusion in Treating Patients With Metastatic Kidney Cancer - Full Text View -...
Absolute neutrophil count (ANC) ,= 0.75 x 10^9/L. *Absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) ,= 0.5 X 10^9/L ... Radiation: stereotactic body radiation therapy Drug: cyclophosphamide Biological: therapeutic autologous lymphocytes Other: ... Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy and T-Cell Infusion in Treating Patients With Metastatic Kidney Cancer. The safety and ... STEREOTACTIC BODY RADIATION THERAPY (SBRT): Patients undergo standard of care SBRT over 1-2 weeks according to tumor volume and ...
Effect of highly active anti-retroviral therapy on CD3+/CD4+/CD8+ T lymphocyte counts in HIV seropositive Kashmiri patients: a...
CD4 Lymphocyte Count , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Drug Therapy, ... Effect of highly active anti-retroviral therapy on CD3+/CD4+/CD8+ T lymphocyte counts in HIV seropositive Kashmiri patients: a ... Effect of highly active anti-retroviral therapy on CD3+/CD4+/CD8+ T lymphocyte counts in H ... Combination , Female , Follow-Up Studies , HIV Seropositivity/drug therapy , HIV-1/drug effects , Humans , Lymphocyte Count , ...
Determining eligibility for antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings using total lymphocyte counts, hemoglobin and...
Total lymphocyte count as a possible surro-gate of CD4 cell count to prioritize eligibility for antiretrovi-ral therapy among ... Absolute or total lymphocyte count as a marker for the CD4T lymphocyte criterion for initiating antiretroviral therapy.Aids ... CD4+ T lymphocyte (CD4) cell count testing is the standard method for determining eligibility for antiretroviral therapy (ART ... Badri M, Wood R: Usefulness of total lymphocyte count inmonitoring highly active antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited ...
Polyclonal anti T-lymphocyte antibody therapy monitoring in kidney transplant recipients: comparison of CD3+ T cell and total...
Total lymphocyte and CD3+ T cell counts in peripheral blood are not equivalent monitoring strategies in anti-thymocyte globulin ... Polyclonal anti T-lymphocyte antibody therapy monitoring in kidney transplant recipients: Polyclonal anti T-lymphocyte antibody ... Doses were adjusted according to CD3+ T cell or total lymphocyte counts in peripheral blood. Results:. A total of 664 paired ... To investigate the correlation between total lymphocyte and CD3+ T cell counts in peripheral blood in renal transplant patients ...
Increased blood phenylalanine to tyrosine ratio in HIV-1 infection and correction following effective antiretroviral therapy
HIV Infections / drug therapy* * HIV Infections / immunology * HIV-1* * Humans * Lymphocyte Count ... Increased blood phenylalanine to tyrosine ratio in HIV-1 infection and correction following effective antiretroviral therapy ... and CD4+ counts (rs=-0.182, both p,0.05). After ART, phe/tyr dropped to 0.72+/-0.16 (=-27%; U=5.21, p=0.01) which was due to an ... Plasma phe/tyr was measured in 107 patients with HIV-1 infection before and after 12 months of effective antiretroviral therapy ...
Researchers discover that lymphocyte count indicates prognosis of patients with renal cell... ( CHICAGO IL (May 18 2011)Each...
The level of lymphocytes a type of white blood cell was one possible...,Researchers,discover,that,lymphocyte,count,indicates, ... "The test may help individualize therapies, change clinical decisions and add therapies before or after the surgery," Saroha ... For example, if a young RCC patient has a low lymphocyte count but is otherwise healthy, a doctor may decide to pursue more ... Researchers discover that lymphocyte count indicates prognosis of patients with renal cell carcinoma ...
A Study to Test If Giving Remune (an HIV Vaccine) Can Improve the Immune Systems of HIV-Positive Patients Who Are Also...
Lymphocytes Interleukin-2 Drug Therapy, Combination AIDS Vaccines CD4 Lymphocyte Count Cell Division HIV Core Protein p24 Anti- ... Remune has been reported to increase lymphocyte proliferative responses to HIV antigens in patients with high CD4 cell counts. ... This study involves patients who have received at least 60 weeks of anti-HIV therapy, either alone or in combination with IL-2 ... Blood and skin tests are performed at Weeks 0, 8, 16, and 24 to measure immune response and lymphocyte proliferative responses ...
AntiretroviralMedianLymphopeniaInfectionsBaselineHAARTClinicalNormal lymphocyte countHumansLymph nodesAdverseChemotherapy1,000DecreasePrognostic factorHighly activeProduce circulatinOutcomeDiscontinuationLymphoidCellsInfectionCombinationSurvivalSystemic therapiesImmune systemTotalPrognosisPlatelet countBone marrowNeutrophil countMalignanciesFindingsTuberculosisSymptomsLevelsAbsoluteNeutrophilsHematopoieticRatioRadiationImmunosuppressiveSurrogateLaboratoryDiseaseTECFIDERAAutoimmuneMycobacterialCell countResponses
- Markers are needed for assessing response to antiretroviral therapy over time. (annals.org)
- An adequate virologic response after initiation of antiretroviral therapy seems to require a decrease in plasma HIV RNA level of at least 0.5 log 10 copies/mL that is sustained for at least 6 months. (annals.org)
- The independent relation between plasma HIV RNA level and CD4+ lymphocyte count over time and clinical outcome suggests that the measurement of plasma HIV RNA level, in addition to the CD4+ lymphocyte count, has a role in guiding the management of antiretroviral therapy. (annals.org)
- Background Recent high level of mortality among patients both on clinical care and on Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) has been blamed on late reporting of patients to Hospitals. (bmj.com)
- CD4+ T lymphocyte (CD4) cell count testing is the standard method for determining eligibility for antiretroviral therapy (ART), but is not widely available in sub-Saharan Africa. (cdc.gov)
- Given the decreasing costs and increased availability of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in the developing world, this is an issue of critical and increasing importance. (i-base.info)
- We evaluated the cumulative effect of exposure to HIV replication on mortality following initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART). (nih.gov)
- Combination antiretroviral therapy and th. (mendeley.com)
- Combination antiretroviral therapy was defined as any combination regimen of antiretroviral drugs that included a protease inhibitor or a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor. (mendeley.com)
- Antiretroviral therapy has played an important role in improving the quality of life and extending the life span of HIV positive patients . (bvsalud.org)
- Determining eligibility for antiretroviral therapy. (ubc.ca)
- Jonathan Mermin - [email protected]* Corresponding author AbstractBackground: CD4+ T lymphocyte (CD4) cell count testing is the standard method fordetermining eligibility for antiretroviral therapy (ART), but is not widely available in sub-SaharanAfrica. (ubc.ca)
- Plasma phe/tyr was measured in 107 patients with HIV-1 infection before and after 12 months of effective antiretroviral therapy (ART). (nih.gov)
- World Health Organization, Antiretroviral Therapy for HIV Infection in Adults and Adolescents , 2010. (hindawi.com)
- World Health Organization, Antiretroviral Therapy for HIV Infection in Infants and Children: Towards Universal Access , 2010. (hindawi.com)
- AIM: Investigate the cost and effects of a single-pill versus two- or three pill first-line antiretroviral combinations in reducing viral load, increasing CD4 counts, and first-line failure rate associated with respective regimens at 6 and 12 months. (biomedsearch.com)
- The added value of a CD4 count to identify patients eligible for highly active antiretroviral therapy among HIV-positive adults in Cambodia. (nih.gov)
- The 2003 WHO clinical criteria had a sensitivity of 96%, a specificity of 57%, and an accuracy of 89% to identify patients who need highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). (nih.gov)
- 100 cells/µl, the incidence should fall during scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) programmes, as in the high-income countries. (scielo.org.za)
- Our study showed a significant increase in CD4+ T lymphocyte levels in the synbiotic group, which could delay the initiation of antiretroviral therapy and decrease costs in countries with limited resources. (biomedcentral.com)
- 1 The introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has significantly reduced morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected patients in various developed and developing countries. (who.int)
- This volume on AIDS & Pregnancy covers prenatal assistance, antenatal care and screening, treatment for low lymphocyte count, antiretroviral regimes for prevention of transmission to child, adverse effects of antiretroviral therapy in pregnancy, awareness of HIV on pregnancy, occupational hazards and so on. (routledge.com)
- In an initially double-blind trial, 212 evaluable human immunodeficiency virus-infected children who had received no more than 6 weeks of previous antiretroviral therapy were randomized to receive either d4T (1 mg/kg orally every 12 hours, maximum 40 mg orally every 12 hours) or zidovudine (180 mg/m 2 orally every 6 hours, maximum 200 mg orally every 6 hours). (aappublications.org)
- Antiretroviral therapy of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children results in a variety of virologic, immunologic, and clinical benefits. (aappublications.org)
- The limitations of ZDV and other available therapies, as well as the poor prognosis of HIV infection in children, necessitate development of better tolerated, safer, and more effective antiretroviral agents. (aappublications.org)
- Women who have not been tested should be offered rapid screening when in labor, and if the rapid test is positive, they should start antiretroviral therapy while waiting for results from a confirmatory test. (medscape.com)
- The incidence of PCP has declined significantly over the past 10 years or so due to widespread use of PCP prophylaxis and most importantly antiretroviral therapy (ART). (aahivm.org)
- Moreover, there is a substantial inter-individual variability in the CD4+ recovery in HIV-infected patients on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). (springer.com)
- Simplification to dual-therapy containing lamivudine and darunavir/ritonavir or atazanavir/ritonavir in HIV-infected patients on virologically suppressive antiretroviral therapy. (physiciansweekly.com)
- The ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor (PI/r)-based dual regimens are warranted in order to optimize the combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), prevent the long-term toxicity and reduce the cost of treatments. (physiciansweekly.com)
- We performed an observational, retrospective study of HIV-infected patients on suppressive antiretroviral therapy who switched to a dual regimen containing lamivudine (3TC) plus darunavir/ritonavir (DRV/r) 800/100 mg qd or atazanavir/ritonavir (ATV/r) 300/100 mg qd. (physiciansweekly.com)
- The debate continues concerning the optimal time to initiate highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. (aafp.org)
- The authors compared patients with CD4 + counts from 350 to 499 cells per mm 3 (350 to 499 × 10 6 per L) who had received at least 90 days of HAART after reaching this level (159 patients) or were being followed without antiretroviral therapy (174 patients). (aafp.org)
- In newly HIV-diagnosed patients, the CD4+ lymphocyte count is measured to determine the need for antiretroviral therapy (ART). (hindawi.com)
- With the roll-out of antiretroviral therapy (ART), most HIV-infected people living in these countries have free access to HIV treatment. (hindawi.com)
- The debate regarding 'When to Start' antiretroviral therapy has raged since the introduction of zidovudine in 1987. (biomedcentral.com)
- 5) Some cohort studies have demonstrated the clear benefit of antiretroviral therapy at any CD4 count and no cohort studies have demonstrated that early therapy is more detrimental than late therapy at the population level. (biomedcentral.com)
- The advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) by the mid-1990s brought new hopes for the advocates of the "hit early, hit hard" approach [ 10 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- Usefulness of total lymphocyte count in monitoring highly active antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings. (semanticscholar.org)
- Mortality and causes of death in adults receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy in Senegal: a 7-year cohort study. (semanticscholar.org)
- Mortality of HIV-1-infected patients in the first year of antiretroviral therapy: comparison between low-income and high-income countries. (semanticscholar.org)
- Antiretroviral therapy in a thousand patients with AIDS in Haiti. (semanticscholar.org)
- 200/mm3, thus ensuring initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy and thereby reducing investigational costs. (uwi.edu)
- 2 ] Since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in the mid-1990s, the incidence of lymphomas has decreased, and outcomes have improved. (cancer.gov)
- Median CD4 cell counts and TLCs, were 239 cells/μL and 1830 cells/μL, respectively. (ubc.ca)
- Women hospitalized in ICUs are available on the risk factors for such transmis- had lower lymphocyte count at diagnosis (median 0.77 sion. (cdc.gov)
- Patients entering the study had a median CD4+ lymphocyte count of 15. (ucsf.edu)
- 7 However, despite recent progress in expanding access to ART in South Africa, 8 the median CD4+ T-cell count of patients initiating ART remains low, and a high risk of new AIDS events and mortality persists during the first months of ART. (scielo.org.za)
- range, 0.3 to 6.4 years), with a median baseline CD4+ lymphocyte count of 965 cells/μL (range, 18 to 4238 cells/μL). (aappublications.org)
- As expected in this population of young children, median absolute CD4+ lymphocyte counts decreased in both treatment groups. (aappublications.org)
- Eight patients with median lymphocyte count of 35.9 × 10 9 /L and median serum β2 microglobulin level of 6.45 mg/L were treated. (bloodjournal.org)
- Six had Rai stage III to IV and were previously heavily treated (median prior therapy = 5). (bloodjournal.org)
- There was no difference in median age, baseline CD4 + T lymphocyte count, and HIV-1 RNA viral load between the two groups. (aafp.org)
- Most patients in these series had either mixed cellularity or lymphocyte-depleted HL, expression of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated proteins in Reed-Sternberg cells, B symptoms, and a median CD4 lymphocyte count of 300/dL or lower. (cancer.gov)
- Lymphopenia is a common finding from a full blood count, especially in elderly patients, where it is usually of no clinical significance. (bmj.com)
- Lymphopenia: Obtain a CBC including lymphocyte count before initiating BAFIERTAM, after 6 months, and every 6 to 12 months thereafter. (nih.gov)
- FTY720 (Fingolimod) reduces multiple sclerosis disease activity by inducing lymphopenia and inhibiting lymphocyte re-entry from lymph nodes. (mssociety.ca)
- Approximately a quarter of people taking HCV therapy develop infections, but the relationship between cytopenia and the risk of infections has not been well researched. (aidsmap.com)
- The objective of this article is to evaluate lymphocyte dynamics during and after fingolimod therapy and assess the relationship between lymphocyte counts and infections. (certara.com)
- Fingolimod induces a rapid and reversible reduction in lymphocyte counts without an increase in infections relative to placebo. (certara.com)
- Circulating neutrophil counts are systematically monitored by oncologists during cancer management, owing to chemotherapy-induced neutropenia, which makes patients more vulnerable to life-threatening infections ( 7 , 8 ). (frontiersin.org)
- In patients with low lymphocyte counts, there was no increased incidence in serious infections. (fiercepharma.com)
- At doses used for lupus nephritis in humans, CTX therapy results in a reduction in peripheral lymphocytes ( 12 ) and an increased risk of some infections ( 13 , 14 ). (jimmunol.org)
- Those patients had very low CD4 T cell counts, profound immunodeficiency and a very high risk of developing opportunistic infections (OIs), especially Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia. (biomedcentral.com)
- Plasma HIV RNA levels or CD4+ lymphocyte counts over time were more strongly associated with progression to AIDS than were baseline levels or counts. (annals.org)
- Administration of fingolimod 0.5 mg led to reductions in lymphocyte counts to a steady-state of 24%-30% of baseline values within two weeks, which remained stable while on therapy. (certara.com)
- Following fingolimod discontinuation, average counts exceeded the lower limit of normal range within six to eight weeks, and were 80% of baseline values by three months. (certara.com)
- Kaplan-Meier survival curves are shown stratified by the absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) at (A) baseline and after (B) the first and (C) second ipilimumab doses. (nih.gov)
- METHODS: Patients on first-line TDF+3TC+EFV, TDF+FTC+EFV, Truvada®+EFV or Atripla® between 1996-2008 were identified and viral load and CD4 counts measured at baseline, six and twelve months respectively. (biomedsearch.com)
- Children were assessed clinically and with laboratory studies at baseline, weekly through week 4 of combination therapy, and every 4 weeks thereafter. (aappublications.org)
- The CD4+ lymphocyte (CD4) count (cells/µl) was estimated at baseline and at 6-month intervals during follow-up. (who.int)
- A total of 1,240 patients, including 612 who remained in the study without requiring rescue therapy through week 76, were included in a repeated measures analysis of HbA1c change from baseline. (fiercebiotech.com)
- The lymphocyte count improves after ceasing therapy but does not return to baseline. (managedcaremag.com)
- In the subgroup of patients not receiving disease‐modifying therapy, NFL decreased by 30.9% to week 48% and 32.6% to week 96 from baseline in the vitamin D group as compared to the placebo group (P = 0.06 for both time points). (thisisms.com)
- This is a Phase I, single institution, open-label, within-dosing-cohort-schedule randomized, dose escalation study of TXA127 in HIV-infected subjects with CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts less than 250 per mm3 who have responded to highly active retroviral therapy (HAART). (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Patients who received HAART were more likely to be male and nonblack, and to have homosexual contact as their primary risk factor than those who did not receive HAART while in this CD4 + cell count range. (aafp.org)
- Those receiving HAART had a longer average follow-up (31 months) than those who did not receive multidrug therapy (21 months). (aafp.org)
- The number of patients who developed acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-defining events was low in both groups: 20 patients in the group receiving HAART, and 23 patients in the group who did not receive HAART while in this CD4 + cell count stratum. (aafp.org)
- The authors conclude that the use of HAART in patients who have HIV infection with CD4 + counts between 350 and 499 cells per mm 3 did not slow disease progression or improve survival, did not completely suppress viral load in many patients, and frequently caused side effects. (aafp.org)
- METHODS In a district hospital in Ethiopia, we treated adult HIV infected patients with HAART based on clinical and total lymphocyte count (TLC) criteria. (semanticscholar.org)
- 3 ] Higher CD4-positive T-lymphocyte (CD4) counts in the HAART era have been associated with a shift in histologic diagnoses. (cancer.gov)
- Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction on cryopreserved plasma samples, previously obtained CD4+ lymphocyte counts, and clinical events. (annals.org)
- In the clinical course of HIV infection, CD4 + count decreases with disease progression and it has been considered to be correlated with LV dysfunction in the disease process. (omicsonline.org)
- The test may help individualize therapies, change clinical decisions and add therapies before or after the surgery," Saroha says. (bio-medicine.org)
- A clinical diagnosis of AIDS, excluding CD4+ cell counts less than 200/mm3. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Medicinal mushrooms have been approved adjuncts to standard cancer treatments in Japan and China for more than 30 years and have an extensive clinical history of safe use as single agents or combined with radiation therapy or chemotherapy . (cancer.gov)
- Paradoxical deterioration during antituberculosis therapy, defined as the clinical or radiological worsening of pre-existing tuberculous lesions or the development of new lesions in a patient who initially improves, remains a diagnostic dilemma. (springer.com)
- Combination therapy was well tolerated, and there were no drug-associated clinical or laboratory adverse events. (aappublications.org)
- In clinical studies, mean lymphocyte counts decreased during the first year of treatment and then remained stable. (fiercepharma.com)
- Clinical outcome was related to CD4+ lymphocyte counts, which were monitored every 6 weeks. (bmj.com)
- The authors investigated patients who discontinued therapy during clinical investigation and they found that the reconstitution of this specific cell-type after prolonged FTY720 therapy can be significantly greater than predicted. (mssociety.ca)
- This is relevant for clinical decisions regarding management of patients using this therapy and for introducing alternate therapies. (mssociety.ca)
Normal lymphocyte count3
- For example, about half of RCC patients are over 60 years old, and if one of these patients has other health problems and a normal lymphocyte count, a doctor may decide to monitor the patient rather than perform surgery. (bio-medicine.org)
- What Is a Normal Lymphocyte Count for an Adult? (reference.com)
- A normal lymphocyte count typically ranges from 1,000 to 4,800 lymphocytes per microliter of blood for an adult. (reference.com)
- These observations have recently been extended to humans with the demonstration that CTLA4Ig resulted in only transient suppression of humoral responses to soluble Ags and did not affect circulating lymphocyte counts in humans with psoriasis ( 19 ). (jimmunol.org)
- The researchers found that lower lymphocyte levels were associated with a higher tumor grade, a higher pathologic tumor stage, the presence of distant metastases, and a higher TNM stagea combined indicator of tumor stage, spread to regional lymph nodes, and distant metastasis. (bio-medicine.org)
- Some lymphocytes remain in clusters within the lymph nodes, while others circulate throughout the body in the bloodstream or in the lymph, which is a clear yellowish fluid carried by the lymphatic channels. (encyclopedia.com)
- A low lymphocyte count can be caused by the body's inability to make lymphocytes, the body's inability to make the necessary amount of lymphocytes or when lymphocytes are trapped in the lymph nodes or spleen. (reference.com)
- The initial combination of ONGLYZA and metformin, with or without pioglitazone rescue therapy, had similar adverse event (AE) rates compared to treatment with investigational saxagliptin or metformin alone. (fiercebiotech.com)
- The most common adverse event is flushing which occurred in 40% of patients and resulted in 3% of patients stopping therapy. (managedcaremag.com)
- The second common adverse set of events is gastrointestinal - nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain and dyspepsia - collectively resulted in an additional 4% of patients who discontinue therapy. (managedcaremag.com)
- Other adverse events include hepatic transaminase elevations that occurred primarily in the first 6 months of therapy and were not associated with a significantly increased cessation rate as compared to placebo. (managedcaremag.com)
- For example, if a young RCC patient has a low lymphocyte count but is otherwise healthy, a doctor may decide to pursue more aggressive therapies, such as surgery and chemotherapy. (bio-medicine.org)
- To investigate the effects of absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) before start of the first cycle of consolidation chemotherapy (CC) on the relapse free survival in the patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), so as to explore a simple and easy method for predicting AML relapse . (bvsalud.org)
- Low lymphocyte counts can also be caused by diseases such as autoimmune disorders, infectious diseases, blood cancer, steroid therapy, chemotherapy treatments and radiation treatments. (reference.com)
- Chemotherapy and radiotherapy were started again and first course of therapy was completed one month before patient's emergency room admission. (scielo.org.ar)
- Normal lymphocyte counts in an adult range from 1,000 to 4,800 lymphocytes per microliter of blood, according to the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute. (reference.com)
- Healthy adults usually have CD4+ counts between 600 and 1,000. (ucsf.edu)
- Healthy adults should have a count between 1,000 and 4,800 cells in each microliter of blood for a normal range. (reference.com)
- TECFIDERA may decrease lymphocyte counts in some patients. (fiercepharma.com)
- However, the lymphocyte counts take longer to decrease to normal levels with idelalisib. (wikipedia.org)
- 1-3 A decrease in virus concentration in serum or plasma, an increase in CD4+ lymphocyte count, improved weight gain, decreased hepatosplenomegaly and lymphadenopathy, and improvement in HIV-associated encephalopathy, often are observed. (aappublications.org)
- Two had transient decrease in lymphocyte count to normal, whereas in 5, disease progressed. (bloodjournal.org)
- The main warning is that Tecfidera may decrease lymphocyte counts by a mean of 30% during the first year of therapy but then the levels remain stable. (managedcaremag.com)
- The AML patients with high lymphocyte count before the first CC have more long relapse free survival time suggesting that the lymphocyte count before the first CC may be prognostic factor for relapse free survival of AML patients . (bvsalud.org)
- The derived neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (dNLR) and absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) were demonstrated to act as a prognostic factor in several malignancies. (dovepress.com)
- The purpose of this study is to test the safety of an investigational medication, TXA127, and its ability to increase T-lymphocyte counts, specifically CD4+ T-lymphocytes, in persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus who are taking highly active anti-retroviral therapy. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Effect of highly active anti-retroviral therapy on CD3+/CD4+/CD8+ T lymphocyte counts in HIV seropositive Kashmiri patients: a follow up study. (bvsalud.org)
- Includes B cells (B lymphocytes, which produce circulating antibodies) and T cells (T lymphocytes, which are responsible for cell-mediated immunity). (aidsmap.com)
- Reduction in peripheral blood lymphocytes is an expected pharmacodynamic outcome of fingolimod therapy. (certara.com)
- This monitoring is also recommended when the dose is increased in pediatric patients [see First -Dose Monitoring and Monitoring After Reinitiation Of Therapy Following Discontinuation ]. (rxlist.com)
- Peripheral lymphocyte reconstitution following drug discontinuation has been considered relatively rapid (2-4weeks), based on short-term studies. (mssociety.ca)
- Because fingolimod reduces blood lymphocyte counts via redistribution in secondary lymphoid organs, peripheral blood lymphocyte counts cannot be utilized to evaluate the lymphocyte subset status of a patient. (certara.com)
- SARS viral particles and genomic sequence were detected in a large number of circulating lymphocytes, monocytes, and lymphoid tissues, as well as in the epithelial cells of the respiratory tract, the mucosa of the intestine, the epithelium of the renal distal tubules, the neurons of the brain, and macrophages in different organs. (abovetopsecret.com)
- Results More than half (54.9%, 485/883) of all HIV positive patients presented with CD4 count of less than 250 cells/mm3. (bmj.com)
- 20.7% (183/883) reported with CD4 count less than 50 cell/mm3, 9.5% (84/883) with CD4 count of less than 100 cells/mm3, 24.7% (218/883) with CD4 count of less than 250 cells/mm3, 16.0% (141/883) with CD4 count of less than 350 cells/mm3, 10.3% (91/883) with CD4 count of less than 500. (bmj.com)
- Less than a quarter (18.8%, 116/883) of patients came with CD4 count of 500 cells/mm3 or more. (bmj.com)
- 70.9% came with CD4 count of less than 350 cells/mm3. (bmj.com)
- The stem cells are then returned to the patient to replace the blood-forming cells that were destroyed by the radiation therapy. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Lymphocytes are certain kinds of white blood cells that comprise 20 to 40 percent of the total white blood cell count. (reference.com)
- Lymphocytes, produced in the bone marrow with other types of blood cells, help prevent infection in the body. (reference.com)
- Do not start this drug in patients with a lymphocyte count less than 500 cells/mm3, an absolute neutrophil count (ANC) less than 1000 cells/mm3 or a hemoglobin level less than 9 g/dL. (drugs.com)
- Among them, almost 50% had a CD4 count of more than 500 cells/muL, and 73% had weight loss of more than 10% as a stage-defining condition. (nih.gov)
- Most cancer patients succumb to disseminated disease because conventional systemic therapies lack spatiotemporal control of their toxic effects in vivo, particularly in a complicated milieu such as bone marrow where progenitor stem cells reside. (nature.com)
- Genomic, proteomic and multimodal imaging analyses revealed that the downregulation of CD49d, one of the dimeric protein targets of the nanomicelles, caused therapy resistance in small clusters of cancer cells. (nature.com)
- RR, 3.0-9.5 × 10 9 cells/L). Sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim therapy was begun as prophylaxis against Pneumocystis jiroveci infection. (mja.com.au)
- Determine the overall survival in patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer immunized with adjuvant mutant p53 peptide-pulsed autologous dendritic cells after standard therapy. (knowcancer.com)
- Lymphocytes are white blood cells that play an important role in the immune system. (reference.com)
- Lymphocytes are made up of NK cells (natural killer cells), T cells and B cells. (reference.com)
- These data suggest that both primary and secondary PCP prophylaxis can be safely discontinued in patients with CD4 counts between 100 cells/mm 3 to 200 cells/mm 3 and HIV plasma RNA levels below limits of detection. (aahivm.org)
- Data on which to base specific drug recommendations are not available however one reasonable approach would be to stop primary prophylaxis in patients with CD4 counts of 100 cells/mm 3 to 200 cells/mm 3 if HIV plasma RNA levels remain below limits of detection for ≥3 months to 6 months (BII). (aahivm.org)
- 9 In vitro, in CEM-SS (T-acute lymphoblastic leukemia [T-ALL]) cells, forodesine in the presence of dGuo inhibited the proliferation of T cells with a half maximal inhibitory concentration of 0.015μM, which was accompanied by a 154-fold accumulation of dGTP compared with a 15-fold accumulation in human lymphocytes. (bloodjournal.org)
- Similar to the accumulation kinetics, the elimination profile of dGTP was favorable with a slow elimination in CEM cells (18 hours) and fast degradation in normal T lymphocytes (4 hours). (bloodjournal.org)
- Whether we start at a CD4 count of 732 cells/μl or 493 cells/μl, the patient will be on therapy for over 40 to 50 years. (biomedcentral.com)
- Disseminated MAC (DMAC) characteristically affects people with advanced HIV disease and peripheral CD4 cell counts less than 50 cells/uL. (wikipedia.org)
- CD4 cell count and CD4 cell percentage are key markers for determining disease progression and risk for opportunistic infection in HIV-infected patients. (i-base.info)
- These markers are of greatest use in treating the asymptomatic patient, in whom disease stage is more difficult to assess clinically and for whom laboratory measurements serve as guidelines for the initiation of therapy and opportunistic-infection prophylaxis. (i-base.info)
- To obtain preliminary information on the pharmacokinetic properties, tolerance, safety, and antiviral activity of combination therapy with stavudine and didanosine in children with advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. (aappublications.org)
- Interrupt therapy if a serious infection develops. (drugs.com)
- The risks and benefits of treatment should be carefully considered prior to initiating therapy in patients with chronic or recurrent infection. (drugs.com)
- Monitor CBC with differential, particularly lymphocyte count, in patients with unusual or prolonged infection. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The prognosis of patients with fludarabine-refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is poor, and this appears, at least in part, to be related to a more resistant disease phenotype as well as an increased infection risk related to the effects of the disease and prior therapy. (bloodjournal.org)
- 25 DPP-4 inhibitors also recommended as part of combination therapy, particularly with both postprandial and fasting plasma glucose elevations. (drugs.com)
- [ 5-8 ] Based on those data, palbociclib is FDA-approved and recommended as treatment of metastatic HR+/HER2- breast cancer in combination with endocrine therapy as either first- or second-line therapy. (medscape.com)
- This phase II study was designed to evaluate the feasibility and tolerability of combination treatment with palbociclib plus endocrine therapy in the adjuvant setting for HR+/HER2- early breast cancer. (medscape.com)
- This study involves patients who have received at least 60 weeks of anti-HIV therapy, either alone or in combination with IL-2, while enrolled in ACTG 328. (nih.gov)
- Combination therapy with stavudine and didanosine was well tolerated and safe in this small group of children with advanced HIV disease. (aappublications.org)
- Photodynamic therapy or phototherapy (PT) can offer high spatiotemporal precision and control of tumour killing through a combination of direct cytotoxicity, immune-stimulatory, and antiangiogenic mechanisms 8 . (nature.com)
- Used in combination with rituximab ,  idelalisib is to be used in patients for whom rituximab alone would be considered appropriate therapy due to other existing medical conditions. (wikipedia.org)
- Tofacitinib 5 mg and 10 mg BID demonstrated a consistent safety profile (as monotherapy or combination therapy) and sustained efficacy in this open-label LTE study of patients with RA. (springer.com)
- The study results also demonstrated that a higher number of patients were able to achieve the American Diabetes Association recommended HbA1c target of less than 7% with ONGLYZA and metformin as initial combination therapy, compared to monotherapy of either treatment at week 76. (fiercebiotech.com)
- The objectives of the study were to assess the long-term efficacy and tolerability of ONGLYZA plus metformin and an investigational dose of saxagliptin plus metformin as initial combination therapy compared to an investigational dose of saxagliptin or metformin alone. (fiercebiotech.com)
- The CDK4/6 inhibitor palbociclib prolongs progression-free survival in hormone receptor-positive/HER2-negative (HR+/HER2−) metastatic breast cancer when combined with endocrine therapy. (medscape.com)
- The addition of palbociclib to endocrine therapy significantly improved progression-free survival compared with endocrine therapy alone in either the first-line setting when added to an aromatase inhibitor (AI), or second-line setting when added to fulvestrant. (medscape.com)
- They also found that low counts were associated with a lower overall survival rate, even when they accounted for patient age, tumor stage and metastasis. (bio-medicine.org)
- Single-institution experience with ipilimumab in advanced melanoma patients in the compassionate use setting: lymphocyte count after 2 doses correlates with survival. (nih.gov)
- The patients showed an overall improvement in CD4+T lymphocyte counts at one year survival . (bvsalud.org)
- Cytotoxic T lymphocyte count and survival time in women with metastatic breast cancer. (francoangeli.it)
- Effective prevention and therapy of MAC has the potential to contribute substantially to improved quality of life and duration of survival for HIV-infected persons. (wikipedia.org)
- Second generation systemic therapies rely on targeting precise molecular signatures of cancer or invoke immune responses against certain epitopes specific to cancer. (nature.com)
- These patients are typically unsuitable candidates for existing systemic therapies and emerging immunotherapies. (nature.com)
- It is also approved for the treatment of follicular B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (FL) and relapsed small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL), both in patients who have received at least two prior systemic therapies. (wikipedia.org)
- RCC patients generally have a worse prognosis if they have a suppressed immune system, which is indicated by low lymphocyte levels. (bio-medicine.org)
- Ipilimumab is a monoclonal antibody that antagonizes cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4, a negative regulator of the immune system. (nih.gov)
- Effective disease modifying therapies need to both regulate the immune system and promote restoration of neuronal function, including remyelination. (frontiersin.org)
- Reduced lymphocyte counts can weaken the immune system, which increases the risk for PML. (fda.gov)
- FTY720 (Fingolimod) is a new therapy that reduces disease activity by decreasing numbers of a specific immune system cell. (mssociety.ca)
- The cycle of therapy will be repeated once, for a total of two courses of treatment. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Total lymphocyte counts (TLCs) have not proven sufficiently accurate in identifying subjects with low CD4 counts. (cdc.gov)
- A number of previous studies indicate that the total lymphocyte count (TLC) may be useful as a surrogate marker of immune status in certain settings. (i-base.info)
- To summarise, a total of 15,102 patients enrolled in 15 different studies have been followed up to determine the ability of the TLC to predict the CD4 cell count and HIV disease stage. (i-base.info)
- Eleven of these studies (which included a total of 11,713 patients) contained data that, overall, indicated support for the predictive ability of the TLC, whereas four have concluded that the TLC was not a reliable predictor of the CD4 cell count. (i-base.info)
- In the present study 17 naive HIV positive patients out of a total of 23 positive cases from local population who had absolute CD4+ counts below 300 were given ARV therapy and followed for 1 year. (bvsalud.org)
- GH treatment also resulted in increased transferrin and serum albumin levels and total lymphocyte count during the study period. (biomedsearch.com)
- Methods and Results: We retrieved the data for all patients developing ventricular arrhythmia during PCI between 1999 to 2009 from our cath lab database (from 30,798 records), a total of 70 patients (Group I), and tabulated their WBC counts and absolute neutrophil and lymphocyte counts as well as N/L ratios. (eurekaselect.com)
- A total lymphocyte count as an extra criterion did not improve the accuracy. (nih.gov)
- Moreover, in advanced stages of disseminated cancers, patients often present with extremely low total lymphocyte counts. (nature.com)
- How do I calculate total lymphocyte count? (reference.com)
- Calculate a total lymphocyte count by multiplying the white blood cell count by the percentage of lymphocytes in a complete blood cell count test, accordin. (reference.com)
- Researchers discover that lymphocyte count indicates prognosis of patients with renal cell. (bio-medicine.org)
- By evaluating data from more than 500 patients with the most common form of RCCcalled clear cell RCCwho had their kidneys surgically removed at Fox Chase between 1994 and 2009, Al-Saleem and his colleagues found a clear relationship between low lymphocyte counts within three months prior to surgery and a poor prognosis. (bio-medicine.org)
- A blood test performed on admission revealed an elevated inflammatory response, coagulation disorder and low platelet count, and abdominal computed tomography demonstrated findings suggestive of pyogenic spondylitis. (go.jp)
- The most frequently used score for risk stratification, the international prognostic scoring system (IPSS) 1 and its revised version 2 take the degree of cytopenias, the bone marrow blast count and presence and type of cytogenetic changes determined by conventional metaphase cytogenetics into account. (nature.com)
- Approximately a fifth (21%) of patients had at least one neutrophil count below 0.75x10 9 /l, only 8% of individuals experienced a sustained fall in neutrophils below this level. (aidsmap.com)
- Availability of blood cell counts from retrospective analyses has led to numerous reviews and meta-analyses investigating the prognostic value of the neutrophil count (or preferably neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, also called NLR) in both localized or metastatic contexts ( 9 - 12 ). (frontiersin.org)
- In addition, prolonged therapy commonly results in ovarian failure ( 15 ), azoospermia ( 16 ), and an increased rate of various malignancies ( 17 ). (jimmunol.org)
- Although these findings should be explored further in prospective research studies, the researchers suggest that the lymphocyte count could factor into doctors' treatment decisions. (bio-medicine.org)
- A surge in the lymphocyte count, accompanied by an exaggerated tuberculin skin reaction, was observed in our patients during the paradoxical deterioration, analogous to the findings in HIV-positive patients. (springer.com)
- These findings appeared unique to MAVENCLAD across other high-efficacy MS therapies. (businesswire.com)
- The use of steroids appeared to be safe in this series, as 95% of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates were susceptible to first-line antituberculosis therapy. (springer.com)
- After withdrawing temozolomide and initiating prednisolone therapy, the patient had no further pulmonary symptoms. (ersjournals.com)
- The study determined the CD4 lymphocytes count levels of HIV positive patient at first presentation at STI/HIV Clinic at Suntreso Government Hospital in Kumasi, Ghana. (bmj.com)
- Depending on the immunologic and virologic status of the patient, further testing may be done to determine whether quadruple drug therapy can attain undetectable viral levels. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Results were compared with CD4+ cell counts, HIV-1 RNA levels and concentrations of immune activation marker neopterin. (nih.gov)
- What Causes Low Lymphocyte Levels? (reference.com)
- RESULTS: All regimens reduced viral load to below the limit of detection and CD4 counts increased to similar levels at six and twelve months for all treatment regimens. (biomedsearch.com)
- CD 4 lymphocyte counts and HIV-1 RNA levels of pregnant women were analyzed during two periods of pregnancy. (scielo.br)
- Monitor blood glucose and hemoglobin A 1C levels and renal function tests periodically during therapy. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Patients whose HbA1c exceeded predetermined levels during the study period received pioglitazone therapy and were eligible to enter directly into the long-term extension period. (fiercebiotech.com)
- Compared with in vivo, in vitro incubations of CLL lymphocytes with 10 or 20μM dGuo and forodesine (2μM) resulted in accumulation of higher levels of dGTP (40-250μM) which resulted in increase in apoptosis. (bloodjournal.org)
- However, CMVR has also been observed in patients on PI therapy at CD4 levels higher than previously reported. (bmj.com)
- Absolute lymphocyte count fell to below 0.5x10 9 /l in 107 patients, including 34 patients who also had nadir neutrophil counts below 0.75x10 9 /l. (aidsmap.com)
- Changes in the absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) with ipilimumab therapy are shown. (nih.gov)
- The absolute leukocyte count , age, chromosome karyotypes before IC of patients did not show statistical difference between H-Lym group (40 cases) and L-Lym group (25 cases). (bvsalud.org)
- Aims: The absolute white blood cell (WBC) count and neutrophil to lymphocyte (N/L) ratio are predictors of death/myocardial infarction in patients who have undergone coronary angiography. (eurekaselect.com)
- Hence, we analyzed 1023 patients from the Düsseldorf MDS-registry with regard to the absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) at diagnosis. (nature.com)
- We screened the Düsseldorf MDS-registry for patients with information about the absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) at diagnosis and the IPSS-R category. (nature.com)
- There was evidence that weight gain and absolute CD4+ lymphocyte counts were better maintained in children receiving d4T. (aappublications.org)
- In children younger than 5 years, the 2010 Panel recommends using CD4 percentages over absolute CD4 counts for monitoring disease progression because of inherent age-related changes in absolute CD4 counts. (medscape.com)
- the absolute neutrophil and lymphocyte counts were also in normal range. (scielo.org.ar)
- Conclusion: Our data suggests a pre-procedural elevated WBC count, neutrophils and elevated N/L ratio are predictors of significant ventricular arrhythmias in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). (eurekaselect.com)
- The BAL differential cell count showed 42% lymphocytes, 48% macrophages and 10% neutrophils. (ersjournals.com)
- Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation was performed and retinoic acid therapy was administered in addition to radiotherapy. (scielo.org.ar)
- We hypothesized that a pre-procedural elevated WBC count and an elevated N/L ratio would be a predictor of development of significant ventricular arrhythmias in subjects undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). (eurekaselect.com)
- Saurav Chatterjee, Preeti Chandra, Gunjan Guha, Vikas Kalra, Anasua Chakraborty, Robert Frankel and Jacob Shani, " Pre-procedural Elevated White Blood Cell Count and Neutrophil-Lymphocyte (N/L) Ratio are Predictors of Ventricular Arrhythmias During Percutaneous Coronary Intervention", Cardiovascular & Hematological Disorders-Drug Targets (2011) 11: 58. (eurekaselect.com)
- This pilot phase I trial studies the side effects and best way to give stereotactic body radiation therapy and T- cell infusion in treating patients with metastatic kidney cancer. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- STEREOTACTIC BODY RADIATION THERAPY (SBRT): Patients undergo standard of care SBRT over 1-2 weeks according to tumor volume and location. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Most deadly cancers are associated with metastatic spread 1 , requiring systemic treatment strategies with chemotherapeutic drugs and radiation therapy. (nature.com)
- For simplicity, we group all these effects as Cerenkov radiation-induced therapy (CRIT). (nature.com)
- Long-term follow-up comparing salvage radiation therapy and androgen-deprivation therapy for biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy. (urotoday.com)
- The salvage treatments for biochemical recurrence (BCR) include local external beam radiation therapy (RT) and systemic androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT). (urotoday.com)
- If patients are taking antineoplastic , immunosuppressive , or immune-modulating therapies, or if there is a history of prior use of these drugs, consider possible unintended additive immunosuppressive effects before initiating treatment with GILENYA [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS and DRUG INTERACTIONS ]. (rxlist.com)
- Should be used by experienced physicians in immunosuppressive therapy in transplantation. (empr.com)
- Now, researchers at Fox Chase Cancer Center have discovered that the lymphocyte countwhich is routinely measured in laboratory testsis a simple and effective prognostic indicator in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC). (bio-medicine.org)
- This simple test can really help us identify patients at the outset who are at risk of very aggressive disease and who may not do well with current therapies," Saroha says. (bio-medicine.org)
- The patient was alive at the time of last follow-up without evidence of disease recurrence, 11.2 months after the initiation of protocol therapy. (nih.gov)
- A low hemoglobin count, also known as anemia, is caused by pregnancy, a menstrual period, a diet low in iron, blood loss, or a disease that causes the body. (reference.com)
- Unfortunately, therapy with ZDV sometimes is limited by intolerance, toxicity, or HIV disease progression. (aappublications.org)
- Patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) with primary resistance to fludarabine-based therapy or with progressive disease were eligible for oral forodesine (200 mg/d) for up to 24 weeks. (bloodjournal.org)
- Exclusion Criteria: History of IPT, TB in the past 3 years, current TB, history of exposure to a person with known isoniazid resistant TB, history of hepatitis or active liver disease, current therapy with warfarin, phenytoin or carbamazepine, history of non-adherence to chronic therapies. (cdc.gov)
- This group of patients, whose disease causes severe lifestyle disruption and eventual death, had no definitive therapy until the FDA approved interferon beta-1-b in 1993. (managedcaremag.com)
- We believe TECFIDERA will raise expectations for what people living with MS can achieve with their therapy. (fiercepharma.com)
- Patients taking TECFIDERA should have a complete blood count (CBC) before starting treatment to measure lymphocyte counts. (fiercepharma.com)
- It is unknown whether the low lymphocyte count contributed to the development of PML in this patient, or if low lymphocyte counts are a risk factor for PML development in Tecfidera-treated patients. (fda.gov)
- Monitor lymphocyte counts in Tecfidera-treated patients according to approved labeling. (fda.gov)
- Six percent of patients taking Tecfidera develop a lymphocyte count lower than 500, dangerously low. (managedcaremag.com)
- This autoimmune disorder has been the focus of intense research for much of the last century leading to some remarkable therapies. (managedcaremag.com)
- MAI is typically resistant to standard mycobacterial therapies. (wikipedia.org)
- The majority of these studies indicate a positive correlation between TLC and CD4 cell count, although the specific data on correlation coefficients, sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value (PPV) have been mixed. (i-base.info)
- Conclusion TLCs appear useful in predicting who would be eligible for ART based on CD4 cell count criteria. (ubc.ca)
- The lymphocytes make up of 15 to 40 percent of the white blood cell count in a person's body, according to MDhealth. (reference.com)
- RDT has three hospitals in the district, and patients diagnosed with HIV are referred to Bathalapalli RDT Hospital, where CD4 cell count enumeration and ART are provided free of cost by the Indian Government under a public-private partnership. (hindawi.com)
- Remune has been reported to increase lymphocyte proliferative responses to HIV antigens in patients with high CD4 cell counts. (nih.gov)
- Blood and skin tests are performed at Weeks 0, 8, 16, and 24 to measure immune response and lymphocyte proliferative responses. (nih.gov)
- Previously shared data from MAGNIFY-MS indicated that patients receiving MAVENCLAD are able to mount responses to influenza and varicella zoster vaccines, irrespective of lymphocyte count. (businesswire.com)
- Responses to Romidepsin by Line of Therapy in Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Peripheral T-Cell Lymphoma. (archive.org)