Procedures concerned with the remedial treatment or prevention of diseases.
An advisory group composed primarily of staff physicians and the pharmacist which serves as the communication link between the medical staff and the pharmacy department.
The branch of pharmacology that deals directly with the effectiveness and safety of drugs in humans.
Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.
Treatments with drugs which interact with or block synthesis of specific cellular components characteristic of the individual's disease in order to stop or interrupt the specific biochemical dysfunction involved in progression of the disease.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
The process of finding chemicals for potential therapeutic use.
Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.
The branch of medicine concerned with the application of NANOTECHNOLOGY to the prevention and treatment of disease. It involves the monitoring, repair, construction, and control of human biological systems at the molecular level, using engineered nanodevices and NANOSTRUCTURES. (From Freitas Jr., Nanomedicine, vol 1, 1999).
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.
Large collections of small molecules (molecular weight about 600 or less), of similar or diverse nature which are used for high-throughput screening analysis of the gene function, protein interaction, cellular processing, biochemical pathways, or other chemical interactions.
Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
Nucleotide sequences, generated by iterative rounds of SELEX APTAMER TECHNIQUE, that bind to a target molecule specifically and with high affinity.
Drugs which have received FDA approval for human testing but have yet to be approved for commercial marketing. This includes drugs used for treatment while they still are undergoing clinical trials (Treatment IND). The main heading includes drugs under investigation in foreign countries.
Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The use of DRUGS to treat a DISEASE or its symptoms. One example is the use of ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS to treat CANCER.
Rapid methods of measuring the effects of an agent in a biological or chemical assay. The assay usually involves some form of automation or a way to conduct multiple assays at the same time using sample arrays.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.
Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.
Therapeutic approach tailoring therapy for genetically defined subgroups of patients.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.
The study of the physical and chemical properties of a drug and its dosage form as related to the onset, duration, and intensity of its action.
The concentration of a compound needed to reduce population growth of organisms, including eukaryotic cells, by 50% in vitro. Though often expressed to denote in vitro antibacterial activity, it is also used as a benchmark for cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells in culture.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.
Short fragments of DNA or RNA that are used to alter the function of target RNAs or DNAs to which they hybridize.
Transmission of energy or mass by a medium involving movement of the medium itself. The circulatory movement that occurs in a fluid at a nonuniform temperature owing to the variation of its density and the action of gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed; Webster, 10th ed)
Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.
A class of drugs producing both physiological and psychological effects through a variety of mechanisms. They can be divided into "specific" agents, e.g., affecting an identifiable molecular mechanism unique to target cells bearing receptors for that agent, and "nonspecific" agents, those producing effects on different target cells and acting by diverse molecular mechanisms. Those with nonspecific mechanisms are generally further classed according to whether they produce behavioral depression or stimulation. Those with specific mechanisms are classed by locus of action or specific therapeutic use. (From Gilman AG, et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p252)
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
The application of engineering principles and methods to living organisms or biological systems.
Peptides that have the ability to enter cells by crossing the plasma membrane directly, or through uptake by the endocytotic pathway.
The application of discoveries generated by laboratory research and preclinical studies to the development of clinical trials and studies in humans. A second area of translational research concerns enhancing the adoption of best practices.
Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.
Process that is gone through in order for a drug to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required pre-clinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance of the drug.
Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.
Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.
Works about lists of drugs or collections of recipes, formulas, and prescriptions for the compounding of medicinal preparations. Formularies differ from PHARMACOPOEIAS in that they are less complete, lacking full descriptions of the drugs, their formulations, analytic composition, chemical properties, etc. In hospitals, formularies list all drugs commonly stocked in the hospital pharmacy.
The application of scientific knowledge or technology to pharmacy and the pharmaceutical industry. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation in the manufacture, preparation, compounding, dispensing, packaging, and storing of drugs and other preparations used in diagnostic and determinative procedures, and in the treatment of patients.
A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.
High molecular weight polymers containing a mixture of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides chained together by ribose or deoxyribose linkages.
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
Treatment of diseases with biological materials or biological response modifiers, such as the use of GENES; CELLS; TISSUES; organs; SERUM; VACCINES; and humoral agents.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Antibodies, often monoclonal, in which the two antigen-binding sites are specific for separate ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS. They are artificial antibodies produced by chemical crosslinking, fusion of HYBRIDOMA cells, or by molecular genetic techniques. They function as the main mediators of targeted cellular cytotoxicity and have been shown to be efficient in the targeting of drugs, toxins, radiolabeled haptens, and effector cells to diseased tissue, primarily tumors.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)
Treatments which are undergoing clinical trials or for which there is insufficient evidence to determine their effects on health outcomes; coverage for such treatments is often denied by health insurers.
Materials which have structured components with at least one dimension in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. These include NANOCOMPOSITES; NANOPARTICLES; NANOTUBES; and NANOWIRES.
Therapies that involve the TRANSPLANTATION of CELLS or TISSUES developed for the purpose of restoring the function of diseased or dysfunctional cells or tissues.
Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)
A cell line generated from human embryonic kidney cells that were transformed with human adenovirus type 5.
A form of antibodies consisting only of the variable regions of the heavy and light chains (FV FRAGMENTS), connected by a small linker peptide. They are less immunogenic than complete immunoglobulin and thus have potential therapeutic use.
Measurable biological parameters that serve for drug development, safety and dosing (DRUG MONITORING).
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Tailored macromolecules harboring covalently-bound biologically active modules that target specific tissues and cells. The active modules or functional groups can include drugs, prodrugs, antibodies, and oligonucleotides, which can act synergistically and be multitargeting.
Any visual display of structural or functional patterns of organs or tissues for diagnostic evaluation. It includes measuring physiologic and metabolic responses to physical and chemical stimuli, as well as ultramicroscopy.
Antiserum given therapeutically in BOTULISM.
The study of the origin, nature, properties, and actions of drugs and their effects on living organisms.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Agents and endogenous substances that antagonize or inhibit the development of new blood vessels.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
The deliberate and methodical practice of finding new applications for existing drugs.
Hereditary and sporadic conditions which are characterized by progressive nervous system dysfunction. These disorders are often associated with atrophy of the affected central or peripheral nervous system structures.
A branch of genetics which deals with the genetic variability in individual responses to drugs and drug metabolism (BIOTRANSFORMATION).
The field of medicine concerned with understanding the biochemical basis of health and disease and involved in developing diagnostic and therapeutic methods that utilize MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques.
Compounds that inhibit HISTONE DEACETYLASES. This class of drugs may influence gene expression by increasing the level of acetylated HISTONES in specific CHROMATIN domains.
Tree-like, highly branched, polymeric compounds. They grow three-dimensionally by the addition of shells of branched molecules to a central core. The overall globular shape and presence of cavities gives potential as drug carriers and CONTRAST AGENTS.
The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.
Works about studies performed to evaluate the safety of diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques in healthy subjects and to determine the safe dosage range (if appropriate). These tests also are used to determine pharmacologic and pharmacokinetic properties (toxicity, metabolism, absorption, elimination, and preferred route of administration). They involve a small number of persons and usually last about 1 year. This concept includes phase I studies conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.
A computer simulation technique that is used to model the interaction between two molecules. Typically the docking simulation measures the interactions of a small molecule or ligand with a part of a larger molecule such as a protein.
A field of medicine concerned with developing and using strategies aimed at repair or replacement of damaged, diseased, or metabolically deficient organs, tissues, and cells via TISSUE ENGINEERING; CELL TRANSPLANTATION; and ARTIFICIAL ORGANS and BIOARTIFICIAL ORGANS and tissues.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Diseases of any component of the brain (including the cerebral hemispheres, diencephalon, brain stem, and cerebellum) or the spinal cord.
Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.
A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.
The use of molecularly targeted imaging probes to localize and/or monitor biochemical and cellular processes via various imaging modalities that include RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING; ULTRASONOGRAPHY; MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING; FLUORESCENCE IMAGING; and MICROSCOPY.
Infections with viruses of the family FILOVIRIDAE. The infections in humans consist of a variety of clinically similar viral hemorrhagic fevers but the natural reservoir host is unknown.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.
Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.
The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.
Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Peptides generated from AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES PRECURSOR. An amyloid fibrillar form of these peptides is the major component of amyloid plaques found in individuals with Alzheimer's disease and in aged individuals with trisomy 21 (DOWN SYNDROME). The peptide is found predominantly in the nervous system, but there have been reports of its presence in non-neural tissue.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.
Societies whose membership is limited to pharmacists.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Combinations of diagnostic or therapeutic substances linked with specific immune substances such as IMMUNOGLOBULINS; MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES; or ANTIGENS. Often the diagnostic or therapeutic substance is a radionuclide. These conjugates are useful tools for specific targeting of DRUGS and RADIOISOTOPES in the CHEMOTHERAPY and RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY of certain cancers.
The ability of a protein to retain its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to physical or chemical manipulations.
A genus in the family FILOVIRIDAE consisting of several distinct species of Ebolavirus, each containing separate strains. These viruses cause outbreaks of a contagious, hemorrhagic disease (HEMORRHAGIC FEVER, EBOLA) in humans, usually with high mortality.
Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The transfer of STEM CELLS from one individual to another within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or between species (XENOTRANSPLANTATION), or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). The source and location of the stem cells determines their potency or pluripotency to differentiate into various cell types.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.
Formal instruction, learning, or training in the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of drugs in the field of medicine.
Transplantation between animals of different species.
Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.
Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.
Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.
Agents that have a damaging effect on the HEART. Such damage can occur from ALKYLATING AGENTS; FREE RADICALS; or metabolites from OXIDATIVE STRESS and in some cases is countered by CARDIOTONIC AGENTS. Induction of LONG QT SYNDROME or TORSADES DE POINTES has been the reason for viewing some drugs as cardiotoxins.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A SMN complex protein that is closely-related to SURVIVAL OF MOTOR NEURON 1 PROTEIN. In humans, the protein is encoded by an often duplicated gene found near the inversion centromere of a large inverted region of CHROMOSOME 5.
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
Compounds with a six membered aromatic ring containing NITROGEN. The saturated version is PIPERIDINES.
Books used in the study of a subject that contain a systematic presentation of the principles and vocabulary of a subject.
Use of attenuated VIRUSES as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS to selectively kill CANCER cells.
Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.
Biologically active substances whose activities affect or play a role in the functioning of the immune system.
Works about studies that are usually controlled to assess the effectiveness and dosage (if appropriate) of diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques. These studies are performed on several hundred volunteers, including a limited number of patients with the target disease or disorder, and last about two years. This concept includes phase II studies conducted in both the U.S. and in other countries.
Alteration of the immune system or of an immune response by agents that activate or suppress its function. This can include IMMUNIZATION or administration of immunomodulatory drugs. Immunomodulation can also encompass non-therapeutic alteration of the immune system effected by endogenous or exogenous substances.
Semisynthetic conjugates of various toxic molecules, including RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES and bacterial or plant toxins, with specific immune substances such as IMMUNOGLOBULINS; MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES; and ANTIGENS. The antitumor or antiviral immune substance carries the toxin to the tumor or infected cell where the toxin exerts its poisonous effect.
A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of neoplasms.
A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
The largest family of cell surface receptors involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They share a common structure and signal through HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
The entering of cells by viruses following VIRUS ATTACHMENT. This is achieved by ENDOCYTOSIS, by direct MEMBRANE FUSION of the viral membrane with the CELL MEMBRANE, or by translocation of the whole virus across the cell membrane.
Tumor-selective, replication competent VIRUSES that have antineoplastic effects. This is achieved by producing cytotoxicity-enhancing proteins and/or eliciting an antitumor immune response. They are genetically engineered so that they can replicate in CANCER cells but not in normal cells, and are used in ONCOLYTIC VIROTHERAPY.
A technology, in which sets of reactions for solution or solid-phase synthesis, is used to create molecular libraries for analysis of compounds on a large scale.
A biosensing technique in which biomolecules capable of binding to specific analytes or ligands are first immobilized on one side of a metallic film. Light is then focused on the opposite side of the film to excite the surface plasmons, that is, the oscillations of free electrons propagating along the film's surface. The refractive index of light reflecting off this surface is measured. When the immobilized biomolecules are bound by their ligands, an alteration in surface plasmons on the opposite side of the film is created which is directly proportional to the change in bound, or adsorbed, mass. Binding is measured by changes in the refractive index. The technique is used to study biomolecular interactions, such as antigen-antibody binding.
The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.
Compounds that inhibit the function or proteolytic action of the PROTEASOME.
The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.
A method of generating a large library of randomized nucleotides and selecting NUCLEOTIDE APTAMERS by iterative rounds of in vitro selection. A modified procedure substitutes AMINO ACIDS in place of NUCLEOTIDES to make PEPTIDE APTAMERS.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Highly proliferative, self-renewing, and colony-forming stem cells which give rise to NEOPLASMS.
Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.
A yellow-orange dye obtained from tumeric, the powdered root of CURCUMA longa. It is used in the preparation of curcuma paper and the detection of boron. Curcumin appears to possess a spectrum of pharmacological properties, due primarily to its inhibitory effects on metabolic enzymes.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
The removal of a consumer product from the market place. The reason for the removal can be due a variety of causes, including the discovery of a manufacturing defect, a safety issue with the product's use, or marketing decisions.
A strain of non-obese diabetic mice developed in Japan that has been widely studied as a model for T-cell-dependent autoimmune insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in which insulitis is a major histopathologic feature, and in which genetic susceptibility is strongly MHC-linked.
A genus of the family Muridae consisting of eleven species. C. migratorius, the grey or Armenian hamster, and C. griseus, the Chinese hamster, are the two species used in biomedical research.
A family of 6-membered heterocyclic compounds occurring in nature in a wide variety of forms. They include several nucleic acid constituents (CYTOSINE; THYMINE; and URACIL) and form the basic structure of the barbiturates.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Strongly cationic polymer that binds to certain proteins; used as a marker in immunology, to precipitate and purify enzymes and lipids. Synonyms: aziridine polymer; Epamine; Epomine; ethylenimine polymer; Montrek; PEI; Polymin(e).
The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.
Relating to the size of solids.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.
Compounds that are designed to mimic the 3D structure of a natural peptide or protein.
Crystallizable fragments composed of the carboxy-terminal halves of both IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fc fragments contain the carboxy-terminal parts of the heavy chain constant regions that are responsible for the effector functions of an immunoglobulin (COMPLEMENT fixation, binding to the cell membrane via FC RECEPTORS, and placental transport). This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.
Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.
A definite pathologic process with a characteristic set of signs and symptoms. It may affect the whole body or any of its parts, and its etiology, pathology, and prognosis may be known or unknown.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.


esearch note: does cost recovery for curative care affect preventive care utilization?  (+info)

Issues in the measurement of satisfaction with treatment. (2/180)

Patients satisfaction with treatments is a growing area of research that has tremendous potential to provide outcome measures for clinical trials and disease management programs. It also has applications in marketing and product development, especially for the treatment of chronic diseases. The objective of this review is to demonstrate that treatment satisfaction is a distinct area of research that has produced some important initial results. We define treatment satisfaction and provide a conceptual framework that clarifies the role of treatment expectations, preferences, and satisfaction in the context of healthcare in general. Nineteen articles were selected from more than 1,400 abstracts and were reviewed for the following information: (1) topics covered; (2) method used to design the measure; (3) descriptive statistics; (4) assessment with respect to the attributes in the Instrument Review Criteria of the Medical Outcome Trust's Scientific Advisory Committee; and (5) covariates. We conclude that some important initial results about treatment satisfaction have been obtained, but that much work remains to be performed. We recommend that future research devote more attention to qualitative research with patients, assessment of the measures, and the covariates presented in the conceptual model. We also recommend that decision makers insist on measures that meet these criteria.  (+info)

Impact of electronic imaging on clinician behavior in the urgent care setting. (3/180)

Although it is intuitively valuable that more expedient delivery of radiographic images and reports to clinicians would improve patient care, it is important to document these outcomes to validate further advances in these areas. We evaluated the care of 215 patients seen at a walk-in clinic to determine what benefit digital imaging is to the patient. Cohorts consisted of all patients for whom specified radiology examinations were ordered during a 7-day period. The first cohort was recruited when analog films were used. The second cohort received examinations performed with computed radiography (CR) acquisition and computer display, which had been in use for 2 years. Patients were categorized as to the type of study they received, as well as whether a staff radiologist was immediately available to read the study. Clinical behavior was characterized by outcome measures of time to final diagnosis, time to final treatment, and need for follow-up. Our analysis demonstrated a reduction in time to final diagnosis that was better appreciated during the times when a staff radiologist was not immediately available. It also suggested that greater time reductions were seen for patients who received extremity examinations than those who received chest, sinus, or rib films. These data suggest that digital imaging is a useful tool to improve clinical outcome of patients seen in the acute care setting.  (+info)

Did Osler suffer from "paranoia antitherapeuticum baltimorensis"? A comparative content analysis of The Principles and Practice of Medicine and Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 11th edition. (4/180)

One of the most important legacies of Sir William Osler was his textbook The Principles and Practice of Medicine. A common criticism of the book when it was first published was its deficiency in the area of therapeutics. In this article, the 1st edition of The Principles and Practice of Medicine is compared with the 11th edition of Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. The analysis focuses on the treatment recommendations for 4 conditions that were covered in both books (diabetes mellitus, ischemic heart disease, pneumonia and typhoid fever). Osler's textbook dealt with typhoid fever and pneumonia at greater length, whereas Harrison's placed more emphasis on diabetes mellitus and ischemic heart disease. Notwithstanding Osler's reputation as a therapeutic nihilist, the 2 books devoted equivalent space to treatment (in terms of proportion of total sentences for the conditions). For all conditions except ischemic heart disease, Osler concentrated on general measures and symptomatic care. Throughout Osler's textbook numerous negative comments are made about the medicinal treatment of various conditions. A more accurate statement about Osler's therapeutic approach was that he was a "medicinal nihilist." His demand for proof of efficacy before use of a medication remains relevant.  (+info)

Restricted natural language processing for case simulation tools. (5/180)

For Interactive Patient II, a multimedia case simulation designed to improve history-taking skills, we created a new natural language interface called GRASP (General Recognition and Analysis of Sentences and Phrases) that allows students to interact with the program at a higher level of realism. Requirements included the ability to handle ambiguous word senses and to match user questions/queries to unique Canonical Phrases, which are used to identify case findings in our knowledge database. In a simulation of fifty user queries, some of which contained ambiguous words, this tool was 96% accurate in identifying concepts.  (+info)

Detailed diagnoses and procedures, National Hospital Discharge Survey, 1997. (6/180)

OBJECTIVES: This report presents national estimates of the use of non-Federal short-stay hospitals in the United States during 1997. Estimates of first-listed diagnoses, all-listed diagnoses, days of care for first-listed diagnoses, and all-listed procedures are shown by sex and age of patient and geographic region of hospital. METHODS: The estimates are based on data collected through the National Hospital Discharge Survey for 1997. The survey has been conducted annually by the National Center for Health Statistics since 1965. In 1997 data were collected for approximately 300,000 discharges from 474 non-Federal short-stay hospitals. Diagnoses and procedures are presented according to their code number in the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM).  (+info)

A comparison of observational studies and randomized, controlled trials. (7/180)

BACKGROUND: For many years it has been claimed that observational studies find stronger treatment effects than randomized, controlled trials. We compared the results of observational studies with those of randomized, controlled trials. METHODS: We searched the Abridged Index Medicus and Cochrane data bases to identify observational studies reported between 1985 and 1998 that compared two or more treatments or interventions for the same condition. We then searched the Medline and Cochrane data bases to identify all the randomized, controlled trials and observational studies comparing the same treatments for these conditions. For each treatment, the magnitudes of the effects in the various observational studies were combined by the Mantel-Haenszel or weighted analysis-of-variance procedure and then compared with the combined magnitude of the effects in the randomized, controlled trials that evaluated the same treatment. RESULTS: There were 136 reports about 19 diverse treatments, such as calcium-channel-blocker therapy for coronary artery disease, appendectomy, and interventions for subfertility. In most cases, the estimates of the treatment effects from observational studies and randomized, controlled trials were similar. In only 2 of the 19 analyses of treatment effects did the combined magnitude of the effect in observational studies lie outside the 95 percent confidence interval for the combined magnitude in the randomized, controlled trials. CONCLUSIONS: We found little evidence that estimates of treatment effects in observational studies reported after 1984 are either consistently larger than or qualitatively different from those obtained in randomized, controlled trials.  (+info)

Randomized, controlled trials, observational studies, and the hierarchy of research designs. (8/180)

BACKGROUND: In the hierarchy of research designs, the results of randomized, controlled trials are considered to be evidence of the highest grade, whereas observational studies are viewed as having less validity because they reportedly overestimate treatment effects. We used published meta-analyses to identify randomized clinical trials and observational studies that examined the same clinical topics. We then compared the results of the original reports according to the type of research design. METHODS: A search of the Medline data base for articles published in five major medical journals from 1991 to 1995 identified meta-analyses of randomized, controlled trials and meta-analyses of either cohort or case-control studies that assessed the same intervention. For each of five topics, summary estimates and 95 percent confidence intervals were calculated on the basis of data from the individual randomized, controlled trials and the individual observational studies. RESULTS: For the five clinical topics and 99 reports evaluated, the average results of the observational studies were remarkably similar to those of the randomized, controlled trials. For example, analysis of 13 randomized, controlled trials of the effectiveness of bacille Calmette-Guerin vaccine in preventing active tuberculosis yielded a relative risk of 0.49 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.34 to 0.70) among vaccinated patients, as compared with an odds ratio of 0.50 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.39 to 0.65) from 10 case-control studies. In addition, the range of the point estimates for the effect of vaccination was wider for the randomized, controlled trials (0.20 to 1.56) than for the observational studies (0.17 to 0.84). CONCLUSIONS: The results of well-designed observational studies (with either a cohort or a case-control design) do not systematically overestimate the magnitude of the effects of treatment as compared with those in randomized, controlled trials on the same topic.  (+info)

This report presents statistics on conditions diagnosed and surgical and nonsurgical procedures performed in non-Federal short-stay hospitals. The statistics are based on data collected through the National Hospital Discharge Survey from a national s ...
Heart failure-related hospitalizations increased between 1979 and 2004. This increase was consistent with other earlier reports of national hospitalization data (1-4,11-13); however, our report provides the most recent data. This increase was greater for hospitalizations among patients with heart failure as an additional diagnosis than among those with heart failure as the first-listed diagnosis. Moreover, among hospitalizations with any mention of heart failure, the proportion with a first-listed diagnosis of CHD and other CVD declined. However, the proportions of hospitalizations with first-listed diagnoses of respiratory or other non-CVD increased and surpassed CHD as the most common first-listed diagnosis. During the same period, in-hospital mortality declined among patients hospitalized with heart failure. This decline was greater among hospitalizations with heart failure as the first-listed diagnosis than among those with an additional diagnosis of heart failure.. The growing burden of ...
Per 10,000 population. Hospitalization for stroke (cerebrovascular disease) is defined as a first-listed diagnosis on the medical record of 430-438, as coded according to the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification. This includes hospitalizations for acute strokes, transient ischemic attack, and for late effects of stroke. Rates were calculated using U.S. Census Bureau 2000-based postcensal civilian population estimates.. † 95% confidence interval. In 2010, hospitalization rates per 10,000 population for stroke for males and females increased with increasing patient age. For males, the rate per 10,000 ranged from 14.7 for those aged ,65 years to 285.7 for those aged ≥85 years. For females, the rate ranged from 11.6 per 10,000 population for those aged ,65 years to 277.4 for those aged ≥85 years. Within each age group, the rates for males and females were similar. Sources: National Hospital Discharge Survey data (2010). Available at ...
This report presents statistics on the National Bowel Cancer Screening Program (NBCSP) using key performance indicators. Of those who were invited to participate in the NBCSP between 1 January 2014...
RESULTS: An estimated 34.7 million discharges from nonfederal short-stay hospitals occurred in 2005. Discharges used 165.9 million days of care and had an average length of stay of 4.8 days. Persons 65 years and over accounted for 38 percent of the hospital discharges and 44 percent of the days of care. The proportion of discharges whose status was described as routine discharge or discharged to the patients home declined with age, from 91 percent for inpatients under 45 years of age to 41 percent for those 85 years and over. Hospitalization for malignant neoplasms decreased from 1990-2005. The hospitalization rate for asthma was the highest for children under 15 years of age and those 65 years of age and over. The rate was lowest for those 15-44 years of age. Thirty-eight percent of hospital discharges had no procedures performed, whereas 12 percent had four or more procedures performed. An episiotomy was performed during a majority of vaginal deliveries in 1980 (64 percent), but by 2005, it ...
Sample: All hospitals with 1,000 beds or more in the original universe of short-stay hospitals were selected with certainty in the sample. All hospitals with fewer than 1,000 beds were stratified, the primary stratum depending on size and geographic region. Within each of these 24 primary strata, the allocation of the hospitals was made through a controlled selection technique so that hospitals in the sample would be properly distributed with regard to type of ownership and geographic division. Sample hospitals were drawn with probabilities ranging from certainty for the largest hospitals to 1 in 40 for the smallest hospitals. Of the 535 hospitals in the sample, 413 were in scope and agreed to participate. The within-hospital sampling ratio for selecting sample discharges varied inversely with the probability of selection of the hospital. The smallest sampling fraction of discharged patients was taken in the largest hospitals, and the largest fraction was taken in the smallest hospitals. In ...
o podmínkách následného placení s platbou Tankovací kartou on Conditions of Post-Payment Mode with payment using a Fleet Card Ředitelství silnic a dálnic ČR sídlo (Registered Seat): Na Pankráci 546/56,
Mississippi Governor Haley Barbour on Friday freed two sisters from life sentences in jail for an $11 armed robbery on condition that one donate a kidney to the other.
Sample: The redesigned (as of 1988) NHDS sample includes with certainty all hospitals with 1,000 or more beds or 40,000 or more discharges annually. The remaining sample of hospitals is based on a stratified three-stage design. The first stage consists of selection of 112 primary sampling units (PSUs) that comprise a probability subsample of PSUs used in the 1985-1994 National Health Interview Surveys. The second stage consists of selection of noncertainty hospitals from the sample PSUs. At the third stage, a sample of discharges was selected by a systematic random sampling technique. For 1996, the sample consisted of 525 hospitals. Of these, 18 were found to be ineligible. Of the 507 eligible hospitals, 480 hospitals responded to the survey. ...
This publication presents statistics on livestock slaughterings and meat production. These statistics are based on a monthly collection from abattoirs and other major slaughtering establishments and include estimates of animals slaughtered by country butchers and other small slaughtering establishments. More detailed information on this series can be obtained by referring to the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) quarterly publication, Livestock Products, Australia (cat. no. 7215.0 ...
This publication presents statistics on livestock slaughterings and meat production. These statistics are based on a monthly collection from abattoirs and other major slaughtering establishments and include estimates of animals slaughtered by country butchers and other small slaughtering establishments. More detailed information on this series can be obtained by referring to the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) quarterly publication, Livestock Products, Australia (cat. no. 7215.0 ...
The data provided in the statistical tables in this publication are derived from the National Science Foundations Survey of Scientific and Engineering Personnel Employed at Universities and Colleges, January 1982. The tables present statistics on the characteristics of scientists and engineers employed by institutions of higher education. The tables are presented under the following headings: trends; sex; institutional control and full-time equivalents; institutional rankings; top 100 doctorate-granting institutions; institutional rankings by sex and type of employment; geographic distribution (by control/status, field, full-time/part-time by field, and by status/sex); type of institution; historically black colleges; and institutional categories. Data for scientists/engineers in university-administered, federally-funded research and development centers are presented in tables in a separate section; data are provided by field (1975-1982), for males and females separately by field,
Malaysia Health Indicators presents statistics on general health indicators for the entire country based on official data from the countrys Department of Statistics, the Ministry of Finance, and the Health Informatics Centre at the Ministry of Health.. The four main sections on this report cover social and socioeconomic development, vital registration, incidence and causes of morbidity and mortality, and health care service use and performance.. ...
For elections to the European Parliament, the Riksdag (the Swedish parliament), county councils and municipal councils, Statistic Sweden presents statistics on nominated, elected and non-elected candidates in the general elections.
The files below present statistics on the number of cases of Chlamydia and Gonorrhea in Minneapolis from 1998 to 2012. Data elements included are ...
Jay s blog, Stork Stalking, can be accessed at She is my role model of an e-patient - the expert patient who is active and articulate and is changing the face of medical care. There is great power in Participatory Medicine - and when used along with Information Therapy, Health 2.0 can transform healthcare.. To explain how Information Therapy has helped me, I need to provide some background. I am, by profession, a scientist, whose extensive training has included an education in all the life science disciplines (which include immunology, cell biology, genetics, biochemistry, neurobiology, and developmental biology). This training has given me an advantage that few patients outside the medical field possess. My condition is an infertility of sorts. I am a single woman, who is trying to conceive using donor sperm. At first, it seemed like everything was right with me. All my tests looked absolutely perfect on paper. I conceived on my first attempt. Everything went ...
Kidney disease is the ninth leading cause of death in the United States (1). Nearly 26 million persons in the United States have chronic kidney disease (CKD), and another 20 million are at increased risk for CKD (2). End-stage renal disease (ESRD), which can be caused by either CKD or acute renal failure (ARF), results in approximately 85,000 deaths each year in the United States (3). The total annual cost of treating ESRD in the United States was approximately $33 billion in 2005 (3). Much of the care for CKD and ESRD is provided in the outpatient setting; however, the number of hospitalizations for ARF and chronic kidney failure (CKF) is substantial. In 2004, an estimated 221,000 hospitalizations with a first-listed discharge diagnosis of ARF and 19,000 with a first-listed discharge diagnosis of CKF occurred in the United States (4). To characterize national trends in kidney disease hospitalizations, CDC analyzed data from the National Hospital Discharge Survey (NHDS) for the period ...
This statistic depicts the total number first-listed hospital discharges due to asthma in the United States from 1989 to 2010, sorted by gender.
With the rapid growth of the elderly population and improved life expectancy (now 78 years), a rising number of older adults are expected to undergo surgery, with a greater chance of experiencing complications after surgery. The US Census Bureau reports that the elderly population in the United States is projected to almost double, from the most current estimate of 43 million in 2012 to 80 million by the year 2050. In addition, the National Hospital Discharge Survey reported that more than one-third of all surgical procedures are performed on patients over the age of 65, with that number likely to increase over the next few decades ...
The AARP Eye Center provides vital information from top experts on eye health, including the latest on cataracts, macular degeneration, glaucoma and more.
The AARP Eye Center provides vital information from top experts on eye health, including the latest on cataracts, macular degeneration, glaucoma and more.
Blame filthy conditions for the listeria epidemic in cantaloupe that has killed 25 people across the country, including two from New York, officials announced Wednesday.
If we all agree that information therapy needs to be prescribed, how do we ensure that it is efficiently dispensed ?. One solution would be to have a patient education resource Center at every point of clinical care. This would include the doctors clinic ; the pathology laboratory ; the diagnostic center; the pharmacy ; and the hospital. When someone falls sick, these are their contact points with the healthcare system. Each of these represents an opportunity to educate the patient.. We all know that in order for an information prescription to be effective , this information should be provided at the point at which the patient wants it. All of these are moment-of-truth encounters when a patient wants to know more about his problem and his treatment options. Unfortunately most of these opportunities for educating patients are routinely lost. Patients are being forced to search out information for themselves. While it is true that thanks to the Internet and clever search engines this has become ...
Presents statistics and discusses risk factors and how to reduce them, disease management, and research initiatives. Includes links to outside resources.
The regression tool has a sophisticated process for comparing and ranking the thousands of regressions that it tests against each set of energy-usage data. The shortlist regressions are the ones it considers to be likely candidates, and the first-listed regression is the one it thinks best. But the regression tool knows nothing about the building that your energy-usage data came from. And, although we are always looking to improve the regression tools algorithms, it is based on statistics and probabilities so it will never be possible for it to be correct 100% of the time.. If a building has no cooling then youre unlikely to want a regression involving CDD, even if the first-listed regression involves CDD. For a building with no heating youre unlikely to want a regression involving HDD. (Although if the numbers for such surprise regressions look much better than they do for the others it may be worth you questioning your assumptions about the building and the equipment that your metered ...
In a high-performance computer which prefetches and predecodes instructions for sequential presentation to an execution unit, at least three separately gated and sequenced multi-instruction buffers for prefetched instructions permit continued sequential predecoding and buffering of instructions from three independent instruction streams identified by multiple branch instructions, some of which may be conditionally executed. A number of stored pointers identify particular ones of the multiple instruction buffers. Various branch instructions are predicted to be successful or unsuccessful. Result signals from the instruction execution unit, in response to execution of conditional branch instructions, will control the setting of various pointers and busy triggers associated with each instruction buffer, causing the next sequential instruction transferred to the instruction execution unit to be from the proper instruction stream based on the result of the branch on condition instruction.
UpToDate is an evidence-based clinical support database. Specific answers to clinical queries can be obtained. This online trial is available for the KPUM affiliates until the end of this fiscal year. While it is not on condition of our purchase, give it a try taking this opportunity. So far UpToDate has been accessible by DVD version inside this library. However from March 2012 onwards, it will not be accessible in this library, because DVD version will be discontinued. Please understand the situation and make an effective use of this trial. ...
Mr. Trumps course adjustment emerged in an atmosphere of growing urgency and alarm within his campaign. Over the last week, close associates have told both Mr. Trump and members of his family that he is in real danger of losing the race, according to a half-dozen people close to the Trump campaign and briefed on its activities, who spoke on condition of anonymity to avoid angering the nominee ...
Jets: New York is choosing stability over a shakeup. The team announced Friday it extended the contracts of general manager Mike Maccagnan and coach Todd Bowles, keeping the pair for at least the next three seasons through 2020. The extensions are for two years each, according to a person with direct knowledge of the contracts. The person spoke to The Associated Press on condition of anonymity because the team did not announce terms. During their time here, they have worked together to help the organization build a foundation on which to grow, acting owner and CEO Christopher Johnson said in a statement. They are identifying, developing and getting productivity out of our players. I believe we are headed in the right direction.. ...
What countries shall be preserved from such calamities? Where shall we go for refuge? I, in my turn, shall ask, What is the country that observes the commandments of God? What country is not influenced by human fear where the interest of the Church and the glory of God are at stake? (Ah, indeed! What country, what nation upon earth?) In behalf of my Superior and myself, I have often asked myself where we could go for refuge, had we the means for the journey and for our subsistence, on condition that no person were to know it? But I renounce these useless thoughts. We are very guilty! In consequence of this, it is necessary that a very great and terrible scourge should come to revive our faith, and to restore to us our very reason, which we have almost entirely lost. Mélanie ...
What countries shall be preserved from such calamities? Where shall we go for refuge? I, in my turn, shall ask, What is the country that observes the commandments of God? What country is not influenced by human fear where the interest of the Church and the glory of God are at stake? (Ah, indeed! What country, what nation upon earth?) In behalf of my Superior and myself, I have often asked myself where we could go for refuge, had we the means for the journey and for our subsistence, on condition that no person were to know it? But I renounce these useless thoughts. We are very guilty! In consequence of this, it is necessary that a very great and terrible scourge should come to revive our faith, and to restore to us our very reason, which we have almost entirely lost. Mélanie ...
The issue might come up for discussion, a Ministry of External Affairs (MEA) official admitted on condition of anonymity. Australia had participated in the four-nation military drills in 2007, however, the former Australian Prime Minister Kevin Rudd reportedly backed out of the exercises in 2008 due to Chinese pressure. In 2007, Beijing had issued a demarche to all the participating countries, seeking to know against whom the exercises were aimed at ...
Since electromotive force, or voltage, is the cause of current, it should be possible to compare different electromotive forces by comparing the currents which they produce in a given circuit. But two voltages of equal value do not give equal currents unless the resistances met by the currents are equal. For example, the simple voltaic cell and the gravity cell have approximately equal voltages, but the current produced by the voltaic cell is stronger than that produced by the gravity cell. This is because the current meets more resistance within the gravity cell than within the voltaic cell. Every cell, no matter what its nature, offers resistance to the flow of electricity through it and is said to have internal resistance. If we are determining the voltages of various cells by a comparison of the respective currents produced, the result will be true only on condition that the resistances in the various circuits are equal. If a very large external resistance of fine wire is placed in circuit ...
Neurologists focus on conditions affecting the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and muscles. See what symptoms warrant getting a neurological consult.
On condition of anonymity, one woman, who described herself as a former staffer, shared her ordeal. I was alone with the Vice President in his office and he kept staring at my briefs. Further details have emerged to substantiate her claim that he was dazzled by her body of work and how well she had written her amicus curiae legal brief about the dangers of air pollution from strip mining.. Another female aide reportedly has a tape of Biden pushing her to expose her position - no matter how uncomfortable - on fracking without using protection.. Still another woman was more blunt in her claims, admitting that shed engaged in a longstanding carnal relationship with Biden, even having sex in his official residence. She later came forward and reluctantly identified herself as Dr. Jill Biden, his wife of 40 years.. For decades, there have been whispers about Bidens proclivity to engage in shocking acts of unsolicited civility towards attractive members of the opposite sex, as well as unattractive ...
Im not sure what you mean by wavy conditions, and I havent used my NW 6.2s in breaking waves, but I love em in Gorge swell. When everybody else is sitting on shore because theyre 5.0 snobs, or BAFfing on slalom gear, or getting occasional short rides between long slogs on those 5.0s, Im out there not only planing full time but also slashing and jumping and laying it down and bouncing off swell-tops up to chest high, pretending Im having fun. I may be on anything from 96 to 78 liters, depending on conditions, but Im doing a good enough job of pretending Im on a 4.2 that some guys my size actually launch on their 4.2s and cant figure out why theres no way in HELL theyre going to plane. I did go to a Featherlite for its higher foot for better clearance in tight jibes on bigger swell (not to mention its stunning wind range and stability), but my earlier ZXs still worked fine as long as I kept their lower foot out of the water ...
Aggrenox Generic Online Buy Rating 4.5 stars, based on 397 comments How To Buy Aggrenox From Canada The main reason being that hundreds of candidates; its wonderful about, Aggrenox Generic Online Buy, and put our attention on what we want rather my students put their best. Therefore, on condition that you become routines-this is the…. ...
Candie Hailey was locked up in Rikers Island awaiting trial for 29 months, 27 of which were spent in solitary confinement. On Monday, a judge brokered a plea deal to dismiss her criminal charges on condition that she plead guilty to lesser offences.
Created by Glen A. Larson. With Ben Murphy, Roger Davis, Pete Duel, Dennis Fimple. Hannibal Heyes and Kid Curry, two of the most wanted outlaws in the history of the West, are popular with everyone except the railroads and the banks, since in all the trains and banks they robbed, they never shot anyone. They are offered an amnesty on condition that they stay out of trouble for a year and that they dont tell anyone about it. With a view to keeping their noses clean they ...
Little is known about the etiology of hospitalizations among HF patients. Fang et al. (21) examined hospitalizations from the National Hospital Discharge Survey from 1979 through 2004. They found that the proportion of hospitalizations with HF as a first-listed diagnosis remained at approximately 30% over the study period. However, there was a decline in the proportion of admissions due to coronary or other cardiovascular diseases, and an increase in the proportion due to noncardiovascular diseases. Curtis et al. (8) examined hospital readmission rates among Medicare beneficiaries hospitalized with HF from 2001 through 2005 and found that approximately 27% of readmissions were due to HF. This analysis did not include patients without a prior HF hospitalization and only examined the first readmission, and thus cannot provide information on the total burden of hospitalizations. To date, the cause of hospitalization among community HF patients, and potential temporal changes, remain unclear.. The ...
Background: Non-hemorrhagic cerebrovascular disease (NH-CVD) is one of the leading causes of hospitalization in the United States (US). We describe the trends in NH-CVD hospitalizations in the US over a twelve-year period.. Methods: We abstracted and analyzed data for NH-CVD hospitalizations, from 1999 to 2010, from the National Hospital Discharge Survey - a national probability sample of hospitalizations at US non-federal short-stay hospitals. NH-CVD hospitalizations were defined as hospitalizations whose principal diagnoses were coded using the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification codes 433-438. NH-CVD hospitalization rates were calculated for those 15 years and older, as well as among demographic sub-groups defined by age, race, gender, and geographical region. A multivariate logistic regression was modeled, with NH-CVD hospitalization as the outcome and time period as the main predictor, while controlling for age, gender, race, region, and ...
Based on data from the National Deaths in Custody Program, this paper discusses gender specific trends in custodial deaths in Australia over the period 1980 to 2000. The paper presents statistics on Indigenous and non Indigenous female and male deaths in custody for the period, including statistics on the type of custody, most serious offence, and cause and manner of death. Of the 75 females who died in custody over this period, the majority of Indigenous female deaths occurred in police custody, whilenon Indigenous women were more likely to die in prison. Overall, self inflicted death by hanging was the leading manner of death for females (and males), although Indigenous women were more likely than non Indigenous women to die from natural causes. The paper also discusses five case studies of female deaths in custody, both Indigenous and non Indigenous.
Effect of dietary non-protein energy levels on condition and oxidative status of Senegalese sole (**Solea senegalensis**) juveniles ...
3. If any effective legal instrument confirms that a Users act is in violation of any law or the T&Cs, or the System believes at its sole discretion that a member is suspected to be in violation of any law or the T&Cs, the System shall be entitled to publish and deal with the users act in violation, including but not limited to cancelling or permanently freezing the account or permanently banning the use of the System.. VIII. Suspension & Termination of Service. 1. You agree that on condition that the System does not charge you, the System has the right to suspend or terminate the services offered to you with or without a notice or disallow your further use of theSystem in any manner. On condition that the System charges you, the System may suspend or terminate the services offered to you or disallow your further use of this System in any manner only after the System has good reason to suspect and send a notice to you via e-mail. If you have any of the following conducts, the System shall not ...
Study Number: QG-020-005-1-1-USA-ICPSR-1979. Subject Area: Medical and Health. Bibliographic Citation: National hospital discharge survey, 1979-1992: multi-year data. [machine-readable data file] / U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. National Center for Health Statistics [principal investigator(s)] / Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor].. Originating Archive Number: 6983. Date Accessioned: 11/1/1997. Number of Files Received: 5. Comments: This study is on ICPSR Periodic Release 97003. The Periodic Release CD-ROM is a product designed for use on a Windows- or DOS-based personal computer and is intended for use as a means of data distribution. It may also be used within the Macintosh environment utilizing either system 7.0 and above or system 6.08 and the appropriate PC emulation software. The CD-ROM does not contain software for text or data searches, extraction or analyses. The files with the .EXE extension are self extracting files ...
The incidence rates of cardiogenic shock after AMI have ranged from 5% to 15% in previously published studies. This relatively wide range reflects the various definitions of AMI and cardiogenic shock used, the use of representative as opposed to more highly selected patient samples, the time periods under study, and the use of therapeutic options that may reduce the risk of cardiogenic shock. The overall incidence rates of cardiogenic shock observed in the present study fall within this range.. The relatively few studies that have examined changing trends in the incidence rates of cardiogenic shock after AMI have yielded conflicting results. In the National Hospital Discharge Survey, declines in the frequency of cardiogenic shock were observed between 1979 and the early 2000s, in concert with increasing rates of PCI use.12 In contrast, findings from the National Registry of Myocardial Infarction showed either stable or slightly increasing incidence rates of cardiogenic shock over the 10-year ...
A new report verifies the link between obesity and venous thromboembolism that was established in 1927, adding that the risk is particularly strong among obese people under age 40. Investigators from St. Joseph Mercy Hospital in Michigan reviewed data from the 1979-1999 National Hospital Discharge Survey that included more than 12 million obese people and 700 million people who were not considered obese. They found that obese patients were 2.5 times more likely to have deep venous thrombosis (DVT) than those who were not obese; the obese group was 2.21 times more likely to experience a pulmonary embolism. The risk was greater for women than it was for men, and the poor effects of obesity were more likely to affect people under age 40; they had 5 times the risk of DVT. Obese women under age 40 had 6 times the risk of DVT, compared with nonobese women. Investigators hope these findings will raise awareness of pulmonary embolism as a possible diagnosis. Ms. Farley is a freelance medical writer ...
Worlds largest free patient education resource center Please do come and visit HELP ! Our focus areas now are: 1. encouraging health insurance companies to invest in patient education 2. advocating information therapy 3. setting up a national network of patient education centers 4. developing patient educational materials in Indian languages for the ...
Worlds largest free patient education resource center Please do come and visit HELP ! Our focus areas now are: 1. encouraging health insurance companies to invest in patient education 2. advocating information therapy 3. setting up a national network of patient education centers 4. developing patient educational materials in Indian languages for the ...
Essentials of Social Statistics for a Diverse Society, Third Edition, is a more streamlined, less expensive version of the successful Social Statistics for a Diverse Society. As in the parent text, the Essentials version does more than introduce students to the statistical techniques used by social scientists. It is distinct for the use of real data from contemporary social issues, illustrating the interplay between social concerns and methods of inquiry, and for a strong emphasis on race, class, gender, and other statuses to show how statistics can be a tool for understanding the richness of social differences within society. With a wide range of examples and exercises taken from current events and published research, frequent illustrations, and a focus on student learning, this book continues to be an accessible and engaging resource for students.. I think this textbook is incredibly readable. It presents statistics in a manner that is easy to grasp and comprehend but is still rigorous in ...
Present statistics point out that 1 in Three girls and 1 in 5 males worldwide over the age of 50 expertise an osteoporosis-related fracture. In actual fact, in 2000, 9 million such breaks had been recorded, 1.6 million of them hip fractures, which will be life threatening, as 20 % of the people whove had a hip fracture die inside a yr.5. One of the vital sobering statistics about this situation, although, is that the treatment most individuals gravitate towards (as a result of it is the go-to treatment docs advocate) is poisonous medication, the unwanted side effects of which may vary from critical to devastating, together with doubling your danger of esophageal most cancers.6. Whereas quite a lot of research stress how vital its for individuals affected by osteoporosis to maintain transferring to take care of muscle power and construct bone density, medication prescribed to treatment the issue could thicken bones to make them bulkier however extra porous within the course of, and subsequently ...
Jason Furman PhD, and M. Fiedler, PhD, from the Council of Economic Advisors, write in The Cadillac Tax - A Crucial Tool for Delivery-System Reform, that the Cadillac Tax - a 40% tax to be levied in 2000 on employer health plan costs in excess of $29,100 for family coverage and $10,700 for individual coverage is a good thing because it will drive employers to make their health plans more efficient. Presumably the tax will drive workers towards more efficient providers. The two authors say the Cadillac tax will save $95 billion by 2015 and $500 billion by 2036. Such a statement requires a belief in the federal tooth and truth fairy, which does not have history of saving money. In 1965, the government promised Medicare and Medicaid costs would not exceed $9 billion by 1990. The actual 1990 cost was $67 billion - 7.44 times the original projections In 2016 CMS (Centers for Medicare and Medicaid) will cost over $1 trillion, 15 times the 1990 figure. So much for government promises and projections ...
What do you know about these medical procedures for treating hiatal hernia and gerd? EsophyX TIF Procedure, Stretta Endoscopic Procedure, Bard Endocinch, and Enteryx Also, what do you think about th...
IssuesSnoreBlock side effects diagnosis arising from snoring,SnoreBlock side effects usually starts in the office laryngologa that after charges studySnoreBlock side effects fundamental research (. endoscopic and microscope), depending on the severity of the problem - recommended lifestyle changes (for example, on this page diet, Smoking cessation), or, if the matter is serious, detailed diagnosis. As part of the detailed diagnosis is conducted the study Apnografem.. Professor władysław Pierzchała: we are talking about the protective effect of estrogens. Perhaps, nature protects the womans reproductive health that as little as possible to advance on different diseases, but in reality, taking into account the total population, female, healthy until the end hormonal. Then they have mens diseases: hypertension, claudication punctuation and sleep apnea. When the influence of estrogen, which act on the brain to restore nerve, in this, perhaps, innervation of muscles of pharynx, appear also ...
Short-term inpatient hospitalization is best for clients who are at immediate risk of harming themselves or others or who are experiencing severe psychosis. Because the goal of short-term inpatient hospitalization is to stabilize the client, not cure him/her, staff will focus on making a diagnosis and forming a .
Source: Michigan Resident Inpatient Files created by the Division for Vital Records and Health Statistics, Michigan Department of Health & Human Services, using data from the Michigan Inpatient Database obtained with permission from the Michigan Health & Hospital Association Service Corporation (MHASC). Usage rights: Portions of this data are taken from a proprietary database owned and maintained by the MHASC. All rights reserved. This data may not be used for commercial purposes without first obtaining written permission from the MHASC. Contact MHASC at [email protected] for more information.. ...
Source: Michigan Resident Inpatient Files created by the Division for Vital Records and Health Statistics, Michigan Department of Health & Human Services, using data from the Michigan Inpatient Database obtained with permission from the Michigan Health & Hospital Association Service Corporation (MHASC). Usage rights: Portions of this data are taken from a proprietary database owned and maintained by the MHASC. All rights reserved. This data may not be used for commercial purposes without first obtaining written permission from the MHASC. Contact MHASC at [email protected] for more information.. ...
A amount of doctors (Jackson, Marine environments et al. 2005) and the Cochrane recommendations for organized opinions of well being campaign and general population health and wellbeing surgery (Rebecca Armstrong, Oceans et al. 2007) firmly suggest employing the Top quality Evaluation Software for Quantitative Research (2008a) produced by the Effective People Wellbeing Practice Job in Canada and the associated with dictionary (to work as a principle) (2008b) in determining methodological top quality. Centered on conditions many of these as assortment prejudice, research style, blinding, cofounders, info collection strategies, drop-outs and withdrawals and treatment condition, the device which is definitely crafted to go over any quantitative analysis uses the consumption of a level (solid, modest or poor) to examine the top quality of each research included in the assessment.. Analysis Considering the small number of studies included in the review and heterogeneity regarding interventions, ...
Side 36 - That in expending the money appropriated by this act, a railroad company which has not received aid in bonds of the United States, and which obtained a grant of public land to aid in the construction of its railroad on condition that such railroad should be a post route and military road subject to the use of the United States for postal, military, naval, and other government services, and also, subject to such regulations as Congress may impose restricting the charges for such government transportation... ...
Here then is a more interesting and distinctly different, positive story. This is a story, in my view a true story, in which the social benefits of much of the financial sector are enormous. The problem is that these benefits are difficult to see because one cannot easily envisage the so-called counterfactual: what our society would be like without modern finance. On this, perhaps one should reflect on the World Banks insistence on conditions for capital formation as a critical driver of transition from developing economy status. Or just consider the huge change in living standards in countries developing their financial systems for the first time.. In brief, the positive story is as follows. Finance assists growth. Growth assists prosperity. But only good finance assists stable growth. And finance is most likely good when culture is good.. Much of the underlying empirical and theoretical literature that supports these propositions is by Ross Levine and his collaborators. They find that ...
For 25 folks to be denied, and then not just denied but for them to be overturned, is simply extraordinary, he said.. Another former White House staffer who worked in the personnel office during a previous administration could not recall any instance of an appointee being confirmed over the objections of the Personnel Security Division. The staffer, who spoke to ThinkProgress on condition of anonymity because of the nature of their current employment, recalled one instance in which a person was let go because a circumstance in their life changed that violated the terms of their clearance. The employee was immediately led out of the building.. Mehrbani never had an opportunity to convey such perspectives to the Trump administration; the Trump transition was famously chaotic, and this extended to personnel hiring processes.. After Election Day, and after Chris Christies team was removed from the transition, I did not have a single meeting with my successor in the White House Presidential ...
This paper provides an analysis of high-pressure phenomena and its potential effects on the fundamental physics of fuel injection in Diesel engines. In particular, we focus on conditions when cylinder pressures exceed the thermodynamic critical pressure of the injected fuel and describe the major differences that occur in the jet dynamics compared to that described by classical spray theory. To facilitate the analysis, we present a detailed model framework based on the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) technique that is designed to account for key high-pressure phenomena. This framework is then used to perform a thermodynamic analysis of the flow. We focus on the experiments being conducted in the high-pressure combustion vessel at Sandia National Laboratories using n-heptane as a reference fuel. The calculations are performed by rigorously treating the experimental geometry and operating conditions, with detailed treatment of relevant thermophysical mixture properties ...
This paper provides an analysis of high-pressure phenomena and its potential effects on the fundamental physics of fuel injection in Diesel engines. In particular, we focus on conditions when cylinder pressures exceed the thermodynamic critical pressure of the injected fuel and describe the major differences that occur in the jet dynamics compared to that described by classical spray theory. To facilitate the analysis, we present a detailed model framework based on the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) technique that is designed to account for key high-pressure phenomena. This framework is then used to perform a thermodynamic analysis of the flow. We focus on the experiments being conducted in the high-pressure combustion vessel at Sandia National Laboratories using n-heptane as a reference fuel. The calculations are performed by rigorously treating the experimental geometry and operating conditions, with detailed treatment of relevant thermophysical mixture properties ...
There are people who feel that they have lost the Democracy. How one loses their democratic proper to have a democracy in America, stays a perplexing situation. But, it is laborious to see how many low earnings folks will see worth in a free plan that also has a $2,000, or $three,000, or $four,000 deductible before theyll use any benefits on condition that an individual at one hundred% of the federal poverty stage makes $12,000 a 12 months. I commenced to undertake and reply as a number of of these pertinent queries as attainable, nevertheless wasnt able to purchase all of the solutions i was in search of. Nonetheless, the general public may realize a lot of the results of my investigation perceptive.. In case your ferritin degree is above eighty ng/mL, the answer is to donate your blood. If its over 200 ng/mL, a more aggressive phlebotomy schedule is beneficial. You thenll have no hassle motivating yourself to do it. Stretching will help you prevent accidents and it will enable you to ...
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Let me be clear - this is not a classic self-help book. Although if you picked it up, you probably need help. Well done for admitting it - that is the first step! Spending time you do not have doing things you do not want to do with people you do not like? Sounds familiar? Add spending money you do not have (hallelujah for interest-free balance transfers) on things you do not need. The common reason why we do it (on condition that we are nice people) is because we care. The issue that causes chronic unhappiness, however, is because we care about everyone around but US. Shifting your focus to your slightly more selfish self without harming others is a challenge to begin with. It is a skill and like any skills it can be learned. And the method Sarah suggests is the NotSorry Method (try to comprehend that dear British people). Imagine a world where you do not need to feel sorry as a result of your poorly-made decisions and all the yeses you have thoughtlessly verbalised ...
This judgment was delivered in private. The judge has given leave for this version of the judgment to be published on condition that (irrespective of what is contained in the judgment) in any published version of the judgment the anonymity of the children and members of their family must be strictly preserved. All persons, including representatives of the media, must ensure that this condition is strictly complied with. Failure to do so will be a contempt of court.. Ref:2017/0111. Case No: ZC15D02737. Neutral Citation Number: [2017] EWHC 3164 (Fam). IN THE HIGH COURT OF JUSTICE. FAMILY DIVISION. ON APPEAL FROM HIS HONOUR JUDGE EVERALL QC. SITTING AT THE CENTRAL FAMILY COURT. Royal Courts of Justice. Strand, London, WC2A 2LL. Date: 6/12/2017. Before :. MRS JUSTICE ROBERTS DBE. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -. BETWEEN :. AB (Appellant). - and -. CD (Respondent). (JURISDICTION: GLOBAL MAINTENANCE ORDERS). - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -. Mr Alexander Chandler (instructed on a ...
Bovedas patented 62% humidity control packs regulate moisture content, keeping the contents of your containers at the perfect desired level. They dont need any activation or maintenance. Just place them in an airtight container with your items, and Boveda technology will do the rest. Only Boveda responds to any atmospheric humidity conditions inside a container by adding or absorbing moisture as needed to maintain the predetermined relative humidity (rh) level of 62%. Your material will stay fresh, with stable moisture content, delivering a consistently exquisite experience every time. Lasts 2-4 months depending on conditions. Replace when Boveda turns rigid.. ...
Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) resources. Includes recommended reading, information on conditions and procedures, and useful links.
Treating perceptual problems in an effort to improve memory and overall cognitive abilities. Offers online courses as well as general information on conditions treated. Albany, New York, USA. ...
THERE now remained but one other person in Lord Harrys household whose presence on the scene was an obstacle to be removed.. This person was the cook. On condition of her immediate departure (excused by alleged motives of economy), she received a months wages from her master, in advance of the sum due to her, and a written character which did ample justice to her many good qualities. The poor woman left her employment with the heartiest expressions of gratitude. To the end of her days, she declared the Irish lord to be a nobleman by nature. Republican principles, inherited from her excellent parents, disinclined her to recognise him as a nobleman by birth.. But another sweet and simple creature was still left to brighten the sinister gloom in the cottage.. The good Dane sorely tried the patience of Fanny Mere. This countryman of Hamlet, as he liked to call himself, was a living protest against the sentiments of inveterate contempt and hatred, with which his nurse was accustomed to regard the ...
CHICAGO - The Cubs added another outfielder, agreeing to a $1.5 million, one-year contract with Jake Marisnick, two people familiar with the situation told The Associated Press Marisnick will make $1 million this season, two people said Thursday, speaking on condition of anonymity because the move was pending a physical. The deal includes a $4 million mutual option for 2022 with a $500,000 buyout. The 29-year-old Marisnick hit .333 with two homers and five RBIs in 16 games with the New York Mets last year. But he is known more for his defence in centre field. Chicago is rounding out its roster after it didnt make any major additions for much of the winter. The reigning NL Central champions announced contracts for outfielder Joc Pederson and pitchers Trevor Williams and Andrew Chafin last week. While Pederson steps in for Kyle Schwarber in left, Marisnick likely is headed for a bench role as a late-inning defensive replacement and pinch runner. He has 73 steals, including a career-high 24 in 2015 with
Gastroenterology is a medical specialization concentrating on conditions of the digestive system. Dr. Husain Bohari is a renowned Gastroenterologist in Nashik, Specialist in diagnosing and treating many diseases, including cancers of the pancreas, liver, esophagus, stomach, colon, rectum and anus. A host of diagnostic examinations may be done to detect and stage stomach cancers, such…
Federer was rushing to the net and summoning volleyed winners, mediating group CENCO will examine Katumbis case. and the dropping of criminal charges against opposition leader Moise Katumbi that they believe were politically motivated. Situation in Bundelkhand is grave and we are? an Uttam government is required. have chafed at that added amount.Under the agreement the full 23 percent share would continue for two more years It would phase down to 115 percent in 2020 and the extra money would disappear completely the following year The details were provided by a Senate aide who spoke on condition of anonymity because full details werent released For all the latest World News download Indian Express App More Related NewsBy: Express News Service , Updated: May 1 2015 4:16 am Modi said he suggested to Sharif that SAARC nations should conduct regular joint exercises on disaster relief and rescue Related News PakistanPrime Minister Nawaz Sharif on Thursday spoke to Indian Prime Minister Narendra ...
Carol Lackner faces multiple counts of falsifying business records, filing a false instrument and official misconduct charges for falsely indicating she checked on homeless ex-Marine Jerome Murdough and other inmates every half hour Feb. 14 even though video didnt show her doing so, according to prosecutors.. The Associated Press first reported the shocking death of the 56-year-old Murdough in the overheated cell, after a city official, speaking on condition of anonymity, said Murdough ��basically baked to death�� when he was left unchecked for at least four hours overnight as malfunctioning equipment caused his cell to overheat.. Murdoughs Feb. 15 death �X along with the horrifying death of another mentally ill inmate in a similar mental observation unit five months earlier �X prompted Mayor Bill de Blasio to convene a task force on how the mentally ill fare in jail. Last week, de Blasio announced that task forces findings, saying hell spend US$130 million over the next four ...
Hello! I know you posted this a long time ago, but I was wondering if this explains my issue every time I do an ocean water competition. I always blamed it on bad circulation because Im of average build - and body fat, I think. Im usually the only one that gets so cold my feet and hands get numb, and as a result, my performance is not very good compared to my peers - in ocean water, times are more dependent on conditions in the water, etc. Im about to give up on open water swims, or just do them in Hawaii. I live in Southern California by the way, where the temp is usually in the 60s in the summertime. If you have any advice on how I can combat this (more swimming?), Id much appreciate it. :-). ...
Provided is a method for designing a protein capable of selectively binding RNA bases or specifically binding an RNA base sequence. This protein includes 1 or more (preferably 2-14) PPR motifs comprising a polypeptide represented by formula (1) and having a length of 30-38 amino acids (in formula (1): Helix A is a moiety which is represented by formula (2), has a length of 12 amino acids, and is capable of forming an alpha-helix structure (in formula (2), A1-A12 each independently represent an amino acid)X is a moiety which is either not present or which has a length of 1-9 amino acidsHelix B is a moiety that has a length of 11-13 amino acids, and is capable of forming an alpha-helix structureL is a moiety which is represented by formula (3) and has a length of 2-7 amino acids (in formula (3), each amino acid is numbered from the C-terminus in the following manner i(-1), ii(-2), on condition that in some cases Liii to Lvii are not present)). The protein corresponding to the RNA bases or base
Romo, who will be paired with play-by-play announcer Jim Nantz, considered multiple network offers along with whether he wanted to pursue a Super Bowl elsewhere after losing the starting job in Dallas last season, a person told The Associated Press on Tuesday. The person spoke on condition of anonymity because Romo hasn't discussed his plans publicly. A CBS spokeswoman did not immediately return messages seeking comment ...
This vitamin is easily soluble in water so that when the vitamin is consumed than is needed, the excess will discarded in urine. Because it is not stored in body, vitamin C should be consumed every day. Average dose for adults is needed 60-90 mg /day. But it could be more depend on condition of body and endurance of each person is different. Maximum permissible limit for vitamin C is 1000 mg/day ...
Unfortunately, these oversimplified mechanisms, to give an example, may not be able to accurately predict the formation of toxic products present in very small concentrations because depending on conditions their formation is dependent on complex chemistry involving stable and radical species, as well as reaction temperature. There is a need then to arrive at more complex mechanisms consisting of elementary reactions that are relevant to the consumption of the reactants, formation of intermediate species and products, and any other chemical species of interest (Senkan, 1992). General Features of Reaction Mechanisms ...
In a report this morning, Reuters cited a US government source, who spoke on condition of anonymity as saying he had been captured, with a Mexican security source saying it had happened in Mazatlan, a seaside city in Guzmans home state of Sinaloa.. But in Mexico City, presidential spokesman Eduardo Sanchez would say only that police have captured an individual whose identity has not yet been confirmed.. If they actually have El Chapo, this will be a huge victory for the government of President Enrique Pena Nieto, which, like its predecessors, has been criticized for its inability for years to track down the head of the countrys most powerful drug trafficking organization.. Many, many Mexicans (and others) believe it was not the lack of ability of the government to find Guzman, but the lack of will -- that his huge narco-wealth had protected him from capture for more than a decade since he bought his way out of prison in Mexico.. Somewhere around a hundred thousand people have died in the ...
We need someone with qualifications ,a href= ,fluticasone oral spray dosage,/a, The president cannot comply with both regimes if read literally — nor would any court rule that he must. The courts must instead interpret one of the incompatible regimes as giving way to the other — and it seems clear that the older, 1917 regime would be the one to yield. ,a href= ,ibuprofen 600 dosierung gewicht,/a, Navy Vice Admiral Tim Giardina, who had already been suspended from his post on September 3, was notified on Wednesday that he was formally relieved. He will also drop in rank from a three-star to two-star admiral because of the loss of his command, the official said, speaking on condition of anonymity. ,a href= ,cost of generic amlodipine at walmart,/a, Suu Kyi then used the third ...
Q: My desert rose below dropped leaves after I replanted it in a bigger pot. I noticed that one of the branches that had been pruned is black at the tip. Please let me know if the section of the branch that turned black needs to be cut. I also wasnt sure how often to water it since the leaves have all dropped. None of the other dessert roses have dropped their leaves but they are all younger plants. Any advice would be much appreciated.. A: Your plant looks healthy and vigorous overall. Dropping leaves after repotting, or shipping, especially at this time of the year, is normal in Adeniums. They are deciduous and stay leafless from Fall to Spring. Some individual specimens can go into dormancy sooner than others - all depends on conditions: temperature, light, exposure, etc. and individual plants clock ...
There is the instance of a well to do white collar couple, who on condition of anonymity, revealed that due to demanding jobs they are looking to outsource pregnancy and delivery, and are on the lookout for an educated and healthy mother, perhaps someone who has lost her job in the current economic debacle ...
FILE - In this Aug. 24, 2017, file photo, Miami Marlins J.T. Realmuto dives into home plate with a with a two-run inside the park home run against the Philadelphia Phillies during the sixth inning of a baseball game, in Philadelphia, Pa. A person familiar with the situation says Miami Marlins catcher J.T. Realmuto has requested a trade in the wake of the teams latest payroll purge. The person confirmed the request to The Associated Press on condition of anonymity Monday, Dec. 18, 2017, because the Marlins didnt comment. (AP Photo/Rich Schultz, File ...
FILE - In this Aug. 24, 2017, file photo, Miami Marlins J.T. Realmuto dives into home plate with a with a two-run inside the park home run against the Philadelphia Phillies during the sixth inning of a baseball game, in Philadelphia, Pa. A person familiar with the situation says Miami Marlins catcher J.T. Realmuto has requested a trade in the wake of the teams latest payroll purge. The person confirmed the request to The Associated Press on condition of anonymity Monday, Dec. 18, 2017, because the Marlins didnt comment. (AP Photo/Rich Schultz, File ...
5][6] Some modest experiments suggest that complete muscle creatine is substantially decreased in vegetarians than non-vegetarians, as envisioned since vegetables arent a Major source of creatine. Even so, topics took place to point out a similar degrees just after utilizing supplements.[ten] On condition that creatine is often synthesized from the above mentioned-described amino acids, protein sources rich in these amino acids may be expected to deliver enough indigenous biosynthesis in your body.[8 ...
BAYER received a green light from the European Commission for its 7.25 billion euro purchase of Aventis CropScience, on condition it divests some products including the sale of certain insecticides and fungicides.
Therapeutics. 82: 377-390. Kay J.H.; Calandra J.C. (1962). "Interpretation of eye irritation tests". J. Soc. Cosmet. Chem. 13: ... citing The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Animals in Product Testing Archived May 16, 2006, at the ...
"Therapeutics". Funded Projects. Wellcome Trust. Community for Open Antimicrobial Drug Discovery (CO-ADD). Retrieved 25 June ...
Therapeutics. 210 (2): 153-157. Nishio, M.; Muramatsu, I.; Kigoshi, S.; Fujiwara, M. (1988). "Effects of Goniopora Toxin on the ...
Therapeutics. (Permitted for increase of seats from 18 to 28 u/s 10A.) Immuno-haematology & Blood Transfusion, 2. Recognized ...
Tan, S.Y. (June 2012). "Medical Malpractice: A Cardiovascular Perspective". Cardiovascular Therapeutics. 30 (3): e140-e145. ...
... therapeutics. 40 (2): 171-212. doi:10.1016/0163-7258(89)90096-x. PMID 2499894. Pinto, Lawrence H.; Holsinger, Leslie J.; Lamb, ... therapeutics. 11 (1): 181-262. doi:10.1016/0163-7258(80)90072-8. PMID 6159656. Alves Galvão, MG; Rocha Crispino Santos, MA; ...
Therapeutics. 90 (2-3): 105-56. doi:10.1016/s0163-7258(01)00132-2. PMID 11578655. Pattabiraman, D. R.; Bierie, B.; Kober, K. I ...
McLean, M (February 1995). "Cellular interactions and metabolism of aflatoxin: an update". Pharmacology & Therapeutics. 65 (2 ...
Clinical Therapeutics. 3 (3): 200-8. PMID 7459930. Haas DM, Ramsey PS (2013). "Progestogen for preventing miscarriage". ...
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