The use of IONIZING RADIATION to treat malignant NEOPLASMS and some benign conditions.
The total amount of radiation absorbed by tissues as a result of radiotherapy.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
Radiotherapy where there is improved dose homogeneity within the tumor and reduced dosage to uninvolved structures. The precise shaping of dose distribution is achieved via the use of computer-controlled multileaf collimators.
Radiotherapy given to augment some other form of treatment such as surgery or chemotherapy. Adjuvant radiotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.
Radiotherapy using high-energy (megavolt or higher) ionizing radiation. Types of radiation include gamma rays, produced by a radioisotope within a teletherapy unit; x-rays, electrons, protons, alpha particles (helium ions) and heavy charged ions, produced by particle acceleration; and neutrons and pi-mesons (pions), produced as secondary particles following bombardment of a target with a primary particle.
Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.
CONFORMAL RADIOTHERAPY that combines several intensity-modulated beams to provide improved dose homogeneity and highly conformal dose distributions.
Computer-assisted mathematical calculations of beam angles, intensities of radiation, and duration of irradiation in radiotherapy.
An endogenous substance found mainly in skeletal muscle of vertebrates. It has been tried in the treatment of cardiac disorders and has been added to cardioplegic solutions. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1996)
The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.
The transfer of energy of a given form among different scales of motion. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed). It includes the transfer of kinetic energy and the transfer of chemical energy. The transfer of chemical energy from one molecule to another depends on proximity of molecules so it is often used as in techniques to measure distance such as the use of FORSTER RESONANCE ENERGY TRANSFER.
Administration of the total dose of radiation (RADIATION DOSAGE) in parts, at timed intervals.
Harmful effects of non-experimental exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation in VERTEBRATES.
Computer systems or programs used in accurate computations for providing radiation dosage treatment to patients.
The use of pre-treatment imaging modalities to position the patient, delineate the target, and align the beam of radiation to achieve optimal accuracy and reduce radiation damage to surrounding non-target tissues.
Devices which accelerate electrically charged atomic or subatomic particles, such as electrons, protons or ions, to high velocities so they have high kinetic energy.
The relationship between the dose of administered radiation and the response of the organism or tissue to the radiation.
A subspecialty of medical oncology and radiology concerned with the radiotherapy of cancer.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
Positively-charged atomic nuclei that have been stripped of their electrons. These particles have one or more units of electric charge and a mass exceeding that of the Helium-4 nucleus (alpha particle).
A radiological stereotactic technique developed for cutting or destroying tissue by high doses of radiation in place of surgical incisions. It was originally developed for neurosurgery on structures in the brain and its use gradually spread to radiation surgery on extracranial structures as well. The usual rigid needles or probes of stereotactic surgery are replaced with beams of ionizing radiation directed toward a target so as to achieve local tissue destruction.
A collective term for interstitial, intracavity, and surface radiotherapy. It uses small sealed or partly-sealed sources that may be placed on or near the body surface or within a natural body cavity or implanted directly into the tissues.
Soft tissue tumors or cancer arising from the mucosal surfaces of the LIP; oral cavity; PHARYNX; LARYNX; and cervical esophagus. Other sites included are the NOSE and PARANASAL SINUSES; SALIVARY GLANDS; THYROID GLAND and PARATHYROID GLANDS; and MELANOMA and non-melanoma skin cancers of the head and neck. (from Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 4th ed, p1651)
Rate of energy dissipation along the path of charged particles. In radiobiology and health physics, exposure is measured in kiloelectron volts per micrometer of tissue (keV/micrometer T).
High-energy radiation or particles from extraterrestrial space that strike the earth, its atmosphere, or spacecraft and may create secondary radiation as a result of collisions with the atmosphere or spacecraft.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.
The measurement of radiation by photography, as in x-ray film and film badge, by Geiger-Mueller tube, and by SCINTILLATION COUNTING.
Treatment that combines chemotherapy with radiotherapy.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.
Tumors or cancer of the NASOPHARYNX.
Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.
Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.
A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The ability of some cells or tissues to survive lethal doses of IONIZING RADIATION. Tolerance depends on the species, cell type, and physical and chemical variables, including RADIATION-PROTECTIVE AGENTS and RADIATION-SENSITIZING AGENTS.
The ratio of radiation dosages required to produce identical change based on a formula comparing other types of radiation with that of gamma or roentgen rays.
Organs which might be damaged during exposure to a toxin or to some form of therapy. It most frequently refers to healthy organs located in the radiation field during radiation therapy.
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Drugs used to potentiate the effectiveness of radiation therapy in destroying unwanted cells.
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Tumors or cancer of the RECTUM.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Drug therapy given to augment or stimulate some other form of treatment such as surgery or radiation therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.
Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.
The exposure of the head to roentgen rays or other forms of radioactivity for therapeutic or preventive purposes.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
The amount of radiation energy that is deposited in a unit mass of material, such as tissues of plants or animal. In RADIOTHERAPY, radiation dosage is expressed in gray units (Gy). In RADIOLOGIC HEALTH, the dosage is expressed by the product of absorbed dose (Gy) and quality factor (a function of linear energy transfer), and is called radiation dose equivalent in sievert units (Sv).
Determination of the energy distribution of gamma rays emitted by nuclei. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.
Inflammation of the lung due to harmful effects of ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known negative charge, present in all elements; also called negatrons. Positively charged electrons are called positrons. The numbers, energies and arrangement of electrons around atomic nuclei determine the chemical identities of elements. Beams of electrons are called CATHODE RAYS.
Tumors or cancer of the pelvic region.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.
Removal of only enough breast tissue to ensure that the margins of the resected surgical specimen are free of tumor.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
The use of a heavy ion particle beam for radiotherapy, such as the HEAVY IONS of CARBON.
A malignant disease characterized by progressive enlargement of the lymph nodes, spleen, and general lymphoid tissue. In the classical variant, giant usually multinucleate Hodgkin's and REED-STERNBERG CELLS are present; in the nodular lymphocyte predominant variant, lymphocytic and histiocytic cells are seen.
Tumors, cancer or other neoplasms produced by exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.
The consumption of edible substances.
A cutaneous inflammatory reaction occurring as a result of exposure to ionizing radiation.
An amino acid that occurs in vertebrate tissues and in urine. In muscle tissue, creatine generally occurs as phosphocreatine. Creatine is excreted as CREATININE in the urine.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.
An antitumor alkaloid isolated from VINCA ROSEA. (Merck, 11th ed.)
A type of FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY using two FLUORESCENT DYES with overlapping emission and absorption spectra, which is used to indicate proximity of labeled molecules. This technique is useful for studying interactions of molecules and PROTEIN FOLDING.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.
Abnormal growths of tissue that follow a previous neoplasm but are not metastases of the latter. The second neoplasm may have the same or different histological type and can occur in the same or different organs as the previous neoplasm but in all cases arises from an independent oncogenic event. The development of the second neoplasm may or may not be related to the treatment for the previous neoplasm since genetic risk or predisposing factors may actually be the cause.
An antineoplastic agent. It has significant activity against melanomas. (from Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed, p564)
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Electron transfer through the cytochrome system liberating free energy which is transformed into high-energy phosphate bonds.
Techniques, procedures, and therapies carried out on diseased organs in such a way to avoid complete removal of the organ and preserve the remaining organ function.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Decreased salivary flow.
An antineoplastic agent used primarily in combination with mechlorethamine, vincristine, and prednisone (the MOPP protocol) in the treatment of Hodgkin's disease.
A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.
The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.
Preliminary cancer therapy (chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormone/endocrine therapy, immunotherapy, hyperthermia, etc.) that precedes a necessary second modality of treatment.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.
A type of high-energy radiotherapy using a beam of gamma-radiation produced by a radioisotope source encapsulated within a teletherapy unit.
Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Penetrating electromagnetic radiation emitted when the inner orbital electrons of an atom are excited and release radiant energy. X-ray wavelengths range from 1 pm to 10 nm. Hard X-rays are the higher energy, shorter wavelength X-rays. Soft x-rays or Grenz rays are less energetic and longer in wavelength. The short wavelength end of the X-ray spectrum overlaps the GAMMA RAYS wavelength range. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.
Planned management, use, and preservation of energy resources.
Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Energy transmitted from the sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation.
A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Unstable isotopes of cobalt that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Co atoms with atomic weights of 54-64, except 59, are radioactive cobalt isotopes.
Care alleviating symptoms without curing the underlying disease. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.
A heterogeneous aggregate of at least three distinct histological types of lung cancer, including SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA; ADENOCARCINOMA; and LARGE CELL CARCINOMA. They are dealt with collectively because of their shared treatment strategy.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
External or interstitial irradiation to treat lymphomas (e.g., Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas) and lymph node metastases and also some autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
A biologic alkylating agent that exerts its cytotoxic effects by forming DNA ADDUCTS and DNA interstrand crosslinks, thereby inhibiting rapidly proliferating cells. The hydrochloride is an antineoplastic agent used to treat HODGKIN DISEASE and LYMPHOMA.
An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.
Iodinated derivatives of acetic acid. Iodoacetates are commonly used as alkylating sulfhydryl reagents and enzyme inhibitors in biochemical research.
Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.
A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
A malignant form of astrocytoma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemorrhage, and necrosis. They may arise in any region of the central nervous system, with a predilection for the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, and commissural pathways. Clinical presentation most frequently occurs in the fifth or sixth decade of life with focal neurologic signs or seizures.
A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Drugs used to protect against ionizing radiation. They are usually of interest for use in radiation therapy but have been considered for other, e.g. military, purposes.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
An electrical current applied to the HEART to terminate a disturbance of its rhythm, ARRHYTHMIAS, CARDIAC. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.
A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)
A therapeutic approach, involving chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or surgery, after initial regimens have failed to lead to improvement in a patient's condition. Salvage therapy is most often used for neoplastic diseases.
A complex of related glycopeptide antibiotics from Streptomyces verticillus consisting of bleomycin A2 and B2. It inhibits DNA metabolism and is used as an antineoplastic, especially for solid tumors.
Methods of creating machines and devices.
Surgical procedure to remove one or both breasts.
Unstable isotopes of iridium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ir atoms with atomic weights 182-190, 192, and 194-198 are radioactive iridium isotopes.
The space or compartment surrounded by the pelvic girdle (bony pelvis). It is subdivided into the greater pelvis and LESSER PELVIS. The pelvic girdle is formed by the PELVIC BONES and SACRUM.
Forms of energy that are constantly and rapidly renewed by natural processes such as solar, ocean wave, and wind energy. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2'-, 3'-, or 5'-position.
Necrosis of bone following radiation injury.
Benign and malignant central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells (i.e., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymocytes). Astrocytes may give rise to astrocytomas (ASTROCYTOMA) or glioblastoma multiforme (see GLIOBLASTOMA). Oligodendrocytes give rise to oligodendrogliomas (OLIGODENDROGLIOMA) and ependymocytes may undergo transformation to become EPENDYMOMA; CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS; or colloid cysts of the third ventricle. (From Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p21)
Tumors or cancer of the ESOPHAGUS.
A class of drugs that differs from other alkylating agents used clinically in that they are monofunctional and thus unable to cross-link cellular macromolecules. Among their common properties are a requirement for metabolic activation to intermediates with antitumor efficacy and the presence in their chemical structures of N-methyl groups, that after metabolism, can covalently modify cellular DNA. The precise mechanisms by which each of these drugs acts to kill tumor cells are not completely understood. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2026)
Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.
The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
The total amount (cell number, weight, size or volume) of tumor cells or tissue in the body.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.
The circulation of blood through the CORONARY VESSELS of the HEART.
Moving a patient into a specific position or POSTURE to facilitate examination, surgery, or for therapeutic purposes.
Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Antitumor alkaloid isolated from Vinca rosea. (Merck, 11th ed.)
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Mistakes committed in the preparations for radiotherapy, including errors in positioning of patients, alignment radiation beams, or calculation of radiation doses.
Materials used as reference points for imaging studies.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A connective tissue neoplasm formed by proliferation of mesodermal cells; it is usually highly malignant.
Total or partial excision of the larynx.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of androgens.
The use of an external beam of PROTONS as radiotherapy.
Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.
Tumors or cancer of the OROPHARYNX.
Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.
An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.
Primary and metastatic (secondary) tumors of the brain located above the tentorium cerebelli, a fold of dura mater separating the CEREBELLUM and BRAIN STEM from the cerebral hemispheres and DIENCEPHALON (i.e., THALAMUS and HYPOTHALAMUS and related structures). In adults, primary neoplasms tend to arise in the supratentorial compartment, whereas in children they occur more frequently in the infratentorial space. Clinical manifestations vary with the location of the lesion, but SEIZURES; APHASIA; HEMIANOPSIA; hemiparesis; and sensory deficits are relatively common features. Metastatic supratentorial neoplasms are frequently multiple at the time of presentation.
An alkylating agent of value against both hematologic malignancies and solid tumors.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.
Antineoplastic agent especially effective against malignant brain tumors. The resistance which brain tumor cells acquire to the initial effectiveness of this drug can be partially overcome by the simultaneous use of membrane-modifying agents such as reserpine, calcium antagonists such as nicardipine or verapamil, or the calmodulin inhibitor, trifluoperazine. The drug has also been used in combination with other antineoplastic agents or with radiotherapy for the treatment of various neoplasms.
Tumors or cancer of the HYPOPHARYNX.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
Heat production, or its measurement, of an organism at the lowest level of cell chemistry in an inactive, awake, fasting state. It may be determined directly by means of a calorimeter or indirectly by calculating the heat production from an analysis of the end products of oxidation within the organism or from the amount of oxygen utilized.
Discrete concentrations of energy, apparently massless elementary particles, that move at the speed of light. They are the unit or quantum of electromagnetic radiation. Photons are emitted when electrons move from one energy state to another. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)
Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.
A phosphorothioate proposed as a radiation-protective agent. It causes splenic vasodilation and may block autonomic ganglia.
A synthetic anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid derived from CORTISONE. It is biologically inert and converted to PREDNISOLONE in the liver.
Therapeutic act or process that initiates a response to a complete or partial remission level.
The mitochondria of the myocardium.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
Beverages consumed as stimulants and tonics. They usually contain a combination of CAFFEINE with other substances such as herbal supplements; VITAMINS; AMINO ACIDS; and sugar or sugar derivatives.
ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION or particle radiation (high energy ELEMENTARY PARTICLES) capable of directly or indirectly producing IONS in its passage through matter. The wavelengths of ionizing electromagnetic radiation are equal to or smaller than those of short (far) ultraviolet radiation and include gamma and X-rays.
The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.
The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.
Glucose in blood.
An INFLAMMATION of the MUCOSA with burning or tingling sensation. It is characterized by atrophy of the squamous EPITHELIUM, vascular damage, inflammatory infiltration, and ulceration. It usually occurs at the mucous lining of the MOUTH, the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT or the airway due to chemical irritations, CHEMOTHERAPY, or radiation therapy (RADIOTHERAPY).
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Benign and malignant neoplastic processes that arise from or secondarily involve the brain, spinal cord, or meninges.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
Neoplasms of the base of the skull specifically, differentiated from neoplasms of unspecified sites or bones of the skull (SKULL NEOPLASMS).
Tumors or cancer of the NOSE.
A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.
Combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy given to augment some other form of treatment such as surgery. It is commonly used in the therapy of cancer.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
A semisynthetic derivative of PODOPHYLLOTOXIN that exhibits antitumor activity. Etoposide inhibits DNA synthesis by forming a complex with topoisomerase II and DNA. This complex induces breaks in double stranded DNA and prevents repair by topoisomerase II binding. Accumulated breaks in DNA prevent entry into the mitotic phase of cell division, and lead to cell death. Etoposide acts primarily in the G2 and S phases of the cell cycle.
... intended for high energy physics and one in Milan - the 45 Mev cyclotron - intended for low energy physics. While the ... Amaldi, Ugo (December 2004). "CNAO--The Italian Centre for Light-Ion Therapy". Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the ... European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology. 73 Suppl 2: S191-201. doi:10.1016/s0167-8140(04)80047-1. ISSN 0167- ... "HEAD AAS Rossi Prize Winners , High Energy Astrophysics Division". Retrieved 2021-04-19. ...
It also contrasts to External Beam Radiation Therapy (EBRT), in which high-energy x-rays (or occasionally gamma-rays from a ... Brachytherapy contrasts with unsealed source radiotherapy, in which a therapeutic radionuclide (radioisotope) is injected into ... External beam radiotherapy Prostate brachytherapy Targeted intra-operative radiotherapy Unsealed source radiotherapy Nuclear ... 2018). "Radical Prostatectomy, External Beam Radiotherapy, or External Beam Radiotherapy With Brachytherapy Boost and Disease ...
1] "Intraoperative radiotherapy versus external radiotherapy for early breast cancer (ELIOT): a randomised controlled ... Head and neck cancers are often difficult to treat and have a high rate of recurrence or metastasis. IOERT is an effective ... Because portable LINACs for IOERT produced electron beams of energy less than or equal to 12 MeV and did not use bending ... In studies regarding the delivery of therapeutic radiation in the limb-sparing approach to extremity soft tissue sarcomas, ...
Radiotherapy aims to minimize the size of tumors and kill cancer cells with high energy. The source of high energy arises from ... A higher therapeutic index is preferable to a lower one: a patient would have to take a much higher dose of such a drug to ... A high therapeutic index (TI) is preferable for a drug to have a favorable safety and efficacy profile. At early discovery/ ... The therapeutic ratio in radiotherapy for cancer treatment is related to the maximum radiation dose by which death of cancer ...
... for therapeutic X-ray beams. Some examples of X-ray energies used in medicine are: Very low-energy superficial X-rays - 35 to ... Typically, higher energy megavoltage X-rays are chosen when it is desirable to maximize "skin-sparing" (since the relative dose ... the energy of diagnostic and therapeutic gamma- and X-rays is expressed in kilovolts or megavolts (kV or MV), whilst the energy ... Therapeutic radiation is mainly generated in the radiotherapy department using some of the following equipment: Superficial ...
This will usually be in the form of a Bachelor of Science degree in Therapeutic Radiography, Radiotherapy, or Radiotherapy and ... such as high-energy x-rays, the radiographer delivers accurate doses of radiation to the tumour; Mold Room - radiographers and ... Therapeutic radiographers are trained in all the many aspects of radiotherapy including: Simulation - using specialist x-ray ... qualified to plan and deliver radiotherapy. Radiotherapy is used either on its own or in combination with surgery and/or ...
... the X-ray photon energy must be 30 keV or higher to penetrate tissue in therapeutic applications. Although synchrotron ... J.Messungnoenab et al, Radiation Research 158, 657-660; 2002 Wang, CG; US Patent 8,278,315; "Radiotherapy Method using X-rays ... distance must be considered statistically and from differential measurements of higher-energy electrons at a much higher range ... its brightness falls off at the fourth power of photon energy. At 15-20 kV or higher an X-ray tube with a molybdenum target, ...
... uses a linear accelerator to produce high-energy x-rays that are directed in a beam towards the prostate. A technique called ... Radiation therapy, also known as radiotherapy, is often used to treat all stages of prostate cancer. It is also often used ... Additionally, for men who have already failed salvage radiation treatment and have limited therapeutic options remaining, ... However, a recent retrospective study suggests that men under 60 with high grade prostate cancer have higher survival rates ...
64Cu was produced using high-energy neutrons via the 64Zn(n,p)64Cu reaction in high specific activity but low yield. Using a ... Areas of low oxygen retention have been shown to be resistant to external beam radiotherapy because hypoxia reduces the lethal ... Its beta emissions also raise the possibility of therapeutic applications. Compared to typical PET radionuclides it has a ... Vienna: International Atomic Energy Agency. ISBN 978-92-0-109615-9. Gutfilen, Bianca; Souza, Sergio AL; Valentini, Gianluca (2 ...
... but in muscle tissues there is a much higher rate of conversion to heat. The therapeutic ultrasound apparatus generates a high- ... Most, if not all, of the therapeutic effects of microwave therapy are related to the conversion of energy into heat and its ... Hyperthermia has been used in oncology for more than 35 years, in addition to radiotherapy, in the management of different ... The idea that high-frequency electromagnetic currents could have therapeutic effects was explored independently around the same ...
High energy laser pulses have also been shown to fragment nanorods into smaller particles. While these structural changes ... Gold nanoparticles in chemotherapy and radiotherapy is the use of colloidal gold in therapeutic treatments, often for cancer or ... AuNPs have high absorption cross sections requiring only minimal input of irradiation energy. Human breast carcinoma cells ... Gold nanoparticles are excellent absorbers of x-rays, due to its high atomic number of 197Au. This allows for a higher mass of ...
... emitters over other types of radioactive sources is their very high linear energy transfer (LET) and relative biological ... Unsealed source radiotherapy Selective internal radiation therapy Committee on State of the Science of Nuclear Medicine; ... Baum, Richard P (2014). Therapeutic Nuclear Medicine. Heidelberg: Springer. p. 98. ISBN 9783540367192. Hodgkins, Paul S.; ... Though many α-emitters exist, useful isotopes would have a sufficient energy to cause damage to cancer cells, and a half-life ...
The average energy of the beta emissions from yttrium-90 is 0.9367 MeV. The Therasphere package insert contains a Black Box ... They survived a median of 800 days compared with a median of 258 days for high risk patients (P <.0001) in a study of 140 ... TheraSphere is a radiotherapy treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) that consists of millions of microscopic, ... the beta radiation emitted provides a therapeutic effect. The microspheres are delivered into the liver tumor through a ...
... and emit high energy alpha particles, which destroy the tumor. This therapy is called "Diffusing Alpha-emitting Radiation ... "Development of Cancer Treatments Integrating Radiotherapy or Electrochemical Ablation and Immunotherapy". Ito, A; Tanaka, K; ... Chatterjee, D. K.; Diagaradjane, P.; Krishnan, S. (2012). "Nanoparticle-mediated hyperthermia in cancer therapy". Therapeutic ... When the radium decays, its short-lived daughter isotopes are released from the seeds by recoil energy, disperse in the tumor, ...
... Hi-Art and TomoTherapy TomoHD treatment machines were the only high energy radiotherapy treatment machines used in ... Static beam angle approaches aim to maximize the therapeutic ratio by ensuring that the tumor control probability (TCP) ... June 2008). "Stereotactic Image-Guided Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy Using the HI-ART II Helical Tomotherapy System". ... 2007). Handbook of radiotherapy physics theory and practice. Boca Raton: CRC Press. p. 969. ISBN 9781420012026. Colligan, S J; ...
... higher energy beams were required to reach tumors inside the body, requiring higher voltages. Orthovoltage X-rays, which used ... Radiotherapy and Oncology : Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology. 95 (2): 142-8. doi:10.1016/ ... Unsealed source radiotherapy (systemic radioisotope therapy)[edit]. Main article: Unsealed source radiotherapy ... The advantage of this energy deposition profile is that less energy is deposited into the healthy tissue surrounding the target ...
High-energy therapeutic ultrasound could increase higher-density anti-cancer drug load and nanomedicines to target tumor sites ... Radiotherapy is the use of high-energy rays, usually x-rays and similar rays (such as electrons) to treat disease. It works by ... Children who had received cranial radiotherapy are deemed at a high risk for academic failure and cognitive delay. A study by ... Radiotherapy is determined to be an effective treatment in adults but it causes significant side effects that can influence ...
... medical linear accelerators that generate high-energy x-rays, or with machines that were similar to a linear accelerator in ... May 2019). "Risk of subsequent primary cancers after carbon ion radiotherapy, photon radiotherapy, or surgery for localised ... Therapeutic radiation increases the risk of a subsequent cardiovascular event (i.e., heart attack or stroke) by 1.5 to 4 times ... The advantage of this energy deposition profile is that less energy is deposited into the healthy tissue surrounding the target ...
This leaves anyone exposed to penetrating gamma rays at high risk of ARS. Naturally, shielding the entire body from high energy ... Radiotherapy treatments are typically prescribed in terms of the local absorbed dose, which might be 60 Gy or higher. The dose ... Since there are no controlled studies of therapeutic intervention in humans, most of the current recommendations are based on ... Notably, as seen at Chernobyl, when skin is irradiated with high energy beta particles, moist desquamation (peeling of skin) ...
... higher energy beams were required to reach tumors inside the body, requiring higher voltages. Orthovoltage X-rays, which used ... May 2019). "Risk of subsequent primary cancers after carbon ion radiotherapy, photon radiotherapy, or surgery for localised ... "Therapeutic Advances in Cardiovascular Disease. 11 (11): 297-317. doi:10.1177/1753944717729141. PMC 5933669. PMID 28911261.. ... The advantage of this energy deposition profile is that less energy is deposited into the healthy tissue surrounding the target ...
... modern radiotherapy electron beam accelerators take advantage of this. At yet higher energies, above 16 MeV, the effect does ... acne is a cutaneous condition characterized by comedo-like papules occurring at sites of previous exposure to therapeutic ... High-energy beta emissions should be shielded with plastic instead of lead, as high-Z elements generate deeply penetrating ... The beta activity was extremely high, with beta/gamma ratio reaching 10-30[clarification needed] and beta energy high enough to ...
The maximum range of a high-energy photon such as an X-ray in matter is infinite; at every point in the matter traversed by the ... Treatment using radiation is known as radiotherapy. Industrial radiography is a method of non-destructive testing where many ... Applications of radiography include medical radiography ("diagnostic" and "therapeutic") and industrial radiography. Similar ... The creation of images by exposing an object to X-rays or other high-energy forms of electromagnetic radiation and capturing ...
The high energy beta radiation (up to 606 keV) from 131I causes it to be the most carcinogenic of the iodine isotopes. It is ... Since 131I has both a beta and gamma decay mode, it can be used for radiotherapy or for imaging. 123I, which has no beta ... All other iodine radioisotopes have half-lives less than 60 days, and four of these are used as tracers and therapeutic agents ... which are of higher energy, and are not produced from radioiodine). Instead, the excited tellurium nuclides decay immediately ( ...
Radiotherapy deliberately deliver high doses of radiation to tumors and surrounding tissues as a form of disease treatment. It ... Higher-energy radiation, including ultraviolet radiation (present in sunlight), x-rays, and gamma radiation, generally is ... December 2015). "Genomic instability in human cancer: Molecular insights and opportunities for therapeutic attack and ... These higher hormone levels may explain why these women have higher risk of breast cancer, even in the absence of a breast- ...
... whereas the OER is unity for high-LET radiations such as low energy alpha particles. The effect is used in medical physics to ... The Oxygen Enhancement Ratio (OER) or oxygen enhancement effect in radiobiology refers to the enhancement of therapeutic or ... Implications for radiotherapy. Oncotarget. 2016; 7:21469-83. Eric J. Hall and Amato J. Giaccia: Radiobiology for the ... Radiation with higher LET and higher relative biological effectiveness (RBE) have a lower OER in mammalian cell tissues. The ...
Focus areas include: new technologies for renewable energies, low-loss energy storage, energy efficiency, low-pollution ... This is why the facility is now considered a high-performance proton accelerator, or HIPA (High Intensity Proton Accelerator) ... When combined for therapy with special biomolecules - so-called antibodies, therapeutic molecules can be formed to selectively ... These cannot be treated with the usual radiotherapy techniques. New medically applicable radionuclides have, however, been ...
These offer high-energy proton therapy, as well as other types of advanced radiotherapy, including intensity-modulated ... K J Stelzer (2000). "Acute and long-term complications of therapeutic radiation for skull base tumors". Neurosurg Clin N Am. 11 ... The Newport Centre in South Wales was the first to treat a patient in the UK with high-energy proton therapy in 2018. the ... FLASH radiotherapy is a technique under development for photon and proton treatments, utilising very high dose rates ( ...
... higher energy beams were required to reach tumors inside the body, requiring higher voltages. Orthovoltage X-rays, which used ... Unsealed source radiotherapy (systemic radioisotope therapy)[edit]. Main article: Unsealed source radiotherapy ... "Therapeutic Advances in Cardiovascular Disease. 11 (11): 297-317. doi:10.1177/1753944717729141. PMC 5933669. PMID 28911261.. ... The advantage of this energy deposition profile is that less energy is deposited into the healthy tissue surrounding the target ...
All types of therapeutic tests were performed for different skin diseases including eczema, lichen and psoriasis. Later, it was ... Radiotherapy and Oncology (49) 1998 223-232 Harvie, David I. The Radium Century. Endeavor 1999 Vol. 23, Issue 3: 100-105 Voil, ... Energy Citations Database Dec 1964.[1] Dutreix, Jean; Pierquin, Bernard; Tubiana, Maurice. The Hazy Dawn of Brachytherapy. ... Radium bromide also poses a severe environmental hazard, amplified due to its high solubility in water, and it can ...
... and the finding that high quality surgery combined with a short course of radiotherapy can halve the rate of recurrence of ... "Therapeutic Antibodies and the LMB". MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology. Archived from the original on 22 December 2012. ... Members are appointed by the Secretary of State for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy. Daily management is in the hands ... The MRC focuses on high-impact research and has provided the financial support and scientific expertise behind a number of ...
The patient is then treated with high-dose chemotherapy with or without radiotherapy with the intention of eradicating the ... This is due to a therapeutic immune reaction of the grafted donor T lymphocytes against the diseased bone marrow of the ... fatigue and reduced energy.[46] ... High-dose corticosteroids such as prednisone are a standard ... The highest total number of bone marrow donors registered were those from the US (8.0 million), and the highest number per ...
The maximum range of a high-energy photon such as an X-ray in matter is infinite; at every point in the matter traversed by the ... Applications of radiography include medical radiography ("diagnostic" and "therapeutic") and industrial radiography. Similar ... For treatment using radiation, see Radiotherapy.. Radiography. Projectional radiography of the knee in a modern X-ray machine ... Dual-energy[edit]. Dual-energy radiography is where images are acquired using two separate tube voltages. This is the standard ...
Postoperative radiotherapy and chemotherapy are integral parts of the therapeutic standard for malignant tumors. Radiotherapy ... Higher incidence rates were reported in 1985-1994 than in 1975-1983. There is some debate as to the reasons; one theory is that ... of the energy emitted by the GSM (2G) phones that were in use when epidemiological studies that observed a slight increase in ... Radiotherapy may be used following, or in some cases in place of, resection of the tumor. Forms of radiotherapy used for brain ...
"Music Therapy with High Risk Adolescents (PDF)" (PDF). American Music Therapy Association, Michigan State University Chapter. ... "Reports of Practical Oncology & Radiotherapy. 16 (5): 170-72. doi:10.1016/j.rpor.2011.04.005. PMC 3863265. PMID 24376975.. ... therapeutic singing, therapeutic instrumental music playing, music-facilitated reminiscence and life review, songwriting, music ... The combination of music and MMS helps premature infants sleep and conserve vital energy required to gain weight more rapidly. ...
... which carries off variable amounts of the beta decay energy. The electrons, due to their high mean energy (190 keV, with ... Typical therapeutic doses of I-131 are between 2220-7400 megabecquerels (MBq).[42] Because of this high radioactivity and ... Iodine-131 is used for unsealed source radiotherapy in nuclear medicine to treat several conditions. It can also be detected by ... "International Atomic Energy Agency. Retrieved 14 March 2011.. (thermal neutron fission) *^ Effluent Releases from Nuclear Power ...
Men with high-grade disease (Gleason 8-10) experienced high prostate cancer mortality within 15 years of diagnosis, regardless ... This allows prostate cancer cells to save energy not making citrate, and utilize the new abundance of energy to grow and spread ... External beam radiotherapy became more popular as stronger [X-ray] radiation sources became available in the middle of the 20th ... From discovery to prognosis and therapeutic perspectives]". Prog. Urol. (in French). 19 (11): 819-24. doi:10.1016/j.purol. ...
... high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) and high altitude cerebral edema (HACE).[3] Hypoxia also occurs in healthy individuals ... This temporary measure (anaerobic metabolism) allows small amounts of energy to be released. Lactic acid build up (in tissues ... Eosinophilic, polymorphic, and pruritic eruption associated with radiotherapy. Radiation acne. Radiation-induced cancer. ... To counter the effects of high-altitude diseases, the body must return arterial pO. 2 toward normal. Acclimatization, the means ...
... the glutathione S-transferases show high activity with lipid peroxides.[157] These enzymes are at particularly high levels in ... D'Andrea GM (2005). "Use of antioxidants during chemotherapy and radiotherapy should be avoided". CA: A Cancer Journal for ... The use of oxygen as part of the process for generating metabolic energy produces reactive oxygen species.[61] In this process ... Di Matteo V, Esposito E (April 2003). "Biochemical and therapeutic effects of antioxidants in the treatment of Alzheimer's ...
the finding that high quality surgery combined with a short course of radiotherapy can halve the rate of recurrence of ... "Therapeutic Antibodies and the LMB". MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology. Archived from the original on 22 December 2012. ... Members are appointed by the Secretary of State for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy. Daily management is in the hands ... "Times Higher Education. 1 August 2012. Retrieved 1 August 2012.. *^ a b c "Legacy for anti-doping centre". BBC News. 1 August ...
Postoperative radiotherapy and chemotherapy are integral parts of the therapeutic standard for malignant tumors. Radiotherapy ... These tumors show a high frequency of co-deletions of the p and q arms of chromosome 1 and chromosome 19 respectively (1p19q co ... of the energy emitted by the GSM (2G) phones that were in use when epidemiological studies that observed a slight increase in ... Radiotherapy may be used following, or in some cases in place of, resection of the tumor. Forms of radiotherapy used for brain ...
"Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety. 6 (2): 45-56. doi:10.1177/2042098614568300. PMC 4406918. PMID 25922653.. ... Other physical symptoms of menopause include lack of energy, joint soreness, stiffness,[16] back pain,[16] breast enlargement,[ ... An early menopause can be related to cigarette smoking, higher body mass index, racial and ethnic factors, illnesses, and the ... Induced menopause occurs as a result of medical treatment such as chemotherapy, radiotherapy, oophorectomy, or complications of ...
Due to this, even commercial flying may produce severe cases of barotraumas, although most of the cases are observed in high ... Eosinophilic, polymorphic, and pruritic eruption associated with radiotherapy. Radiation acne. Radiation-induced cancer. ... the subject first received serious attention and the pathogenesis of the disease was understood to be due to exposure to high ...
The humoral immune response of mice fed the L diet was found to be higher than that of mice fed the C, S and W diets. On the ... Therapeutic elevation of normal cell GSH levels has also been investigated as a means to reduce the toxicity associated with a ... Oxidative stress plays a role in the tumor-cytotoxic effect of cancer chemotherapy and radiotherapy and also in certain adverse ... The increase in body weight observed in these patients did not correlate with increase in energy or protein intake. ...
Most of the high quality human data available is from high dose individuals, above 0.1 Sv, so any use of the models at low ... The linear quadratic model is widely viewed in radiotherapy as the best model of cellular survival,[52] and it is the best fit ... Vienna: International Atomic Energy Agency. p. 493. ISBN 978-92-0-107304-4. . Retrieved 1 June 2012.. ... Aug 2000). "Therapeutic ionizing radiation and the incidence of basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. The New ...
By energy[edit]. *by electric energy as electric current: electrotherapy, electroconvulsive therapy *Transcranial magnetic ... It thus requires high resource intensity, knowledge, and skill, as well as quick decision making. ... by radiation generally: radiation therapy (radiotherapy) *intraoperative radiation therapy. *by EMR particles: *particle ... Therapeutic inertia. *Therapeutic nihilism, the idea that treatment is useless. References[edit]. *^ Online Etymology ...
"m2" and similar designations refer to further higher energy states. The number may be dropped if there is only one well- ... Astatine-211 has potential for targeted alpha particle radiotherapy, since it decays either via emission of an alpha particle ( ... Therapeutic Nuclear Medicine. Springer. pp. 95-104 (99). ISBN 978-3-540-36718-5.. ... Astatine-211 has a significantly higher energy than the previous isotope, because it has a nucleus with 126 neutrons, and 126 ...
Miller E, Pastor-Barriuso R, Dalal D, Riemersma R, Appel L, Guallar E (2005). "Meta-analysis: high-dosage vitamin E ... Di Matteo V; Esposito E (2003). "Biochemical and therapeutic effects of antioxidants in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, ... Moss R (2006). "Should patients undergoing chemotherapy and radiotherapy be prescribed antioxidants?". Integrative cancer ... "Light and oxygenic photosynthesis: energy dissipation as a protection mechanism against photo-oxidation". EMBO Rep. 6 (7): 629 ...
Principle: Positron Emission Tomography (PET) images living systems by recording high-energy γ-rays emitted from within the ... Also, radiation may affect tumor size in cancer models as it mimics radiotherapy, and thus extra control groups might be needed ... from functional and molecular imaging which would be extremely useful in tumor quantification and cell-centered therapeutic ... It combines the high sensitivity of optical imaging with the high spatial resolution of ultrasound imaging. For this reason, it ...
This undergoes instantaneous nuclear fission to produce high energy alpha particles (4He nuclei) and high energy lithium-7 (7Li ... 2009). "Effects of radiotherapy with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide versus radiotherapy alone on survival in ... Neutron capture therapy (NCT) is a noninvasive therapeutic modality for treating locally invasive malignant tumors such as ... After losing energy as they penetrate tissue, the neutrons are captured by the 10B, which subsequently emits high-energy alpha ...
A Wikimedia Commons hi ha contingut multimèdia relatiu a: Antioxidant. *↑ Bjelakovic G, et al. «Mortality in randomized trials ... Moss R «Should patients undergoing chemotherapy and radiotherapy be prescribed antioxidants?». Integrative cancer therapies, 5 ... Szabó I, Bergantino E, Giacometti G «Light and oxygenic photosynthesis: energy dissipation as a protection mechanism against ... Di Matteo V, Esposito E «Biochemical and therapeutic effects of antioxidants in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, ...
... membrane antigen PET-CT in patients with high-risk prostate cancer before curative-intent surgery or radiotherapy (proPSMA): a ... Prostate cancer cells save energy by not making citrate, and use the conserved energy to grow, reproduce and spread. The ... From discovery to prognosis and therapeutic perspectives]". Progres en Urologie (in French). 19 (11): 819-24. doi:10.1016/j. ... Men with high-grade disease (Gleason 8-10) experienced high mortality within 15 years of diagnosis, regardless of their age. As ...
The radiation is most commonly low energy X-rays for treating skin cancers, while higher energy X-rays are used for cancers ... Tidy C. "Radiotherapy". Patient UK. Archived from the original on 9 July 2017. Last Checked: 23 December 2015 Hill R, Healy B, ... Zhang J, Xiang H, Rong-Rong He R, Liu B (2020). "Mitochondrial Sirtuin 3: New emerging biological function and therapeutic ... These higher hormone levels may explain their higher risk of breast cancer, even in the absence of a breast-cancer gene. ...
Yin and yang are the changing factors in cosmology, with qi as the vital force or energy of life. The Five phase theory Wu Xing ... A high priority involved child health programs such as clinics, better baby shows, playgrounds, fresh air camps, and courses ... This new therapeutic sensibility, referred to as moral treatment, was epitomised in French physician Philippe Pinel's quasi- ... Cancer treatment has been developed with radiotherapy, chemotherapy and surgical oncology. Oral rehydration therapy has been ...
It was a four-section 140 MeV machine operating, with the first section designed for higher current (and thus lower energy) for ... The success of the program led to the installation of the world's first cobalt-60 source for radiotherapy at the University in ... The principal interest was in nuclear physics, but they were also interested In the possible therapeutic uses for the treatment ... An energy compression system was also installed in the late 1980s, and by 1990, with EROS operational, SAL was once more at the ...
... so cancer treatment for an individual with high levels of H19 (and p95) may focus more on radiotherapy or immunotherapy instead ... there was a complete absence of conservation Free energy (thermodynamics) analysis of the H19 RNA sequence revealed a multitude ... including those with a still not-optimized therapeutic dose and regimen. BC-819 was previously tested in human compassionate ... As well, in a mouse bladder carcinoma cell line, where transfection of a human H19 DNA construct results in high expression of ...
The high information content of SOS boxes permits differential binding of LexA to different promoters and allows for timing of ... However, synthetic lethality therapeutic approaches have been questioned due to emerging evidence of acquired resistance, ... Cancer therapy procedures such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy work by overwhelming the capacity of the cell to repair DNA ... whose activation is obligately dependent on energy absorbed from blue/UV light (300-500 nm wavelength) to promote catalysis. ...
Radiotherapy (including high-energy radiation therapy). *Stereotaxis. *Therapeutic ultrasound. *Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve ...
Radiotherapy (including high-energy radiation therapy). *Stereotaxis. *Therapeutic ultrasound. *TMS (Transcranial Magnetic ...
You may also hear it called radiotherapy or therapeutic radiology. Radiation therapy kills cancer cells with high-energy X-rays ... A high dose of radiation is given inside the body. Its put as close to the cancer as possible. These implants are sometimes ... Internal radiation lets you get a higher dose of radiation over a shorter time. Some sources of the radiation stay in the body ...
This extends from magnetic resonance imaging at low energies to high energy photons in X-ray systems. The importance of ... The therapeutic role is examined by a brief consideration of radiotherapy.. 10 credits ... We examine in detail the history of global energy useage and how we produce and use energy in the UK. We will then explore the ... The course will commence with a discussion of the basic physics of energy, power and work and the conversion of energy from one ...
A radioactive drug used for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes.. Radiotherapy. Radiation therapy; the use of high-energy ... High-dose chemotherapy. Administration of very high doses of chemotherapy that may be more effective in eliminating myeloma ... Product of energy metabolism of muscle that is normally filtered out of the blood and found in the urine. Elevated levels in ... High risk myeloma. A type of myeloma where there is some feature that indicates a worse prognosis. For example, certain types ...
... intended for high energy physics and one in Milan - the 45 Mev cyclotron - intended for low energy physics. While the ... Amaldi, Ugo (December 2004). "CNAO--The Italian Centre for Light-Ion Therapy". Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the ... European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology. 73 Suppl 2: S191-201. doi:10.1016/s0167-8140(04)80047-1. ISSN 0167- ... "HEAD AAS Rossi Prize Winners , High Energy Astrophysics Division". Retrieved 2021-04-19. ...
External beam radiation is delivered using a linear accelerator that produces high energy x-ray or electron beams. Internal ... External Beam Radiotherapy. External beam radiation is the most common form of radiotherapy. Painless radiation treatments are ... With this method, therapeutic doses of radiation can be delivered to breast tissue in a relatively short time - twice a day ... Radiotherapy hardware, software, treatment planning and delivery methods have advanced dramatically in recent years. These ...
Emerging prolonged, hypofractionated radiotherapy regimens rely on high-dose conformality to minimize toxicity and thus can ... However, the development of such X-ray responsive nanosystems remains a challenge, especially in response to high energy ... locally triggered release of therapeutic species by X-ray irradiation is highly desired to enhance the efficacy of radiotherapy ... respectively.MC models of two US probes used for real-time image guidance during radiotherapy have been built. Due to the high ...
... high-energy radiation that displaces electrons from atoms and molecules) to destroy cancer cells. In addition to treating ... Radiation therapy, also called radiation oncology, radiotherapy, or therapeutic radiology, the use of ionizing radiation (high- ... The accelerated particles bombard a target, which then produces the therapeutic beam of radiation. The energy of the beam is ... Modern radiation therapy machines produce beams that are in the high-energy megavoltage range (more than 1,000 kilovolts), ...
192Ir is used for high-energy contact radiation therapy at levels of Category 2 or 3. While 252 Cf could be used for contact ... Clinical Use, Storage, and Disposal Practices of Radiotherapy Procedures. (Presented by Natalya Borysheva). ... Radiopharmaceuticals and compounded radiochemcials are used for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. The time needed for unused ... Ian Gordon, International Atomic Energy Agency. End of Life Management of Disused Sealed Radioactive Sources. The IAEA is ...
In conventional radiotherapy, the biological effect of the therapy is spread over the entire irradiated area, and a high ... NCT, in contrast, allows in situ selectivity by targeting of the boron isotope, and employs high energy, short range particles ... Pre-Clinical Therapeutic Studies. Experimental evaluation of therapeutic efficacy entailed localised irradiation of tumour- ... taking into account the energy of the fission particles produced and their energy range for causing cell damage. The cross ...
Owing to their large size proteinaceous drugs offer higher operative information content compared to the small molecules that ... It decays via the emission β-particles at a high enough energy, making it appropriate for radiotherapy. After this, 188Re then ... chelators have to exhibit a high in vivo stability in order to ensure patient safety yet also obtain good therapeutic and ... Within these an energy deposition takes place, which is significantly higher than that of β- emitters. This results in a high ...
... an approach that better spares healthy tissue from radiation but is associated with higher costs. Evidence supporting the cost- ... which need to be taken into account in order to fully exploit the therapeutic potential of charged particles. ... an approach that better spares healthy tissue from radiation but is associated with higher costs. Evidence supporting the cost- ... Conventional radiotherapy with X-rays is being replaced by radiotherapy with high-energy charged particles, ...
In vitro screening for synergism of high-linear energy transfer Bi-213-radiotherapy with other therapeutic agents for the ... Patient doses in gamma-intracoronary radiotherapy: The radiation burden assessment study Hubert Thierens (UGent) , Nick ... Early biomarkers related to secondary primary cancer risk in radiotherapy treated prostate cancer patients: IMRT versus IMAT ... dual-energy CT, metal artifact reduction software: does it make a difference? An De Crop (UGent) , Jan Casselman, Tom Van Hoof ...
In contrast, TMZ provided no therapeutic enhancement in the MGMT-unmethylated LN18 and T98G cell lines. The residual number of ... High linear energy transfer (LET) radiation offers superior biophysical properties over conventional radiotherapy and may have ... In vitro evaluation of combined temozolomide and radiotherapy using X-rays and high-linear energy transfer radiation for ... In vitro evaluation of combined temozolomide and radiotherapy using X-rays and high-linear energy transfer radiation for ...
A possible solution to serve such a focusing system with a high-quality proton beam at all relevant energies is identified to ... higher peak-to-valley dose ratios and higher achievable dose rates. A possible solution to serve such a focusing system with a ... higher peak-to-valley dose ratios and higher achievable dose rates. ... Spatial fractionation utilizing proton minibeam radiotherapy (pMBRT) promises to be advantageous compared to X-ray minibeams ...
... termed FLASH radiotherapy (FLASH-RT), have uncovered some unexpected but possible therapeutic benefits caused tremendous ... since electrons with higher energies can travel deeper into the patient. The advantages of this very high-energy electron ... In addition, the idea of investigating the use of very high-energy (50-250 MeV) electron (VHEE) beams for RT has gained ... The challenge until recently has been the difficulty in obtaining high-energy electrons using compact machines. This can now be ...
A high-energy and rigid immobilization system was used, and a dose of 60 Gy was given in standard daily fractions of 2 Gy. ... including adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy after surgical resection. Radiotherapy consisted of focal cranial irradiation ... Purpose: Anaplastic gliomas constitute a heterogeneous group of tumors with different therapeutic responses to adjuvant ... Chemotherapy in adult high-grade glioma: a systematic review and meta-analysis of individual patient data from 12 randomized ...
High linear energy transfer (LET) CI can induce both endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and autophagy in tumor cells under ... Thus, our study indicates that inhibiting autophagy might be a promising therapeutic strategy in CI radiotherapy via ... Subsequently, high doses (>5 μM) induced loss of cell viability and cell death. Interestingly, AMPK knock-down using siRNA did ... Furthermore, the MCF-7 cells incubated in the low glucose medium for 48 h showed a higher expression of NF-κB p100/p52 subunits ...
Radiotherapy aims to minimize the size of tumors and kill cancer cells with high energy. The source of high energy arises from ... A higher therapeutic index is preferable to a lower one: a patient would have to take a much higher dose of such a drug to ... A high therapeutic index (TI) is preferable for a drug to have a favorable safety and efficacy profile. At early discovery/ ... The therapeutic ratio in radiotherapy for cancer treatment is related to the maximum radiation dose by which death of cancer ...
3. Radiotherapy. In radiotherapy high energy X-ray beam is used to kill cancer cells. It is usually used for cancers on the ... In particular tumors the following therapeutic procedures may be effective:. *In photodynamic therapy (PDT), a medication with ... A high dose or repeated X-ray exposure (1,2). *Exposure to arsenic (pesticides, wood preservatives, miners, sheep shearers, ... A constant exposure to the UV rays: a high altitude, regions close to equator and regions with impaired ozone layer in ...
Radiotherapy. Cancer treatment using high-energy rays. It can take the form of external beam radiation which is aimed to ... Person qualified to operate radiotherapy machines and take X-rays. Radiographers specialise in either diagnostic or therapeutic ... Squamous cell carcinoma usually occurs higher up in the gullet Staging. The extent of a cancer in the body. Staging is usually ... Additional treatment, such as chemotherapy or radiotherapy given after surgery. Advanced Cancer When cancer cells spread from ...
The use of these high-energy rays or particles to treat disease, most often cancer, is called radiation therapy (or ... radiotherapy). Physicians specializing in this field are called radiation oncologists. ... Radiation is a kind of energy created by waves or streams of particles delivered by specialized machines or given off by ... There are several ways to deliver therapeutic radiation to treat cancer. Your radiation oncologist will explain how RT may ...
Radiotherapy, High-Energy. Survival Rate. Synaptophysin / metabolism. Taxoids / therapeutic use. *MedlinePlus Health ... Peptides, Cyclic / therapeutic use. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives. Somatostatin / therapeutic use. *[MeSH-minor] Drug ... Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chromogranin A / metabolism. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. ... include both record types but rank higher the records having abstract (the default BML behavior) + PMID. Show me only articles ...
epub 3 - Monitor Unit Calculation for High Energy Photon Beams. Brussels, Belgium: European Society for Therapeutic Radiology ... epub 1 - natives for In Vivo Dosimetry in External Radiotherapy, Amazing persoonlijk. Brussels, Belgium: European Society for ... History 039; recent ovest epub allerseelen, combining Helping medical influencers in the stereoscopic high-risk company of 180 ... Brussels, Belgium: European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology( ESTRO), 2002. Medical Cyclotrons( giving PET ...
This approach uses the fractionated delivery of high-energy X-ray beams to generate highly reactive free radicals in target ... and PEITC differentially modulate cellular metabolism collectively enhancing the therapeutic outcomes of radiotherapy. ... Greater lactate content in the cancerous cells reflects a higher rate of glycolysis in these cells for energy generation, ... The highest dose of PEITC combined with 5 Gy of IR was genotoxic to the non-tumorigenic cells resulting in a final 44% tail DNA ...
... with low-energy photons as a boost in patients with early-stage oral cancer with the indications for... ... To evaluate the feasibility and preliminary results of intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) ... Randomized clinical trial on 7-days-a-week postoperative radiotherapy for high-risk squamous cell head and neck cancer. ... Prognostic and therapeutic implications. Am J Surg 1986;152:354-60.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ...
At three years of age, she underwent craniospinal radiotherapy with high energy photons through a collimator involving 3600 cGy ... Therapeutic intervention remains controversial and should be considered on a case by case basis [1,2,12,13]. Despite multiple ... At 15 months of age, the patient underwent high dose chemotherapy with an autologous stem cell harvest to help the patient ... CPCs are challenging to surgically resect due to their intraventricular position and high vascularity [1]. Many of these tumors ...
... of proton beam therapy over other types of external beam radiotherapy is that proton beams stop after releasing their energy in ... Delivery of higher therapeutic doses of radiation to tumors. *More accurate targeting of tumors with minimal exit dose ... Proton Cancer Treatment Centers: High on Price, Low on Return was last modified: May 22nd, 2018 by Michelle Dick ... Proton Cancer Treatment Centers: High on Price, Low on Return. * By Michelle Dick ...
α-emitters, however, have a shorter pathlength and higher linear energy transfer allowing them to be more potent agents. This ... Peptide receptor radiotherapies with β-emitters are currently used to treat neuroendocrine tumors in patients. However, not all ... These studies support the therapeutic potential and possible advantage of 212Pb-DOTAMTATE and have led to the initiation of a ... and had high specificity and modest sensitivity in predicting 1p/19q codeletion. It also enabled stratification of ...
  • Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a technique in which p -boronophenylalanine (BPA) is transferred to cancer cells, and the boron in it undergoes nuclear fission reaction upon irradiation of thermal neutrons, releasing high energy particles that kill the cells. (
  • In this approach, the primary tumour and a limited area around it is treated through irradiation with high-energy X-rays. (
  • The irradiation of benign and malignant brain tumors requires precise techniques to preserve critical structures while simultaneously administering a high radiation dose for maximum effectiveness. (
  • Given that proton irradiation modulates fundamental biological processes that are known to decrease with host aging, angiogenesis and immunogenicity, I am investigating how proton irradiation impacts tumor advancement as a function of host age, a question with both therapeutic and carcinogenesis implications. (
  • Since the irradiation is typically repeated 20 or more times over a period of several weeks, the patient has to be repeatedly aligned on the treatment machine with high accuracy. (
  • The quality of the portal images is inherently poor because of the high photon energy that is used for therapeutic irradiation (4 to 50 MV acceleration potential). (
  • In addition, pelvic irradiation for cancer treatment is associated with higher risk for uterine cancer. (
  • Two groups were irradiated at the highest dose for each of the two charged particles, one fed AIN-93M chow and the other fed the same chow supplemented with 150 mg/kg chow of the antioxidant alpha lipoic acid began one week before irradiation and continued until euthanasia. (
  • A radiotherapy apparatus includes an irradiation head section, an X-ray source section and a sensor array section. (
  • The irradiation head section irradiates therapeutic radiation to a therapeutic field of a target substance. (
  • The radiotherapy dose was 10 Gy and irradiation time was 27.4 minutes. (
  • High-Linear Energy Transfer Irradiation Targeted to Skeletal Metastases by the α-Emitter 223Ra: Adjuvant or Alternative to Conventional Modalities? (
  • Most patients receiving IORT are concurrently treated with high-dose external beam photon irradiation. (
  • This updated COP recommends the irradiation geometries, the choice of ionisation chambers, appropriate correction factors and the derivation of absorbed dose to water calibration coefficients, for carrying out reference dosimetry measurements on MV external beam radiotherapy machines. (
  • The catheter is later used to deliver a high dose of radiation to the tissue that surrounds the cavity that formerly contained the tumor. (
  • Spatial fractionation utilizing proton minibeam radiotherapy (pMBRT) promises to be advantageous compared to X-ray minibeams due to higher dose conformity at the tumor. (
  • The unwanted side effects occurring in the normal tissue located in the beam path in front and behind the tumor is one of the main limiting factors for the dose which can be applied to the tumor within one fraction of radiotherapy. (
  • Modern therapy concepts aim to overcome the limits of radiotherapy and try to widen the therapeutic window, by either reducing the risks of side effects or by enhancing tumor control. (
  • Inhibiting autophagy with chloroquine enhances the anti-tumor effect of high-LET carbon ions via ER stress-related apoptosis. (
  • High linear energy transfer (LET) CI can induce both endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and autophagy in tumor cells under certain circumstances. (
  • The molecular connection between ER stress and autophagy in tumor exposed to high-LET radiation and how these two pathways influence the therapeutic effect against tumor remain poorly understood. (
  • The applicator's diameter (range: 1.5-5 cm) was selected to encompass high-risk area of tumor recurrence. (
  • External-beam radiotherapy (EBRT) was provided to the tumor bed in all patients (50 Gy) and to the nodal area, when needed. (
  • The advantage of proton beam therapy over other types of external beam radiotherapy is that proton beams stop after releasing their energy in the targeted tumor. (
  • CPCs are challenging to surgically resect due to their intraventricular location and high vascularity.Tumor recurrence and dissemination are frequently seen with CPC. (
  • A genetic algorithm based optimization tool is developed to enhance the specific absorption rate (SAR) distribution by reducing hotspots and maximizing energy deposition at tumor regions. (
  • An effective thermal treatment however depends upon several factors including treatment of deep-seated tumors, energy localization at tumor site, high resolution imaging system to monitor the therapeutic process, and the noninvasive nature of the treatment. (
  • Energy localization at the tumor site without excessively heating the surrounding healthy tissue in the head region by means of external EM and ultrasound sources is the primary subject of this paper. (
  • It is not simple to achieve the unique promise of targeted systemic therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals to deliver this cytotoxic payload to the tumor while sparing normal tissues. (
  • The ultrashort range and the high-linear-energy transfer resulting in double-strand DNA breaks in adjacent cells after a single hit are likely when the decay occurs nears the tumor cell nucleus. (
  • Tumor receptor imaging emphasizes important emerging themes in molecular imaging: characterizing tumor biology, identifying therapeutic targets, and delineating the pharmacodynamics of targeted cancer therapy (5,6). (
  • External radiation delivers high-energy rays directly to the tumor site from a machine outside the body. (
  • GENEVA, April 22, 2013 /PRNewswire/ -- Cancer experts have reported future trends and progress in radiotherapy treatments for lung cancer using motion management and tumor-tracking technologies from Varian Medical Systems (NYSE: VAR). (
  • Speakers at Varian's Emerging Technologies Symposium at the annual ESTRO conference detailed experiences of stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy (SABR) treatments using Varian's TrueBeam™ medical linear accelerator and Calypso® 'GPS for the Body' tumor-tracking technology. (
  • Proton radiation is touted for improved tumor targeting, over standard gamma radiation, due to the physical advantages of ion beams for radiotherapy. (
  • The aim of external beam radiotherapy is to eradicate a tumor by irradiating it repeatedly by high-energy photons with multiple beams (from multiple directions). (
  • External beam therapy (EBT): a method for delivering a beam of high-energy x-rays or proton beams to the location of the tumor. (
  • Some patients may need higher doses of one or more chemotherapy drugs either before or after surgery to decrease the chance of the tumor returning elsewhere in the body. (
  • Radiation therapy uses high-energy x-rays to damage tumor cells. (
  • Blood tests revealed a high level of the CA19-9 tumor marker (1525.84 U/mL). (
  • In contrast, when the aim is "local tumor control" in patients with solitary bony metastases and long life expectancy or when medullar compression is present, fractionated radiotherapy is advisable (3.0 Gy × ≥10) in selected cases ( 14 ). (
  • NBTXR3 aims to amplify the energy dose within the tumor to offer better clinical results and more therapeutic options to improve the poor prognosis of these populations. (
  • Intra-operative radiation therapy (IORT) is being investigated as a technique to deliver a high dose of radiation to a locally advanced tumor while attempting to protect adjacent normal tissues at the time of surgery. (
  • After all or most of the cancer is surgically removed, a large, single-dose of high-energy radiation is aimed directly at the tumor site. (
  • Radiotherapy, which uses controlled high-energy rays of ionizing radiation to destroy malignant tumor cells, is one of the therapeutic modalities used to treat early and locally advanced stages of cervical cancer. (
  • Radiotherapy treatment of tumors is used in approximately 50% of all cancer cases worldwide and is therefore besides chemotherapy, surgery and immunotherapy one of the four pillars of cancer treatment throughout the last decades [ 1 - 4 ]. (
  • Anaplastic gliomas constitute a heterogeneous group of tumors with different therapeutic responses to adjuvant chemotherapy with alkylating agents. (
  • The incidence of CPTs are slightly higher within the pediatric population, as they represent 1.5%-3.9% of all CNS tumors in this age group [ 5 ]. (
  • Peptide receptor radiotherapies with β-emitters are currently used to treat neuroendocrine tumors in patients. (
  • The treatment performance is also enhanced by augmenting an ultrasonic subsystem to allow focused energy deposition into deep tumors. (
  • EM use in hyperthermia treatment however suffers from some discrepancies related to energy penetration and focusing capability in targeting deep-seated tumors. (
  • Focusing of energy however becomes more challenging when treating cancerous tumors in the head region due to the tissue-bone interface in the human skull. (
  • The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently added a new therapeutic to the armamentarium for oncologists treating patients with neuroendocrine tumors. (
  • This knowledge was first harnessed for therapeutic purposes many years ago, and analogues of somatostatin are now a common treatment for patients with metastatic neuroendocrine tumors. (
  • The Divisions of Radiotherapy, Breast, and Nuclear Medicine tuned the R.O.L.L. (Radio-guided Occult Lesion Localization) , a new radio-guided surgical technique that allowed the removal of microscopic non-palpable breast tumors. (
  • Targeted radionuclide therapy, which is based on the selective delivery of a sufficient radiation dose to tumors without significantly affecting normal tissues, is a promising therapeutic approach for the treatment of a wide variety of malignancies. (
  • If successful, the techniques of dedicated 4D treatment plan optimization and target position detection will allow improved radio-therapeutic treatments of tumors in moving organs like lung, liver and pancreas by scanning ion beams. (
  • The techniques will be clinically implemented at the HIT facility in Heidelberg in the near future, what enables to exploit this high-end radiotherapy for radioresistant tumors in those new locations. (
  • Real-time prostate biopsy has emerged as a potential replacement for conventional systematic biopsy in an effort to improve quality, reduce the number of clinically insignificant cancer diagnoses, and improve targeting of high-grade and clinically significant tumors. (
  • This systematic review shows that SABR achieves high local control with limited side effects, even for central lung tumors," he said. (
  • Furthermore, delivery of the highest SABR doses using the High Intensity Mode for lung tumors has reduced treatment delivery times to less than four minutes. (
  • While hyperthermia is most commonly used as an adjuvant in combination with radiotherapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy or cryotherapy to enhance the therapeutic effect of these therapies, thermoablation is usually carried out alone to eradicate small breast tumors. (
  • Chemotherapy is given at the time of radiation therapy in select tumors, usually in the setting of a therapeutic clinical trial. (
  • Once again, all transferability data show the potential of broad applicability of NBTXR3 for use with radiotherapy in the treatment of solid tumors. (
  • The product appears to stay within the tumors with no leakage in the surrounding healthy tissues from the day of injection until end of radiotherapy treatment (illustration 1 & 2). (
  • Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) is the safest and most modern radiotherapy currently available for the treatment of malignant liver tumors but SBRT has been shown to be efficient only in specific subsets of population with small tumors. (
  • However, while chemo-radiotherapy kills differentiated cancer cells, mesenchymal stem-like cells are resistant to this treatment, and this can give rise to therapy-resistant tumors. (
  • External beam radiation is delivered using a linear accelerator that produces high energy x-ray or electron beams. (
  • In contrast, indirectly ionizing radiation (e.g., electromagnetic waves and neutron beams) gives up energy as it passes through tissues, which results in the production of fast-moving particles that in turn cause damage to tissues. (
  • In addition, the idea of investigating the use of very high-energy (50-250 MeV) electron ( VHEE ) beams for RT has gained interest, since electrons with higher energies can travel deeper into the patient. (
  • This approach uses the fractionated delivery of high-energy X-ray beams to generate highly reactive free radicals in target tumour tissue. (
  • When hearing the term radiotherapy, most people think of external beam radiotherapy, which is the use of a machine to direct radiation beams such as high-energy X-rays at a cancer from outside the patient's body. (
  • In HIFU therapy, ultrasound beams are focused on diseased tissue, and due to the significant energy deposition at the focus, temperature within the tissue rises to 65° to 85°C, destroying the diseased tissue by coagulation necrosis. (
  • In Ion beam radiotherapy, narrow scanning beams are used to deliver highly localized dose distributions to the patient. (
  • Demonstrated that nanodosimeters can be used for consistent characterisations of microscopic energy deposition patterns made by therapeutic ion beams. (
  • Such systems have not been used in intensity modulated radiation therapy ("IMRT") beams, scanning proton particles and beams, and/or to characterize the intensity and energy modulated proton therapy beam. (
  • The 1990 code of practice (COP), produced by the IPSM (now the Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine, IPEM) and the UK National Physical Laboratory (NPL), gave instructions for determining absorbed dose to water for megavoltage photon (MV) radiotherapy beams (Lillicrap et al 1990). (
  • A high dose of radiation is given inside the body. (
  • Internal radiation lets you get a higher dose of radiation over a shorter time. (
  • A procedure in which bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cells from a donor (usually related) are collected, stored, and infused into a patient (recipient) following high-dose chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy. (
  • Internal radiation or brachytherapy uses radioactive sources placed within the breast to deliver a therapeutic dose of radiation. (
  • We consider focusing of pencil or planar minibeams in a scanning approach superior compared to collimation due to less beam halos, higher peak-to-valley dose ratios and higher achievable dose rates. (
  • The advantages of this very high-energy electron therapy (VHEE) are that the depth - dose profile from the electrons is flatter than the quasi-exponential dose given by X-rays, and in addition - in principle - the delivered electrons (which are charged) may be focused and steered in ways that are not possible for X-rays. (
  • Therapeutic Index = L D 50 E D 50 {\displaystyle {\text{Therapeutic Index}}=\mathrm {\frac {LD_{50}}{ED_{50}}} } in animal studies, or for humans, Therapeutic Index = T D 50 E D 50 {\displaystyle {\text{Therapeutic Index}}=\mathrm {\frac {TD_{50}}{ED_{50}}} } For many drugs, there are severe toxicities that occur at sublethal doses in humans, and these toxicities often limit the maximum dose of a drug. (
  • A higher therapeutic index is preferable to a lower one: a patient would have to take a much higher dose of such a drug to reach the toxic threshold than the dose taken to elicit the therapeutic effect. (
  • Medical physicists who work in radiotherapy supervise the dose of radiation delivered to treat cancer patients. (
  • Researchers at St Jude Children's Research Center have reported the outcomes of 79 patients with Ewing's sarcoma treated with low-dose or high-dose radiation and chemotherapy with vincristine, actinomycin D, and cyclophosphamide with alternating cycles of ifosfamide and etoposide. (
  • Radiography provides the potential of high contrast images gained at low dose. (
  • The EMRP project Biologically weighted quantities in radiotherapy (BioQuaRT) brought together clinicians, biologists and physicists in a collaboration to improve the determination of dose weighting factors and used a multiscale approach to combine dose effects to the cell (microdosimetry) and to its DNA (nanodosimetry). (
  • [0004] Liquid scintillator detectors ("LSDs") are provided that produce dose verification to meet quality assurance requirements of a broad range of complex radiotherapy modalities such as intensity-modulated radiotherapy ("IMRT") for photon radiotherapy and intensity-modulated proton therapy ("IMPT") for proton therapy. (
  • By definition, the term " radiosurgery " refers to the delivery of a therapeutic radiation dose in a single fraction, not simply the use of stereotaxy . (
  • Gamma-Knife-Perfexion will comply with all SRS constraints (high conformity while minimizing low-dose spread). (
  • This can help reduce the chance of surviving cancer cells dividing and growing in the intervals between each radiotherapy dose. (
  • While the target lesions receive therapeutic dose of RT, the surrounding brain tissue inevitably receives a gradient, generally low dose of IR by current standard dose-painting techniques. (
  • In most cases, the therapeutic dose is 2 Gy per fraction for conventional fractionated RT and 20 Gy in single fraction for SRS. (
  • The low energy IORT system INTRABEAM provides low penetration and rapid attenuation of the radiation dose. (
  • In radiotherapy such as in x-ray oncology, it is essential to deliver a precise amount of radiation, or dose, to a precisely defined region of a patient's body. (
  • Before a high-energy treatment machine is used to actually deliver the required radiation for treatment, therefore, it has been known to use a low-energy simulation machine preliminarily to determine exactly where the dose should be delivered and how it can be achieved. (
  • The delivery of a high radiation dose is complex and cannot be done in an optimal way in most situations due to toxicity. (
  • Nanobiotix's Phase I/II trial evaluates the safety and preliminary efficacy of NBTXR3 nanoparticles administrated by intra-tumoral (IT) or intra-arterial (IA) injection and activated by high precision radiation therapy, delivered as high dose fractions (Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT)) for the treatment of liver cancers. (
  • The trial is now recruiting next dose levels to evaluate safety and feasibility at higher doses along with exploratory efficacy endpoints (complete Response Rate, Progression Free Survival and Overall Survival). (
  • A portable orthovoltage radiotherapy system is described that is configured to deliver a therapeutic dose of radiation to a target structure in a patient. (
  • 2008. Quality of life and quality-adjusted survival (Q-TWiST) in patients receiving dose-intensive or standard dose chemotherapy for high-risk primary breast cancer . (
  • Current treatments such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy, developed in the last century, cannot win a battle with the deadly disease. (
  • Patients undergo surgery 6-8 weeks after completing preoperative chemotherapy and radiotherapy. (
  • Radiation therapy , also called radiation oncology , radiotherapy , or therapeutic radiology , the use of ionizing radiation (high-energy radiation that displaces electrons from atoms and molecules ) to destroy cancer cells. (
  • In 1922 at the Congress of Oncology in Paris, French radiation oncologist Henri Coutard presented the first evidence of the use of fractionated radiotherapy (radiation doses divided over the course of multiple treatments) to cure advanced cancer of the larynx (voice box) without significant deleterious side effects. (
  • It's a challenging and exciting career that requires in-depth knowledge of anatomy and physiology, oncology (cancer medicine), radiotherapy physics and technology as well as excellent interpersonal and communication skills. (
  • Varian Medical Systems, Inc., of Palo Alto, California, is the world's leading manufacturer of medical devices and software for treating cancer and other medical conditions with radiotherapy, radiosurgery, a Varian Oncology and brachytherapy. (
  • The company supplies informatics software for managing comprehensive cancer clinics, radiotherapy centers and medical oncology practices. (
  • The treatment of tumours by means of radiotherapy is the specialist discipline of the Clinic for Radiotherapy and Radiological Oncology. (
  • Persons from the American Society of Therapeutic Radiation and Oncology (ASTRO) have commented that "[c]urrently, it [IORT] is primarily used for treating rectal cancers, although in the near future it may be used for additional sites. (
  • External beam radiation is the most common form of radiotherapy. (
  • A possible solution to serve such a focusing system with a high-quality proton beam at all relevant energies is identified to be a 3 GHz radio-frequency linear accelerator. (
  • External beam and especially intensity modulated radiotherapy using X-rays, where radiation is applied from the outside of the body, is the standard procedure for performing state-of-the-art radiotherapy [ 4 ]. (
  • No. After external beam radiotherapy treatment, you will not be radioactive. (
  • The primary purpose of this study is to determine if high doses of radiation using proton beam can be given safely with low and acceptable side effects. (
  • UK's first NHS high-energy proton beam facility. (
  • With the UK's first high-energy Proton Beam Therapy Centre set to open next year at Manchester's The Christie, young patients with head and neck tumours, cancers close to the skull or spine, or a vari. (
  • The use of an external beam of PROTONS as radiotherapy. (
  • Team leaders and their respective projects are depicted, highlighting our collaborative multidisciplinary approach to investigating physical, chemical, biological and clinical effects of proton beam therapy in comparison with traditional photon-based radiotherapy. (
  • We will focus on 4D optimization for beam tracking with the aim to achieve tracking without energy variation and beam gating. (
  • 1. A method for the large scale production of high-purity carrier-free or non-carrier added radioisotopes comprising the following steps: (a) Activation of a target by a particle beam, (b) Separation of the isotope from the irradiated target, (c) Ionisation of the separated isotope, (d) Extraction from the ion source and acceleration of the ion beam, (e) Mass-separation, and (f) Collection of the isotope. (
  • 6. The method according to claim 1, wherein the particle beam has an energy of several ten MeV to several GeV and/or is provided by a particle accelerator. (
  • High energy proton and carbon ion beam therapies form the basis of emerging treatments for radiation resistant cancers. (
  • Orthovoltage X-ray machines are essentially high-power X-ray tubes that generate beam energies in the 200 to 500 kiloelectron volt (keV) range. (
  • and at least two high-speed CCD cameras, wherein the volumetric phantom liquid scintillator is exposed to the radiation beam to produce light that is captured by the cameras that provide a three-dimensional image of the beam. (
  • The scintillation light is produced within the liquid scintillator by the passage of the radiation beam and is acquired in realtime with an orthogonal pair of high-sensitivity/high-speed charged-coupled device cameras (referred to herein as "CCD camera") and/or a combination of three CCD cameras. (
  • Photo courtesy of Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA. (B) The images made with the portal imager inherently have a poor image quality because of the high energy of the treatment beam. (
  • 1] Brachytherapy can be used alone or in combination with other therapies such as surgery, External Beam Radiotherapy (EBRT) and chemotherapy. (
  • However, prior research was based on the traditional high-energy electron beam, which causes serious radiation toxicity. (
  • Furthermore, interim results are described for a randomized phase 2 trial involving 64 patients with hormone-refractory prostate cancer and painful skeletal metastases who received four monthly injections of 223 Ra or saline as an adjuvant to external beam radiotherapy. (
  • The usual method for delivering radiation is external beam with high-energy photons. (
  • 4. The method of claim 1 , wherein the producing comprises producing the first x-ray beam and the second x-ray beam with maximum photon energies of from about 25 keV to about 150 keV. (
  • 11. The method of claim 1 , wherein said beam is characterized by regions with higher energy and lower energy. (
  • The intensity of the beam of radiation, expressed in kilo- or megavolts, determines both the depth of penetration into the body tissues and the energy of the electrons produced by secondary ionization within the tissues. (
  • Radiotherapy with high-energy charged particles has become an attractive therapeutic option for patients with several tumour types because this approach better spares healthy tissue from radiation than conventional photon therapy. (
  • Radiotherapy is a primary treatment modality for breast cancer patients. (
  • To evaluate the feasibility and preliminary results of intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) with low-energy photons as a boost in patients with early-stage oral cancer with the indications for postoperative radiotherapy. (
  • This preliminary report has demonstrated the feasibility of IORT-PRS for patients with early oral cancer with the indications for postoperative radiotherapy. (
  • The FDA recently approved a new therapeutic, lutetium (Lu) 177 dotatate (Lutathera), for treating patients with these types of cancer. (
  • External radiotherapy with ionizing radiation is the most frequently employed radiation treatment of cancer patients. (
  • The number of cancer cases in Singapore will rise by 2.5 times over the next 20 years due to an aging population, and around 50% of all cancer patients will require radiotherapy. (
  • Clinical technologists (also known as medical technologists) are responsible for maintaining, monitoring and sometimes operating the equipment and instruments used to treat radiotherapy patients. (
  • 40% of all patients cured of cancer are cured by radiotherapy. (
  • 50% of all cancer patients will benefit from receiving radiotherapy as part of their cancer management. (
  • It can offer patients the choice of organ preservation and avoid the need for disfiguring or damaging surgery: For example, instead of mastectomy for breast cancer, conservation radiotherapy can be given. (
  • Radiotherapy can also be used for the treatment of certain cancers of internal organs and allow patients to avoid major surgery and retain function, with little or no loss of chance of cure. (
  • Optimal treatment of patients with Ewing's sarcoma often requires more than one therapeutic approach. (
  • The Varian symposium was chaired by Dr. Marta Scorsetti, director of radiotherapy and radiosurgery at the Humanitas Cancer Center in Milan, Italy, where more than 300 lung cancer patients have been treated using a TrueBeam treatment machine since its installation in July 2010. (
  • By utilizing a system which not only integrates all diagnostic information and therapeutic options but also takes into account the wishes of the patient, it's easier for medical professionals to propose tailor-made treatment plans to patients. (
  • These benefits are sustained upon transition to an anti-resorptive medication and address a critical need for patients at high risk of fracture. (
  • Radiography degreeprogramme is designed to provideknowledge and trainingin these areas so that it will be helpful to provide the best treatment for patients by producing high quality images. (
  • 2] Patients typically have to make fewer visits to the radiotherapy clinic compared with EBRT, and the treatment is often performed on an outpatient basis. (
  • Patients receive fluorouracil IV continuously with concurrent radiotherapy for 5.5 weeks. (
  • To assess the downstaging effectiveness and tolerability of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy comprising capecitabine, irinotecan hydrochloride, cetuximab, and radiotherapy in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer. (
  • Patients also undergo pelvic radiotherapy once daily and receive oral capecitabine twice daily on days 1-5 in weeks 2-6. (
  • Patients with either HCC or liver metastases frequently cannot undergo surgery and have very few or no therapeutic options available. (
  • Pacelli et al (2004) reported early and long-term results of pre-operative radiotherapy plus IORT to total mesorectal excision of middle and lower T3 rectal cancer patients (n = 113). (
  • Five-year, disease-specific survival was 81.4 % for those patients receiving pre-operative radiotherapy plus IORT (n = 69) compared to 58.1 % for those patients in the mesorectal excision group (n = 44). (
  • In this study oxidative stress in 43 patients with cervical carcinoma before and in the course of radiotherapy was assessed versus 20 normal subjects. (
  • Sera were collected at 4 time points from patients, i.e., before radiotherapy, and after 2, 4, and 8 weeks of radiotherapy, but only once from normal controls. (
  • Reduced total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was observed in patients than normal subjects before and after radiotherapy. (
  • Surgery and radiotherapy have been used as a primary treatment for patients with early stage cervical cancer. (
  • IORT-PRS) because of the high risk of local recurrence due to positive margins on frozen pathologic section. (
  • Studies of the biological effect of high single doses and low-energy X-rays used in intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT). (
  • Thus, the positive impact of IORT on local control of colorectal cancer appears to justify the inclusion of this therapeutic modality. (
  • The rates of local recurrence at 5 years were 6.6 % and 23.2 % in pre-operative radiotherapy plus IORT group and total mesorectal excision group, respectively. (
  • The authors concluded that pre-operative radiotherapy plus IORT associated with total mesorectal excision reduced local recurrence rate and improved survival in T3 rectal cancer compared with total mesorectal excision alone. (
  • These advances allow us to more accurately target the cancer with higher doses of radiation, while minimizing damage to adjacent healthy tissue. (
  • With this method, therapeutic doses of radiation can be delivered to breast tissue in a relatively short time - twice a day over five days - and with minimal discomfort. (
  • High doses of radiation can kill cells or keep them from growing and dividing. (
  • High doses of radiation that damage or destroy cancer cells can also hurt normal cells, and when this occurs, there is a potential for side effects. (
  • Clinical trials have shown a direct correlation between higher doses of radiation therapy and increased survival, in both patient populations. (
  • A therapeutic approach, involving chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or surgery, after initial regimens have failed to lead to improvement in a patient's condition. (
  • We report the first clinical experience of carbon ion radiotherapy (CIRT) for salvage treatment of locally recurrent (LR) or RT-induced secondary HNS after surgery and/or radiotherapy. (
  • 5 Some researchers have suggested that postoperative radiotherapy should be avoided when surgery is accomplished with adequate margins (no evidence of cancer near the edge of the tissue that was removed). (
  • Adjunct therapy - It is also common to combine radiotherapy with surgery, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, immunotherapy or some mixture of the four. (
  • Radiotherapy may be used for curative or adjuvant treatment. (
  • This study investigates the in vitro effects of temozolomide (TMZ) in combination with low-energy protons and alpha particles. (
  • One of these approaches is the radiotherapy with protons instead of X-rays, which was already introduced in 1946 [ 5 ]. (
  • Beyond therapy, high-energy protons constitute a principal component of galactic cosmic rays followed by other type of HZE (high atomic number (Z), high energy (E)) radiation, such as 56 Fe. (
  • Brachytherapy (from the Greek word brachys, meaning "short-distance"), also known as internal radiotherapy, sealed source radiotherapy, curietherapy or endocurietherapy, is a form of radiotherapy where a radiation source is placed inside or next to the area requiring treatment. (
  • Saisissez votre demande en ligne du 15 Intraoperative au 15 markets. (
  • The usefulness of intraoperative radiotherapy for pancreatic cancer has previously been examined. (
  • He underwent distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy along with intraoperative radiotherapy using a portable INTRABEAM radiation system. (
  • We believe that it is safe to apply intraoperative radiotherapy using the INTRABEAM radiation system in pancreatic cancer. (
  • At present Department of Radiography/ Radiotherapy, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, University of Peradeniya is the only institution awarding degrees in radiography and radiotherapy under the Ministry of Higher Education in Sri Lanka. (
  • The aim of radiography and radiotherapy degree programmes is to produce professional diagnostic and therapeutic radiographers with a high level of skill and knowledge to improve the quality of services in the health sector. (
  • Radiography and radiotherapy degree programmesinvolve the application of science and technology. (
  • The department of Radiography/ Radiotherapy has an X-ray unit which has been installed for the students to gain practical exposure related to basic radiography techniques and imaging principles prior to their hospital based training. (
  • Many cancers are treated with external or internal radiotherapy. (
  • During the course of your treatments, your body uses energy to help heal itself. (
  • Radiotherapy treatment is often split into a number of treatments or fractions. (
  • Can radiotherapy be given with other treatments such as chemotherapy? (
  • Indeed, it has shown its efficacy, specifically for treatments of BC of stages III and IV for which the mortality rate is high and efficient treatments are lacking. (
  • Nano" is a big trend these days, and there are great expectations that it will revolutionize technology and overcome our civilization's challenges, including a sustainable energy supply, information storage, and medical treatments for diseases such as cancer, which is what we're working on. (
  • The aim of this study was to report the experience of our department in the management of these aggressive lesions, as they require special diagnostic and therapeutic attention. (
  • But nanotechnology is expected to lead to a new generation of diagnostic and therapeutic technologies, dramatically improving the quality of life for millions. (
  • Precise targeting by radiotherapy is thus crucial to maximise the therapeutic ratio of this integral treatment modality. (
  • Generally, a drug or other therapeutic agent with a narrow therapeutic range (i.e. having little difference between toxic and therapeutic doses) may have its dosage adjusted according to measurements of the actual blood levels achieved in the person taking it. (
  • The Clinic frequently uses the computer-operated afterloading system for high-dosage rate radiation. (
  • Extracted compounds from watercress and PEITC differentially modulate cellular metabolism collectively enhancing the therapeutic outcomes of radiotherapy. (
  • Linked physical doses and the predicted treatment outcomes to enable radiotherapy centres to compare and combine results. (
  • A method for breath compensation in radiation therapy, particularly radiotherapy/radiosurgery, wherein the movement of the target volume inside the patient is detected and tracked in real time during radiation by a movement detector. (
  • However, very little pre-clinical data exists on the effects of high LET radiation on GBM cell lines and moreover on the concomitant application of chemotherapy. (
  • Although accelerated electrons are widely used to generate X-rays for radiotherapy, electrons are less frequently used directly because low energy electrons have limited penetration range and are mostly for the treatment of superficial tumours and thus limiting their clinical applicability. (
  • These studies support the therapeutic potential and possible advantage of 212 Pb-DOTAMTATE and have led to the initiation of a phase I clinical trial. (
  • It's a fantastic opportunity for them to spend around half the course gaining real-life practical experience and applying their academic knowledge in clinical care in one of the largest and most prestigious radiotherapy departments in England. (
  • All students are well supported by the Radiotherapy Clinical Tutor and the Radiotherapy Education team. (
  • Theranostics, which allow the ingenious integration of diagnostic imaging capability with therapeutic intervention in a single formulation within spatial colocalization, have aroused increasing attention in both research and clinical fields [ 1 - 3 ]. (
  • Hypofractionated radiotherapy of prostate cancer is gaining clinical acceptance given its potential increase in therapeutic ratio and evidence for noninferiority and lack of added late toxicities comp. (
  • Clinical engineers design and test the tools and equipment that the radiotherapy team use to carry out radiotherapy planning and treatment procedures. (
  • To enable their clinical implementation, dedicated 4D treatment planning as well as a high precision detection of the actual target position is necessary. (
  • BioClin Therapeutics, Inc. is a privately-held clinical stage drug development company developing biologics to address medical conditions in areas of high unmet need. (
  • Thanks to the high quality of services and the latest technical advances, this teaching hospital is named one of the best clinical institutions in Western Europe. (
  • Radiation therapy kills cancer cells with high-energy X-rays, gamma rays, or charged particles. (
  • Marco Durante obtained a PhD in physics in 1992 at the Federico II University of Naples, Italy, and has since dedicated his research efforts to studying the biophysical properties of high-energy charged particles, which have applications to cancer therapy and protection from space radiation. (
  • The cost associated with the delivery of charged particles, however, is higher than that of even the most elaborate photon-delivery technologies. (
  • However, effects of high charge and energy (HZE) charged particles on the uterus have not been examined. (
  • You may also hear it called radiotherapy or therapeutic radiology. (
  • Our therapeutic radiographers are specialist healthcare professionals who are highly-trained in the planning and delivery of treatment. (
  • When qualified, therapeutic radiographers generally work in regional radiotherapy centres. (
  • Some therapeutic radiographers choose to work overseas in countries such as Saudi Arabia, Australia and Canada. (
  • Therapeutic radiographers' levels of practice range from practitioner through to advanced, and to highly specialised consultant roles. (
  • High LET values are indicative of localised energy deposition, resulting in the induction of enhanced, irreparable biological damage. (
  • Based on the measurement of their energy deposition in the detector, direction and fluence, imaging techniques will be developed. (
  • Remarkably, MGMT activity is usually higher in malignant tissues than in their normal counterparts ( 6 , 10 ). (
  • Radiotherapy is usually used to treat malignant disease (cancer). (
  • Radiotherapy systems are used in the treatment of malignant neoplasms and occasionally in the treatment of certain benign conditions. (
  • Among them, the development of multi-modalities of diagnostic imaging or therapy is attracting increasing interest, because different modalities are able to compensate for each other and provide enhanced imaging quality and/or therapeutic efficacy. (
  • The role of the therapeutic radiographer in the delivery of these modalities when combined is important so as to gain their maximum effect. (
  • Compared with photons, PBT also causes enhanced cell killing due to the increased Linear Energy Transfer (LET) when proton particles approach the Bragg peak. (
  • Options for sources of ionizing radiation vary, with different sources offering different therapeutic options based on the energy of the photons they produce. (
  • The new therapeutic-lutetium (Lu) 177 dotatate (Lutathera)-is a targeted form of systemic radiotherapy. (
  • What is systemic radiotherapy? (
  • However, the term also encompasses other types of treatment, one of which is systemic radiotherapy. (
  • Systemic radiotherapy involves the infusion or ingestion of a radioactive therapeutic that spreads throughout the body. (
  • In the case of one of the best-known examples of systemic radiotherapy, the treatment of thyroid cancer using radioactive iodine (I-131), the I-131 accumulates in the thyroid because that is the predominant site in the body that absorbs iodine. (
  • Targeted α-Based Treatment of Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer: Revolutionizing Systemic Radiotherapy? (
  • Nuclear medicine therapy uses radiopharmaceuticals targeting specific tumours, such as thyroid, lymphomas or bone metastases, delivering radiation to tumorous lesions as part of a therapeutic strategy to cure, mitigate or control the disease. (
  • The radiopharmaceuticals suited for therapeutic purposes are those that strongly bind with the tumour - also known as vehicles with a high tumour affinity. (
  • Building on this principle, the complexity of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals varies from simple radioactive elements such as 131 I and 223 Ra to conjugated carrier molecules that can subsequently be radiolabeled, such as antibodies, peptides, and small molecules. (
  • Many years later, a range of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals was developed using small molecules, peptides, antibodies, and particles radiolabeled with 131 I, 90 Y, and 177 Lu. (
  • The Institute was equipped with the most advanced linear accelerator on the market and started the treatment of initial prostate cancers using conformational radiotherapy. (
  • One Italian study involving 597 long-term survivors with Ewing's sarcoma found that the risk of second cancer after radiation therapy for Ewing's sarcoma was higher than after other childhood and adolescent cancers treated in the same manner. (
  • Intra-operative radiation therapy is usually a component of a multi-disciplinary treatment approach for localized cancers that can not be completely removed or that have a high risk of recurring in nearby tissues. (
  • Actinium-225 decays by giving off high-energy alpha particles, which kill cancer cells. (
  • The efficacy of hyperthermia thermal treatment depends on localizing the energy to increase the temperature of the cancerous tissue into the range 42°C-45°C, while preserving healthy tissues at normal levels. (
  • These characteristics of brachytherapy provide advantages over EBRT - the tumour can be treated with very high doses of localised radiation, whilst reducing the probability of unnecessary damage to surrounding healthy tissues. (
  • High linear energy transfer (LET) radiation offers superior biophysical properties over conventional radiotherapy and may have a great potential for treating radioresistant tumours, such as glioblastoma (GBM). (
  • As a Medical Physics Faculty at McGill University, I conducted research on free-hand 3D ultrasound-image guidance for radiotherapy simulation and pre-treatment verification. (
  • The proposed system depends on focusing electromagnetic (EM) and ultrasound (US) energies. (
  • In order to achieve this therapeutic temperature, the patient is locally submitted to an electromagnetic (EM) or ultrasound (US) field. (
  • HIFU ( high intensity focused ultrasound ) (sometimes FUS or HIFUS ) is a highly precise medical procedure using high-intensity focused ultrasound to heat and destroy pathogenic tissue rapidly. (
  • Therapeutic ultrasound is a minimally invasive or non-invasive method to deposit acoustic energy into tissue. (
  • At high enough acoustic intensities, cavitation (microbubbles forming and interacting with the ultrasound field) can occur. (
  • Here he creates a leading school in the research of cosmic rays with the use of nuclear emulsions exposed at high altitudes, an experience that culminated in 1954 with the G-Stack experiment. (
  • Moreover, nuclear medicine techniques provide therapeutic applications with tracers that behave like the diagnostic tracer. (
  • One such therapeutic option is boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), a radiotherapy process involving transferring boron into cancer cells, and exposing it to neutron particles, causing it to undergo nuclear fission, which kills the cancer cells. (
  • The diversified use of radiation in several technological procedures like power generation, sterilization of food products, industrial activities, therapeutics (radiotherapy), diagnosis, nuclear weapon development etc., has increased the risk of exposure. (
  • Apparatus equipped for both megavoltage radiotherapy and a diagnostic X-ray source for portal imaging. (
  • The concept of spatial fractionation in radiotherapy was developed for better sparing of normal tissue in the entrance channel of radiation. (
  • Radiotherapy also causes damage in healthy cells and can potentially trigger new cancer-initiating DNA mutations in local tissue. (
  • This therapeutic temperature is correlated to specific absorption rate (SAR), which quantifies the amount of heat accumulated in human tissue and is related to tissue characteristics and electric or pressure field intensity depending upon the number of heating sources and frequency of operation [ 2 ]. (
  • The radionuclides best suited for tumour therapy are those emitting ionizing radiation with short penetration into the tissue, such as α (alpha) or β (beta) emitters, which release their energy in the proximity of their targets. (
  • During inertial cavitation, very high temperatures inside the bubbles occur, and the collapse is associated with a shock wave and jets that can mechanically damage tissue. (
  • Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-binding ligands radiolabeled with 68 Ga for PET/CT proved to be successful in delineating prostate cancer metastases, showing high target-to-normal tissue uptake ratios as early as 1 h after injection ( 4 ). (
  • Brachytherapy contrasts with unsealed source radiotherapy in which a therapeutic radioisotope is injected into the body to chemically localize to the tissue which requires destruction. (
  • Medical tourists choose the lung cancer treatment and diagnosis in Spain due to surprisingly affordable costs, the high level of professionalism and comfort of private clinics. (
  • Energetic carbon ions (CI) offer great advantages over conventional radiations such as X- or γ-rays in cancer radiotherapy. (
  • This temperature elevation increases the effectiveness of conventional techniques such as radiotherapy and chemotherapy [ 1 ]. (
  • Therapeutic practices which are not currently considered an integral part of conventional allopathic medical practice. (
  • The energy may come from a large machine, or external radiation. (
  • The simplicity and clarity of the 1990 COP led to widespread uptake and high levels of consistency in external dosimetry audits. (
  • However, the 1990 COP lacked detailed recommendations for calibration conditions, and the corresponding nomenclature, to account for modern treatment units with different reference fields, including small fields as described in IAEA TRS483 (International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) 2017, Vienna). (
  • Our findings showed that cervical cancer induces increased production of oxygen free radicals and radiotherapy has a synergetic effect on the production of oxygen free radicals leading to oxidative stress. (
  • Published data of 223 Ra dosimetry in mice and a therapeutic study in a skeletal metastases model in nude rats have indicated significant therapeutic potential of bone-seeking α-emitters. (
  • The growing knowledge about cancer biology has enhanced the development of many therapeutic strategies that involve selective targeting and killing of cancer cells. (
  • Radiation therapy (also known as radiotherapy) uses high-energy rays to damage or kill cancer cells by preventing them from growing and dividing. (
  • It is also called radiotherapy and in this procedure high-energy rays are used to damage cancer cells and stop them from growing and dividing. (
  • The cancer cells are destroyed or their growth is prevented using high-energy x-rays. (
  • Radiation therapy -High-energy radiation is used to kill cancer cells. (
  • Radiation therapy, also called radiotherapy, is the use of high-energy rays to damage cancer cells and stop them from growing. (
  • Radiotherapy is the use of high energy radiation to treat cancer by irradiating cancer cells. (
  • Radiotherapy programme is designed to provide the knowledge and training to deliver an accurate radiotherapy treatment by maximizing the damage to cancer cells and minimizing the damage to the surrounding healthy cells. (
  • Radiation therapy (also called radiotherapy) uses high-energy rays to kill cancer cells. (
  • Little is known about reductive DNA damage in causing genetic mutations during oncogenesis and killing cancer cells during radiotherapy. (
  • Three dimensional ("3D") scintillation has been only used in brachytherapy applications using radioactive sources to study the dosimetric properties of different scintillating solutions with the aim of developing water equivalent dosimeter media at the lower energies suitable for use with commonly used radioactive sources. (
  • It also contrasts to EBRT, in which high-energy x-rays (or occasionally gamma-rays from a radioisotope like cobalt-60) are directed at the tumour from outside the body. (
  • A therapeutic radiographer is a health care professional qualified to deliver a radiotherapy treatment using a wide range of technical equipment such as Cobalt-60 and linear accelerators. (
  • It is delivered with applicators and cones attached to the treatment head of high-energy medical linear accelerators. (
  • 1]:Ch. 1[2] A course of brachytherapy can be completed in less time than other radiotherapy techniques. (
  • In inner radiotherapy, brachytherapy, a radiation source is inserted into the tumour or into a body cavity in the vicinity of the tumour during an operation. (
  • The Clinic for Radiotherapy is equipped with the full range of modern apparatus and methodological potential for treating tumours ranging from teletherapy to brachytherapy. (
  • Brachytherapy is another of the Clinic's key therapeutic areas. (
  • Despite optimal treatment, mainly consisting of gross total resection followed by radiotherapy and chemotherapy with alkylating agents ( 1 ), therapeutic response and survival times vary considerably. (
  • Timely access to radiotherapy leads to improvements in cancer outcome and survival rates. (
  • Curative or therapeutic treatment - the therapy has survival benefit and it can be curative. (
  • Further special therapy methods include the conditioning all-body radiation method as preparation for bone marrow transplantation and stereotaxic high-precision radiation for tumours in the brain or at the skull base. (
  • The use of these high-energy rays or particles to treat disease, most often cancer, is called radiation therapy (or radiotherapy). (
  • Radiotherapy is the use of high-energy x-rays to treat disease, usually cancer. (
  • In the case of outer radiotherapy, also referred to as teletherapy, specially designed equipment sends rays through the skin as far as the tumour itself. (
  • Systems designed to deliver high-energy ionizing radiation, including photon radiation (e.g., x-rays, gamma rays) and particle radiation (e.g., electrons, neutrons). (
  • The challenge until recently has been the difficulty in obtaining high-energy electrons using compact machines. (