Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Genetic Therapy: Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Molecular Targeted Therapy: Treatments with drugs which interact with or block synthesis of specific cellular components characteristic of the individual's disease in order to stop or interrupt the specific biochemical dysfunction involved in progression of the disease.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Mice, Inbred C57BLAntineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays: In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.Drug Delivery Systems: Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Immunotherapy: Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Therapies, Investigational: Treatments which are undergoing clinical trials or for which there is insufficient evidence to determine their effects on health outcomes; coverage for such treatments is often denied by health insurers.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Neovascularization, Pathologic: A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.Neurodegenerative Diseases: Hereditary and sporadic conditions which are characterized by progressive nervous system dysfunction. These disorders are often associated with atrophy of the affected central or peripheral nervous system structures.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.Alzheimer Disease: A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.Mice, Inbred BALB CDrug Resistance, Neoplasm: Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Gene Transfer Techniques: The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.Amyloid beta-Peptides: Peptides generated from AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES PRECURSOR. An amyloid fibrillar form of these peptides is the major component of amyloid plaques found in individuals with Alzheimer's disease and in aged individuals with trisomy 21 (DOWN SYNDROME). The peptide is found predominantly in the nervous system, but there have been reports of its presence in non-neural tissue.Transplantation, Heterologous: Transplantation between animals of different species.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Immunologic Factors: Biologically active substances whose activities affect or play a role in the functioning of the immune system.Glioma: Benign and malignant central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells (i.e., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymocytes). Astrocytes may give rise to astrocytomas (ASTROCYTOMA) or glioblastoma multiforme (see GLIOBLASTOMA). Oligodendrocytes give rise to oligodendrogliomas (OLIGODENDROGLIOMA) and ependymocytes may undergo transformation to become EPENDYMOMA; CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS; or colloid cysts of the third ventricle. (From Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p21)PiperazinesGlioblastoma: A malignant form of astrocytoma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemorrhage, and necrosis. They may arise in any region of the central nervous system, with a predilection for the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, and commissural pathways. Clinical presentation most frequently occurs in the fifth or sixth decade of life with focal neurologic signs or seizures.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Gene Silencing: Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.Oligonucleotides, Antisense: Short fragments of DNA or RNA that are used to alter the function of target RNAs or DNAs to which they hybridize.Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Neoplastic Stem Cells: Highly proliferative, self-renewing, and colony-forming stem cells which give rise to NEOPLASMS.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Gene Knockdown Techniques: The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.Antineoplastic Protocols: Clinical protocols used to inhibit the growth or spread of NEOPLASMS.Protein Kinase Inhibitors: Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.Cell Death: The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne: An X-linked recessive muscle disease caused by an inability to synthesize DYSTROPHIN, which is involved with maintaining the integrity of the sarcolemma. Muscle fibers undergo a process that features degeneration and regeneration. Clinical manifestations include proximal weakness in the first few years of life, pseudohypertrophy, cardiomyopathy (see MYOCARDIAL DISEASES), and an increased incidence of impaired mentation. Becker muscular dystrophy is a closely related condition featuring a later onset of disease (usually adolescence) and a slowly progressive course. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1415)Anti-Inflammatory Agents: Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.Pyrimidines: A family of 6-membered heterocyclic compounds occurring in nature in a wide variety of forms. They include several nucleic acid constituents (CYTOSINE; THYMINE; and URACIL) and form the basic structure of the barbiturates.Stem Cell Transplantation: The transfer of STEM CELLS from one individual to another within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or between species (XENOTRANSPLANTATION), or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). The source and location of the stem cells determines their potency or pluripotency to differentiate into various cell types.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Drug Evaluation, Preclinical: Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Angiogenesis Inhibitors: Agents and endogenous substances that antagonize or inhibit the development of new blood vessels.MicroRNAs: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Adenoviridae: A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Sizofiran: A beta-D-glucan obtained from the Aphyllophoral fungus Schizophyllum commune. It is used as an immunoadjuvant in the treatment of neoplasms, especially tumors found in the stomach.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Pancreatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A: The original member of the family of endothelial cell growth factors referred to as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A was originally isolated from tumor cells and referred to as "tumor angiogenesis factor" and "vascular permeability factor". Although expressed at high levels in certain tumor-derived cells it is produced by a wide variety of cell types. In addition to stimulating vascular growth and vascular permeability it may play a role in stimulating VASODILATION via NITRIC OXIDE-dependent pathways. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor A results in several isoforms of the protein being produced.Neoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.Benzamides: BENZOIC ACID amides.Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation: Transfer of MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS).PyrazinesReal-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction: Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.Prostatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.Autoimmune Diseases: Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.Inflammation Mediators: The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit HISTONE DEACETYLASES. This class of drugs may influence gene expression by increasing the level of acetylated HISTONES in specific CHROMATIN domains.Regeneration: The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Neuroprotective Agents: Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.Drug Design: The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.Neoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Periapical Granuloma: Chronic nonsuppurative inflammation of periapical tissue resulting from irritation following pulp disease or endodontic treatment.Immunomodulation: Alteration of the immune system or of an immune response by agents that activate or suppress its function. This can include IMMUNIZATION or administration of immunomodulatory drugs. Immunomodulation can also encompass non-therapeutic alteration of the immune system effected by endogenous or exogenous substances.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy: Therapies that involve the TRANSPLANTATION of CELLS or TISSUES developed for the purpose of restoring the function of diseased or dysfunctional cells or tissues.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt: A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Proteostasis Deficiencies: Disorders caused by imbalances in the protein homeostasis network - synthesis, folding, and transport of proteins; post-translational modifications; and degradation or clearance of misfolded proteins.Tumor Microenvironment: The milieu surrounding neoplasms consisting of cells, vessels, soluble factors, and molecules, that can influence and be influenced by, the neoplasm's growth.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Dystrophin: A muscle protein localized in surface membranes which is the product of the Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy gene. Individuals with Duchenne muscular dystrophy usually lack dystrophin completely while those with Becker muscular dystrophy have dystrophin of an altered size. It shares features with other cytoskeletal proteins such as SPECTRIN and alpha-actinin but the precise function of dystrophin is not clear. One possible role might be to preserve the integrity and alignment of the plasma membrane to the myofibrils during muscle contraction and relaxation. MW 400 kDa.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Alzheimer Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat ALZHEIMER DISEASE.Pyridines: Compounds with a six membered aromatic ring containing NITROGEN. The saturated version is PIPERIDINES.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Fibrosis: Any pathological condition where fibrous connective tissue invades any organ, usually as a consequence of inflammation or other injury.Lentivirus: A genus of the family RETROVIRIDAE consisting of non-oncogenic retroviruses that produce multi-organ diseases characterized by long incubation periods and persistent infection. Lentiviruses are unique in that they contain open reading frames (ORFs) between the pol and env genes and in the 3' env region. Five serogroups are recognized, reflecting the mammalian hosts with which they are associated. HIV-1 is the type species.Melanoma: A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)Wound Healing: Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Targeted Gene Repair: A technique which uses synthetic oligonucleotides to direct the cell's inherent DNA repair system to correct a mutation at a specific site in an episome or chromosome.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Autophagy: The segregation and degradation of damaged or unwanted cytoplasmic constituents by autophagic vacuoles (cytolysosomes) composed of LYSOSOMES containing cellular components in the process of digestion; it plays an important role in BIOLOGICAL METAMORPHOSIS of amphibians, in the removal of bone by osteoclasts, and in the degradation of normal cell components in nutritional deficiency states.Neovascularization, Physiologic: The development of new BLOOD VESSELS during the restoration of BLOOD CIRCULATION during the healing process.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Indoles: Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Endothelial Cells: Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases: A serine threonine kinase that controls a wide range of growth-related cellular processes. The protein is referred to as the target of RAPAMYCIN due to the discovery that SIROLIMUS (commonly known as rapamycin) forms an inhibitory complex with TACROLIMUS BINDING PROTEIN 1A that blocks the action of its enzymatic activity.Nanoparticles: Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.Immunosuppressive Agents: Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Reactive Oxygen Species: Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Neuroendocrine Tumors: Tumors whose cells possess secretory granules and originate from the neuroectoderm, i.e., the cells of the ectoblast or epiblast that program the neuroendocrine system. Common properties across most neuroendocrine tumors include ectopic hormone production (often via APUD CELLS), the presence of tumor-associated antigens, and isozyme composition.HEK293 Cells: A cell line generated from human embryonic kidney cells that were transformed with human adenovirus type 5.Huntington Disease: A familial disorder inherited as an autosomal dominant trait and characterized by the onset of progressive CHOREA and DEMENTIA in the fourth or fifth decade of life. Common initial manifestations include paranoia; poor impulse control; DEPRESSION; HALLUCINATIONS; and DELUSIONS. Eventually intellectual impairment; loss of fine motor control; ATHETOSIS; and diffuse chorea involving axial and limb musculature develops, leading to a vegetative state within 10-15 years of disease onset. The juvenile variant has a more fulminant course including SEIZURES; ATAXIA; dementia; and chorea. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1060-4)Transduction, Genetic: The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Mice, Inbred NOD: A strain of non-obese diabetic mice developed in Japan that has been widely studied as a model for T-cell-dependent autoimmune insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in which insulitis is a major histopathologic feature, and in which genetic susceptibility is strongly MHC-linked.Nerve Tissue ProteinsBoronic Acids: Inorganic or organic compounds that contain the basic structure RB(OH)2.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Models, Animal: Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Mice, Mutant Strains: Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Cell Transdifferentiation: A naturally occurring phenomenon where terminally differentiated cells dedifferentiate to the point where they can switch CELL LINEAGES. The cells then differentiate into other cell types.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.STAT3 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-6 family members. STAT3 is constitutively activated in a variety of TUMORS and is a major downstream transducer for the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.Sulfonamides: A group of compounds that contain the structure SO2NH2.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Pyrazoles: Azoles of two nitrogens at the 1,2 positions, next to each other, in contrast with IMIDAZOLES in which they are at the 1,3 positions.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Autoimmunity: Process whereby the immune system reacts against the body's own tissues. Autoimmunity may produce or be caused by AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Prodrugs: A compound that, on administration, must undergo chemical conversion by metabolic processes before becoming the pharmacologically active drug for which it is a prodrug.Piperidines: A family of hexahydropyridines.Blood Vessels: Any of the tubular vessels conveying the blood (arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins).Central Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of any component of the brain (including the cerebral hemispheres, diencephalon, brain stem, and cerebellum) or the spinal cord.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Bone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.Lipoxins: Trihydroxy derivatives of eicosanoic acids. They are primarily derived from arachidonic acid, however eicosapentaenoic acid derivatives also exist. Many of them are naturally occurring mediators of immune regulation.ThiazolesSarcoma, Ewing: A malignant tumor of the bone which always arises in the medullary tissue, occurring more often in cylindrical bones. The tumor occurs usually before the age of 20, about twice as frequently in males as in females.Colitis: Inflammation of the COLON section of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE), usually with symptoms such as DIARRHEA (often with blood and mucus), ABDOMINAL PAIN, and FEVER.Receptor, IGF Type 1: A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is closely related in structure to the INSULIN RECEPTOR. Although commonly referred to as the IGF-I receptor, it binds both IGF-I and IGF-II with high affinity. It is comprised of a tetramer of two alpha and two beta subunits which are derived from cleavage of a single precursor protein. The beta subunit contains an intrinsic tyrosine kinase domain.Hydroxamic Acids: A class of weak acids with the general formula R-CONHOH.Neuroblastoma: A common neoplasm of early childhood arising from neural crest cells in the sympathetic nervous system, and characterized by diverse clinical behavior, ranging from spontaneous remission to rapid metastatic progression and death. This tumor is the most common intraabdominal malignancy of childhood, but it may also arise from thorax, neck, or rarely occur in the central nervous system. Histologic features include uniform round cells with hyperchromatic nuclei arranged in nests and separated by fibrovascular septa. Neuroblastomas may be associated with the opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2099-2101; Curr Opin Oncol 1998 Jan;10(1):43-51)Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Oncolytic Virotherapy: Use of attenuated VIRUSES as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS to selectively kill CANCER cells.Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor: A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.Phenylurea Compounds: Compounds that include the amino-N-phenylamide structure.
Unique therapeutic approaches. A positional or quantitative variation of the anatomical structures. A case report is generally ... An unexpected event in the course of observing or treating a patient. Findings that shed new light on the possible pathogenesis ... therapeutic interventions, follow-up and outcomes, discussion, patient perspective, and informed consent. Many international ... and follow-up of an individual patient. Case reports may contain a demographic profile of the patient, but usually describe an ...
... constitutes an innovative approach to treating GBM. The therapeutic aim is to increase both progression-free as well as ... APG101 is in a phase I trial to treat patients with MDS. MDS is a disease in which the bone marrow does not make enough healthy ... overall survival of patients with GBM. The therapeutic approach is based on research conducted by the German Cancer Research ... A total of 83 patients with first or second relapse of GBM were enrolled in the successful trial. The primary goal of doubling ...
Of the two patients treated by HCT, one patient died and the other was cured of autoimmune symptoms and improved growth. Larger ... cohorts are required to further validate these therapeutic approaches. Investigators at the National Institute of Allergy and ... Two patients exhibiting postnatal short stature were treated with growth hormone with good response. Hematopoietic stem cell ... However, only 1 patient presented with large granular lymphocytic leukemia and 1 parent with Hodgkin lymphoma. The germline and ...
This, in turn, may lead to novel therapeutic strategies, including gene therapy and other gene- or protein-based approaches. ... However, pancreatic status may improve with age in some patients.. *Growth retardation: More than 50% of patients are below the ... Neutropenia may be treated with granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (GCSF) to boost peripheral neutrophil counts. However, ... of patients) and costochondral thickening (shortened ribs with flared ends in 32% of patients). Skeletal problems are one of ...
Furthermore, little research has examined the efficacy of DBT in treating male and minority patients with BPD. Training nurses ... due partly to difficulties in developing a therapeutic relationship and treatment adherence. Approaches such as DBT and Schema- ... 5 Bateman A, Fonagy P (May 2008). "8-year follow-up of patients treated for borderline personality disorder: mentalization- ... In session the therapist works on the relationship between the patient and the therapist. The main focus is on the patient's ...
Non Therapeutic Male Circumcision. Report No. 17, August 2012 *^ "Rituele besnijdenis in opmars in België". Het Nieuwsblad. 10 ... According to the Northern Echo, he "told the committee he has now changed his approach to circumcision referrals, accepting ... A doctor who had referred patients to him, and who had pressured a mother into agreeing to the surgery, was also condemned.[107 ... that most cases can be treated without the need for surgery.".[108] ...
None of these general approaches is sufficient for all patients with sleep disorders. Rather, the choice of a specific ... as well as the expertise of the treating clinician. Often, behavioral/psychotherapeutic and pharmacological approaches are not ... incompatible and can effectively be combined to maximize therapeutic benefits. Management of sleep disturbances that are ... This hinders the patients' ability to perform well, and patients have to deal with this for the rest of their lives.[13] ...
... also tends to reduce and it is recommended that patients should be evaluated for depression before other therapeutic approaches ... "Some patients with multiple sclerosis have neurovascular compression causing their trigeminal neuralgia and can be treated ... Patients with a normal MRI still develop MS (16%), but at a lower rate compared to those patients with three or more MRI ... Bowel problems affect around 70% of the patients, with around 50% of the patients suffering from constipation and up to 30% ...
Research at Soteria Berne found that most acute schizophrenia patients can be as successfully treated as by standard hospital ... Ciompi L, Hoffmann H (October 2004). "Soteria Berne: an innovative milieu therapeutic approach to acute schizophrenia based on ... Theoretical bases and practical 13-year-experience with a milieu-therapeutic approach of acute schizophrenia". Seishin ... In the house, a maximum of six-eight patients and two nurses can be accommodated. Admitted patients had to meet the following ...
... as well as the expertise of the treating clinician. Often, behavioral or psychotherapeutic and pharmacological approaches are ... The choice of treatment methodology for a specific patient depends on the patient's diagnosis, medical and psychiatric history ... compatible and can effectively be combined to maximize therapeutic benefits. A related field is that of sleep medicine which ... One approach to understanding the role of sleep is to study the deprivation of it.[129] Sleep deprivation is common and ...
... and several different therapeutic approaches are being clinically tested. A variety of approaches have been used to target c- ... They also lead to cancers and resistance to therapies which aim to treat them. Patients with aberrant c-Met activity usually ... Also, most approved small molecule agents do not cure patients and most patients who show good response to treatments to begin ... The tumours which then develop are often more aggressive and harder to treat. The use of c-Met inhibitors with other ...
It is not yet understood how psychotherapies can succeed in treating mental illnesses.[133] Different therapeutic approaches ... who treated severely neurotic and mildly psychotic out-patients in small groups at Bellevue Hospital, New York. The power of ... Some therapeutic approaches developed out of the European school of existential philosophy. Concerned mainly with the ... The uniqueness of the patient-therapist relationship thus also forms a vehicle for therapeutic inquiry. A related body of ...
"Mystical peaks" experienced by LSD-treated patients would often give the patient insights and new outlooks on life. Therapy ... This method was called the "mind-manifesting approach." By the late 1970s, a more extensive method was developed, called "the ... This involved the administration of several high doses, an increased number of therapeutic sessions, and a greater emphasis on ... Thirty one terminally ill patients were treated and statistical results showed that patients received considerable relief from ...
... as well as other behavioral approaches. These treatments help patients by providing healthy coping skills training, relapse ... When treating addictive personalities, the primary or presenting addiction needs to be treated first. Only once the behavior is ... Analyzing the Associations to Inform Therapeutic Strategies". International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. 10 (6): 927 ... Also, this label may cause many to believe that there is no way to change this or treat addictions, which, according to many ...
Huggins was the first to use a systemic approach to treat prostate cancer. Huggins was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or ... effect of androgen ablation on metastatic prostate cancer was realised when Huggins and Clarence Hodges treated patients by ... They monitored the prostate size and therapeutic efficacy by measuring serum prostatic acid phosphatase levels and concluded ...
He called the practice of treating diseases by means of drugs producing symptoms opposite to those of the patient " ... Hahnemann intended to point out how physicians with conventional training employed therapeutic approaches that, in his view, ... "opposites treating opposites" and believed these conventional methods were harmful to patients. Practitioners of alternative ... from the use in homeopathy of substances that are meant to cause similar effects as the symptoms of a disease to treat patients ...
... today draw from the humanistic approach in some regard and that humanistic therapy is the best way for treat a patient. ... In this therapeutic view, the patients maladaptive behavior has been reinforced which will cause the maladaptive behavior to be ... Patients were seen as a "burden" to society and locked away and treated almost as beasts to be dealt with rather than patients ... This approach has, as well, led to some esoteric treatments: Franz Mesmer used to place his patients in a darkened room with ...
BiovaxID represents a new therapeutic approach to treating follicular lymphoma.[1] BiovaxID obtained Orphan drug status with ... each patient's vaccine is individually manufactured from a tissue biopsy obtained from a patient's own tumor. This approach is ... Of 40 patients receiving control, 25 had tumors with IgM isotype and 15 had tumors with IgG isotype. Two of the patients in the ... In the Phase III clinical trial, manufacturing success was approximately 95% of treated patients.[1] ...
The Cassel Hospital by Ham Common, London had a reputation for treating patients in a therapeutic environment and she moved ... Her introduction to nursing psychiatric patients in Leeds made her interested in modern psychological approaches to care of the ... Here she helped establish a therapeutic community unit; she was rarely "far away from the idea of therapeutic communities" ... This approach was in tune with that of Elliott Jaques, professor of social sciences at Brunel University, whose students went ...
... (MNT) is a therapeutic approach to treating medical conditions and their associated symptoms via the ... Effects of a macronutrient preload on type 2 diabetic patients, Frontiers in Endocrinology 6:139, 2015 Morris, Sara F.; Wylie- ... The diet is based upon the patient's medical record, physical examination, functional examination and dietary history.[citation ...
"Activation of fast skeletal muscle troponin as a potential therapeutic approach for treating neuromuscular diseases". Nature ... In all cases, the mutation was identified in a single patient, so additional genetic testing is needed to confirm or refute the ... Lindert S, Li MX, Sykes BD, McCammon JA (Feb 2015). "Computer-aided drug discovery approach finds calcium sensitizer of cardiac ... in a patient with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy". Human Mutation. 17 (6): 524-524. doi:10.1002/humu.1143. PMID 11385718. Willott ...
Souques and others treated patients with psychological therapy and early versions of electrotherapy. Samuel A. Sandler used a ... Camptocormia is treated by alleviating the underlying condition causing it through therapeutic measures or lifestyle changes. ... similar approach to treat soldiers during the Second World War. The view of BSS as a conversion disorder led to a lack of ... The success of the treatment method is largely dependent on the patient, but response to therapeutic methods is generally low. ...
Patients can be treated orally with ascorbate (a.k.a. vitamin C, a cofactor of prolyl hydroxylase, an enzyme that hydroxylates ... A therapeutic approach based on enzyme replacement (administering functional prolidase) is under consideration. Due to the ... PD patients exhibit a weak immune system and markedly elevated vulnerability to infections in general, and particularly those ... The condition results in a very diverse set symptoms, the severity of which can vary significantly between patients, depending ...
... as well as the expertise of the treating clinician. Often, behavioral/psychotherapeutic and pharmacological approaches are not ... This hinders the patients' ability to perform well, and patients have to deal with this for the rest of their lives. Recurrent ... incompatible and can effectively be combined to maximize therapeutic benefits. Management of sleep disturbances that are ... Patients who suffer from idiopathic hypersomnia cannot obtain a healthy amount of sleep for a regular day of activities. ...
AASLD guidelines) Therapeutic endoscopy is considered the mainstay of urgent treatment. The two main therapeutic approaches are ... Talwalkar JA, Kamath PS (2004). "An evidence-based medicine approach to beta-blocker therapy in patients with cirrhosis". Am J ... Methods of treating the portal hypertension include: transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt, or a distal splenorenal ... In ideal circumstances, patients with known varices should receive treatment to reduce their risk of bleeding. The non- ...
Patients often express interest in mind-body complementary therapies because they offer a non-drug approach to treating some ... A placebo is a treatment with no intended therapeutic value. An example of a placebo is an inert pill, but it can include more ... all of which have led patients to seek out alternative medicine to treat a variety of ailments.[127] Many patients lack access ... They mislead cancer patients, who are encouraged not only to pay their last penny but to be treated with something that ...
... at the University of Sheffield have discovered that a common drug given to arthritis sufferers could also help to treat ... Streamlining Immuno-Oncological Therapeutic Antibody Discovery. Tracey Mullen. The growing trend of implementing immunotherapy ... Applying a Proteomics-based Approach to the Clinic. Professor Matthias Mann. Matthias Mann explains why applying proteomics- ... Common arthritis drug could help to treat patients with blood cancers. *Download PDF Copy ...
... immune tolerance approach using transient low-dose methotrexate in the ERT-naïve setting of patients treated with a therapeutic ... An immune tolerance approach using transient low-dose methotrexate in the ERT-naïve setting of patients treated with a ... An immune tolerance approach using transient low-dose methotrexate in the ERT-naïve setting of patients treated with a ... title = "An immune tolerance approach using transient low-dose methotrexate in the ERT-na{i}ve setting of patients treated ...
New Mass Spectrometric Approaches for the Quantitative Evaluation of Anticancer Drug Levels in Treated Patients. DAronco, Sara ... Simultaneous Quantification of Nine Antimicrobials by LC-MS/MS for Therapeutic Drug Monitoring in Critically Ill Patients. ... Pharmacokinetic Characteristics and Limited Sampling Strategies for Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Colistin in Patients With ... Catalase C-262T Polymorphism Is a Risk Factor for Valproic Acid-Induced Abnormal Liver Function in Chinese Patients With ...
Role and limitation of FMPSPGR dynamic contrast scanning in the follow-up of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma treated by ... A palliative therapeutic approach]. Radiologe. 2001;41:84-90. [PubMed] [DOI] 12. Tu SP, Wu DM, Yuan YZ, Wu YL, Jiang SH, Wu XX ... FMPSPGR dynamic contrast scanning is useful in the follow-up of patients with HCC treated by TACE combined with SE T1WI and T2 ... Three-year follow-up of 62 cirrhotic patients with hepatocellular carcinoma treated with chemoembolization. Minerva Chir. 2000; ...
It is nearly always worth attempting verbal calming as part of an agitation treatment approach. • Patients should be encouraged ... Agitation from stimulant intoxication should be treated with benzodiazepines alone. • Myth: Emergency programs that reduce the ... This will enhance the therapeutic alliance. • Second-generation antipsychotics are as efficacious as first-generation ... patient-centered interventions when dealing with agitated patients. The recommendations are endorsed as part of the new, ...
The identification of these cells has been performed by using cell-surface markers, a reliable approach, however it lacks ... The identification of these cells has been performed by using cell-surface markers, a reliable approach, however it lacks ... The therapeutic approach in GC and CRC is determined by the stage of the disease at the time of diagnosis. Patients are treated ... 2019). Targeting cancer stem cells as therapeutic approach in the treatment of colorectal cancer. Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. ...
New therapeutic approach for multiple sclerosis?]. [Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 2013]. PMID:. 23122650. DOI:. 10.1016/S0140-6736(12) ... Alemtuzumab for multiple sclerosis: who and when to treat? [Lancet. 2012]. *Alemtuzumab for multiple sclerosis: a new age of ... 94 (47%) patients in the interferon beta 1a group were relapse-free at 2 years compared with 278 (65%) patients in the ... 104 (51%) patients in the interferon beta 1a group relapsed (201 events) compared with 147 (35%) patients in the alemtuzumab ...
Clearly, a better therapeutic approach for allergic diseases is required. Herein, we review the current knowledge of allergic ... Patients who are sensitive to multiple allergens require prophylactic and symptomatic treatments. Current treatments are often ... Sphingolipids: A Potential Molecular Approach to Treat Allergic Inflammation. Wai Y. Sun1,2,3 and Claudine S. Bonder1,2,3,4 ...
It treats injury without the use of drugs and by correcting and improving the bodys natural healing mechanisms. To complement ... Physiotherapy is a healthcare profession that emphasises the use of physical approaches in the prevention and treatment of ... traditional therapeutic treatments such as massage, joint manipulation/mobilisations, we also offer specifically designed ... We treat most Neuromusculoskeletal (nerve-muscle-bone) problems including soft tissue and muscle injuries from sporting or ...
New therapeutic approach for multiple sclerosis?]. [Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 2013]. *Alemtuzumab for multiple sclerosis: who and ... patients treated with alemtuzumab versus 85 (45%) patients treated with interferon beta 1a. 62 (16%) patients treated with ... patients treated with interferon beta 1a. By 24 months, 68 (18%) patients in the alemtuzumab group had thyroid-associated ... 75 (40%) patients in the interferon beta 1a group relapsed (122 events) compared with 82 (22%) patients in the alemtuzumab ...
... by targeting one brain region with a weak alternating current of ... Pain occurs in about 20-50% of patients with cancer. Proper therapeutic approach can help relieve and manage the condition. ... Pain Disruption Therapy May Help Treat Chronic Back Pain. Pain disruption therapy offers promise in treating chronic back pain ... Patients With Type 1 Diabetes Missing Out on Glucose Devices *Long-Term Follow-Up in Trauma Patient Population is Achievab ...
The CariFree products contain all 5 essential therapeutic agents proven to treat dental caries. Depending on the patients ... True cure requires a medical approach and a comprehensive assessment of each patient. Dr. Slaughter has taken a bold and caring ... Patients can expect the entire process to take a few minutes in their appointment. They will answer targeted questions ... Slaughter says: This is not just great for caries, but has done amazing things to stop sensitivity for my patients. I do not ...
New therapeutic approaches to treat impaire.... Natural echolocation sequences evoke echo-delay selectivity in the auditory ... Assessment of Color Vision in Diabetic Patients. Assessment of color vision in diabetic patients before and after the use of ... Diabetic patients are claimed to have high risk of delayed gastric emptying; however, the evidence concerning residual gastric ... Gastric ultrasound is emerging as a tool that can be used to assess gastric content and volume in patients with an unknown ...
Systematic chemotherapy is the primary therapeutic approach to treat patientsmore » with metastatic melanoma. Dacarbazine is ... For the RLT combination approach, mice bearing C4-2 tumors were treated with 10 mg/kg ENZ or vehicle for 21 days before ... We therefore compared the therapeutic potentialmore » of targeting either 90Y or 177Lu to human B-cell lymphoma xenografts in ... Nine patients with TAG-72 positive,more » advanced metastatic adenocarcinoma (5- breast, 3- colorectal and 1- lung) were ...
... led researchers to follow a more customized approach in vaccine manufacture to provide the best therapeutic output in patients ... Currently there are two types of cancer vaccines available - preventive and therapeutic. Therapeutic vaccines treat an existing ... This customized approach would be more specifically targeted according to the patients need which is bound to enhance the ... Transcranial Magnetic Brain Stimulation to Treat Depression and OCD: Interview with Stanfords Dr. Nolan Williams. 3D-Printed ...
This program brings together our academic and research leadership with the vision and the clinical expertise to treat patients ... Study identifies therapeutic target for high blood pressure in the lungs 10/01/2019 Lungs and Breathing ... Two weeks later the patient received donor lungs. UMMC was also the first hospital in the U.S. to enroll a patient in a ... Griffith and his team were the first in the world to free a patient from a mechanical ventilator allowing the patient to walk ...
1990) Reevaluating the therapeutic approach to rheumatoid arthritis: the "sawtooth" strategy. J Rheumatol 17:12-15, . ... all patients were followed up and checked up at regular intervals by the rheumatologists. Moreover, the patients were treated ... Our patients with early RA were treated intensively with SAARDs from the beginning of the follow up. However, in contrast with ... The placebo treated white patients with DR4 epitope developed in a 48 week minocycline trial more erosions than the DR4 ...
Novel Therapeutic Approach Effective At Reducing Pressure For Heart Failure Patients 05/15/2019 Heart disease ... UC San Diego Moores Cancer Center researchers and surgeons are among the first in the nation to treat patients with recurrent ... "We fused the patients CT scan to their MRI and used neuro-navigation software to calculate exactly where in the tumor we ... The patients were given the injection and discharged from the hospital the day after the procedure." ...
A potential new therapeutic strategy for a difficult-to-treat form of ovarian cancer has been discovered by Wistar scientists. ... "Therapeutic approaches based on the ARID1A mutation have the potential to revolutionize the way we treat these patients." ... New therapeutic approach for difficult-to-treat subtype of ovarian cancer identified. The Wistar Institute ... New therapeutic approach for difficult-to-treat subtype of ovarian cancer identified ...
Refractory/relapsed RMS patients present a bad prognosis that combined with the lack of specific biomarkers impairs the ... We validated this strategy in vivo using a RMS patient-derived xenograft model and observed a reduction in tumor growth with a ... targeting anti-apoptotic proteins represents a promising therapeutic approach to treat high-risk or relapsed RMS patients9,12. ... Patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) are advantageous in pre-clinical research as they recapitulate patients therapeutic response ...
Suppose an average ARR of 5% results from 1/3 of patients with 0; 1/3, 5% and 1/3, 10%. A population approach will treat them ... Categories: OP-ED, Patients, THCB Tagged as: ARR, NNT, Patients, The Incidental Economist, The Therapeutic Paradox, The Tragedy ... The Therapeutic Paradox: Whats Right for the Population May Not Be Right for the Patient. Feb 2, 2015. • 17 ... Indeed, exploration of patients perceptions of risk may do little more than expose the Therapeutic Paradox and allow them to ...
Hospital enables young patients with cerebral palsy, disabilities to take part in therapeutic riding program The Adaptive ... New approach to treating neonatal hypoxic ischemia improves outcomes in preclinical models Hypothermia alone, the current ... patient centred care to each and every patient. Smart Cells International, in association with the trust, will be introducing ... Leeds Teaching Hospitals to introduce private stem cell collection and storage option for patients The Leeds Teaching Hospitals ...
Visit us often for drug therapy testing results, patient care information and more. Download our FREE app today. ... Optimal Therapeutic Approach for this Disease. BDD is best treated with oral antibiotics. Newer data suggests that due to the ... Pediatric patients 40 kg and heavier can be treated like adults for dosing purposes. ... Patients with a glomerular filtration rate of 10-30 mL/min should receive 500 mg or 250 mg every 12 hours, depending on the ...
Neurosurgery has the areas most respected and experienced neurosurgeons who provide state-of-the-art treatment to any patient ... What is special about our approach to treating this condition?. DBS has the advantage of avoiding permanent lesion to the brain ... Also the stimulation parameters can be adjusted postoperatively in order to optimize therapeutic benefit for the patient. ... while the patient is awake. Minimal sedation is used to keep patient comfortable. The rest of the system is implanted under ...
... of patients. Treat large type D tumors with a combined otologic and neurosurgical approach. An infratemporal approach with a ... Surgery leads to therapeutic success in about 90% of patients. Intratumoral injection of cyanoacrylate glue has been proposed ... The mortality rate is 6.2% among patients treated with radiation and 2.5% among those treated surgically. The overall mortality ... need to be treated with a combined otologic and neurosurgical approach. An infratemporal approach with a skull base resection ...
  • Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) are diagnosed in around 3,300 UK patients every year and cause an overproduction of blood cells creating a significant impact on quality-of-life, with symptoms such as night sweats, itching and tiredness. (news-medical.net)
  • Anesthesiologists try to avoid complications with significant peri -operative morbidity and mortality such as bronchoaspiration in patients requiring a surgical procedure under anesthesia. (bioportfolio.com)
  • According to the study, following LINAC stereotactic radiosurgery, 10 of 27 patients showed a significant improvement of their previous neurologic complaints, whereas 12 patients remained unchanged. (medscape.com)
  • After eight weeks of practicing Iyengar Yoga three times a week, the patients reported significant decreases in both anxiety and depression. (yogajournal.com)
  • Thus, agents specifically targeting V600E B-Raf and/or Akt3 could have significant potential to treat moles, early melanocytic lesions, or skin metastases in which these proteins are deregulated. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Many of those patients will get that as their standard of care and the people that don't have an identifiable marker or whatever, those people would still be potentially eligible for clinical trials moving forward, with new agents and new targets, etc. (edisoninvestmentresearch.com)
  • PHILADELPHIA -- (July 24, 2017) -- A potential new therapeutic strategy for a difficult-to-treat form of ovarian cancer has been discovered by Wistar scientists. (eurekalert.org)
  • This customized approach would be more specifically targeted according to the patient's need which is bound to enhance the overall therapeutic outcome. (medgadget.com)
  • By contrast, the expanded approach explained in the webinar strives to give the clinician a more holistic portrait of the patient's lived experience with dysphagia. (asha.org)
  • Whereas randomized clinical trials usually only inspect one variable or very few variables, rarely reflecting the full picture of a complicated medical situation, the case report can detail many different aspects of the patient's medical situation (e.g. patient history, physical examination, diagnosis, psychosocial aspects, follow up). (wikipedia.org)
  • that is, the provision of an antigen together with an adjuvant to elicit therapeutic T cells in vivo. (nih.gov)
  • The level of recovering from their diseases on our 43 patients into the Natural and Bioenergetics Protocols was much better than others as well as the number of post operative and adjuvant complications were less. (ispub.com)
  • and it is not uncommon to find patients with lesions existing one year or longer, and attaining considerable size without metastasis below the clavicles. (springer.com)
  • Among the 267 patients for whom baseline and 5-year radiographs were available, changes in radiographic scores were 0.3, 0.3, and 0.1 for patients who had initially been in the placebo, 50 mg, and 100 mg groups, with patients who had been taking methotrexate at baseline showing somewhat less progression. (medpagetoday.com)
  • The long-term therapeutic goal is to develop a vaccine-based mechanism to treat infected individuals that either prevents or significantly slows progression to symptomatic HIV, including AIDS, by stimulating an infected individual's immune system to resist the progression of infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Brain stimulation can help treat people with chronic pain by targeting one brain region with a weak alternating current of electricity can significantly reduce symptoms of chronic lower back pain. (medindia.net)
  • There is increasing recognition of the importance of assessing patients with unexplained upper gastrointestinal symptoms for impaired gastric accommodation. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Patients often have a fever and constitutional symptoms. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • Exercise intolerance is one of the main symptoms, which limit PAH patients in their daily life activities. (ersjournals.com)
  • Dr Zalvan observed that some of his patients on a plant-based diet also experienced weight loss and a reduction of symptoms and medication use from other medical conditions like high blood pressure and high cholesterol. (foodnavigator.com)
  • Seventy percent of NEH cases have been observed in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), after receiving chemotherapeutic agents, in particular anthracycline and cytarabine, although it has been reported to occur with anticancer drugs such as bleomycin, chlorambucil, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, lomustine, mitoxantrone, and vincristine. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • Colorectal cancer patients with PIK3CA and KRAS mutations did not respond to therapy, whereas both ovarian cancer patients with PIK3CA and KRAS or BRAF mutations did. (aacrjournals.org)
  • For 435 patients allocated alemtuzumab 12 mg, 393 (90%) had infusion-associated reactions, 334 (77%) had infections (compared with 134 [66%] of 202 patients in the interferon beta 1a group) that were mostly mild-moderate with none fatal, 69 (16%) had thyroid disorders, and three (1%) had immune thrombocytopenia. (nih.gov)
  • By 24 months, 68 (18%) patients in the alemtuzumab group had thyroid-associated adverse events compared with 12 (6%) in the interferon beta 1a group, and three (1%) had immune thrombocytopenia compared with none in the interferon beta 1a group. (nih.gov)
  • Clearly, a better therapeutic approach for allergic diseases is required. (hindawi.com)
  • Our goal is to understand photoreceptor loss in genetic inherited diseases as well as in age-related diseases such as age-related macular degeneration, in order to develop new therapeutic paradigms to delay blindness in affected individuals. (umassmed.edu)
  • Infrequently, NEH can be seen in association with other underlying diseases, such as lupus erythematosus and Behçets syndrome, which are treated with systemic agents such as cyclophosphamide. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • Identifying relevant molecular subtypes within heterogeneous diseases and matching patients with appropriate targeted agents or their combinations is crucial to future therapeutic progress ( 5 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • However, as with other cardiac and pulmonary diseases, PAH patients develop respiratory [ 2 ] and peripheral muscle [ 3 , 4 ] weakness, which might also contribute to exercise intolerance. (ersjournals.com)
  • Dr Caitriona Creely, Programme Manager from the HRB added that the MRCG/HRB Joint Funding Scheme is "an opportunity for the HRB to work with charities and support excellent research of relevance to patients, from understanding the cause of diseases to looking for a cure, to focusing on care for people and families living with conditions day to day. (ucc.ie)
  • The Program in Lung Healing unifies and leverages our key assets and pioneering leadership in understanding how to treat the most critical patients with pulmonary failure," said Dr. Reece, who is Vice President for Medical Affairs at the University of Maryland and the John Z. and Akiko Bowers Distinguished Professor and Dean at the UM SOM. (healthcanal.com)
  • Opportunistic infections included one patient each with pulmonary tuberculosis, ocular toxoplasmosis, and histoplasmosis, all in the 100 mg group. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Recently, we have shown that weakness of the respiratory muscles in PAH patients [ 8 ] and in pulmonary hypertension rats [ 9 ] is, at least partly, caused by impaired contractility of the sarcomeres, the smallest contractile units in muscle. (ersjournals.com)
  • b) Maximal tension (i.e. maximal force per mm 2 cross sectional area at 20°C and a calcium concentration ([Ca 2+ ]) of 32 µM) is significantly reduced in fast-twitch quadriceps muscle fibres of pulmonary hypertension (PAH) patients compared with age- and sex-matched control subjects (CTRL). (ersjournals.com)
  • Methods: Newly diagnosed IOPD patients received subcutaneous or oral 0.4 mg/kg TLD-MTX for 3 cycles (3 doses/cycle) with the first 3 rhGAA infusions. (nebraska.edu)
  • However, due to the limited data and lack of direct comparison with other methods, further controlled trials are necessary to estimate the overall efficacy and safety and the role of EUS-GBD with LAMS in management of nonoperative patients with acute cholecystitis. (hindawi.com)
  • Guo's lab primarily focuses on methods to restore beta-cell numbers and function to treat type 1 diabetes. (sanfordhealth.org)
  • One of the challenges for small-molecule PSMA inhibitors with respect to delivering therapeutic payloads is their rapid renal clearance. (osti.gov)
  • The surgical approach to fallopian tube reconstruction is discussed in 3 parts according to the anatomic location of the obstruction: (1) the proximal portion of the tube, (2) the distal portion of the tube, and (3) the mid portion of the tube. (medscape.com)
  • In the past, intramural/interstitial obstruction was surgically treated with tubal reimplantation through the uterine wall. (medscape.com)
  • However, intramural obstruction can be approached via hysteroscopic cannulation. (medscape.com)
  • This partnership with Summit Therapeutics furthers our commitment to invest in innovative approaches to treating Duchenne and supports our common goal of improving the lives of patients with DMD," said Edward Kaye, M.D., Sarepta's Chief Executive Officer. (globenewswire.com)