The ability to attribute mental states (e.g., beliefs, desires, feelings, intentions, thoughts, etc.) to self and to others, allowing an individual to understand and infer behavior on the basis of the mental states. Difference or deficit in theory of mind is associated with ASPERGER SYNDROME; AUTISTIC DISORDER; and SCHIZOPHRENIA, etc.
Principles applied to the analysis and explanation of psychological or behavioral phenomena.
Concepts, definitions, and propositions applied to the study of various phenomena which pertain to nursing and nursing research.
An interdisciplinary study dealing with the transmission of messages or signals, or the communication of information. Information theory does not directly deal with meaning or content, but with physical representations that have meaning or content. It overlaps considerably with communication theory and CYBERNETICS.
The theory that the radiation and absorption of energy take place in definite quantities called quanta (E) which vary in size and are defined by the equation E=hv in which h is Planck's constant and v is the frequency of the radiation.
Principles, models, and laws that apply to complex interrelationships and interdependencies of sets of linked components which form a functioning whole, a system. Any system may be composed of components which are systems in their own right (sub-systems), such as several organs within an individual organism.
The study of the physiological basis of human and animal behavior.
A psychological theory based on dimensions or categories used by a given person in describing or explaining the personality and behavior of others or of himself. The basic idea is that different people will use consistently different categories. The theory was formulated in the fifties by George Kelly. Two tests devised by him are the role construct repertory test and the repertory grid test. (From Stuart Sutherland, The International Dictionary of Psychology, 1989)
A theoretical technique utilizing a group of related constructs to describe or prescribe how individuals or groups of people choose a course of action when faced with several alternatives and a variable amount of knowledge about the determinants of the outcomes of those alternatives.
Theoretical construct used in applied mathematics to analyze certain situations in which there is an interplay between parties that may have similar, opposed, or mixed interests. In a typical game, decision-making "players," who each have their own goals, try to gain advantage over the other parties by anticipating each other's decisions; the game is finally resolved as a consequence of the players' decisions.
Mental activity, not predominantly perceptual, by which one apprehends some aspect of an object or situation based on past learning and experience.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The perceiving of attributes, characteristics, and behaviors of one's associates or social groups.
A philosophically coherent set of propositions (for example, utilitarianism) which attempts to provide general norms for the guidance and evaluation of moral conduct. (from Beauchamp and Childress, Principles of Biomedical Ethics, 4th ed)
The relation between the mind and the body in a religious, social, spiritual, behavioral, and metaphysical context. This concept is significant in the field of alternative medicine. It differs from the relationship between physiologic processes and behavior where the emphasis is on the body's physiology ( = PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY).
Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
Conceptual functions or thinking in all its forms.
Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.
A love or pursuit of wisdom. A search for the underlying causes and principles of reality. (Webster, 3d ed)
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.
A cognitive process involving the formation of ideas generalized from the knowledge of qualities, aspects, and relations of objects.
Standards of conduct that distinguish right from wrong.
Time period from 1601 through 1700 of the common era.
The process of discovering or asserting an objective or intrinsic relation between two objects or concepts; a faculty or power that enables a person to make judgments; the process of bringing to light and asserting the implicit meaning of a concept; a critical evaluation of a person or situation.
Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.
The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
An individual's objective and insightful awareness of the feelings and behavior of another person. It should be distinguished from sympathy, which is usually nonobjective and noncritical. It includes caring, which is the demonstration of an awareness of and a concern for the good of others. (From Bioethics Thesaurus, 1992)
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A new pattern of perceptual or ideational material derived from past experience.
The scientific disciplines concerned with the embryology, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology, etc., of the nervous system.
A branch of psychology which investigates the correlation between experience or behavior and the basic neurophysiological processes. The term neuropsychology stresses the dominant role of the nervous system. It is a more narrowly defined field than physiological psychology or psychophysiology.
The act or fact of grasping the meaning, nature, or importance of; understanding. (American Heritage Dictionary, 4th ed) Includes understanding by a patient or research subject of information disclosed orally or in writing.
Emotional attachment to someone or something in the environment.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.
A collective expression for all behavior patterns acquired and socially transmitted through symbols. Culture includes customs, traditions, and language.
The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.
What a person has in mind to do or bring about.
Knowing or understanding without conscious use of reasoning. (Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, 1994)
The branch of mathematics dealing with the purely logical properties of probability. Its theorems underlie most statistical methods. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.
Philosophy based on the analysis of the individual's existence in the world which holds that human existence cannot be completely described in scientific terms. Existentialism also stresses the freedom and responsibility of the individual as well as the uniqueness of religious and ethical experiences and the analysis of subjective phenomena such as anxiety, guilt, and suffering. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)
The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.
Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.
Time period from 1501 through 1600 of the common era.
Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.
The individual's objective evaluation of the external world and the ability to differentiate adequately between it and the internal world; considered to be a primary ego function.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
The act of "taking account" of an object or state of affairs. It does not imply assessment of, nor attention to the qualities or nature of the object.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
The ability to understand and manage emotions and to use emotional knowledge to enhance thought and deal effectively with tasks. Components of emotional intelligence include empathy, self-motivation, self-awareness, self-regulation, and social skill. Emotional intelligence is a measurement of one's ability to socialize or relate to others.
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.
Sense of awareness of self and of the environment.
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Continuous sequential changes which occur in the physiological and psychological functions during the life-time of an individual.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A verbal or nonverbal means of communicating ideas or feelings.
The body of truths or facts accumulated in the course of time, the cumulated sum of information, its volume and nature, in any civilization, period, or country.
The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.
The branch of psychology concerned with the effects of group membership upon the behavior, attitudes, and beliefs of an individual.
Health as viewed from the perspective that humans and other organisms function as complete, integrated units rather than as aggregates of separate parts.
Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.
The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.
Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.
Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
The process by which the nature and meaning of sensory stimuli are recognized and interpreted.
A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
The fundamental tenet of modern medicine that certain diseases are caused by microorganisms. It was confirmed by the work of Pasteur, Lister, and Koch.
Affection; in psychiatry commonly refers to pleasure, particularly as it applies to gratifying experiences between individuals.
Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.
The scientific discipline concerned with the physiology of the nervous system.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
The conscious portion of the personality structure which serves to mediate between the demands of the primitive instinctual drives, (the id), of internalized parental and social prohibitions or the conscience, (the superego), and of reality.
Child who has no siblings.
Self-directing freedom and especially moral independence. An ethical principle holds that the autonomy of persons ought to be respected. (Bioethics Thesaurus)
The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.
The separation or resolution of the psyche into its constituent elements. The term has two separate meanings: 1. a procedure devised by Sigmund Freud, for investigating mental processes by means of free association, dream interpretation and interpretation of resistance and transference manifestations; and 2. a theory of psychology developed by Freud from his clinical experience with hysterical patients. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 1996).
The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.
The ability to acquire general or special types of knowledge or skill.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The continuous sequential physiological and psychological maturing of an individual from birth up to but not including ADOLESCENCE.
The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.
The faculty of expressing the amusing, clever, or comical or the keen perception and cleverly apt expression of connections between ideas that awaken amusement and pleasure. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Standardized tests designed to measure abilities, as in intelligence, aptitude, and achievement tests, or to evaluate personality traits.
Those psychological characteristics which differentiate individuals from one another.
The study of animals - their morphology, growth, distribution, classification, and behavior.
A learning situation involving more than one alternative from which a selection is made in order to attain a specific goal.
The period of history before 500 of the common era.
Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)
Tendency to feel anger toward and to seek to inflict harm upon a person or group.
The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.
A psychologic theory, developed by John Broadus Watson, concerned with studying and measuring behaviors that are observable.
Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.
The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.
The process whereby a representation of past experience is elicited.
A person's view of himself.
The end-result or objective, which may be specified or required in advance.
Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.
Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.
Study of mental processes and behavior of schizophrenics.
The continuous developmental process of a culture from simple to complex forms and from homogeneous to heterogeneous qualities.
Treatment methods or techniques which are based on the knowledge of mind and body interactions. These techniques can be used to reduce the feeling of tension and effect of stress, and to enhance the physiological and psychological well-being of an individual.
The internal individual struggle resulting from incompatible or opposing needs, drives, or external and internal demands. In group interactions, competitive or opposing action of incompatibles: antagonistic state or action (as of divergent ideas, interests, or persons). (from Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)
A set of cognitive functions that controls complex, goal-directed thought and behavior. Executive function involves multiple domains, such as CONCEPT FORMATION, goal management, cognitive flexibility, INHIBITION control, and WORKING MEMORY. Impaired executive function is seen in a range of disorders, e.g., SCHIZOPHRENIA; and ADHD.
Transmission of emotions, ideas, and attitudes between individuals in ways other than the spoken language.
A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.
Processes that incorporate some element of randomness, used particularly to refer to a time series of random variables.
Consideration and concern for others, as opposed to self-love or egoism, which can be a motivating influence.
A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)
A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.
The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.
The condition in which reasonable knowledge regarding risks, benefits, or the future is not available.
The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.
Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)
The knowledge or perception that someone or something present has been previously encountered.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Growth of habitual patterns of behavior in childhood and adolescence.
Highly pleasant emotion characterized by outward manifestations of gratification; joy.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Unconscious process used by an individual or a group of individuals in order to cope with impulses, feelings or ideas which are not acceptable at their conscious level; various types include reaction formation, projection and self reversal.
Abstract standards or empirical variables in social life which are believed to be important and/or desirable.
Remembrance of information for a few seconds to hours.
An irrational reaction compounded of grief, loss of self-esteem, enmity against the rival and self criticism.
The accumulation of an electric charge on a object
The writing of history; the principles, theory, and history of historical writing; the product of historical writing. (Webster, 3d ed)
Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.
A family of conserved cell surface receptors that contain EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR repeats in their extracellular domain and ANKYRIN repeats in their cytoplasmic domains. The cytoplasmic domain of notch receptors is released upon ligand binding and translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS where it acts as transcription factor.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The feeling-tone accompaniment of an idea or mental representation. It is the most direct psychic derivative of instinct and the psychic representative of the various bodily changes by means of which instincts manifest themselves.
The relationships between symbols and their meanings.
A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)
The direct struggle between individuals for environmental necessities or for a common goal.
A disorder beginning in childhood whose essential features are persistent impairment in reciprocal social communication and social interaction, and restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities. These symptoms may limit or impair everyday functioning. (From DSM-5)
The study of chance processes or the relative frequency characterizing a chance process.
The mimicking of the behavior of one individual by another.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
A diverse class of enzymes that interact with UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES and ubiquitination-specific protein substrates. Each member of this enzyme group has its own distinct specificity for a substrate and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Ubiquitin-protein ligases exist as both monomeric proteins multiprotein complexes.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.
The ability to learn and to deal with new situations and to deal effectively with tasks involving abstractions.
The study of systems which respond disproportionately (nonlinearly) to initial conditions or perturbing stimuli. Nonlinear systems may exhibit "chaos" which is classically characterized as sensitive dependence on initial conditions. Chaotic systems, while distinguished from more ordered periodic systems, are not random. When their behavior over time is appropriately displayed (in "phase space"), constraints are evident which are described by "strange attractors". Phase space representations of chaotic systems, or strange attractors, usually reveal fractal (FRACTALS) self-similarity across time scales. Natural, including biological, systems often display nonlinear dynamics and chaos.
Mental process to visually perceive a critical number of facts (the pattern), such as characters, shapes, displays, or designs.
Includes both producing and responding to words, either written or spoken.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.
Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.
Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)
Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).
Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
A set of beliefs concerning the nature, cause, and purpose of the universe, especially when considered as the creation of a superhuman agency. It usually involves devotional and ritual observances and often a moral code for the conduct of human affairs. (Random House Collegiate Dictionary, rev. ed.)
A social science dealing with group relationships, patterns of collective behavior, and social organization.
The act or practice of literary composition, the occupation of writer, or producing or engaging in literary work as a profession.
The detailed examination of observable activity or behavior associated with the execution or completion of a required function or unit of work.
Disciplines concerned with the interrelationships of individuals in a social environment including social organizations and institutions. Includes Sociology and Anthropology.
The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.
A group of disorders characterized by physical symptoms that are affected by emotional factors and involve a single organ system, usually under AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM control. (American Psychiatric Glossary, 1988)
The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)
Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.
Sound that expresses emotion through rhythm, melody, and harmony.
A system which emphasizes that experience and behavior contain basic patterns and relationships which cannot be reduced to simpler components; that is, the whole is greater than the sum of its parts.
An enduring, learned predisposition to behave in a consistent way toward a given class of objects, or a persistent mental and/or neural state of readiness to react to a certain class of objects, not as they are but as they are conceived to be.
A state of consciousness in which the individual eliminates environmental stimuli from awareness so that the mind can focus on a single thing, producing a state of relaxation and relief from stress. A wide variety of techniques are used to clear the mind of stressful outside interferences. It includes meditation therapy. (Mosby's Medical, Nursing, and Allied Health Dictionary, 4th ed)
The measure of that part of the heat or energy of a system which is not available to perform work. Entropy increases in all natural (spontaneous and irreversible) processes. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The principles of professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the physician, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the physician in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families.
The medical science that deals with the origin, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of mental disorders.
The application of an unpleasant stimulus or penalty for the purpose of eliminating or correcting undesirable behavior.
Upper central part of the cerebral hemisphere. It is located posterior to central sulcus, anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE, and superior to the TEMPORAL LOBES.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known negative charge, present in all elements; also called negatrons. Positively charged electrons are called positrons. The numbers, energies and arrangement of electrons around atomic nuclei determine the chemical identities of elements. Beams of electrons are called CATHODE RAYS.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The state that distinguishes organisms from inorganic matter, manifested by growth, metabolism, reproduction, and adaptation. It includes the course of existence, the sum of experiences, the mode of existing, or the fact of being. Over the centuries inquiries into the nature of life have crossed the boundaries from philosophy to biology, forensic medicine, anthropology, etc., in creative as well as scientific literature. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed; Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
Those forces and content of the mind which are not ordinarily available to conscious awareness or to immediate recall.
Psychophysical technique that permits the estimation of the bias of the observer as well as detectability of the signal (i.e., stimulus) in any sensory modality. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)

Overlapping and non-overlapping brain regions for theory of mind and self reflection in individual subjects. (1/183)

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Developmental changes in the neural basis of interpreting communicative intent. (2/183)

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Studying mind and brain with fMRI. (3/183)

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Attending to the present: mindfulness meditation reveals distinct neural modes of self-reference. (4/183)

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Distinct regions of medial rostral prefrontal cortex supporting social and nonsocial functions. (5/183)

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Mentalizing under uncertainty: dissociated neural responses to ambiguous and unambiguous mental state inferences. (6/183)

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Language promotes false-belief understanding: evidence from learners of a new sign language. (7/183)

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Neural correlates of observing pretend play in which one object is represented as another. (8/183)

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Mentalize redirects here. For the second solo album of Brazilian vocalist/pianist Andre Matos, see Mentalize (album). In psychology, mentalization is the ability to understand the mental state, of oneself or others, that underlies overt behaviour. Mentalization can be seen as a form of imaginative mental activity that lets us perceive and interpret human behaviour in terms of intentional mental states (e.g., needs, desires, feelings, beliefs, goals, purposes, and reasons). It is sometimes described as understanding misunderstanding. Another term that David Wallin has used for mentalization is Thinking about thinking. Mentalization can occur either automatically or consciously. Mentalization ability, or mentalizing, is weakened by intense emotion. While the Theory of Mind has been discussed in philosophy at least since Descartes, the concept of mentalization emerged in psychoanalytic literature in the late 1960s, and became empirically tested in 1983 when Heinz Wimmer and Josef Perner ran the ...
Objective: This study focuses on cognitive prerequisites for the development of Theory-of-mind (ToM), the ability to impute mental states to self and others in young adults with Alström syndrome (AS). AS is a recessively inherited ciliopathic disorder causing progressive hearing loss and juvenile blindness, both of which affect communication, as well as other dysfunctions. Two cognitive abilities were considered; Phonological working memory and Executive functions (EF), both of importance in speech development . Methods: Ten individuals (18-37 years) with AS, and 20 nondisabled individuals matched for age, gender and educational level participated. Sensory functions were measured. Information about motor functions and communicative skills was obtained from questionnaire data. ToM was assessed using Happés strange stories, verbal ability by a vocabulary test, phonological WM by an auditory presented serial-recall task and EF by tests of updating and inhibition. Results: The AS group performed
TY - JOUR. T1 - Beyond diagnosis: Mentalization and mental health from a transdiagnostic point of view in adolescents from non-clinical population. AU - Ballespí, Sergi. AU - Vives, Jaume. AU - Debbané, Martin. AU - Sharp, Carla. AU - Barrantes-Vidal, Neus. PY - 2018/12/1. Y1 - 2018/12/1. N2 - © 2018 An increasing volume of evidence suggests that mentalization (MZ) can be an important factor in the transition from mental health to mental illness and vice versa. However, most studies are focused on the role of MZ in specific disorders. This study aims to evaluate the relationship between MZ and mental health as a trans-diagnostic process. A sample of 172 adolescents aged 12 to 18 years old (M = 14.6, SD = 1.7; 56.4% of girls) was assessed on measures of MZ, psychopathology and psychological functioning from a multimethod and multi-informant perspective. Contrary to predictions, MZ was not associated with general psychopathology and comorbidity, even when explored from a broad, trans-diagnostic ...
Successful socialization requires the ability of understanding of others mental states. This ability called as mentalization (Theory of Mind) may become deficient and contribute to everyday life difficulties in multiple sclerosis. We aimed to explore the impact of brain pathology on mentalization performance in multiple sclerosis. Mentalization performance of 49 patients with multiple sclerosis was compared to 24 age- and gender matched healthy controls. T1- and T2-weighted three-dimensional brain MRI images were acquired at 3Tesla from patients with multiple sclerosis and 18 gender- and age matched healthy controls. We assessed overall brain cortical thickness in patients with multiple sclerosis and the scanned healthy controls, and measured the total and regional T1 and T2 white matter lesion volumes in patients with multiple sclerosis. Performances in tests of recognition of mental states and emotions from facial expressions and eye gazes correlated with both total T1-lesion load and ...
Studies demonstrating selective brain networks subserving motivation and mentalization (i.e. attributing states of mind to others) during social interactions have not investigated their mutual indepen
Methods A population of healthy subjects (n=4150, age range: 50-60 years) completed a clinical and neuropsychological evaluation including the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET), a widely used ToM task. From this group, we recruited a low-RMET group (n=83) including subjects with RMET scores lower than 2 SDs but an otherwise normal neuropsychological evaluation and a control group. All subjects underwent evaluation at baseline and after 2 years.. ...
The function of memory is not only to recall the past, but also to form and update models of our experiences and use these models to navigate the world. Perhaps the most complex environment for humans to navigate is the social one. Social dynamics are extraordinarily complex, unstructured, labile and difficult to predict. However, successful navigation of the social world is essential to forming and maintaining interpersonal relationships. Little research has examined the role that memory plays in social behavior and interpersonal sensitivity. There is growing evidence that recalling personally experienced events (autobiographical memory) and inferring the mental states of others (mentalizing or theory-of-mind) share an extensive functional neuroanatomy. The functional overlap between autobiographical memory and mental inference has been hypothesized to facilitate the integration of personal and interpersonal information. This integration may provide a means for personal experiences to become social
Using a novel eye-tracking test, we recently showed that great apes anticipate that other individuals will act according to false beliefs. This finding suggests that, like humans, great apes understand others false beliefs, at least in an implicit way. One key question raised by our study is why apes have passed our tests but not previous ones. In this article, we consider this question by detailing the development of our task. We considered 3 major differences in our task compared with the previous ones. First, we monitored apes eye movements, and specifically their anticipatory looks, to measure their predictions about how agents will behave ...
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have demonstrated a critical role for a cortical region in the right temporo-parietal junction (RTPJ) in theory of mind (ToM), or mental state reasoning. In other research, the RTPJ has been implicated in the deployment of attention to an unexpe …
Fő kutatási területe a fejlődési pszichopatológiák vizsgálata, különösen a kötődés és a mentalizáció perspektívájából. Ezen kívül a pszichoszociális kezelések és terápiák hatékonyságát vizsgálja. A mentalizáció fogalmát Fonagy használta először, majd mentális betegségekkel, különösen a borderline személyiség zavarral kapcsolatban kezdte el vizsgálni. Anthony Batemannel együtt dolgozták ki a „Mentalizáción alapuló kezelést (Mentalization Based Treatment; MBT). Ez egy pszichodinamikus pszichoterápiát, ami a borderline személyiség zavar kezelését célozza meg. A díjat nyert könyvükben (Affect Regulation, Mentalization, and the Development of the Self) részletesen foglalkoznak a mentalizációval, érzelem szabályozással. Fonagy az Anna Freud Centrumban oktatja is az MBT-t. ...
This study is a Community Based Public Health Care Initiative to promote the healthy development of children exposed to toxic stress transferred over by their parents/caregivers suffering from mental illness, addictions to substances of abuse, or domestic violence--are less able to respond sensitively and appropriately to meet the needs of their developing infants.. Specifically, the Action Team on Triadic Attachment and Child Health (ATTACH) Intervention is a brief supportive psycho-dynamically informed individual AND triadic parenting psychotherapeutic program that fosters a process of maternal RF. The content is designed to help the parent develop his/her mind and the emphasis is on the development of the capacity for mentalizing. In other words, the intervention helps to develop the capacity to think about mental states (thoughts, feelings, and intentions) and to consider how ones own mental states might affect others, and how others mental states might have an impact on oneself. The ...
If we mentalize about each other by imagining ourselves experiencing an event as another person and then predicting our own mental states in that situation, how do we make reasonable predictions about our hypothetical thoughts and feelings in the first place? To use ourselves as a proxy for others mental states, we must not only be able to imagine ourselves as another person but also be able to simulate richly enough to provoke in us a concomitant set of feelings and thoughts. That is, we must first conjure up the actual feeling states that accompany a particular experience or think the thoughts that might arise in a given scenario before we can proceed to extend those simulated feelings and thoughts to another person.. Surprisingly little cognitive work has addressed the question of how humans predict their own mental states, despite reasonable arguments that this skill represents an important line separating human cognition from the mental systems of other primates (Gilbert 2007). Do ...
The main aim of this review is to provide a broad overview of social-cognitive theory and research applied to violent and sexual offending behaviour. The review suggests that there is some variation in the adoption of social-cognitive theory and methods to differing offending behaviours. The violent offending literature, for example, has many examples of novel social-cognitive research methods used to examine the cognitions of highly aggressive men while the child sexual offending literature has very few examples of such social-cognitive techniques. The advantages of adopting a social-cognitive perspective to differing offending behaviours is examined and discussed alongside suggestions for future research in the social-cognitive domain ...
One major motivation for CRS is a functionalist (q.v.) approach to the mind generally. Functionalism says that what makes a state a mental state is the role it plays in interacting with other mental states in a creatures psychology. This gives rise to a weak form of CRS: a state is meaningful (i.e. hassome meaning or other) by virtue of the fact that it plays a certain role in a persons psychology. This form offers a reply to theories that insist a mind requires something more. for example, Searle (1980) has argued that computers cannot understand language in virtue of their programs or, more generally, by manipulating symbols in a certain way. He rests his case on a thought experiment, the Chinese Room (q.v.), in which a monolingual English speaker manipulates Chinese symbols by following rules that dont require him to understand the meanings of the symbols he is manipulating. The rules are so devised that he produces sensible responses in Chinese to any Chinese inputs. Searle says that ...
slow mind - MedHelps slow mind Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for slow mind. Find slow mind information, treatments for slow mind and slow mind symptoms.
Whilst she attended a series of mind power seminars and took mind power treatments twice a week, she realised the improvement in her body. Her ascites dramatically disappeared, her tumour maker that had been moving upward levelled off and finally declined. That was so incredible that her doctor published a paper in a medical journal as a case of natural degeneration of cancer. She was convinced that mind power would be going to heal her cancer completely. Thus, she followed pieces of advice from Ms. Nonaka telling that forgetting own illness is the best medicine and healing someone heals own illness. Accordingly, she dedicated to heal other patients. As her tumour maker remained the average, her struggle agains cancer came to the end. Her doctor was also sure that mind power fully healed her cancer, recommending her to inform the truth to other people waiting for the power. ...
The communication between your Chattering Mind and nervous system is essential to your survival. It keeps you alert and safe.. As a safety feature your Chattering Mind tends to be based on critical, fearful and doubting thoughts and beliefs. And these thoughts become habitual, tending to loop over and over again throughout your day.. Much like the looping quality of your Chattering Mind, your nervous system and brain keep looping information back and forth. So when you send a fear-based message through thought to your brain, your brain then sends information to the flight or fight system to kick on.. When you are unaware of this process, your Chattering Mind, brain and nervous system keep looping fear back and forth throughout your being. When this happens you begin to experience and see the world through this stressed state of your mind and body.. When you are not mindful of your own internal chatter, the above loop tends to be a default setting, to one degree or another, in all your ...
See also Mind Meld, a TOS novel The Vulcan mind meld (or mind touch) was a telepathic technique employed exclusively by Vulcans in which the minds of two individuals become a single entity. In the Vulcan language, it was known as taroon-ifla. (TOS episode: "Dagger of the Mind", Last Unicorn RPG...
Mind mapping, for the uninitiated, is a visual method for organizing ideas -- a sort of project management tool for the mind. It often involves lots of thoughts in bubbles connected by lines. The language used to describe the elements of a mind map parallels that used by software outliners, except mind maps dont have the rigid vertical form outlines have. Mind maps have an air of horizontal chaos about them.