Theory of Mind
The ability to attribute mental states (e.g., beliefs, desires, feelings, intentions, thoughts, etc.) to self and to others, allowing an individual to understand and infer behavior on the basis of the mental states. Difference or deficit in theory of mind is associated with ASPERGER SYNDROME; AUTISTIC DISORDER; and SCHIZOPHRENIA, etc.
An interdisciplinary study dealing with the transmission of messages or signals, or the communication of information. Information theory does not directly deal with meaning or content, but with physical representations that have meaning or content. It overlaps considerably with communication theory and CYBERNETICS.
Principles, models, and laws that apply to complex interrelationships and interdependencies of sets of linked components which form a functioning whole, a system. Any system may be composed of components which are systems in their own right (sub-systems), such as several organs within an individual organism.
Personal Construct Theory
A psychological theory based on dimensions or categories used by a given person in describing or explaining the personality and behavior of others or of himself. The basic idea is that different people will use consistently different categories. The theory was formulated in the fifties by George Kelly. Two tests devised by him are the role construct repertory test and the repertory grid test. (From Stuart Sutherland, The International Dictionary of Psychology, 1989)
Theoretical construct used in applied mathematics to analyze certain situations in which there is an interplay between parties that may have similar, opposed, or mixed interests. In a typical game, decision-making "players," who each have their own goals, try to gain advantage over the other parties by anticipating each other's decisions; the game is finally resolved as a consequence of the players' decisions.
Mind-Body Relations, Metaphysical
The relation between the mind and the body in a religious, social, spiritual, behavioral, and metaphysical context. This concept is significant in the field of alternative medicine. It differs from the relationship between physiologic processes and behavior where the emphasis is on the body's physiology ( = PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY).
An individual's objective and insightful awareness of the feelings and behavior of another person. It should be distinguished from sympathy, which is usually nonobjective and noncritical. It includes caring, which is the demonstration of an awareness of and a concern for the good of others. (From Bioethics Thesaurus, 1992)
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Philosophy based on the analysis of the individual's existence in the world which holds that human existence cannot be completely described in scientific terms. Existentialism also stresses the freedom and responsibility of the individual as well as the uniqueness of religious and ethical experiences and the analysis of subjective phenomena such as anxiety, guilt, and suffering. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
The ability to understand and manage emotions and to use emotional knowledge to enhance thought and deal effectively with tasks. Components of emotional intelligence include empathy, self-motivation, self-awareness, self-regulation, and social skill. Emotional intelligence is a measurement of one's ability to socialize or relate to others.
A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.
Reproducibility of Results
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Germ Theory of Disease
The separation or resolution of the psyche into its constituent elements. The term has two separate meanings: 1. a procedure devised by Sigmund Freud, for investigating mental processes by means of free association, dream interpretation and interpretation of resistance and transference manifestations; and 2. a theory of psychology developed by Freud from his clinical experience with hysterical patients. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 1996).
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.
Wit and Humor as Topic
The internal individual struggle resulting from incompatible or opposing needs, drives, or external and internal demands. In group interactions, competitive or opposing action of incompatibles: antagonistic state or action (as of divergent ideas, interests, or persons). (from Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)
A set of cognitive functions that controls complex, goal-directed thought and behavior. Executive function involves multiple domains, such as CONCEPT FORMATION, goal management, cognitive flexibility, INHIBITION control, and WORKING MEMORY. Impaired executive function is seen in a range of disorders, e.g., SCHIZOPHRENIA; and ADHD.
Analysis of Variance
A family of conserved cell surface receptors that contain EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR repeats in their extracellular domain and ANKYRIN repeats in their cytoplasmic domains. The cytoplasmic domain of notch receptors is released upon ligand binding and translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS where it acts as transcription factor.
A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)
Image Processing, Computer-Assisted
A diverse class of enzymes that interact with UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES and ubiquitination-specific protein substrates. Each member of this enzyme group has its own distinct specificity for a substrate and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Ubiquitin-protein ligases exist as both monomeric proteins multiprotein complexes.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The study of systems which respond disproportionately (nonlinearly) to initial conditions or perturbing stimuli. Nonlinear systems may exhibit "chaos" which is classically characterized as sensitive dependence on initial conditions. Chaotic systems, while distinguished from more ordered periodic systems, are not random. When their behavior over time is appropriately displayed (in "phase space"), constraints are evident which are described by "strange attractors". Phase space representations of chaotic systems, or strange attractors, usually reveal fractal (FRACTALS) self-similarity across time scales. Natural, including biological, systems often display nonlinear dynamics and chaos.
Pattern Recognition, Visual
Interviews as Topic
Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
A set of beliefs concerning the nature, cause, and purpose of the universe, especially when considered as the creation of a superhuman agency. It usually involves devotional and ritual observances and often a moral code for the conduct of human affairs. (Random House Collegiate Dictionary, rev. ed.)
Task Performance and Analysis
The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)
Data Interpretation, Statistical
A state of consciousness in which the individual eliminates environmental stimuli from awareness so that the mind can focus on a single thing, producing a state of relaxation and relief from stress. A wide variety of techniques are used to clear the mind of stressful outside interferences. It includes meditation therapy. (Mosby's Medical, Nursing, and Allied Health Dictionary, 4th ed)
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known negative charge, present in all elements; also called negatrons. Positively charged electrons are called positrons. The numbers, energies and arrangement of electrons around atomic nuclei determine the chemical identities of elements. Beams of electrons are called CATHODE RAYS.
The state that distinguishes organisms from inorganic matter, manifested by growth, metabolism, reproduction, and adaptation. It includes the course of existence, the sum of experiences, the mode of existing, or the fact of being. Over the centuries inquiries into the nature of life have crossed the boundaries from philosophy to biology, forensic medicine, anthropology, etc., in creative as well as scientific literature. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed; Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)
Molecular Sequence Data
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Cell Cycle Proteins
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
Overlapping and non-overlapping brain regions for theory of mind and self reflection in individual subjects. (1/183)(+info)
Developmental changes in the neural basis of interpreting communicative intent. (2/183)(+info)
Studying mind and brain with fMRI. (3/183)(+info)
Attending to the present: mindfulness meditation reveals distinct neural modes of self-reference. (4/183)(+info)
Distinct regions of medial rostral prefrontal cortex supporting social and nonsocial functions. (5/183)(+info)
Mentalizing under uncertainty: dissociated neural responses to ambiguous and unambiguous mental state inferences. (6/183)(+info)
Language promotes false-belief understanding: evidence from learners of a new sign language. (7/183)(+info)
Neural correlates of observing pretend play in which one object is represented as another. (8/183)(+info)
Mentalization - Wikipedia
Mentalize redirects here. For the second solo album of Brazilian vocalist/pianist Andre Matos, see Mentalize (album). In psychology, mentalization is the ability to understand the mental state, of oneself or others, that underlies overt behaviour. Mentalization can be seen as a form of imaginative mental activity that lets us perceive and interpret human behaviour in terms of intentional mental states (e.g., needs, desires, feelings, beliefs, goals, purposes, and reasons). It is sometimes described as understanding misunderstanding. Another term that David Wallin has used for mentalization is Thinking about thinking. Mentalization can occur either automatically or consciously. Mentalization ability, or mentalizing, is weakened by intense emotion. While the Theory of Mind has been discussed in philosophy at least since Descartes, the concept of mentalization emerged in psychoanalytic literature in the late 1960s, and became empirically tested in 1983 when Heinz Wimmer and Josef Perner ran the ...
Frontiers | Theory-of-mind in individuals with Alström syndrome is related to executive functions, and verbal ability |...
Objective: This study focuses on cognitive prerequisites for the development of Theory-of-mind (ToM), the ability to impute mental states to self and others in young adults with Alström syndrome (AS). AS is a recessively inherited ciliopathic disorder causing progressive hearing loss and juvenile blindness, both of which affect communication, as well as other dysfunctions. Two cognitive abilities were considered; Phonological working memory and Executive functions (EF), both of importance in speech development . Methods: Ten individuals (18-37 years) with AS, and 20 nondisabled individuals matched for age, gender and educational level participated. Sensory functions were measured. Information about motor functions and communicative skills was obtained from questionnaire data. ToM was assessed using Happés strange stories, verbal ability by a vocabulary test, phonological WM by an auditory presented serial-recall task and EF by tests of updating and inhibition. Results: The AS group performed
Beyond diagnosis: Mentalization and mental health from a transdiagnostic point of view in adolescents from non-clinical...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Beyond diagnosis: Mentalization and mental health from a transdiagnostic point of view in adolescents from non-clinical population. AU - Ballespí, Sergi. AU - Vives, Jaume. AU - Debbané, Martin. AU - Sharp, Carla. AU - Barrantes-Vidal, Neus. PY - 2018/12/1. Y1 - 2018/12/1. N2 - © 2018 An increasing volume of evidence suggests that mentalization (MZ) can be an important factor in the transition from mental health to mental illness and vice versa. However, most studies are focused on the role of MZ in specific disorders. This study aims to evaluate the relationship between MZ and mental health as a trans-diagnostic process. A sample of 172 adolescents aged 12 to 18 years old (M = 14.6, SD = 1.7; 56.4% of girls) was assessed on measures of MZ, psychopathology and psychological functioning from a multimethod and multi-informant perspective. Contrary to predictions, MZ was not associated with general psychopathology and comorbidity, even when explored from a broad, trans-diagnostic ...
Disconnection mechanism and regional cortical atrophy contribute to impaired processing of facial expressions and theory of...
Successful socialization requires the ability of understanding of others mental states. This ability called as mentalization (Theory of Mind) may become deficient and contribute to everyday life difficulties in multiple sclerosis. We aimed to explore the impact of brain pathology on mentalization performance in multiple sclerosis. Mentalization performance of 49 patients with multiple sclerosis was compared to 24 age- and gender matched healthy controls. T1- and T2-weighted three-dimensional brain MRI images were acquired at 3Tesla from patients with multiple sclerosis and 18 gender- and age matched healthy controls. We assessed overall brain cortical thickness in patients with multiple sclerosis and the scanned healthy controls, and measured the total and regional T1 and T2 white matter lesion volumes in patients with multiple sclerosis. Performances in tests of recognition of mental states and emotions from facial expressions and eye gazes correlated with both total T1-lesion load and ...
Brain Activity Dissociates Mentalization from Motivation During an Interpersonal Competitive Game | SpringerLink
Studies demonstrating selective brain networks subserving motivation and mentalization (i.e. attributing states of mind to others) during social interactions have not investigated their mutual indepen
Isolated theory of mind deficits and risk for frontotemporal dementia: a longitudinal pilot study | Journal of Neurology,...
Methods A population of healthy subjects (n=4150, age range: 50-60 years) completed a clinical and neuropsychological evaluation including the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET), a widely used ToM task. From this group, we recruited a low-RMET group (n=83) including subjects with RMET scores lower than 2 SDs but an otherwise normal neuropsychological evaluation and a control group. All subjects underwent evaluation at baseline and after 2 years.. ...
Examining the role of memory in social cognition | Frontiers Research Topic
The function of memory is not only to recall the past, but also to form and update models of our experiences and use these models to navigate the world. Perhaps the most complex environment for humans to navigate is the social one. Social dynamics are extraordinarily complex, unstructured, labile and difficult to predict. However, successful navigation of the social world is essential to forming and maintaining interpersonal relationships. Little research has examined the role that memory plays in social behavior and interpersonal sensitivity. There is growing evidence that recalling personally experienced events (autobiographical memory) and inferring the mental states of others (mentalizing or theory-of-mind) share an extensive functional neuroanatomy. The functional overlap between autobiographical memory and mental inference has been hypothesized to facilitate the integration of personal and interpersonal information. This integration may provide a means for personal experiences to become social
Most recent papers in the journal Communicative & Integrative Biology | Read by QxMD
Using a novel eye-tracking test, we recently showed that great apes anticipate that other individuals will act according to false beliefs. This finding suggests that, like humans, great apes understand others false beliefs, at least in an implicit way. One key question raised by our study is why apes have passed our tests but not previous ones. In this article, we consider this question by detailing the development of our task. We considered 3 major differences in our task compared with the previous ones. First, we monitored apes eye movements, and specifically their anticipatory looks, to measure their predictions about how agents will behave ...
What gets the attention of the temporo-parietal junction? An fMRI investigation of attention and theory of mind
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have demonstrated a critical role for a cortical region in the right temporo-parietal junction (RTPJ) in theory of mind (ToM), or mental state reasoning. In other research, the RTPJ has been implicated in the deployment of attention to an unexpe …
Fonagy Péter - Wikipédia
Fő kutatási területe a fejlődési pszichopatológiák vizsgálata, különösen a kötődés és a mentalizáció perspektívájából. Ezen kívül a pszichoszociális kezelések és terápiák hatékonyságát vizsgálja. A mentalizáció fogalmát Fonagy használta először, majd mentális betegségekkel, különösen a borderline személyiség zavarral kapcsolatban kezdte el vizsgálni. Anthony Batemannel együtt dolgozták ki a „Mentalizáción alapuló kezelést (Mentalization Based Treatment; MBT). Ez egy pszichodinamikus pszichoterápiát, ami a borderline személyiség zavar kezelését célozza meg. A díjat nyert könyvükben (Affect Regulation, Mentalization, and the Development of the Self) részletesen foglalkoznak a mentalizációval, érzelem szabályozással. Fonagy az Anna Freud Centrumban oktatja is az MBT-t. ...
ATTACH Project Pilot Studies: Phase 1 and 2 | Child Studies
This study is a Community Based Public Health Care Initiative to promote the healthy development of children exposed to toxic stress transferred over by their parents/caregivers suffering from mental illness, addictions to substances of abuse, or domestic violence--are less able to respond sensitively and appropriately to meet the needs of their developing infants.. Specifically, the Action Team on Triadic Attachment and Child Health (ATTACH) Intervention is a brief supportive psycho-dynamically informed individual AND triadic parenting psychotherapeutic program that fosters a process of maternal RF. The content is designed to help the parent develop his/her mind and the emphasis is on the development of the capacity for mentalizing. In other words, the intervention helps to develop the capacity to think about mental states (thoughts, feelings, and intentions) and to consider how ones own mental states might affect others, and how others mental states might have an impact on oneself. The ...
Inferences about mental states | Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
If we mentalize about each other by imagining ourselves experiencing an event as another person and then predicting our own mental states in that situation, how do we make reasonable predictions about our hypothetical thoughts and feelings in the first place? To use ourselves as a proxy for others mental states, we must not only be able to imagine ourselves as another person but also be able to simulate richly enough to provoke in us a concomitant set of feelings and thoughts. That is, we must first conjure up the actual feeling states that accompany a particular experience or think the thoughts that might arise in a given scenario before we can proceed to extend those simulated feelings and thoughts to another person.. Surprisingly little cognitive work has addressed the question of how humans predict their own mental states, despite reasonable arguments that this skill represents an important line separating human cognition from the mental systems of other primates (Gilbert 2007). Do ...
Social cognition in violent and sexual offending: an overview: Ingenta Connect
The main aim of this review is to provide a broad overview of social-cognitive theory and research applied to violent and sexual offending behaviour. The review suggests that there is some variation in the adoption of social-cognitive theory and methods to differing offending behaviours. The violent offending literature, for example, has many examples of novel social-cognitive research methods used to examine the cognitions of highly aggressive men while the child sexual offending literature has very few examples of such social-cognitive techniques. The advantages of adopting a social-cognitive perspective to differing offending behaviours is examined and discussed alongside suggestions for future research in the social-cognitive domain ...
Conceptual Role Semantics by Ned...
One major motivation for CRS is a functionalist (q.v.) approach to the mind generally. Functionalism says that what makes a state a mental state is the role it plays in interacting with other mental states in a creatures psychology. This gives rise to a weak form of CRS: a state is meaningful (i.e. hassome meaning or other) by virtue of the fact that it plays a certain role in a persons psychology. This form offers a reply to theories that insist a mind requires something more. for example, Searle (1980) has argued that computers cannot understand language in virtue of their programs or, more generally, by manipulating symbols in a certain way. He rests his case on a thought experiment, the Chinese Room (q.v.), in which a monolingual English speaker manipulates Chinese symbols by following rules that dont require him to understand the meanings of the symbols he is manipulating. The rules are so devised that he produces sensible responses in Chinese to any Chinese inputs. Searle says that ...
slow mind - Symptoms, Treatments and Resources for slow mind
slow mind - MedHelps slow mind Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for slow mind. Find slow mind information, treatments for slow mind and slow mind symptoms.
Truth of Mind Power: Mind Power Fully Healed Breast Cancer
Whilst she attended a series of mind power seminars and took mind power treatments twice a week, she realised the improvement in her body. Her ascites dramatically disappeared, her tumour maker that had been moving upward levelled off and finally declined. That was so incredible that her doctor published a paper in a medical journal as a case of natural degeneration of cancer. She was convinced that mind power would be going to heal her cancer completely. Thus, she followed pieces of advice from Ms. Nonaka telling that forgetting own illness is the best medicine and healing someone heals own illness. Accordingly, she dedicated to heal other patients. As her tumour maker remained the average, her struggle agains cancer came to the end. Her doctor was also sure that mind power fully healed her cancer, recommending her to inform the truth to other people waiting for the power. ...
MindfulMonday - Working Consciously with your Chattering Mind and Nervous System
The communication between your Chattering Mind and nervous system is essential to your survival. It keeps you alert and safe.. As a safety feature your Chattering Mind tends to be based on critical, fearful and doubting thoughts and beliefs. And these thoughts become habitual, tending to loop over and over again throughout your day.. Much like the looping quality of your Chattering Mind, your nervous system and brain keep looping information back and forth. So when you send a fear-based message through thought to your brain, your brain then sends information to the flight or fight system to kick on.. When you are unaware of this process, your Chattering Mind, brain and nervous system keep looping fear back and forth throughout your being. When this happens you begin to experience and see the world through this stressed state of your mind and body.. When you are not mindful of your own internal chatter, the above loop tends to be a default setting, to one degree or another, in all your ...
Mind meld | Memory Beta, non-canon Star Trek Wiki | Fandom
See also Mind Meld, a TOS novel The Vulcan mind meld (or mind touch) was a telepathic technique employed exclusively by Vulcans in which the minds of two individuals become a single entity. In the Vulcan language, it was known as taroon-ifla. (TOS episode: "Dagger of the Mind", Last Unicorn RPG...
Mind Mapping Goes 3-D With Personal Brain | Applications | TechNewsWorld
Mind mapping, for the uninitiated, is a visual method for organizing ideas -- a sort of project management tool for the mind. It often involves lots of thoughts in bubbles connected by lines. The language used to describe the elements of a mind map parallels that used by software outliners, except mind maps dont have the rigid vertical form outlines have. Mind maps have an air of horizontal chaos about them.