Purinergic P1 Receptor Antagonists
Lung Diseases, Obstructive
Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A2
Five caffeine metabolite ratios to measure tobacco-induced CYP1A2 activity and their relationships with urinary mutagenicity and urine flow. (1/2044)To choose a sensitive protocol to discriminate populations exposed and not exposed to inducers, five urinary metabolite ratios (MRs) [MR1 (17X + 17U)/137X, MR2 (5-acetylamino-6-formylamino-3-methyluracil [AFMU] + 1X + 1U)/17U, MR3 (17X/137X), MR4 (AFMU + 1X + 1U + 17X + 17U)/137X, and MR5 (AFMU + 1X + 1U)/17X] were calculated in 4-5 h and 0-24 h urine samples after caffeine intake. One hundred twenty-five healthy volunteers (59 nonsmokers and 66 smokers) were included in the study. All ratios showed a log-normal distribution. MR2 in the two time intervals was the only ratio nondependent on the urine flow. Differences between nonsmokers and smokers could be detected with all ratios at 4-5 h. However, only MR2 and, to a lesser extent, MR5 allowed the discrimination of higher cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) activity in smokers in the 0-24 h sample. Although smokers had increased urinary mutagenicity in relation to nonsmokers, a significant association between MRs and urine mutagenicity was observed only with MR2 in the 4-5 h interval; this ratio/time schedule being that of higher association with tobacco consumption. The most flow-dependent ratios, MR1, MR3, and MR4, were closely correlated with each other at the two intervals. The flow dependency profile of each ratio may explain their different power to indicate both tobacco exposure and tobacco-derived mutagenicity. In conclusion, MR2 in the period of 4-5 h after caffeine intake seems preferable, especially at high urine flow rates. (+info)
The role of free serum tryptophan in the biphasic effect of acute ethanol administration on the concentrations of rat brain tryptophan, 5-hydroxytryptamine and 5-hydroxyindol-3-ylacetic acid. (2/2044)1. Acute administration of ethanol exerts a biphasic effect on the concentrations of rat brain tryptophan, 5-hydroxytryptamine and 5-hydroxyindol-3-ylacetic acid. Both effects are associated with corresponding changes in the availability of circulating free tryptophan. 2. The initial increases in the above concentrations are prevented by ergotamine, are unaltered by allopurinol and are potentiated by theophylline, whereas the later decreases are prevented by both ergotamine and allopurinol. 3. It is suggested that the initial enhancement by ethanol of brain tryptophan metabolism is caused by catecholamine-mediated lipolysis followed by displacement of protein-bound serum tryptophan, whereas the activation of liver tryptophaan pyrrolase, which is produced by the same mechanism, leads to the later decreases in the brain concentrations of tryptophan and its metabolites. 4. The initial effects of ethanol can be reproduced by an equicaloric dose of sucrose, and a comparison of the two treatments alone could therefore be misleading. 5. The effects of ethanol on liver and brain tryptophan metabolism have also been examined in mice, and a comparison of the results with those previously reported suggests that the ethanol effects are strain-dependent. (+info)
Engineering precision RNA molecular switches. (3/2044)Ligand-specific molecular switches composed of RNA were created by coupling preexisting catalytic and receptor domains via structural bridges. Binding of ligand to the receptor triggers a conformational change within the bridge, and this structural reorganization dictates the activity of the adjoining ribozyme. The modular nature of these tripartite constructs makes possible the rapid construction of precision RNA molecular switches that trigger only in the presence of their corresponding ligand. By using similar enzyme engineering strategies, new RNA switches can be made to operate as designer molecular sensors or as a new class of genetic control elements. (+info)
Effect of gemfibrozil in vitro on fat-mobilizing lipolysis in human adipose tissue. (4/2044)Fat-mobilizing lipolysis was studied in rat and human adipose tissue during incubation in vitro by following the release of glycerol into the incubation medium. Gemfibrozil as well as clofibrate consistently and readily inhibited basal as well as noradrenaline-stimulated fat-mobilizing lipolysis in rat fat. With human adipose tissue no effect was observed with gemfibrozil and clofibrate on basal lipolysis. This may be due to the comparatively low rate of the nonstimulated fat-mobilizing lipolysis in human tissue incubated in vitro. When lipolysis was stimulated with noradrenaline as well as isoprenaline, however, both gemfibrozil and clofibrate significantly reduced the fat-mobilizing lipolysis. This inhibition of lipolysis was however not observed in all studies. When lipolysis had been stimulated with theophylline, no inhibition of lipolysis was obtained with either compound. The possibility that reduced fat-mobilizing lipolysis in adipose tissue may cause a lowering of plasma triglycerides by reducing the flow of FFA to the liver is discussed in some detail. It is also suggested that inhibition of lipolysis may be accompanied by increased activity of lipoprotein lipase as well as an increase in the FIAT process. However, the pharmacological implication of the above-mentioned findings, particularly for gemfibrozil, must await further studies, as fairly large doses, around 1 mg/ml of incubation medium, were needed to obtain inhibition of fat-mobilizing lipolysis. (+info)
A2B adenosine receptors mediate relaxation of the pig intravesical ureter: adenosine modulation of non adrenergic non cholinergic excitatory neurotransmission. (5/2044)1. The present study was designed to characterize the adenosine receptors involved in the relaxation of the pig intravesical ureter, and to investigate the action of adenosine on the non adrenergic non cholinergic (NANC) excitatory ureteral neurotransmission. 2. In U46619 (10(-7) M)-contracted strips treated with the adenosine uptake inhibitor, nitrobenzylthioinosine (NBTI, 10(-6) M), adenosine and related analogues induced relaxations with the following potency order: 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA) = 5'-(N-cyclopropyl)-carboxamidoadenosine (CPCA) = 2-chloroadenosine (2-CA) > adenosine > cyclopentyladenosine (CPA) = N6-(3-iodobenzyl)-adenosine-5'-N-methylcarboxamide (IB-MECA) = 2-[p-(carboxyethyl)-phenylethylamino]-5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoaden os ine (CGS21680). 3. Epithelium removal or incubation with indomethacin (3 x 10(-6) M) and L-N(G)-nitroarginine (L-NOARG, 3 x 10(-5) M), inhibitors of prostanoids and nitric oxide (NO) synthase, respectively, failed to modify the relaxations to adenosine. 4. 1,3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine (DPCPX, 10(-8) M) and 4-(2-[7-amino-2-(2-furyl) [1,2,4]-triazolo[2,3-a][1,3,5]triazin-5-ylamino]ethyl)phenol (ZM 241385, 3 x 10(-8) M and 10(-7) M), A1 and A2A receptor selective antagonists, respectively, did not modify the relaxations to adenosine or NECA. 8-phenyltheophylline (8-PT, 10(-5) M) and DPCPX (10(-6) M), which block A1/A2-receptors, reduced such relaxations. 5. In strips treated with guanethidine (10(-5) M), atropine (10(-7) M), L-NOARG (3 x 10(-5) M) and indomethacin (3 x 10(-6) M), both electrical field stimulation (EFS, 5 Hz) and exogenous ATP (10(-4) M) induced contractions of preparations. 8-PT (10(-5) M) increased both contractions. DPCPX (10(-8) M), NECA (10(-4) M), CPCA, (10(-4) M) and 2-CA (10(-4) M) did not alter the contractions to EFS. 6. The present results suggest that adenosine relaxes the pig intravesical ureter, independently of prostanoids or NO, through activation of A2B-receptors located in the smooth muscle. This relaxation may modulate the ureteral NANC excitatory neurotransmission through a postsynaptic mechanism. (+info)
First treatment with inhaled corticosteroids and the prevention of admissions to hospital for asthma. (6/2044)BACKGROUND: Early treatment with inhaled corticosteroids appears to improve clinical symptoms in asthma. Whether a first treatment initiated in the year following the recognition of asthma can prevent major outcomes such as admission to hospital has yet to be studied. METHODS: A case-control study nested within a cohort of 13,563 newly treated asthmatic subjects selected from the databases of Saskatchewan Health (1977-1993) was undertaken to investigate the effectiveness of a first treatment with inhaled corticosteroids in preventing admissions to hospital for asthma. Study subjects were aged between five and 44 years at cohort entry. First time users of inhaled corticosteroids were compared with first time users of theophylline for a maximum of 12 months of treatment. The two treatments under study were further classified into initial and subsequent therapy to minimize selection bias and confounding by indication. Odds ratios associated with hospital admissions for asthma were estimated using conditional logistic regression. Markers of asthma severity, as well as age and sex, were considered as potential confounders. RESULTS: Three hundred and three patients admitted to hospital with asthma were identified and 2636 matched controls were selected. subjects initially treated with regular inhaled corticosteroids were 40% less likely to be admitted to hospital for asthma than regular users of theophylline (odds ratio 0.6; 95% CI 0.4 to 1.0). The odds ratio decreased to 0.2 (95% CI 0.1 to 0.5) when inhaled corticosteroids and theophylline were given subsequently. CONCLUSION: The first regular treatment with inhaled corticosteroids initiated in the year following the recognition of asthma can reduce the risk of admission to hospital for asthma by up to 80% compared with regular treatment with theophylline. This is probably due, at least in part, to reducing the likelihood of a worsening in the severity of asthma. (+info)
Evidence of hypoxic areas within the arterial wall in vivo. (7/2044)The anoxemia theory of atherosclerosis states that an imbalance between the demand and supply of oxygen in the arterial wall is a key factor for the development of atherosclerotic lesions. Direct in vitro and in situ measurements have shown that PO2 is decreased in the more deeply situated parts of the media, but the degree of hypoxia in vivo or the distribution of hypoxia along the arterial tree is not known. For this reason, we have developed a method for the detection of hypoxia in the arterial wall in vivo by using a hypoxia marker, 7-(4'-(2-nitroimidazol-1-yl)-butyl)-theophylline, that may be visualized by immunofluorescence. In the present study, we have used this method in rabbits with experimentally induced atherosclerosis. Our results indicate that zones of hypoxia occur at depth in the atherosclerotic plaque. The mechanism was probably an impaired oxygen diffusion capacity due to the thickness of the lesion, together with high oxygen consumption by the foam cells. Thus, we have for the first time demonstrated that hypoxia actually does exist in the arterial wall in vivo, lending support to the anoxemia theory of atherosclerosis. (+info)
A bioluminescence method for the mapping of local ATP concentrations within the arterial wall, with potential to assess the in vivo situation. (8/2044)According to the anoxemia theory of atherosclerosis, an imbalance between the demand for and supply of oxygen and nutrients in the arterial wall is a key factor in atherogenesis. However, the energy metabolic state of the arterial tissue in vivo is largely unknown. We applied a bioluminescence method, metabolic imaging, to study local ATP concentrations in cryosections of normal pig and atherosclerotic and normal rabbit aorta. Some vessels were subjected to energy metabolic restrictions by incubation at different oxygen and glucose concentrations and others were rapidly frozen in liquid nitrogen to reflect the in vivo situation. Local ATP concentrations and the ATP distribution at a microscale was dependent on oxygen as well as glucose concentrations during incubation. ATP depletion was seen in the mid media of pig aorta in all incubations, but only at low oxygen concentration without glucose in the media of the thinner rabbit aorta. ATP-depleted zones were seen deep in pig media (>750 microm from the lumen) and in rabbit plaques (>300 micrometer+ from the lumen) even at high oxygen (pig 75% O2 and rabbit 21% O2) and glucose concentrations (5.6 mmol/L glucose). This observation probably illustrates an insufficient diffusion of glucose, which highlights the importance of studying the conditions for diffusion not only of oxygen but also of other metabolites in the arterial wall. In rapidly frozen vessels the medial ATP concentration was shown to be 0.6 to 0.8 micromol/g wet weight (both pig and rabbit aorta) and in pig aorta a gradient could be seen indicating higher ATP concentrations at the lumenal side. We propose that metabolic imaging, as applied to snap-frozen tissue, may be used to assess the energy metabolic situation in the arterial wall in vivo. The spatial resolution allows the detection of local variations within the arterial tree. However, steep concentration gradients (eg, near the border of the tissue) will be underestimated. The method may be extended to include determinations of glucose and lactate concentrations and will be used in parallel with an established method to assess hypoxia in the arterial wall in vivo. (+info)
There are several types of lung diseases that are classified as obstructive, including:
1. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): This is a progressive condition that makes it hard to breathe and can cause long-term disability and even death. COPD is caused by damage to the lungs, usually from smoking or exposure to other forms of pollution.
2. Emphysema: This is a condition where the air sacs in the lungs are damaged and cannot properly expand and contract. This can cause shortness of breath and can lead to respiratory failure.
3. Chronic bronchitis: This is a condition where the airways in the lungs become inflamed and narrowed, making it harder to breathe.
4. Asthma: This is a condition where the airways in the lungs become inflamed and narrowed, causing wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath.
5. Bronchiectasis: This is a condition where the airways in the lungs become damaged and widened, leading to thickening of the walls of the airways and chronic infection.
6. Pulmonary fibrosis: This is a condition where the lung tissue becomes scarred and stiff, making it harder to breathe.
7. Lung cancer: This is a malignant tumor that can occur in the lungs and can cause breathing difficulties and other symptoms.
These diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, including smoking, exposure to air pollution, genetics, and certain occupations or environments. Treatment for obstructive lung diseases may include medications, such as bronchodilators and corticosteroids, and lifestyle changes, such as quitting smoking and avoiding exposure to pollutants. In severe cases, surgery or lung transplantation may be necessary.
It's important to note that these diseases can have similar symptoms, so it's important to see a doctor if you experience any persistent breathing difficulties or other symptoms. A proper diagnosis and treatment plan can help manage the condition and improve quality of life.
Asthma can cause recurring episodes of wheezing, coughing, chest tightness, and shortness of breath. These symptoms occur when the muscles surrounding the airways contract, causing the airways to narrow and swell. This can be triggered by exposure to environmental allergens or irritants such as pollen, dust mites, pet dander, or respiratory infections.
There is no cure for asthma, but it can be managed with medication and lifestyle changes. Treatment typically includes inhaled corticosteroids to reduce inflammation, bronchodilators to open up the airways, and rescue medications to relieve symptoms during an asthma attack.
Asthma is a common condition that affects people of all ages, but it is most commonly diagnosed in children. According to the American Lung Association, more than 25 million Americans have asthma, and it is the third leading cause of hospitalization for children under the age of 18.
While there is no cure for asthma, early diagnosis and proper treatment can help manage symptoms and improve quality of life for those affected by the condition.
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Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Theophylline1
- NTP Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Theophylline (CAS No. 58-55-9) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Feed and Gavage Studies). (nih.gov)
- In general, maintaining peak serum theophylline concentrations between 10 and 15 mcg/mL will achieve most of the drug's potential therapeutic benefit while minimizing the risk of serious adverse events. (nih.gov)
- It is, therefore, recommended that serum theophylline concentrations be measured frequently in acutely ill patients (e.g., at 24-hour intervals) and periodically in patients receiving long-term therapy, e.g., at 6-12 month intervals. (nih.gov)
- however, keep maternal serum concentrations in the lower part of the therapeutic range and monitor the infant for signs of theophylline side effects. (nih.gov)
- Infant serum theophylline concentrations can help to determine if signs of agitation are due to theophylline. (nih.gov)
- This effect occurs at theophylline concentrations in the 5-10 mg/L range, which is below the broncho-dilator range (10-15 mg/L) and carries a relatively low risk of toxicity. (bournemouth.ac.uk)
- Twelve subjects were given oral doses of theophylline then serum concentrations were measured at 11 time points over the next 25 hours. (rdrr.io)
- Theophylline concentrations in plasma were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. (rug.nl)
- No influence of co-trimoxazole on the rate of elimination and volume of distribution of theophylline could be found, as a result of which theophylline concentrations in plasma were not significantly different in both periods of drug administration. (rug.nl)
- Serum theophylline concentrations were estimated after 2, 4, 6, 8 hours of drug administration and it was calculated from log conc: time curve. (who.int)
- Using the diffuse reflection light source L16462-01 and Hamamatsu's near-infrared spectrometer FTIR engine, theophylline was quantitatively measured by PLS regression analysis* 2 in 6 types of tablets including different theophylline concentrations. (hamamatsu.com)
Pharmacokinetics of theophylline4
- The pharmacokinetics of theophylline vary widely among similar patients and cannot be predicted by age, sex, body weight or other demographic characteristics. (nih.gov)
- data frame has 132 rows and 5 columns of data from an experiment on the pharmacokinetics of theophylline. (rdrr.io)
- In an open cross-over experiment, the influence of the antimicrobial agent co-trimoxazole on the single-dose pharmacokinetics of theophylline was studied in six healthy adults by comparing the pharmacokinetic parameters found after intravenous administration of theophylline without and with co-medication of co-trimoxazole for the previous 8 d. (rug.nl)
- A similar lack of influence of co-trimoxazole may apply to the steady-state pharmacokinetics of theophylline. (rug.nl)
- Combination may cause theophylline toxicity. (rxlist.com)
- Concomitant use of theophylline and ciprofloxacin has decreased theophylline clearance and increased plasma levels and symptoms of toxicity. (rxlist.com)
- Fisher J, Graudins A. Intermittent haemodialysis and sustained low-efficiency dialysis (SLED) for acute theophylline toxicity. (medscape.com)
- Seneff M, Scott J, Friedman B, Smith M. Acute theophylline toxicity and the use of esmolol to reverse cardiovascular instability. (medscape.com)
- Kearney TE, Manoguerra AS, Curtis GP, Ziegler MG. Theophylline toxicity and the beta-adrenergic system. (medscape.com)
- Genetic Toxicity Evaluation of Theophylline in Salmonella/E.coli Mutagenicity Test or Ames Test. (nih.gov)
- Severe theophylline toxicity requiring haemodialysis accounts for approximately one-third of drug toxicity cases admitted to the Livingstone Tertiary Hospital (LTH) intensive care unit (ICU) in Gqeberha, South Africa , imposing a significant resource burden.Objectives. (bvsalud.org)
- To investigate the characteristics and burden of severe theophylline toxicity in an Eastern Cape Province tertiary hospital adult ICU. (bvsalud.org)
- A retrospective review of all severe theophylline toxicity admissions to the ICU from 1 January 2013 to 31 December 2018 was conducted. (bvsalud.org)
- Severe theophylline toxicity , usually in the context of deliberate self -harm, is a preventable yet life -threatening toxicity encountered at LTH. (bvsalud.org)
- The need for ICU admission and dialysis , both limited resources , makes the treatment of severe theophylline toxicity costly. (bvsalud.org)
- Further studies of the underlying psychosocial drivers, local prescribing practices and preventive interventions related to severe theophylline toxicity are required. (bvsalud.org)
Different during theop1
- Exercise performance was no different during theophylline or placebo phases of the study. (nih.gov)
Status of Theophylline1
- The status of theophylline loss of theophylline nasal spray uk. (kaleidas.com)
Effect of theophylline4
- ciprofloxacin otic will increase the level or effect of theophylline oral by altering drug metabolism. (rxlist.com)
- ciprofloxacin otic will increase the level or effect of theophylline oral by affecting hepatic enzyme CYP1A2 metabolism. (rxlist.com)
- Effect of theophylline and enprofylline on bronchial hyperresponsiveness. (nih.gov)
- Potential for a Beneficial Effect of Theophylline on Extended Acute Inflammation: Review. (bournemouth.ac.uk)
Conclude that theophylline2
- Avoiding breastfeeding for 2 hours after intravenous or 4 hours after an immediate-release oral theophylline product can decrease the dose received by the breastfed infant. (nih.gov)
- When theophylline is given as an oral sustained-release product, timing of nursing with respect to the dose is of little or no benefit. (nih.gov)
- We hypothesize that low-dose theophylline treatment given to elderly subjects with acute inflammation, for example due to pneumonia, septicaemia or trauma, will alter the balance of their inflammatory status from an inappropriately extended pro-inflammatory pattern toward a more normalized baseline pattern and thereby reduce the risk of adverse clinical outcomes. (bournemouth.ac.uk)
- dose of theophylline administered orally to the subject (mg/kg). (rdrr.io)
- Theophylline dose for academic colleagues as safe as a chain of test buys between 2008 and customary price. (kaleidas.com)
- Uncoated theophylline tablet (200 mg, 300 mg dose 5 mg/kg approx) was administered orally to each asthma patient after 12 hours overnight fasting. (who.int)
- This scoping review identified the need for future research including theophylline versus other medications deemed alternative therapies for asthma and COPD , meta-analyses of low- dose theophylline , and studies evaluating evidence-based patient -oriented outcomes for OSA, hypoxia , ventilator -induced diaphragmatic dysfunction, and spinal cord injury -related pulmonary function. (bvsalud.org)
- Theophylline is used to prevent and treat wheezing, shortness of breath, and chest tightness caused by asthma, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and other lung diseases. (medlineplus.gov)
- Theophylline controls symptoms of asthma and other lung diseases but does not cure them. (medlineplus.gov)
- Aminophylline and theophylline are medicines used to treat lung diseases such as asthma. (nih.gov)
- Theophylline is widely used in therapy of asthma and is not believed to cause liver injury. (nih.gov)
- IMSEAR at SEARO: Theophylline clearance in undernourished asthma patients. (who.int)
- Therefore, we studied theophylline clearance in 12 undernourished [body mass index (BMI) less than 19] and 12 well nourished asthma patients (body mass index more than 19). (who.int)
- Undernourished asthma patients had a mean theophylline clearance of 85.6 (SE = 6.2) ml/hr/kg while it was 125.6 (SE = 3.8) ml/hr/kg in well-nourished asthma patients. (who.int)
- Theophylline is an oral methylxanthine bronchodilator recommended as alternate therapy for the treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ( COPD ). (bvsalud.org)
- Quibron-T (Theophylline) is a bronchodilator used to treat the symptoms of asthma, chronic bronchitis, and emphysema. (us.org)
- Cigarette smoking may decrease the effectiveness of theophylline. (medlineplus.gov)
- In addition, certain concurrent illnesses and alterations in normal physiology (see Table I ) and co-administration of other drugs (see Table II ) can significantly alter the pharmacokinetic characteristics of theophylline. (nih.gov)
- More frequent measurements should be made in the presence of any condition that may significantly alter theophylline clearance (see PRECAUTIONS, Laboratory tests ). (nih.gov)
- Theophylline significantly improved gas exchange during rest, exercise, and sleep. (nih.gov)
- Sleep quality, however, was significantly impaired on theophylline. (nih.gov)
- While the mechanisms of action of theophylline are not known with certainty, studies in animals suggest that bronchodilatation is mediated by the inhibition of two isozymes of phosphodiesterase (PDE III and, to a lesser extent, PDE IV) while non-bronchodilator prophylactic actions are probably mediated through one or more different molecular mechanisms, that do not involve inhibition of PDE III or antagonism of adenosine receptors. (nih.gov)
- The three types of prescription bronchodilator drugs are β2-agonists (short- and long-acting), anticholinergics (short-acting), and theophylline (long-acting). (wikidoc.org)
- Guarana also contains theophylline and theobromine, which are chemicals similar to caffeine. (nih.gov)
- The ordering is by increasing maximum concentration of theophylline observed. (rdrr.io)
- theophylline concentration in the sample (mg/L). (rdrr.io)
- In two wavelength ranges, 1100 nm to 2000 nm and 2000 nm to 2500 nm, using a commercial light source and Hamamatsu's diffuse reflection light source L16462-01, each theophylline concentration was measured by PLS regression analysis and accuracy was predicted as described above. (hamamatsu.com)
- Theophylline and selective PDE inhibitors as bronchodilators and smooth muscle relaxants. (nih.gov)
- Coadministration of nonspecific PDE-5 inhibitors (eg, dipyridamole, theophylline) and guanylate cyclase stimulators (eg, riociguat) is contraindicated due to risk of additive hypotension. (medscape.com)
- tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to theophylline, any other medications, or any of the ingredients in theophylline preparations. (medlineplus.gov)
- Many other medications may also interact with theophylline, so be sure to tell your doctor about all the medications you are taking, even those that do not appear on this list. (medlineplus.gov)
- Theophylline level of bahrain brings a civilian sector would the door, online or over-the-counter british researchers have recommended dermo-cosmetic laboratories by ifmbe for dogs and coat, looking for dogs unfortunately what medications for their voice, damaged or equipment instead of drastically. (kaleidas.com)
- If concomitant use cannot be avoided, monitor theophylline levels and adjust dosage as needed. (rxlist.com)
- Overview Theophylline is rapidly and completely absorbed after oral administration in solution or immediate-release solid oral dosage form. (nih.gov)
- The present study suggests that both drugs can be given concomitantly without the need for dosage adjustment of theophylline. (rug.nl)
- Theophylline is structurally classified as a methylxanthine. (nih.gov)
- All the 4 patients who died had an initial serum theophylline level >1 000 µmol/L. The mean (SD) cost per admission amounted to ZAR16 897 (10 718), with a mean of one 4-hour dialysis session per admission.Conclusion. (bvsalud.org)
- Risk factors for complications include older age, paradoxically normal or elevated serum potassium levels, elevated serum creatinine kinase levels and an initial serum theophylline level >400 µmol/L. Patients with these clinical features should be closely monitored and treated timeously at an appropriate level of care. (bvsalud.org)
- Some of the adverse effects associated with theophylline appear to be mediated by inhibition of PDE III (e.g., hypotension, tachycardia, headache, and emesis) and adenosine receptor antagonism (e.g., alterations in cerebral blood flow). (nih.gov)
- Charytan D, Jansen K. Severe metabolic complications from theophylline intoxication. (medscape.com)
- Avoid large amounts of these substances while you are taking theophylline. (medlineplus.gov)
- Studies were included if they were published in English, theophylline was used for any respiratory disorder, and the study outcomes were disease - or patient -oriented. (bvsalud.org)
- Theophylline does not undergo any appreciable pre-systemic elimination, distributes freely into fat-free tissues and is extensively metabolized in the liver. (nih.gov)
- Demographic and Clinical Characteristics of Theophylline Exposures between 1993 and 2011. (medscape.com)
- Theophylline for the management of respiratory disorders in adults in the 21st century: A scoping review from the American College of Clinical Pharmacy Pulmonary Practice and Research Network. (bvsalud.org)
- Results aligned with current clinical guideline recommendations relegating theophylline as an alternative therapy for the treatment of respiratory disorders, in favor of inhaled corticosteroids and inhaled bronchodilators . (bvsalud.org)
- 7%). The main risk factors for these complications were age ≥30 years, an inappropriately normal or elevated initial serum potassium level, an elevated serum creatinine kinase level and an elevated initial serum theophylline level. (bvsalud.org)
- Theophylline increases the force of contraction of diaphragmatic muscles. (nih.gov)
- Theophylline comes as an extended-release (long-acting) tablet, extended-release capsule, and a solution (liquid) to take by mouth. (medlineplus.gov)
- Respiratory obstruction not responding to parenteral or inhaled bronchodilators may require theophylline, oxygen, intubation and the use of life support systems. (nih.gov)
- Horita N, Miyazawa N, Kojima R, Inoue M, Ishigatsubo Y, Kaneko T. Chronic Use of Theophylline and Mortality in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Meta-analysis. (medscape.com)
- Case Report: The risks associated with chronic theophylline therapy and measures designed to improve monitoring and management. (medscape.com)
- Theophylline clearance is altered by many drugs and diseases that may be associated with undernutrition. (who.int)
- Citation: McFee, A.F. Chromosomal effects of theophylline measured in mouse marrow cells in vivo. (nih.gov)
- Theophylline may cause side effects. (medlineplus.gov)
- theophylline decreases effects of dipyridamole by pharmacodynamic antagonism. (medscape.com)
- McFee, A.F. Chromosomal effects of theophylline measured in mouse marrow cells in vivo. (nih.gov)
- Do not use this medication if you have allergy to theophylline or any drugs. (canadianokpharmacy.com)
- THEOPHYLLINE ORAL SOLUTION, USP also contains the following inactive ingredients: citric acid, sodium saccharin, sodium benzoate, glycerin, propylene glycol, FD and C Red #40, natural and artificial fruity flavor and purified water. (nih.gov)
- Extracorporeal treatment for theophylline poisoning: systematic review and recommendations from the EXTRIP workgroup. (medscape.com)
- Newborn and especially preterm infants are most likely to be affected because of their slow elimination and low serum protein binding of theophylline. (nih.gov)
- Theophylline has been shown in vitro and in vivo to have an anti-inflammatory effect, probably mediated through induction of histone deacetylase-dependent gene switching in immune competent cells. (bournemouth.ac.uk)
- This scoping review aimed to gather and characterize evidence describing theophylline for the management of respiratory disorders in adults between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2020. (bvsalud.org)
- Table I. Mean and range of total body clearance and half-life of theophylline related to age and altered physiological states. (nih.gov)
- Theophylline content is predicted by making a calibration curve from previously acquired training data* 3 and doing PLS regression analysis. (hamamatsu.com)
- your health provider.TheophyllineCapsicum can increase how much theophylline the body can absorb. (nih.gov)
- Theophylline online patient communities? (seriouslyfish.com)