A methyl xanthine derivative from tea with diuretic, smooth muscle relaxant, bronchial dilation, cardiac and central nervous system stimulant activities. Theophylline inhibits the 3',5'-CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE PHOSPHODIESTERASE that degrades CYCLIC AMP thus potentiates the actions of agents that act through ADENYLYL CYCLASES and cyclic AMP.
A drug combination that contains THEOPHYLLINE and ethylenediamine. It is more soluble in water than theophylline but has similar pharmacologic actions. It's most common use is in bronchial asthma, but it has been investigated for several other applications.
3,7-Dimethylxanthine. The principle alkaloid in Theobroma cacao (the cacao bean) and other plants. A xanthine alkaloid that is used as a bronchodilator and as a vasodilator. It has a weaker diuretic activity than THEOPHYLLINE and is also a less powerful stimulant of smooth muscle. It has practically no stimulant effect on the central nervous system. It was formerly used as a diuretic and in the treatment of angina pectoris and hypertension. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, pp1318-9)
Purine bases found in body tissues and fluids and in some plants.
Agents that cause an increase in the expansion of a bronchus or bronchial tubes.
Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of phosphodiesterases.
A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.
Compounds that bind to and block the stimulation of PURINERGIC P1 RECEPTORS.
A broad-spectrum 6-fluoronaphthyridinone antibacterial agent that is structurally related to NALIDIXIC ACID.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
A methylxanthine naturally occurring in some beverages and also used as a pharmacological agent. Caffeine's most notable pharmacological effect is as a central nervous system stimulant, increasing alertness and producing agitation. It also relaxes SMOOTH MUSCLE, stimulates CARDIAC MUSCLE, stimulates DIURESIS, and appears to be useful in the treatment of some types of headache. Several cellular actions of caffeine have been observed, but it is not entirely clear how each contributes to its pharmacological profile. Among the most important are inhibition of cyclic nucleotide PHOSPHODIESTERASES, antagonism of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS, and modulation of intracellular calcium handling.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
A cyclic nucleotide derivative that mimics the action of endogenous CYCLIC AMP and is capable of permeating the cell membrane. It has vasodilator properties and is used as a cardiac stimulant. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Any disorder marked by obstruction of conducting airways of the lung. AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION may be acute, chronic, intermittent, or persistent.
A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).
Cell surface proteins that bind PURINES with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The best characterized classes of purinergic receptors in mammals are the P1 receptors, which prefer ADENOSINE, and the P2 receptors, which prefer ATP or ADP.
Inhibitor of phosphodiesterases.
A short-acting beta-2 adrenergic agonist that is primarily used as a bronchodilator agent to treat ASTHMA. Albuterol is prepared as a racemic mixture of R(-) and S(+) stereoisomers. The stereospecific preparation of R(-) isomer of albuterol is referred to as levalbuterol.
Spectrum analysis of absorbed or emitted TERAHERTZ RADIATION.
A cytochrome P450 enzyme subtype that has specificity for relatively planar heteroaromatic small molecules, such as CAFFEINE and ACETAMINOPHEN.
A long-acting beta-2-adrenergic receptor agonist.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
A loosely defined group of drugs that tend to increase behavioral alertness, agitation, or excitation. They work by a variety of mechanisms, but usually not by direct excitation of neurons. The many drugs that have such actions as side effects to their main therapeutic use are not included here.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A disease of chronic diffuse irreversible airflow obstruction. Subcategories of COPD include CHRONIC BRONCHITIS and PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA.
Compounds that inhibit HISTONE DEACETYLASES. This class of drugs may influence gene expression by increasing the level of acetylated HISTONES in specific CHROMATIN domains.
A glucocorticoid used in the management of ASTHMA, the treatment of various skin disorders, and allergic RHINITIS.
AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the ETHANOLAMINE; (-NH2CH2CHOH) group and its derivatives.
Drugs that are used to treat asthma.
Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.
Homogeneous liquid preparations that contain one or more chemical substances dissolved, i.e., molecularly dispersed, in a suitable solvent or mixture of mutually miscible solvents. For reasons of their ingredients, method of preparation, or use, they do not fall into another group of products.
A triazole antifungal agent that inhibits cytochrome P-450-dependent enzymes required for ERGOSTEROL synthesis.
The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Histamine H1 antagonist with pronounced sedative properties. It is used in allergies and as an antitussive, antiemetic, and hypnotic. Doxylamine has also been administered in veterinary applications and was formerly used in PARKINSONISM.
Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a product or its container or wrapper. It includes purpose, effect, description, directions, hazards, warnings, and other relevant information.
Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a drug container or wrapper. It includes contents, indications, effects, dosages, routes, methods, frequency and duration of administration, warnings, hazards, contraindications, side effects, precautions, and other relevant information.
Form in which product is processed or wrapped and labeled. PRODUCT LABELING is also available.
A benzodiazepine derivative used mainly as a hypnotic.
Those persons legally qualified by education and training to engage in the practice of pharmacy.
A phenethylamine that is an isomer of EPHEDRINE which has less central nervous system effects and usage is mainly for respiratory tract decongestion.
Antiarrhythmic agent pharmacologically similar to LIDOCAINE. It may have some anticonvulsant properties.
An antiarrhythmia agent that is particularly effective in ventricular arrhythmias. It also has weak beta-blocking activity.
An expectorant that also has some muscle relaxing action. It is used in many cough preparations.
Agents that increase mucous excretion. Mucolytic agents, that is drugs that liquefy mucous secretions, are also included here.
A narcotic analgesic that may be habit-forming. It is nearly as effective orally as by injection.
Devices designed to provide personal protection against injury to individuals exposed to hazards in industry, sports, aviation, or daily activities.
A metabolite of BROMHEXINE that stimulates mucociliary action and clears the air passages in the respiratory tract. It is usually administered as the hydrochloride.
Methyl analog of DEXTRORPHAN that shows high affinity binding to several regions of the brain, including the medullary cough center. This compound is an NMDA receptor antagonist (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) and acts as a non-competitive channel blocker. It is one of the widely used ANTITUSSIVES, and is also used to study the involvement of glutamate receptors in neurotoxicity.
An exchange of segments between the sister chromatids of a chromosome, either between the sister chromatids of a meiotic tetrad or between the sister chromatids of a duplicated somatic chromosome. Its frequency is increased by ultraviolet and ionizing radiation and other mutagenic agents and is particularly high in BLOOM SYNDROME.
Either of the two longitudinally adjacent threads formed when a eukaryotic chromosome replicates prior to mitosis. The chromatids are held together at the centromere. Sister chromatids are derived from the same chromosome. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The number of offspring produced at one birth by a viviparous animal.
Genes whose loss of function or gain of function MUTATION leads to the death of the carrier prior to maturity. They may be essential genes (GENES, ESSENTIAL) required for viability, or genes which cause a block of function of an essential gene at a time when the essential gene function is required for viability.
Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.
A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.

Five caffeine metabolite ratios to measure tobacco-induced CYP1A2 activity and their relationships with urinary mutagenicity and urine flow. (1/2044)

To choose a sensitive protocol to discriminate populations exposed and not exposed to inducers, five urinary metabolite ratios (MRs) [MR1 (17X + 17U)/137X, MR2 (5-acetylamino-6-formylamino-3-methyluracil [AFMU] + 1X + 1U)/17U, MR3 (17X/137X), MR4 (AFMU + 1X + 1U + 17X + 17U)/137X, and MR5 (AFMU + 1X + 1U)/17X] were calculated in 4-5 h and 0-24 h urine samples after caffeine intake. One hundred twenty-five healthy volunteers (59 nonsmokers and 66 smokers) were included in the study. All ratios showed a log-normal distribution. MR2 in the two time intervals was the only ratio nondependent on the urine flow. Differences between nonsmokers and smokers could be detected with all ratios at 4-5 h. However, only MR2 and, to a lesser extent, MR5 allowed the discrimination of higher cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) activity in smokers in the 0-24 h sample. Although smokers had increased urinary mutagenicity in relation to nonsmokers, a significant association between MRs and urine mutagenicity was observed only with MR2 in the 4-5 h interval; this ratio/time schedule being that of higher association with tobacco consumption. The most flow-dependent ratios, MR1, MR3, and MR4, were closely correlated with each other at the two intervals. The flow dependency profile of each ratio may explain their different power to indicate both tobacco exposure and tobacco-derived mutagenicity. In conclusion, MR2 in the period of 4-5 h after caffeine intake seems preferable, especially at high urine flow rates.  (+info)

The role of free serum tryptophan in the biphasic effect of acute ethanol administration on the concentrations of rat brain tryptophan, 5-hydroxytryptamine and 5-hydroxyindol-3-ylacetic acid. (2/2044)

1. Acute administration of ethanol exerts a biphasic effect on the concentrations of rat brain tryptophan, 5-hydroxytryptamine and 5-hydroxyindol-3-ylacetic acid. Both effects are associated with corresponding changes in the availability of circulating free tryptophan. 2. The initial increases in the above concentrations are prevented by ergotamine, are unaltered by allopurinol and are potentiated by theophylline, whereas the later decreases are prevented by both ergotamine and allopurinol. 3. It is suggested that the initial enhancement by ethanol of brain tryptophan metabolism is caused by catecholamine-mediated lipolysis followed by displacement of protein-bound serum tryptophan, whereas the activation of liver tryptophaan pyrrolase, which is produced by the same mechanism, leads to the later decreases in the brain concentrations of tryptophan and its metabolites. 4. The initial effects of ethanol can be reproduced by an equicaloric dose of sucrose, and a comparison of the two treatments alone could therefore be misleading. 5. The effects of ethanol on liver and brain tryptophan metabolism have also been examined in mice, and a comparison of the results with those previously reported suggests that the ethanol effects are strain-dependent.  (+info)

Engineering precision RNA molecular switches. (3/2044)

Ligand-specific molecular switches composed of RNA were created by coupling preexisting catalytic and receptor domains via structural bridges. Binding of ligand to the receptor triggers a conformational change within the bridge, and this structural reorganization dictates the activity of the adjoining ribozyme. The modular nature of these tripartite constructs makes possible the rapid construction of precision RNA molecular switches that trigger only in the presence of their corresponding ligand. By using similar enzyme engineering strategies, new RNA switches can be made to operate as designer molecular sensors or as a new class of genetic control elements.  (+info)

Effect of gemfibrozil in vitro on fat-mobilizing lipolysis in human adipose tissue. (4/2044)

Fat-mobilizing lipolysis was studied in rat and human adipose tissue during incubation in vitro by following the release of glycerol into the incubation medium. Gemfibrozil as well as clofibrate consistently and readily inhibited basal as well as noradrenaline-stimulated fat-mobilizing lipolysis in rat fat. With human adipose tissue no effect was observed with gemfibrozil and clofibrate on basal lipolysis. This may be due to the comparatively low rate of the nonstimulated fat-mobilizing lipolysis in human tissue incubated in vitro. When lipolysis was stimulated with noradrenaline as well as isoprenaline, however, both gemfibrozil and clofibrate significantly reduced the fat-mobilizing lipolysis. This inhibition of lipolysis was however not observed in all studies. When lipolysis had been stimulated with theophylline, no inhibition of lipolysis was obtained with either compound. The possibility that reduced fat-mobilizing lipolysis in adipose tissue may cause a lowering of plasma triglycerides by reducing the flow of FFA to the liver is discussed in some detail. It is also suggested that inhibition of lipolysis may be accompanied by increased activity of lipoprotein lipase as well as an increase in the FIAT process. However, the pharmacological implication of the above-mentioned findings, particularly for gemfibrozil, must await further studies, as fairly large doses, around 1 mg/ml of incubation medium, were needed to obtain inhibition of fat-mobilizing lipolysis.  (+info)

A2B adenosine receptors mediate relaxation of the pig intravesical ureter: adenosine modulation of non adrenergic non cholinergic excitatory neurotransmission. (5/2044)

1. The present study was designed to characterize the adenosine receptors involved in the relaxation of the pig intravesical ureter, and to investigate the action of adenosine on the non adrenergic non cholinergic (NANC) excitatory ureteral neurotransmission. 2. In U46619 (10(-7) M)-contracted strips treated with the adenosine uptake inhibitor, nitrobenzylthioinosine (NBTI, 10(-6) M), adenosine and related analogues induced relaxations with the following potency order: 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA) = 5'-(N-cyclopropyl)-carboxamidoadenosine (CPCA) = 2-chloroadenosine (2-CA) > adenosine > cyclopentyladenosine (CPA) = N6-(3-iodobenzyl)-adenosine-5'-N-methylcarboxamide (IB-MECA) = 2-[p-(carboxyethyl)-phenylethylamino]-5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoaden os ine (CGS21680). 3. Epithelium removal or incubation with indomethacin (3 x 10(-6) M) and L-N(G)-nitroarginine (L-NOARG, 3 x 10(-5) M), inhibitors of prostanoids and nitric oxide (NO) synthase, respectively, failed to modify the relaxations to adenosine. 4. 1,3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine (DPCPX, 10(-8) M) and 4-(2-[7-amino-2-(2-furyl) [1,2,4]-triazolo[2,3-a][1,3,5]triazin-5-ylamino]ethyl)phenol (ZM 241385, 3 x 10(-8) M and 10(-7) M), A1 and A2A receptor selective antagonists, respectively, did not modify the relaxations to adenosine or NECA. 8-phenyltheophylline (8-PT, 10(-5) M) and DPCPX (10(-6) M), which block A1/A2-receptors, reduced such relaxations. 5. In strips treated with guanethidine (10(-5) M), atropine (10(-7) M), L-NOARG (3 x 10(-5) M) and indomethacin (3 x 10(-6) M), both electrical field stimulation (EFS, 5 Hz) and exogenous ATP (10(-4) M) induced contractions of preparations. 8-PT (10(-5) M) increased both contractions. DPCPX (10(-8) M), NECA (10(-4) M), CPCA, (10(-4) M) and 2-CA (10(-4) M) did not alter the contractions to EFS. 6. The present results suggest that adenosine relaxes the pig intravesical ureter, independently of prostanoids or NO, through activation of A2B-receptors located in the smooth muscle. This relaxation may modulate the ureteral NANC excitatory neurotransmission through a postsynaptic mechanism.  (+info)

First treatment with inhaled corticosteroids and the prevention of admissions to hospital for asthma. (6/2044)

BACKGROUND: Early treatment with inhaled corticosteroids appears to improve clinical symptoms in asthma. Whether a first treatment initiated in the year following the recognition of asthma can prevent major outcomes such as admission to hospital has yet to be studied. METHODS: A case-control study nested within a cohort of 13,563 newly treated asthmatic subjects selected from the databases of Saskatchewan Health (1977-1993) was undertaken to investigate the effectiveness of a first treatment with inhaled corticosteroids in preventing admissions to hospital for asthma. Study subjects were aged between five and 44 years at cohort entry. First time users of inhaled corticosteroids were compared with first time users of theophylline for a maximum of 12 months of treatment. The two treatments under study were further classified into initial and subsequent therapy to minimize selection bias and confounding by indication. Odds ratios associated with hospital admissions for asthma were estimated using conditional logistic regression. Markers of asthma severity, as well as age and sex, were considered as potential confounders. RESULTS: Three hundred and three patients admitted to hospital with asthma were identified and 2636 matched controls were selected. subjects initially treated with regular inhaled corticosteroids were 40% less likely to be admitted to hospital for asthma than regular users of theophylline (odds ratio 0.6; 95% CI 0.4 to 1.0). The odds ratio decreased to 0.2 (95% CI 0.1 to 0.5) when inhaled corticosteroids and theophylline were given subsequently. CONCLUSION: The first regular treatment with inhaled corticosteroids initiated in the year following the recognition of asthma can reduce the risk of admission to hospital for asthma by up to 80% compared with regular treatment with theophylline. This is probably due, at least in part, to reducing the likelihood of a worsening in the severity of asthma.  (+info)

Evidence of hypoxic areas within the arterial wall in vivo. (7/2044)

The anoxemia theory of atherosclerosis states that an imbalance between the demand and supply of oxygen in the arterial wall is a key factor for the development of atherosclerotic lesions. Direct in vitro and in situ measurements have shown that PO2 is decreased in the more deeply situated parts of the media, but the degree of hypoxia in vivo or the distribution of hypoxia along the arterial tree is not known. For this reason, we have developed a method for the detection of hypoxia in the arterial wall in vivo by using a hypoxia marker, 7-(4'-(2-nitroimidazol-1-yl)-butyl)-theophylline, that may be visualized by immunofluorescence. In the present study, we have used this method in rabbits with experimentally induced atherosclerosis. Our results indicate that zones of hypoxia occur at depth in the atherosclerotic plaque. The mechanism was probably an impaired oxygen diffusion capacity due to the thickness of the lesion, together with high oxygen consumption by the foam cells. Thus, we have for the first time demonstrated that hypoxia actually does exist in the arterial wall in vivo, lending support to the anoxemia theory of atherosclerosis.  (+info)

A bioluminescence method for the mapping of local ATP concentrations within the arterial wall, with potential to assess the in vivo situation. (8/2044)

According to the anoxemia theory of atherosclerosis, an imbalance between the demand for and supply of oxygen and nutrients in the arterial wall is a key factor in atherogenesis. However, the energy metabolic state of the arterial tissue in vivo is largely unknown. We applied a bioluminescence method, metabolic imaging, to study local ATP concentrations in cryosections of normal pig and atherosclerotic and normal rabbit aorta. Some vessels were subjected to energy metabolic restrictions by incubation at different oxygen and glucose concentrations and others were rapidly frozen in liquid nitrogen to reflect the in vivo situation. Local ATP concentrations and the ATP distribution at a microscale was dependent on oxygen as well as glucose concentrations during incubation. ATP depletion was seen in the mid media of pig aorta in all incubations, but only at low oxygen concentration without glucose in the media of the thinner rabbit aorta. ATP-depleted zones were seen deep in pig media (>750 microm from the lumen) and in rabbit plaques (>300 micrometer+ from the lumen) even at high oxygen (pig 75% O2 and rabbit 21% O2) and glucose concentrations (5.6 mmol/L glucose). This observation probably illustrates an insufficient diffusion of glucose, which highlights the importance of studying the conditions for diffusion not only of oxygen but also of other metabolites in the arterial wall. In rapidly frozen vessels the medial ATP concentration was shown to be 0.6 to 0.8 micromol/g wet weight (both pig and rabbit aorta) and in pig aorta a gradient could be seen indicating higher ATP concentrations at the lumenal side. We propose that metabolic imaging, as applied to snap-frozen tissue, may be used to assess the energy metabolic situation in the arterial wall in vivo. The spatial resolution allows the detection of local variations within the arterial tree. However, steep concentration gradients (eg, near the border of the tissue) will be underestimated. The method may be extended to include determinations of glucose and lactate concentrations and will be used in parallel with an established method to assess hypoxia in the arterial wall in vivo.  (+info)

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Taking Theophylline Extended-release Capsules immediately after a high-fat content meal may alter its rate of absorption (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY and PRECAUTIONS, Drug-Food Interactions). However, the differences are usually small and Theophylline Extended-release Capsules may normally be administered without regard to meals.. The steady-state peak serum theophylline concentration is a function of the dose, the dosing interval, and the rate of theophylline absorption and clearance in the individual patient. Because of marked individual differences in the rate of theophylline clearance, the dose required to achieve a peak serum theophylline concentration in the 10-20 mcg/mL range varies fourfold among otherwise similar patients in the absence of factors known to alter theophylline clearance (e.g., 400-1600 mg/day in adults ,60 years old and 10-36 mg/kg/day in children 1-9 years old). For a given population there is no single theophylline dose that will provide both safe and effective serum ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Conversion from twice-to once-daily extended-release theophylline treatment in patients with reversible airway obstruction. AU - Berkowitz, Robert B.. AU - Tinkelman, David G.. AU - Marcoux, J. Paul. AU - Rooklin, Anthony R.. AU - Zeitz, Howard J.. AU - Rennard, Stephen I.. AU - Moss, Burton A.. AU - Hubbard, Richard C.. AU - Lorber, Richard R.. PY - 1995/1/1. Y1 - 1995/1/1. N2 - This multicenter, randomized, investigator-blinded, parallel group study compared the effects of converting patients from a q12h extended-release theophylline preparation (Theo-Dur® to a q24h extended-release product (Uni-Dur® Patients (n = 133) first received open-label Theo-Dur treatment with dosage titrated to achieve peak serum theophylline concentrations of 10-20 μg/ml. Patients then were randomized to continue Theo-Dur (n = 64) or to convert to Uni-Dur (n = 60) with peak serum theophylline concentrations maintained in the desired range. Pulmonary function tests were performed during the ...
Eight patients developed grand mal seizures during intravenous theophylline therapy. None had a history of neurologic disorder, and all were acutely ill with severe pulmonary or cardiovascular disease, or both. Serum theophylline concentrations obtained within 1 hour of the seizure ranged from 25 µg/ml to 70 µg/ml, with a mean value (53 ± 4.8 µg/ml) more than twice the upper limit of the recommended therapeutic concentration. This serum theophylline concentration was greater than the concentration found in a group of patients with less severe drug-related symptoms (35 ± 1.8 µg/ml, P , 0.01). A third group of patients without drug-related symptoms had a mean theophylline serum concentration of 19 ± 2.0 µg/ml, which was less than that found in either group with toxicity symptoms (P , 0.05). Factors predisposing to the high serum concentrations in the patients with seizures were both higher drug dosage, compared with the other groups (P , 0.01), and hepatic dysfunction, which was more ...
Clarithromycin use in patients who are receiving theophylline may be associated with an increase of serum theophylline concentrations. Monitoring of serum theophylline concentrations should be considered for patients receiving high doses of theophylline or with baseline concentrations in the upper therapeutic range. In two studies in which theophylline was administered with clarithromycin (a theophylline sustained-release formulation was dosed at either 6.5 mg/kg or 12 mg/kg together with 250 or 500 mg q12h clarithromycin), the steady-state levels of Cmax, Cmin, and the area under the serum concentration time curve (AUC) of theophylline increased about 20%.. Hypotension, bradyarrhythmias, and lactic acidosis have been observed in patients receiving concurrent verapamil, belonging to the calcium channel blockers drug class.. Concomitant administration of single doses of clarithromycin and carbamazepine has been shown to result in increased plasma concentrations of carbamazepine. Blood level ...
Clarithromycin use in patients who are receiving theophylline may be associated with an increase of serum theophylline concentrations. Monitoring of serum theophylline concentrations should be considered for patients receiving high doses of theophylline or with baseline concentrations in the upper therapeutic range. In two studies in which theophylline was administered with clarithromycin (a theophylline sustained-release formulation was dosed at either 6.5 mg/kg or 12 mg/kg together with 250 or 500 mg q12h clarithromycin), the steady-state levels of Cmax, Cmin, and the area under the serum concentration time curve (AUC) of theophylline increased about 20%.. Concomitant administration of single doses of clarithromycin and carbamazepine has been shown to result in increased plasma concentrations of carbamazepine. Blood level monitoring of carbamazepine may be considered.. When clarithromycin and terfenadine were coadministered, plasma concentrations of the active acid metabolite of terfenadine ...
In a prospective study in 73 patients with obstructive pulmonary disease, aged 63.5±13.5 years (SD), it was found that theophylline dose, cigarette smoking and age were all significant determinants of the steady-state trough plasma theophylline level during oral administration of the drug. As the predictive efficiency of the three factors combined amounted only to 25%, firm dosage recommendations cannot be made. Even among elderly patients, tobacco smokers had significantly lower plasma concentrations of theophylline. It is suggested that in order to obtain trough plasma concentrations of 50 µmol/l (≈9 µg/ml), a non-smoking 50 year-old patient would require 9.8 mg/kg/day of oral theophylline, the dose increasing to 14.2 mg/kg/day in smokers of the same age. These doses should probably be reduced by 15-20% in 75 year-old patients.
Substantial in vitro and animal data suggest that methylxanthines, such as caffeine and theophylline, act as adenosine receptor antagonists. To test this hypothesis in humans, we first determined if theophylline would antagonize the effects of adenosine. Intravenous administration of adenosine, 80 micrograms/kg/min, increased heart rate 28 +/- 6 bpm, systolic blood pressure 19 +/- 5 mm Hg and minute ventilation 6.1 +/- 2.2 liters/min. All these changes were significantly attenuated during theophylline administration (17 +/- 3 bpm and 1 +/- 2 mm Hg and 1.6 +/- 0.6 liters/min, respectively, P less than .05), at a dose (10 mg/kg over 1 hr, followed by 1.8 micrograms/kg/min i.v.) that produced plasma theophylline levels of 17 +/- 2 micrograms/ml (94 microM). We then determined if chronic caffeine consumption resulted in upregulation of platelet adenosine receptors in eight normal volunteers. After 7 days of caffeine abstinence, the adenosine analog 5-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine produced a ...
Although a larger study might show a small benefit of aminophylline therapy, any potential benefits must be weighed against the risk of serious adverse effects. Despite numerous reports in the last two decades on proper use and monitoring of this drug, reports of serious toxicity including death continue. Even without serious toxicity, minor central nervous system and gastrointestinal side effects are bothersome, and serum theophylline concentration monitoring is absolutely necessary but expensive. For example, assuming that each patient hospitalized for asthma is given a theophylline preparation and has the serum theophylline concentration checked an average of twice, the patient charges exceed $45 million (assuming each assay charge is about $50). Far more importantly, costs in human suffering and in economic terms are great when serious adverse effects occur. canadian family pharmacy ...
Effects of ,I,Saiko-ka-ryukotsu-borei-to,/I, (SRBT) on theophylline-induced tachycardia in anesthetized rats and theophylline-induced locomotion and convulsions in mice were examined. An intraduodenal administration of SRBT (1 g/kg) prevented theophylline (5 mg/kg, i.v.)-induced tachycardia in rats. SRBT also attenuated an increase in arterial blood pressure with a slow reduction in heart rate of rats treated with theophylline, with no influence on the plasma level of theophylline. However, SRBT did not change the beating rate of right atrium isolated from rats in the absence or presence of theophylline or isoproterenol. The locomotor activity of theophylline in mice was reduced by the treatment with SRBT. Furthermore, the latency of convulsions in mice induced by administration of theophylline at a higher dose (240 mg/kg, i.p.) was prolonged by treatment with SRBT (1 g/kg, p.o.) and seven out of fifteen mice were saved from death due to convulsions. These results suggest that ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Application of a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model to study theophylline metabolism and its interactions with ciprofloxacin and caffeine. AU - Navid, A.. AU - Ng, D. M.. AU - Wong, S. E.. AU - Lightstone, Felice C. PY - 2016/2/1. Y1 - 2016/2/1. N2 - Theophylline is a commonly used bronchodilator. However, due to its narrow therapeutic range, moderate elevation of serum concentration can result in adverse drug reactions (ADRs). ADRs occur because of interhuman pharmacokinetic variability and interactions with coprescribed medicines. We developed a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model of theophylline, caffeine, and ciprofloxacin metabolisms to: examine theophylline pharmacokinetic variability, and predict population-level outcomes of drug-drug interactions (DDIs). A simulation-based equation for personalized dosing of theophylline was derived. Simulations of DDI show that calculated personalized doses are safe even after cotreatment with large doses of ...
1,7-Dimethyluric acid, also known as 1,7-dimethyluric acid, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as xanthines. These are purine derivatives with a ketone group conjugated at carbons 2 and 6 of the purine moiety. 1,7-Dimethyluric acid is possibly soluble (in water) and an extremely weak basic (essentially neutral) compound (based on its pKa). 1,7-Dimethyluric acid exists in all living organisms, ranging from bacteria to humans. 1,7-Dimethyluric acid can be biosynthesized from paraxanthine through its interaction with the enzymes cytochrome P450 1A2 and cytochrome P450 2A6. In cattle, 1,7-dimethyluric acid is involved in the metabolic pathway called the caffeine metabolism pathway ...
article{c850c48d-1b68-4595-90cb-567183ef829d, abstract = {,p,We have studied the interaction of erythromycin with theophylline. We gave ten healthy volunteers theophylline as an intravenous loading dose (5 mg X kg-1) over 1 h, followed by a maintenance infusion (0.5 mg X kg-1 X h-1) for 5 h. A second infusion of theophylline was given after 9 days of treatment with 1 g erythromycin base daily, and the concentrations of theophylline were determined during the infusion periods. The concentrations of erythromycin were measured for 8 h, after one week of treatment, and also after the last erythromycin dose, simultaneously with the second theophylline infusion. Concentrations within the therapeutic range were obtained with both drugs. A significant increase in both AUC and mean plasma concentrations of theophylline was seen during erythromycin treatment. The plasma clearance of theophylline was reduced in 9 of the 10 subjects. Renal clearance increased correspondingly, but the change was not ...
Interaction of a drug with other drugs and dietary supplements is becoming an emerging issue for patients and health insurance authorities due to awareness of adverse drug event. In this study, we examined the effects of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), one of the most popular dietary supplements, on the pharmacokinetic parameters of theophylline in rats. The pharmacokinetic parameters of theophylline changed significantly when the drug was administered after five consecutive days of pretreatment with CoQ10. Time to reach maximum plasma concentration of theophylline delayed when the drug was administered after the pretreatment with CoQ10. Maximum plasma concentration and area under the curve of theophylline were about two-fold increased and other pharmacokinetic parameters such as half-life and volume of distribution were also changed significantly. Therefore, although CoQ10 is generally considered a safe dietary supplement, it appears that patients on theophylline therapy should use caution when they take ...
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Theophylline is a widely used bronchodilator and a very potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant. Theophylline toxicity, mainly iatrogenic, can cause seizures in patients without known underlying epilepsy. The most common types of seizures are generalized and partial seizures with secondary generalization,151,152 but status epilepticus can occur in approximately 30% of
Limited data on mothers taking theophylline during pregnancy showed no excess in the frequency of malformations in their offspring. Theophylline given by gavage at high doses decreased testicular weight in rats and mice, but there was no change in semen characteristics. Administration of theophylline in the diet at dose levels that were mildly toxic to adults caused decreased numbers of litters per breeding pair, decreased live litter size, an increased number of resorptions and decreased neonatal weight. Abnormal sperm were observed in rats but not in mice at high dose levels. Theophylline induced sister chromatid exchange in Chinese hamsters in vivo but did not induce dominant lethal mutations in mice or chromosomal aberrations in the bone marrow of rats. Theophylline gave negative results in a host-mediated assay with Salmonella typhimurium in mice. In cultured human cells, theophylline induced sister chromatid exchange and chromosomal breaks but not micronuclei or chromosomal aberrations. It ...
Increases in transepithelial solute permeability were elicited in the frog skin with external hypertonic urea, theophylline, and vasopressin (ADH). In external hypertonic urea, which is known to increase the permeability of the extracellular (paracellular) pathway, the unidirectional transepithelial fluxes of Na (passive), K, Cl, and urea increased substantially while preserving a linear relationship to each other. The same linear relationship was also observed for the passive Na and urea fluxes in regular Ringer and under stimulation with ADH or 10 mM theophylline, indicating that their permeation pathway was extracellular. A linear relationship between Cl and urea fluxes could be demonstrated if the skins were separated according to their open circuit potentials; parallel lines were obtained with increasing intercepts on the Cl axis as the open circuit potential decreased. The slopes of the Cl vs. urea lines were not different from that obtained in external hypertonic urea, indicating that ...
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W Sunman, AJ Williams, MD Tuersley, RMC Sheale, AM Breckenridge; Effect of Theophylline on Exercise-Induced and Ischaemic Hyperaemia in the Human Forearm. Clin Sci (Lond) 1 February 1994; 86 (s30): 28P. doi: https://doi.org/10.1042/cs086028Pa. Download citation file:. ...
Background: Vasomotor nephropathy is a common renal dysfunction in very preterm neonates.. Objective: To determine whether theophylline could prevent vasomotor nephropathy in very preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome.. Methods: A randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial of 50 preterm infants of gestational age ⩽32 weeks needing assisted ventilation. Infants received an intravenous dose of theophylline (1 mg/kg) or placebo for three days. The 24 hour urine volume was measured daily. On days 2, 5, and 11, blood samples and 12 hour urine collections were analysed for electrolytes, creatinine, and urea.. Results: On day 1, urine output was significantly higher in the theophylline (2.4 (0.9) ml/kg/h) than the placebo (1.6 (1.0) ml/kg/h; p = 0.023) group (values are mean (SD)). The incidence of oligoanuria was significantly lower in the theophylline treated (5%) than the placebo (33%) group. Twenty four hours after the first administration of theophylline/placebo, serum ...
7.1.6 Theophyllines Theophyllines have similar bronchodilator effects to beta-2 agonists. They improve quality of life, and the oral route of administration is an advantage for some patients.63 limitations include toxicity (particularly in the elderly), drug interactions and variable metabolism. The recommended dose of oral slow-release theophylline is 200 - 400 mg twice a day or 400 - 800 mg at night, and should not be exceeded without monitoring blood levels. Combination tablets containing theophylline and other bronchodilators or sedatives are not recommended. 7.1.7 Combination bronchodilator treatment A combination of bronchodilator agents is recommended and has additive effects. The following combinations are effective:64,65 SABA + ipratropium long-acting anti-cholinergic + SABA long-acting anti-cholinergic + LABA LABA + ipratropium. Oral theophylline may be added to any combination of inhaled treatment. 7.2 Inhaled corticosteroids Inhaled corticosteroids, particularly in combination with ...
Devereux , G , Cotton , S , Barnes , P , Briggs , A , Burns , G , Chaudhuri , R , Chrystyn , H , Davies , L , De Soyza , A , Fielding , S , Gompertz , S , Haughney , J A F , Lee , A J , McCormack , K , McPherson , G , Morice , A , Norrie , J , Sullivan , A , Wilson , A & Price , D 2015 , Use of low-dose oral theophylline as an adjunct to inhaled corticosteroids in preventing exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease : study protocol for a randomised controlled trial Trials , vol. 16 , 267 . DOI: 10.1186/s13063-015-0782- ...
The individual and combined effects of cimetidine and ciprofloxacin on theophylline metabolism were examined in healthy young and elderly male and female nonsmokers. Single-dose studies of theophylline pharmacokinetics were performed at base line and on the fifth day of each of three treatment regimens consisting of 400 mg cimetidine every 12 hr, 500 mg ciprofloxacin every 12 hr and the combination of cimetidine and ciprofloxacin. Base-line theophylline plasma clearance and formation clearance of theophylline metabolites decreased with age in both gender groups to a similar extent (20% less in elderly men than in young men; 24% less in elderly women than in young women). Individually, cimetidine and ciprofloxacin produced proportionate declines in plasma theophylline clearance that were similar among the four groups (range, 23.4-32.7% decrease). The combined regimen yielded further impairment in theophylline elimination compared with each agent alone (range, 35.9-42.6% decrease). Cimetidine was ...
Explants of rat adrenal medulla were grown in tissue culture. The effects of various doses of dbcAMP ranging from 0.001 mM up to 1 mM and equimolar amounts of theophylline were recorded by phase contrast optics and catecholamine histochemistry (glyoxylic acid method) over six days. There was a dose-dependent inhibition of the normally occurring outgrowth of Schwann cells, chromaffin cells and axons from the explants. Maintenance of glyoxylic acid-induced fluorescence in chromaffin cells was dose-dependent, too. Since theophylline is known to enhance intracellular levels of cAMP only, these effects are probably due to the action of cAMP. cAMP obviously maintains the degree of differentiation of chromaffin cells. Thus it could be argued that a certain degree of dedifferentiation is a prerequisite for the formation of axons from these cells. ...
1,3-dimethyluric acid 944-73-0 NMR spectrum, 1,3-dimethyluric acid H-NMR spectral analysis, 1,3-dimethyluric acid C-NMR spectral analysis ect.
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Several FVC maneuvers were done until three acceptable efforts were obtained. The best values for FVC, FEV1 were chosen; FEF 25-75 values were selected from the best FVC maneuver. Hard copy of the flow-volume loop and volume-time curve were obtained from each maneuver; criteria for acceptance or rejection were based on the ATS Statement on Standardization of Spirometry. The spirometer was calibrated daily using a 3.0 L test syringe to calibrate both volume and flow as described in the operators manual. Spirometry was done each day of hospitalization every eight hours (8 am, 4 pm, 12 noon) before and 15 minutes after nebulized albuterol treatments. Other laboratory values done on admission to the study included arterial blood gases, blood chemistries, chest x-ray, ECG, and serum theophylline concentration (determined by the enzyme immunoassay techniques). proventil inhaler ...
MAT usually arises because of an underlying medical condition. Its prevalence has been estimated at about 3 per 1000 in adult hospital inpatients and is much rarer in paediatric practice; it is more common in the elderly, and its management and prognosis are both those of the underlying diagnosis.[3] It is mostly common in patients with lung disorders, but it can occur after acute myocardial infarction and can also occur in the setting of low blood potassium or low blood magnesium.[4] It is sometimes associated with digitalis toxicity in patients with heart disease. It is most commonly associated with hypoxia and COPD. Additionally, it can be caused by theophylline toxicity, a drug with a narrow therapeutic index commonly used to treat COPD. Theophylline can cause a number of different abnormal heart rhythms when in excess, and thus further predisposes COPD patients to MAT. Theophylline toxicity often occurs following acute or chronic overtreatment or factors lowering its clearance from the ...
Theophylline (1,3-dimethylxanthins) can indirectly stimulate both β1 and β2 receptors through release of endogenous catecholamines. It is used for the treatment of pulmonary conditions, including asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
Alkylxanthine drugs, such as theophylline, block adenosine receptors, inhibit phosphodiesterases and other enzymes, and cause the release of calcium from intracellular stores. Adenosine receptor blockade occurs at low micromolar concentrations of the drugs, while other effects occur in the millimolar concentration range. The effects of theophylline were tested on spontaneous transmitter release at the frog cutaneous-pectoris neuromuscular junction (NMJ). A change in the frequency, but not the amplitude, of miniature endplate potentials (mepps) was interpreted as a change in spontaneous transmitter release. In normal Ringers, theophylline, at concentrations of 100 microM and 1 mM, theophylline had no consistent effect on spontaneous release. In contrast, theophylline produced dual effects on mepp frequency in hyperosmotic Ringers. At 10 microM, theophylline depressed mepp frequency, while, at 100 microM and 1 mM, theophylline increased mepp rate. Since low micromolar concentrations of ...
Before I started taking Advair in 2003, and when I forgot a dose of theophylline (which was most often Theo-dur), my airways twitched and an asthmatic attack often ensued. These attacks were the worse ever, and a sure sign of my addiction. Getting off the substance was something I yearned, yet never hoped for ...
Theophylline (3-methyxanthine) has been used to treat airway diseases for over 70 years. It was originally used as a bronchodilator but the relatively high doses required are associated with frequent side effects, so its use declined as inhaled β2-agonists became more widely used. More recently it has been shown to have anti-inflammatory effects in asthma and COPD at lower concentrations. The molecular mechanism of bronchodilatation is inhibition of phosphodiesterase(PDE)3 and PDE4, but the anti-inflammatory effect may be due to histone deacetylase (HDAC) activation, resulting in switching off of activated inflammatory genes. Through this mechanism theophylline also reverses corticosteroid resistance and this may be of particular value in severe asthma and COPD where HDAC2 activity is markedly reduced. Theophylline is given systemically (orally as slow-release preparations for chronic treatment and intravenously for acute exacerbations of asthma) and blood concentrations are determined mainly by
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Value: £2,118,845. A randomised, double-blind placebo controlled trial of the effectiveness of low-dose oral theophylline as an adjunct to inhaled corticosteroids in preventing exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterised by progressive airflow limitation. In the UK, it affects about 3 million people and costs the NHS £1 billion a year. Some 60 per cent of the cost of treatment relates to exacerbations of the disease. Current treatment guidelines recommend inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) to reduce exacerbations and improve lung function. The airway inflammation in COPD is relatively insensitive to the anti-inflammatory effects of ICS, even at high doses. Preclinical and pilot studies demonstrate that low-dose theophylline may make airway inflammation more sensitive to ICS; thus it could be used with ICS to reduce the rate of COPD exacerbation. The researchers will investigate whether adding low-dose theophylline to ICS ...
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The molecular mechanism for the anti-inflammatory action of theophylline is currently unknown, but low-dose theophylline is an effective add-on therapy to corticosteroids in controlling asthma. Corticosteroids act, at least in part, by recruitment of histone deacetylases (HDACs) to the site of activ …
This eMedTV article explains that how you use theophylline will depend on the specific product, as well as other factors. This Web page provides a brief overview of theophylline dosing and includes a link to more information on this topic.
Describes how theophylline and caffeine tests are used, when they are ordered, and what the results of a theophylline or caffeine test might mean
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Find information on Theophylline (Elixophyllin, Theo-24) in Daviss Drug Guide including dosage, side effects, interactions, nursing implications, mechanism of action, half life, administration, and more. Davis Drug Guide PDF.
Twenty RCTs met the inclusion criteria. Concomitant therapy varied from none to any other bronchodilator plus corticosteroid (oral and inhaled). The following outcomes were significantly different when compared to placebo. Forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) improved with treatment: Weighted Mean Difference (WMD) 100 ml; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 40 to 160 ml. Similarly for forced vital capacity (FVC): WMD 210 ml 95%CI 100 to 320. Two studies reported an improvement in maximum oxygen consumption (VO2 max); WMD 195 ml/min, 95%CI 113 to 278. At rest, arterial oxygen tension at rest (PaO2) and arterial carbon dioxide tension at rest (PaCO2) both improved with treatment (WMD 3.2 mm Hg; 95%CI 1.2 to 5.1, and WMD -2.4 mm Hg; 95%CI -3.5 to -1.2, respectively). Walking distance tests did not improve (four studies, Standardised Mean Difference 0.30, 95%CI -0.01 to 0.62), neither did Visual Analogue Score for breathlessness in two small studies (WMD 3.6, 95%CI -4.6 to 11.8). The Relative Risk ...
Theophylline can help to relieve breathlessness by relaxing muscles in your airways so they open up, and the air can flow through them more easily.
It has been reported that theophylline is primarily metabolized via hepatic CYP1A1/2, 2B1/2, and 3A1/2, and 1,3-dimethyluric acid (1,3-DMU) is primarily formed via CYP1A1/2 in rats. Compared with control rats, the expression of CYP1A subfamily, 2B1/2, and 3A subfamily significantly decreased 24 h (24-h KPLPS rats) after intravenous administration of lipopolysaccharide derived from Klebsiella pneumoniae (KPLPS) to rats but returned to that in control rats after 96 h (96-h KPLPS rats). After intravenous or oral administration of theophylline to 24-h KPLPS rats, the values for the total area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to time infinity of theophylline and 1,3-DMU became significantly greater (46.5 and 34.0% increase after intravenous and oral administration, respectively) and smaller (36.3 and 21.6% decrease, respectively), respectively. Because theophylline is a low hepatic extraction ratio drug in rats, the above results could have been due to significantly slower ...
The dose of this medicine will be different for different patients. Follow your doctors orders or the directions on the label. The following information includes only the average doses of this medicine. If your dose is different, do not change it unless your doctor tells you to do so.. The amount of medicine that you take depends on the strength of the medicine. Also, the number of doses you take each day, the time allowed between doses, and the length of time you take the medicine depend on the medical problem for which you are using the medicine.. After you begin taking theophylline and guaifenesin combination, it is very important that your doctor check your blood level of theophylline at regular intervals to find out if your dose of theophylline and guaifenesin combination needs to be changed. Do not change your dose of theophylline and guaifenesin combination unless your doctor tells you to do so.. ...
Effects of theophylline on erythropoietin production in normal subjects in patients with erythrocytosis after renal transplantation
Aminophyllines mechanism of action is not entirely understood. Upon entering the body, aminophylline releases theophylline, which is thought to be responsible for the bronchodilatory effects. There are various proposals for the molecular mechanism for theophylline, but not all of them take place at clinically effective concentrations. Theophylline works in three distinct ways as:. Phosphodiesterase Inhibitor Theophylline causes non-selective inhibition of type III and type IV isoenzymes of phosphodiesterase, which leads to increased tissue cyclic adenine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic 3′,5′ guanosine monophosphate concentrations, resulting in smooth muscle relaxation in lungs and pulmonary vessels, diuresis, CNS and cardiac stimulation. The bronchodilatory effect is not maximal at therapeutically effective dosages.[2] Inhibition of type IV isoenzyme is responsible for inhibiting the release of mediators from the alveolar macrophages but requires much higher serum ...
Two patients developed a disabling amnesic syndrome after seizures associated with oral theophylline treatment. Such seizures are more likely in the elderly, in the presence of pre-existing neurological disease, and when theophylline is given with certain antibiotics and cimetidine. The mechanism of neuronal injury may be by the excessive release of endogenous excitotoxic glutamate.. ...
The pharmacokinetics of caffeine (CA), paraxanthine (PX), theobromine (TB) and theophylline (TP) were studied in six healthy male volunteers after oral administration of each compound on separate occasions. The total plasma clearances of CA and PX were similar in value (2.07 and 2.20 ml min-1 kg-1, …
Several studies have evaluated the effects of the methylxanthine derivatives caffeine and theophylline on hypoglycemia unawareness and the counterregulatory response to hypoglycemia. Both have been shown to magnify the counterregulatory hormone (i.e., epinephrine, norepinephrine, and cortisol) response to hypoglycemia, as well as recovery from and perception of hypoglycemia in patients with type 1 diabetes both with and without hypoglycemia unawareness.1. One study18 evaluating the impact of theophylline on the response to hypoglycemia compared 15 patients with type 1 diabetes who had a history of hypoglycemia unawareness to 15 matched healthy control subjects. The subjects underwent hyperinsulinemic-hypoglycemic glucose clamp and randomly received either theophylline or placebo in a crossover fashion. During these trials, counterregulatory hormone levels, various hemodynamic parameters, sweat detection, and subjective assessment of symptoms were evaluated. When compared with placebo, ...
Another name for Aminophylline Toxicity is Theophylline Toxicity. Symptoms of theophylline toxicity include: * Abdominal pain: - Abdominal cramps * Anorexia ...
Another name for Aminophylline Toxicity is Theophylline Toxicity. Physicians from the following specialties evaluate and treat theophylline toxicity: ...
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Glucose is the most important fetal nutrient and the production of this substrate increases in the pregnant woman. In the last trimester the increased insulin resistance directs energy substrates to the fetus. Fetal growth is sometimes disturbed, often without an obvious explanation.. After birth the newborn infant must produce its own glucose, primarily for the brain. Fatty acids from lipolysis are also important energy substrates. Hypoglycaemia can be a problem, occurring frequently in preterm infants and infants born small for gestational age (SGA). In addition, SGA infants are at risk of developing the metabolic syndrome in adulthood. Neonatal medication can influence energy metabolism. One such medication is theophylline, administered in preterm infants to prevent apnoea. We investigated energy substrate production in women with normal and IUGR pregnancies, in preterm neonates, before and after theophylline treatment and in newborn SGA infants, using stable isotope-labelled compounds and ...
The most serious side effect of ZYFLO and ZYFLO CR is a potential elevation of liver enzymes (in 2% of patients). Therefore, zileuton is contraindicated in patients with active liver disease or persistent hepatic function enzymes elevations greater than three times the upper limit of normal. Hepatic function should be assessed prior to initiating ZYFLO CR, monthly for the first 3 months, every 2-3 months for the remainder of the first year, and periodically thereafter.. Neuropsychiatric events, including sleep disorders and behavioral changes, may occur with ZYFLO and ZYFLO CR. Patients should be instructed to notify their healthcare provider if neuropsychiatric events occur while using ZYFLO or ZYFLO CR.. Zileuton is a weak inhibitor of CYP1A2[4] and thus has three clinically important drug interactions, which include increasing warfarin, theophylline, and propranolol levels. It has been shown to lower theophylline clearance significantly, doubling the AUC and prolonging half-life by nearly ...
Background. IV Aminophylline is commonly used in patients presenting with acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD). A previous study failed to show benefit in non-acidotic patients [1, Duffy N. et al. Thorax 2005, 60(9):713-7] albeit showing improvements in pH and pCO2. Side effects of methylxanthines are common and potentially serious.. Aim. We aimed to evaluate the use and side-effects of IV aminophylline in AECOPD presenting with acidotic T2RF who also received NIV.. Methods. Prospective data collected on 24 patients admitted to the Royal Liverpool Hospital with acidotic AECOPD.. Results. 20/24 (83%) were current or ex-smokers with Mean (SD) 43 (32) pack years. Mean [SD] pH 7.22 [0.10]. 12 (50%) patients were previously on oral theophylline. IV aminophylline was commenced in the emergency department in 62.5%. Only 14 (58.3%) patients were weighed prior to maintenance dose prescription. 10 (42%) patients had theophylline levels checked, of which 8 required titration. Mean (SD) duration of infusion ...
To the editor: A letter in the March issue (1) discussed an alleged interaction between ranitidine and theophylline. The authors have allowed us to evaluate the medical records, and in our opinion, there is an entirely different explanation for the response.. An elderly patient was taking a high dose of theophylline (Theo-Dur; Key Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Miami, Florida), 600 mg every 8h before ranitidine was given. This relatively high dose was needed after antacid therapy was started. In May 1982, the patient developed dyspepsia secondary to hiatal hernia and was given an antacid (Maalox; William H. Rorer, Inc., Fort Washington, Pennsylvania), ...
Free Online Library: Evaluation of the anticoagulants EDTA and citrate, theophylline, adenosine, and dipyridamole (CTAD) for assessing platelet activation on the ADVIA 120 hematology system.(Hematology) by Clinical Chemistry; Anticoagulants Analysis Anticoagulants (Medicine) Citrates Dipyridamole Theophylline
The purpose of this work was to characterize theophylline (THF) cocrystals prepared by spray drying in terms of the physicochemical properties and inhalation performance when aerosolized from a dry powder inhaler. Cocrystals of theophylline with urea (THF-URE), saccharin (THF-SAC) and nicotinamide (THF-NIC) were prepared by spray drying. Milled THF and THF-SAC cocrystals were also used for comparison. The physical purity, particle size, particle morphology and surface energy of the materials were determined. The in vitro aerosol performance of the spray-dried cocrystals, drug-alone and a drug-carrier aerosol, was assessed. The spray-dried particles had different size distributions, morphologies and surface energies. The milled samples had higher surface energy than those prepared by spray drying. Good agreement was observed between multi-stage liquid impinger and next-generation impactor in terms of assessing spray-dried THF particles. The fine particle fractions of both formulations were ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hospital treatment of asthma. T2 - lack of benefit from theophylline given in addition to nebulized albuterol and intravenously administered corticosteroid. AU - DiGiulio, G. A.. AU - Kercsmar, C. M.. AU - Krug, S. E.. AU - Alpert, S. E.. AU - Marx, C. M.. PY - 1993/1/1. Y1 - 1993/1/1. N2 - Study objective: To determine the efficacy of theophylline when given in addition to nebulized albuterol and intravenously administered corticosterold to children hospitalized with mild to moderate asthma. Design: Randomized, prospective, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. Setting: Tertiary-care childrens hospital. Patients: Twenty-nine patients with asthma between the ages of 2 and 16 years completed the study. The treatment and placebo groups were similar in age, gender, race, illness severity, and emergency department treatment. Interventions: All patients received intravenously administered methylprednisolone and nebulized albuterol. The treatment group received intravenous ...
Treatment of rats with noradrenaline stimulated $H_20_2$ generation in liver mitochondria using succinate, choline or glycerol 1-phosphate as substrate. The dehydrogenase activity with either succinate or choline as substrate showed no change, whereas that with glycerol 1-phosphate increased. 2. The effect was obtained with noradrenaline, but not with dihydroxyphenylserine. 3. Phenoxybenzamine and yohimbine, but not propranolol, prevented the response to noradrenaline treatment. 4. Phenylephrine could stimulate $H_20_2$ generation, whereas isoprenaline had only a marginal effect. 5. Theophylline treatment slightly decreased the generation of $H_20_2$ in liver mitochondria, but treatment with pargyline, Ro4-1284 and dibutyryl cyclic AMP had little effect. 6. These studies showed that noradrenaline might possibly be acting through the $\alpha_2$-adrenergic system.. ...
Synonyms for Dimethylxanthine in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Dimethylxanthine. 3 synonyms for theophylline: Elixophyllin, Slo-Bid, Theobid. What are synonyms for Dimethylxanthine?
Contact Location map Moscow St. Not Available Drug Category: All these Brand names contain the same Paracetemol, but the medications are manufactured by different companies, so the different brand names. DubDub I wish we could get notified i Read the drug prescription information of Tabrin before taking it. Just wanted to give a head Added Marshmallow Imouto Succubus Episode 2. Notably the drug has times higher affinity for bacterial DNA gyrase https://ocw.mit.edu/courses/experimental-study-group/es-s10-drugs-and-the-brain-spring-2013/handouts/MITES_S10S13_addictionwk4.pdf for mammalian. Added a few forced videos movies tonight. Theophylline levels should be closely monitored and theophylline dosage adjustments made, if appropriate, when ofloxacin is co-administered. The site should au Latest Posts 20 October If you experience pain or inflammation, or rupture a tendon during or shortly after taking Tabrin, contact your health care provider immediately. Check blood sugar levels closely. Do not ...
AMINOPHYLLINE (THEOPHYLLINE ETHYLENEDIAMIDE) : Medicaments, preparation prescriptions, order, dose, side effects, information, notice, pharma
Professional guide for Aminophylline (Theophylline Ethylenediamine). Includes: pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, contraindications, interactions, adverse reactions and more.
When given for the evaluation or treatment of a supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), the initial dose is 6 mg, given as a rapid parenteral infusion. Due to adenosines extremely short half-life, the IV line is started as proximal (near) to the heart as possible, such as the cubital fossa. The IV push is often followed with an immediate flush of 10-20 ccs of saline. If this has no effect (i.e., no evidence of transient AV block), a dose of 12 mg can be given 1-2 minutes after the first dose. Some clinicians may prefer to administer a higher dose (typically 18 mg), rather than repeat a dose that apparently had no effect.[dubious - discuss] When given to dilate the arteries, such as in a stress test, the dosage is typically 0.14 mg/kg/min, administered for 4 or 6 minutes, depending on the protocol. The recommended dose may be increased in patients on theophylline, since methylxanthines prevent binding of adenosine at receptor sites. The dose is often decreased in patients on dipyridamole ...
Objective: Oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Corticosteroid fails to suppress inflammation and oxidative stress due to steroid resistance. Theophylline has an effect on histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity and improves steroid sensitivity in COPD. Given changes in oxidative stress associated with diminished corticosteroid effects, a clinical study in which antioxidants and free radicals are estimated can suggest a correlation between antioxidants, theophylline, and corticosteroid sensitivity. Materials and Methods: A randomized controlled study was conducted in 60 participants divided into 4 groups: Group I (controls) - 15 normal healthy volunteers, Group II - COPD patients who received theophylline 300 mg + salbutamol 8 mg, Group III - patients who inhaled budesonide 400 μg + salbutamol 8 mg, and Group IV - theophylline 300 mg + inhaled budesonide 400 μg + salbutamol 8 mg 12 weeks. Blood samples were collected at the time of ...
Team:NYMU-Taipei/Header}} =Parts= *Ribo = Theophylline riboswitch([http://partsregistry.org/Part:BBa_K411001 BBa_K411001]) *RV = Theophylline riboswitch([http://partsregistry.org/Part:BBa_K411001 BBa_K411001]) + pSB1A2 *FRV = Theophylline riboswitch + GFP([http://partsregistry.org/Part:BBa_J04630 BBa_J04630]) + pSB1A2 *PFRV = Theophylline riboswitch + GFP([http://partsregistry.org/Part:BBa_J04630 BBa_J04630]) + pLac([http://partsregistry.org/Part:BBa_R0010 BBa_R0010]) + pSB1A2 =2010.08.17 = *PCR of primer&Digestion&Ligation {, border=1 cellspacing=1 cellpadding=2 ! [[Image:NYMU Ribo.jpg,250px]] , colspan=2 , {{:Team:NYMU-Taipei/GELC,= ,1: marker 100bp,,,n,= ,2: -,-,-,n,= ,3: riboswitch ,56 bp,none,w,= ,4: riboswitch ,56 bp,none,w,= ,5: -,-,-,n,= ,6: riboswitch ,56 bp,none,w,= ,7: riboswitch ,56 bp,none,w,= ,8: -,-,-,n,= ,9: riboswitch ,56 bp,none,w,= ,10: riboswitch ,56 bp,none,w,= ,11: Positive Control,1100 bp,none,f,= ,12: Negative Control,,Contamination ~300bp ,f,= ,}} {, border=1 ...
BUY Theo-24 Cr ONLINE (Theophylline) PRICE DISCOUNT FOR SALE ORDER CHEAP GET NO PRESCRIPTION Theo-24 Cr causes dilation of the bronchial tubes by relaxing bronchial muscle. It is effective against chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases such as asthma, pulmonary emphysema, and bronchitis.
Generic Theophylline Etofylline tablets are used for treating severe asthma attacks/chronic asthma. Our prices start from $11.00. Order with us and save more.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Simultaneous determination of terbutaline sulphate and theophylline in combined dosage forms. AU - Rau, H.L.. AU - Aroor, A.R.. AU - Gundu Rao, P.. N1 - cited By 2. PY - 1991. Y1 - 1991. M3 - Article. VL - 28. SP - 385. EP - 387. JO - Indian Drugs. JF - Indian Drugs. SN - 0019-462X. IS - 8. ER - ...
The high performance liquid chromatography method for the determination of a newly synthesized amide derivatives of prolino- (2, 1 -f)-theophylline, with potential action on the cardiovascular system, was developed and validated. The method was specific for studied compounds and LOD were from 50 to 100 ng ml(-1) depending upon the compound. Recovery of extraction ranged from 68 to 96 % and coefficient of variation was below 15%. The developed method was applied forpharmacokinetic studies one of the synthesized cpmpound (AZ30) in rats after intravenous administration ...
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Drugs may be covered by multiple patents or regulatory protections. All trademarks and applicant names are the property of their respective owners or licensors. Although great care is taken in the proper and correct provision of this service, thinkBiotech LLC does not accept any responsibility for possible consequences of errors or omissions in the provided data. The data presented herein is for information purposes only. There is no warranty that the data contained herein is error free. thinkBiotech performs no independent verifification of facts as provided by public sources nor are attempts made to provide legal or investing advice. Any reliance on data provided herein is done solely at the discretion of the user. Users of this service are advised to seek professional advice and independent confirmation before considering acting on any of the provided information. thinkBiotech LLC reserves the right to amend, extend or withdraw any part or all of the offered service without notice. ...
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Aminophylline is a drug combination that contains theophylline and ethylenediamine in a 2:1 ratio. Once in the body, theophylline is released and acts as a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, adenosine receptor blocker, and histone deacetylase activator. Similar to other theophyllines, aminophylline is indicated for the treatment of lung diseases such as asthma, chronic bronchitis, and COPD. The majority of aminophylline medications are discontinued and the remaining medications on the market are in short supply.
Product Name: Doxofylline Tablets Common Name: medicine for COPD. Strength: 100 mg. Description: Methylxanthines are phosphodiesterase inhibitors. Doxofylline is a new generation long acting oral methyxanthine derivative. Its mainly used for maintenance therapy in patients suffering with Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Doxofylline is a theophylline derivative. Similarly, its mechanism of action is related to the inhibition of phosphodiesterase activities, resulting in bronchodilating effects.. Indications and Usage: Doxofylline (also known as doxophylline) is a xanthine derivative drug used in the treatment of asthma.. It has antitussive [citation needed] and bronchodilator effects, and acts as a phosphodiesterase inhibitor. Doxofylline has a prolonged bronchodilator effects and unlike theophylline it has least adenosine interactions i.e., no CNS and CVS side effects. There is no sleep disturbances and no effects on gastric secretions with doxofylline. It is highly safe ...
Potentiates warfarin (monitor PT and adjust warfarin dose). Caution with drugs metabolized by CYP2C9 (eg, tolbutamide, phenytoin, carbamazepine) or CYP3A4 (eg, dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers, cyclosporine, cisapride). Zafirlukast plasma levels reduced by erythromycin, theophylline. Zafirlukast plasma levels increased by aspirin. May increase theophylline levels.. ...
First Aired 1/28/00. Michael nearly swoons when Dr. Theo has a TV brought in, but Dr. Theo warns Michael that its only temporary. The Doctor shows Michael boxing footage. Dr. Theo explains that 10 years ago, a black budget government program, which existed but it never existed, transformed a young soldier, Private First Class Timothy Foster, from a casualty of a Gulf War nerve gas incident into a biologically altered warrior. Swift, powerful, immune to disease and chemical warfare, with feline reflexes. Michael is a little stunned to find out that he s not one of a kind. But Dr. Theo swiftly reminds him that the technology that created Foster is outdated compared to Michael.. Dr. Theo explains that Foster was cunning and managed to escape. Foster s been missing for years, but the Doc feels they now know where he is. When Michael wonders what this has to do with boxing, Dr. Theo says that they suspect the man who is currently contending for the heavyweight title, Maceo T. Jones. Dr. Theo ...
Gonadoblastoma composed of canada prescription needed viagra brovascular stroma covered by a randomized trial comparing multilayer bandaging followed by an individual patient data meta- analysis than in % of patients. Illustrated textbook of medicine, rd edn. Differential diagnosis: Plms painless, muscle spasm and supercial involvement of irregular ovulation or anovulation has been given, another clotting screen should be recommended that the nursing team responsible for the control of cyclic adenosine monophosphate, forskolin, and theophylline on motility parameters in gossypol-treated human sperm. Aetiology: Degenerative diseasesidiopathic parkinsons disease lannuzel et al. Several residual glomeruli are abnormal finish review date for treatment under article. M rcog. This is inherited as autosomal dominant vasopressin gene. Dash, b. And sachdanandam, p. B regulation of emotion. These mechanisms can potentially increase the accuracy of mtc-ida scintigraphy in the internal architecture of sleep ...
35) Since white cells may enter the CSF in response to local infection, inflammation, or bleeding, the RBC count is used to correct the WBC count so that it reflects conditions other than hemorrhage or a traumatic tap. This is accomplished by counting RBCs and WBCs in both blood and CSF. The ratio of RBCs in CSF to blood is multiplied by the blood WBC count. This value is subtracted from the CSF WBC count to eliminate WBCs derived from hemorrhage or traumatic tap.. 36) Theophylline dose in less than 1 yr of age = 0.2( age in weeks) + 5 = ____ mg/ kg/ day. 37) D 50 : http://www.pedseducation.org/online_education/PresentationPage.cfm?filename=Loiselle_seizures.swf&presentationID=200806011&format=flash. 38) Jelliffe formula: (98 - (0.8 x (age(yrs) - 20))) / serum creatinine(mg/dl) Multiply by another factor of 0.90 if female 39) CSF WBC= CSF RBC * ( P.WBC/ P.RBC) 40) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cardiac_index ; CO/ SV http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cardiac_output. 41) FE-HCO3 = (uHCO3 x sCr) / ...
Table e10-2 includes a modest number of drug-induced renal disease have also revealed the appropriate transformation equation. Complications of GFR requires further evaluation, in severity. For the recurrence of natural methods for malignant disease, in patients being treated for a cross-sectional anatomic imaging procedure. aricept in canada canadian pharmacy Intermediate literacy levels include skills necessary to elucidate the extent of intermediate-1 or tricuspid valve regurgitation or is combined with normal kidney function. In one study comparing the new theophylline dose would be used in some children with postexposure prophylaxis for this recommendation is said to 30% to drug treatments and the United States ages and CL (Css = k0/CL). Computed tomography is the abdominal aorta. The MSE has several components (eg, anthracyclines (daunorubicin, and the pulmonary arterioles and increased anion gap, symptoms that are gastrointestinal symptoms, which induced few durable responses and 2 hours ...
Beta 2-adrenergic agonists. These drugs are administered by inhalation, in the form of aerosol, powder or solution, although some of them can be applied orally or parenterally.. In the treatment of bronchial asthma two groups of beta2-adrenergic agonists are used, such as: short-acting drugs - eg. salbutamol. These drugs are used in inhalation, while achieving maximum effects during 30 minutes of application , and their effect lasts for about 4-6 hours; these drugs are generally taken in the symptomatic treatment, if necessary.. The second group consists of the drugs with a longer effect - eg. salmeterol. The drugs are administered by inhalation, and their effect lasts for about 12 hours. They are used regularly, twice a day, in patients in whom glucocorticoid has not achieved complete control of the disease.. Theophylline. Theophylline is used in the form of tablets with the complete release of theophylline and in the prevention of all forms of asthma in children and adults with chronic ...
Beta 2-adrenergic agonists. These drugs are administered by inhalation, in the form of aerosol, powder or solution, although some of them can be applied orally or parenterally.. In the treatment of bronchial asthma two groups of beta2-adrenergic agonists are used, such as: short-acting drugs - eg. salbutamol. These drugs are used in inhalation, while achieving maximum effects during 30 minutes of application , and their effect lasts for about 4-6 hours; these drugs are generally taken in the symptomatic treatment, if necessary.. The second group consists of the drugs with a longer effect - eg. salmeterol. The drugs are administered by inhalation, and their effect lasts for about 12 hours. They are used regularly, twice a day, in patients in whom glucocorticoid has not achieved complete control of the disease.. Theophylline. Theophylline is used in the form of tablets with the complete release of theophylline and in the prevention of all forms of asthma in children and adults with chronic ...
Theophylline is no longer used as a respiratory analeptic in newborn infants. Theophylline has a very narrow therapeutic index ... The naturally occurring compounds caffeine and theophylline are structurally classified as methylated xanthines. The side ... so its dosages must be supervised by direct measurement of serum theophylline levels to avoid toxicity. ...
Bronchodilators Theophylline was originally used as a bronchodilator, although its usage has declined due to several side ... Barnes PJ (October 2013). "Theophylline". American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 188 (8): 901-6. doi: ...
US Patent US 3250676 A. Stachel A, Nitz RE, Resag K, Kreiskott H (1968). Theophylline derivatives. US Patent US 3399195 A. ...
"Theophylline Poisoning". www.uptodate.com. Retrieved August 10, 2019. Bouri, Sonia; Shun-Shin, Matthew James; Cole, Graham D; ... in anxiety and hyperthyroidism Theophylline overdose Beta-blockers have also been used for:[citation needed] Acute aortic ...
"The arrhythmogenicity of theophylline. A multivariate analysis of clinical determinants". Chest. Retrieved 4 December 2020. " ...
Theophylline Caffeine Tomai, F; Crea, F; Gaspardone, A; Versaci, F; De Paulis, R; Polisca, P; Chiariello, L; Gioffrè, PA (June ... Kofman, J; Grosclaude, M; Ouechni, MM; Perrin-Fayolle, M (1982). "Comparative effects of bamifylline and theophylline on ...
Xanthine derivatives such as caffeine and theophylline act as non-selective antagonists at A1 and A2A receptors in both heart ... Theophylline and caffeine are nonselective adenosine antagonists that are used to stimulate respiration in premature infants. ... The adenosine receptors are commonly known for their antagonists caffeine and theophylline, whose action on the receptors ...
... including the cardiac stimulants theophylline and theobromine and other substances such as polyphenols, which can form ...
... may increase the plasma levels of theophylline. There are some cases of theophylline slowing down isoniazid ... Both theophylline and isoniazid levels should be monitored. Valproate levels may increase when taken with isoniazid. Valproate ... Höglund, P.; Nilsson, L.G.; Paulsen, O. (February 1987). "Interaction between isoniazid and theophylline". European Journal of ...
Theophylline: in patients treated concurrently with theophylline and enoxacin, concentrations of the methylxanthine in plasma ... Wijnands WJ, van Herwaarden CL, Vree TB (July 1984). "Enoxacin raises plasma theophylline concentrations". Lancet. 2 (8394): ... "New synthetic quinolone antibacterial agents and serum concentration of theophylline". Chest. 92 (4): 663-9. doi:10.1378/chest. ... ofloxacin and norfloxacin on theophylline disposition in humans". Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 35 (2): 161-5. doi:10.1007/ ...
Theophylline is a non-selective agent. In contrast, meribendan is a highly selective inhibitor. Also, meribendan has a higher ... theophylline) and papaverine. The active site of PDE3 can be considered as a summary of ideas about receptor topography ...
In animal and human studies, it has shown similar efficacy to theophylline but with significantly fewer side effects. In ... From a pharmacokinetic point of view, doxofylline importantly differs from theophylline also because it lacks the ability to ... theophylline" (PDF). Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research. 17 (5): 503-510. doi:10.1080/14737167.2017.1301815 ... Matera MG, Page C, Cazzola M (2017-12-05). "Doxofylline is not just another theophylline!". International Journal of Chronic ...
Examples include caffeine, theophylline, and theobromine. Adenosine receptor agonist Adenosine reuptake inhibitor Müller, CE; ... Hauber, W.; Muenkle, M. (July 1996). "The adenosine receptor antagonist theophylline induces a monoamine-dependent increase of ...
It is more soluble in water than theophylline. White or slightly yellowish granules or powder, having a slight ammoniacal odor ... Aminophylline is less potent and shorter-acting than theophylline. Its most common use is in the treatment of airway ... Aminophylline can lead to theophylline toxicity. Aminophylline has been found to decrease the sedative effects of propofol and ... Upon exposure to air, it gradually loses ethylenediamine and absorbs carbon dioxide with the liberation of free theophylline. ...
Liberine Methylliberine Theobromine Theophylline Zheng, XQ; Ye, CX; Kato, M; Crozier, A; Ashihara, H (2002). "Theacrine (1,3,7, ... theophylline ethylenediamine) in young and adult rats". Biology of the Neonate. 34 (1-2): 68-71. doi:10.1159/000241107. PMID ...
Virchow JC (1999). "Reproterol: beta-2-agonist, theophylline, or both?". Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases ...
These drugs include theophylline, caffeine, and acetazolamide. Additionally, increasing dietary sodium intake may also reduce ...
Theophylline is a non-selective adenosine antagonist. It is also an anti-asthmatic agent and a demethylized metabolite of ... Caffeine and theophylline (found in coffee and tea, respectively) are examples of well-known xanthines, which act as ... Small open-label trials suggest that theophylline has anti-parkinsonian benefit but a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial ... In 1980, methylxanthines caffeine and theophylline were observed in mice by Fredholm and others. They discovered that those ...
Theophylline: May cause a decreased theophylline clearance. Warfarin: May enhance the effects of oral anticoagulants such as ...
Theophylline is also theorized to help the condition. Although AMS is not life-threatening, HACE is usually fatal within 24 ...
Small doses of theophylline may inhibit the action of diazepam. Diazepam may block the action of levodopa (used in the ... Mattila MJ, Nuotto E (1983). "Caffeine and theophylline counteract diazepam effects in man". Medical Biology. 61 (6): 337-43. ...
Laaban JP, Dupeyron JP, Lafay M, Sofeir M, Rochemaure J, Fabiani P (1986). "Theophylline intoxication following viloxazine ... It also was known to significantly increase plasma levels of theophylline and decrease its clearance from the body, sometimes ... "A study of the interaction of viloxazine with theophylline". Therapeutic Drug Monitoring. 11 (5): 520-2. doi:10.1097/00007691- ... resulting in accidental overdose of theophylline. Viloxazine, like imipramine, inhibited norepinephrine reuptake in the hearts ...
Theophylline can cause a number of different abnormal heart rhythms when in excess, and thus further predisposes COPD patients ... Theophylline toxicity often occurs following acute or chronic overtreatment or factors lowering its clearance from the body. ... Sessler CN (1990). "Theophylline toxicity: Clinical features of 116 consecutive cases". Am J Med. 88 (6): 567-76. doi:10.1016/ ... Additionally, it can be caused by theophylline toxicity, a drug with a narrow therapeutic index commonly used to treat COPD. ...
It has fewer side effects as compared to theophylline. Caffeine improves airway function in asthma, increasing forced ...
Sirmans SM, Pieper JA, Lalonde RL, Smith DG, Self TH (July 1988). "Effect of calcium channel blockers on theophylline ... Nielsen-Kudsk JE, Buhl JS, Johannessen AC (February 1990). "Verapamil-induced inhibition of theophylline elimination in healthy ... effects on theophylline". British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 25 (3): 397-400. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2125.1988.tb03319.x. ... "The effect of three different oral doses of verapamil on the disposition of theophylline". European Journal of Clinical ...
Tea also contains small amounts of theobromine and theophylline. Dry tea has more caffeine by weight than dry coffee; ...
Theophylline 100 mg and Sentra PM); Therapentin-60 (Gabapentin 200 mg and Theramine); Prazolamine (Carisoprodol 350 mg and ...
... contains caffeine, theophylline, tea polyphenols , and flavonoids. For these reasons and others, a number of health ...
Theophylline, which is used mostly in asthma, is also contraindicated. Erythromycin and doxycycline can have a synergistic ...
When theophylline is administered intravenously, bioavailability is 100%. [26] Distribution[edit]. Theophylline is distributed ... Current research regarding theophylline-based therapies are oriented towards employing theophylline, as well as other ... Some lipid-based formulations of theophylline can result in toxic theophylline levels when taken with fatty meals, an effect ... from a once-a-day theophylline product as a cause of theophylline toxicity". Chest. 87 (6): 758-65. doi:10.1378/chest.87.6.758 ...
Theophylline: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... Theophylline controls symptoms of asthma and other lung diseases but does not cure them. Continue to take theophylline even if ... Before taking theophylline,. *tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to theophylline, any other medications, or ... may increase the side effects caused by theophylline. Avoid large amounts of these substances while you are taking theophylline ...
Theophylline is a type of medicine called a xanthine bronchodilator. It is used to open the airways. ... Slo-phyllin prolonged-release capsules contain the active ingredient theophylline. ... Slo-phyllin (theophylline). Slo-phyllin prolonged-release capsules contain the active ingredient theophylline. Theophylline is ... Theophylline may increase the blood level of the medicine roflumilast used to treat COPD. Theophylline is not recommended for ...
Theophylline is a type of medicine called a xanthine bronchodilator. It is used to open the airways. ... Nuelin SA prolonged-release tablets contain the active ingredient theophylline. ... Nuelin SA (theophylline). Nuelin SA prolonged-release tablets contain the active ingredient theophylline. Theophylline is a ... Theophylline is not recommended for use in combination with roflumilast.. Theophylline should not normally be taken with beta- ...
... and what the results of a theophylline or caffeine test might mean ... Describes how theophylline and caffeine tests are used, when they are ordered, ... Theophylline and caffeine are used to ease breathing and stimulate respiration.. Theophylline is usually ordered as a trough ... Acute theophylline toxicity presents with rapid heart rate and nausea. Chronic theophylline toxicity is associated with an ...
... , anhydrous; Theovent; X 115; Xanthine, 1,3-dimethyl-; Xantivent; 3,7-Dihydro-1,3-dimethyl-1H-purine-2,6-dione; ...
Theophylline (1,3-dimethylxanthins) can indirectly stimulate both β1 and β2 receptors through release of endogenous ... encoded search term (Theophylline%20Toxicity) and Theophylline Toxicity What to Read Next on Medscape. Related Conditions and ... Theophylline Toxicity Differential Diagnoses. Updated: Jan 07, 2016 * Author: Greg Hymel, MD; Chief Editor: Asim Tarabar, MD ... Management of theophylline overdose patients in the intensive care unit. Anaesth Intensive Care. 1992 Feb. 20(1):56-62. [ ...
Theophylline is now usually used as an add-on therapy in asthma patients not well controlled on inhaled corticosteroids and in ... Through this mechanism theophylline also reverses corticosteroid resistance and this may be of particular value in severe ... Theophylline is given systemically (orally as slow-release preparations for chronic treatment and intravenously for acute ... Theophylline (3-methyxanthine) has been used to treat airway diseases for over 70 years. It was originally used as a ...
Theophylline (Elixophyllin, Theo-24) is a bronchodilator prescribed for the treatment of asthma and other airway conditions. ... Theophylline may be taken with or without food but should not be crushed or chewed. High blood theophylline levels can lead to ... Theophylline opens airways by relaxing the smooth muscles in the walls of the airways. Theophylline also can be helpful in ... Theophylline also strengthens right heart function and diaphragm movement. Theophylline was approved by the FDA in April 1979. ...
The occurrence of adverse effects with theophylline, even at levels in the th... ... The frequency of theophylline overdose has greatly decreased as the use of theophylline for the treatment of asthma and chronic ... The frequency of theophylline overdose has greatly decreased as the use of theophylline for the treatment of asthma and chronic ... Theophylline affects various body systems, as follows:. * Cardiovascular system: Theophylline stimulates beta1-receptors and ...
Theophylline is an oral medication used to treat asthma and other lung diseases. Learn who its for, how it works, its side ... Theophylline oral tablet is only available as a generic drug.. *Theophylline is used to treat the symptoms of asthma or other ... What is theophylline?. Theophylline is a prescription drug. Its available as an oral solution, an extended-release tablet, and ... For children: Theophylline is safe for children. However, theophylline is removed more slowly from the body in children under 1 ...
THEOPHYLLINE ANHYDROUS (UNII: 0I55128JYK) (THEOPHYLLINE ANHYDROUS - UNII:0I55128JYK). THEOPHYLLINE ANHYDROUS. 80 mg in 15 mL. ... Clinically significant drug interactions with theophylline*. Drug. Type of Interaction. Effect**. Adenosine. Theophylline ... THEOPHYLLINE- theophylline solution To receive this label RSS feed. Copy the URL below and paste it into your RSS Reader ... May lower theophylline seizure threshold.. Lithium Theophylline increases renal lithium clearance. Lithium dose required to ...
A Moderate Drug Interaction exists between Symbicort and theophylline. View detailed information regarding this drug ... Using theophylline together with budesonide may cause hypokalemia (low blood potassium) and increased theophylline levels. ... When theophylline is given with enteral (tube) feedings, blood levels may be decreased due to interference with its absorption ... In addition, caffeine is a stimulant and may add to the side effects of theophylline such as headache, insomnia, and increases ...
Detailed Theophylline dosage information for adults and children. Includes dosages for Asthma - Maintenance and Asthma - Acute ... Measure serum theophylline whenever symptoms of theophylline toxicity are present.. -Monitor serum theophylline for any new ... Intravenous theophylline in dextrose:. Loading dose, no theophylline in the previous 24 hours: 4.6 mg/kg ideal body weight, ... Intravenous theophylline in dextrose:. Loading dose, no theophylline in the previous 24 hours: 4.6 mg/kg ideal body weight, ...
THEOPHYLLINE (the OFF i lin) is a bronchodilator. It helps open up the airways in your lungs to make it easier to breathe. ... Theophylline oral solution or syrup. What is this medicine?. THEOPHYLLINE (the OFF i lin) is a bronchodilator. It helps open up ... an unusual or allergic reaction to theophylline, aminophylline, caffeine, theobromine, other medicines, foods, dyes, or ...
Testing Status of Theophylline 11114-Y. CASRN: 58-55-9. Formula: C7-H8-N4-O2. Synonyms/Common Names. *3,7-Dihydro-1,3-dimethyl- ... Citation: Final Report - Theophylline: Reproduction and Fertility Assessment in CD-1 Mice When Administered in Drin king Water/ ... Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Theophylline (CASRN 58-55-9) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Feed and Gavage Studies) ... Citation: McFee, A.F. Chromosomal effects of theophylline measured in mouse marrow cells in vivo. Mutat. Res. Vol. 264 (1991) ...
To investigate the possible mechanisms by which theophylline affects the control of ventilation, neuromuscular drive and ... Okubo, S., Konno, K., Ishizaki, T. et al. Effect of theophylline on respiratory neuromuscular drive. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 33, ... Effect of theophylline on respiratory neuromuscular drive. *S. Okubo1,2. nAff3, ... Davi MJ, Sankaran K, Simons FER, Seshia MM, Rigatto H (1978) Physiologic changes induced by theophylline in the treatment of ...
Theophylline) may treat, uses, dosage, side effects, drug interactions, warnings, patient labeling, reviews, and related ... The dose of theophylline must be individualized on the basis of peak serum theophylline concentration measurements in order to ... Clinically significant drug interactions with theophylline.*. Drug Type of Interaction. Effect**. Adenosine. Theophylline ... General Recommendations for Patients with Symptoms of Theophylline Overdose or Serum Theophylline Concentrations , 30 mcg/mL. ( ...
theophylline Oral Soln , theophylline Elixir , theophylline SR Cap , theophylline SR Tab , theophylline SR 12 hr Cap , ... theophylline SR 24 hr Cap , theophylline SR 24 hr Tab , theophylline SR 12 hr Tab ... Before using theophylline, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are allergic to it; or to theobromine or caffeine; or if you ... It is important that you do not miss your medication or take extra doses for 2-3 days before your theophylline blood levels are ...
Theophylline answers are found in the Washington Manual of Medical Therapeutics powered by Unbound Medicine. Available for ... Theophylline is a topic covered in the Washington Manual of Medical Therapeutics. To view the entire topic, please sign in or ... Theophylline. In: Williams D, Ramgopal R, Gdowski M, et al, eds. Washington Manual of Medical Therapeutics. Wolters Kluwer ... "Theophylline." Washington Manual of Medical Therapeutics, 35th ed., Wolters Kluwer Health, 2016. Washington Manual, www. ...
Since theophylline is frequently prescribed for asthma, we designed a placebo-controlled randomised crossover trial to examine ... Thus, a pharmacokinetic interaction that may produce theophylline toxicity exists between zileuton and theophylline. ... Effect of zileuton on theophylline pharmacokinetics Clin Pharmacokinet. 1995;29 Suppl 2:77-83. doi: 10.2165/00003088-199500292- ... Since theophylline is frequently prescribed for asthma, we designed a placebo-controlled randomised crossover trial to examine ...
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Information about this theophylline-and-guaifenesin-oral-route. Pregnancy Category. Explanation. All Trimesters. C. Animal ... Theophylline and guaifenesin combination is used to treat or prevent the symptoms of asthma or to treat chronic bronchitis and ... Underactive thyroid-The effects of theophylline may be increased Proper Use. This medicine works best when taken with a glass ... The theophylline in this medicine may add to the central nervous system stimulant effects of caffeine-containing foods or ...
theophylline- Theophylline, anhydrous capsule, extended release. Number of versions: 1. Published Date (What is this?). Version ... theophylline- Theophylline, anhydrous capsule, extended release. To receive this label RSS feed. Copy the URL below and paste ... If theophylline is being initiated in a patient who is already taking a drug that inhibits theophylline clearance (e.g., ... May lower theophylline. Lithium. Theophylline increases renal lithium clearance.. Lithium dose required to achieve a ...
Theophylline is found in black tea and to a lesser extent in green coffee, cocoa cotyledon and dried mate. Theophylline is ... No data on the carcinogenicity of theophylline were available. In the one adequate study, theophylline applied to the skin of ... There is inadequate evidence for the carcinogenicity in experimental animals of theophylline. Overall evaluation. Theophylline ... THEOPHYLLINE. (Group 3). For definition of Groups, see Preamble Evaluation. VOL.: 51 (1991) (p. 391) CAS No.: 58-55-9. Chem. ...
This topic has 1 study abstract on Theophylline indicating that it may have therapeutic value in the treatment of Asthma, ... Theophylline is a safe and more effective pain treatment for Post-dural puncture headaches than acetaminophen.Sep 30, 2013. ... Theophylline could be used in the treatment of muscle wasting associated with cancer cachexia.Dec 31, 2011. ... Theophylline increases the expression and activity of HDAC and improves steroid sensitivity thereby decreases oxidative stress. ...
Sustained-release theophylline (Theo-24, Theochron, Uniphyl) helps to open airways and reduce inflammation in the lungs in ... Sustained-release theophylline (Theo-24, Theochron, Uniphyl) helps to open airways and reduce inflammation in the lungs in ... Theophylline is sometimes prescribed, in combination with an inhaled corticosteroid, when asthma is not well controlled with an ... Theophylline is usually only added when inhaled bronchodilators or corticosteroids arent controlling your symptoms.. ...
  • [ quantify ] Its use must be monitored by direct measurement of serum theophylline levels to avoid toxicity . (wikipedia.org)
  • [8] Theophylline toxicity can be treated with beta blockers . (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a bronchodilator with a narrow therapeutic window - too little theophylline is ineffective, too much can cause toxicity . (labtestsonline.org)
  • Acute theophylline toxicity presents with rapid heart rate and nausea. (labtestsonline.org)
  • Chronic theophylline toxicity is associated with an increased risk of seizures and abnormal heart rhythms (cardiac dysrhythmias). (labtestsonline.org)
  • While both medications can reduce episodes of apnea, caffeine has fewer side effects than theophylline and, thus, a lower risk of toxicity. (labtestsonline.org)
  • At very high doses, symptoms similar to those found with theophylline toxicity may be seen. (labtestsonline.org)
  • Fisher J, Graudins A. Intermittent haemodialysis and sustained low-efficiency dialysis (SLED) for acute theophylline toxicity. (medscape.com)
  • Seneff M, Scott J, Friedman B, Smith M. Acute theophylline toxicity and the use of esmolol to reverse cardiovascular instability. (medscape.com)
  • Kearney TE, Manoguerra AS, Curtis GP, Ziegler MG. Theophylline toxicity and the beta-adrenergic system. (medscape.com)
  • High blood theophylline levels can lead to symptoms of toxicity (see below). (medicinenet.com)
  • Certain groups of patients breakdown theophylline slowly, and can develop elevated blood levels and potential toxicity even on normal doses. (medicinenet.com)
  • Theophylline toxicity can cause nausea , vomiting , insomnia , seizures , agitation and life- threatening heart rhythm abnormalities. (medicinenet.com)
  • Drugs such as phenytoin, barbiturates, carbamazepine, and tobacco can increase the metabolism of theophylline and lead to toxicity when they are discontinued. (medscape.com)
  • [ 4 ] The decrease in the incidence of theophylline toxicity parallels the decline in the prescription of theophylline, in response to the safety and efficacy of inhaled beta2-agonists in the treatment of asthma and COPD. (medscape.com)
  • The most significant morbidity and mortality of theophylline toxicity in acute overdose are secondary to the cardiovascular and CNS effects. (medscape.com)
  • Although theophylline toxicity can occur in people of any age, it is more severe in neonates than in children and adolescents. (medscape.com)
  • The prognosis of patients with theophylline toxicity depends on the amount and severity of the ingestion. (medscape.com)
  • Thus, a pharmacokinetic interaction that may produce theophylline toxicity exists between zileuton and theophylline. (nih.gov)
  • Chronic theophylline toxicity is associated with an increased risk of seizures. (labtestsonline.org.uk)
  • Oral cayenne might increase the absorption of theophylline, 8 which could lead to an increased risk of theophylline toxicity. (memorialhealth.com)
  • Like cayenne, the supplement ipriflavone may increase levels of theophylline in the body, possibly increasing the risk of toxicity. (memorialhealth.com)
  • We report a case in which episodic, bizarre behavior was the principle manifestation of theophylline toxicity. (annals.org)
  • Cardiac arrhythmias during theophylline toxicity. (nih.gov)
  • To examine the effects of theophylline toxicity on cardiac rhythm, patients underwent continuous ambulatory ECG recording during acute theophylline toxicity and recovery. (nih.gov)
  • Fourteen patients had COPD and developed toxicity following long-term theophylline overmedication. (nih.gov)
  • Theophylline toxicity in a neonate. (bmj.com)
  • What are the side effects of theophylline? (medicinenet.com)
  • In addition, these medications given orally or by injection may sometimes reduce the blood levels and effects of theophylline. (drugs.com)
  • In addition, caffeine is a stimulant and may add to the side effects of theophylline such as headache, insomnia, and increases in blood pressure and heart rate. (drugs.com)
  • Citation: McFee, A.F. Chromosomal effects of theophylline measured in mouse marrow cells in vivo. (nih.gov)
  • But recent research has shown that there may be newer, underappreciated effects of theophylline. (healthcentral.com)
  • The side effects of theophylline are more likely to occur in newborn infants, who are usually more sensitive to the effects of this medicine. (mayoclinic.org)
  • 1-4 These findings have led some researchers to suspect that some of the many side effects of theophylline could be caused, at least in part, by interference with B 6 activity. (memorialhealth.com)
  • The effects of theophylline were tested on spontaneous transmitter release at the frog cutaneous-pectoris neuromuscular junction (NMJ). (jneurosci.org)
  • Effects of theophylline, atenolol and their combination on myocardial ischemia in stable angina pectoris. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The effects of theophylline (400 mg twice a day), atenolol (50 mg twice a day) and their combination on myocardial ischemia were studied in 9 patients with stable angina pectoris in a randomized, single-blind, triple crossover trial. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Clinical effects of theophylline intoxication. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Theophylline is a type of medicine called a xanthine bronchodilator. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Theophylline is now usually used as an add-on therapy in asthma patients not well controlled on inhaled corticosteroids and in COPD patients with severe disease not controlled by bronchodilator therapy. (mdpi.com)
  • Theophylline can be administered together with other bronchodilators, such as albuterol (Ventolin, Proventil) for added bronchodilator effect. (medicinenet.com)
  • Theophylline (Elixophyllin, Theo-24) is a bronchodilator prescribed for the treatment of asthma and other airway conditions. (medicinenet.com)
  • Theophylline is an antiasthmatic and bronchodilator that is marketed under 50 brand names in both the United States and Canada. (fsu.edu)
  • While the mechanisms of action of theophylline are not known with certainty, studies in animals suggest that bronchodilatation is mediated by the inhibition of two isozymes of phosphodiesterase (PDE III and, to a lesser extent, PDE IV) while non-bronchodilator prophylactic actions are probably mediated through one or more different molecular mechanisms, that do not involve inhibition of PDE III or antagonism of adenosine receptors. (nih.gov)
  • Theophylline, a relatively weak bronchodilator, is less effective than inhaled beta-2 agonists, and does not add benefits in acute bronchospasm. (drugs.com)
  • THEOPHYLLINE (the OFF i lin) is a bronchodilator. (nationwidechildrens.org)
  • The main limitations to the use of theophylline in the past have been its side effects and the fact that it is a relatively weak bronchodilator compared to albuterol and related inhaled medicines. (healthcentral.com)
  • Theophylline ER (extended release) is a bronchodilator used in the treatment of heart failure, pulmonary edema, bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). (medi-vet.com)
  • Theophylline is an effective, easy-to-use prescription bronchodilator for use in the treatment of various airway constrictions, including asthma, allergies, and other pulmonary disorders. (petcarerx.com)
  • Theophylline is a bronchodilator. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • Theophylline is an older drug used to treat asthma or copd, it works as a bronchodilator. (healthtap.com)
  • Oral theophylline has, for many years, been used as a bronchodilator in patients with COPD. (cochrane.org)
  • Theophylline is a methylxanthine bronchodilator used for obstructive airway disease. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Theophylline has two distinct actions in the airways of patients with reversible obstruction: smooth muscle relaxation (i.e., bronchodilation) and suppression of the response of the airways to stimuli (i.e., non-bronchodilator prophylactic effects). (endo.com)
  • BACKGROUND--Theophylline is a well known bronchodilator which has been used for more than 50 years in the treatment of obstructive pulmonary diseases. (bmj.com)
  • Theophylline is a bronchodilator and has been used for relief of symptoms, particularly coughing at night. (onlymyhealth.com)
  • Theophylline is a bronchodilator and immunomodulator drug which has recently been demonstrated to attenuate the recruitment and activation of inflammatory cells into lungs of asthmatics. (ersjournals.com)
  • Theophylline is used as a bronchodilator in asthma and also has anti-inflammatory properties. (ersjournals.com)
  • Theophylline , also known as 1,3-dimethylxanthine , is a methylxanthine drug used in therapy for respiratory diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma under a variety of brand names. (wikipedia.org)
  • Theophylline is used to prevent and treat wheezing, shortness of breath, and chest tightness caused by asthma, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and other lung diseases. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Theophylline controls symptoms of asthma and other lung diseases but does not cure them. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Theophylline is one of several medications that may be taken by children and adults who have asthma and by adults who have chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) . (labtestsonline.org)
  • Through this mechanism theophylline also reverses corticosteroid resistance and this may be of particular value in severe asthma and COPD where HDAC2 activity is markedly reduced. (mdpi.com)
  • Theophylline is given systemically (orally as slow-release preparations for chronic treatment and intravenously for acute exacerbations of asthma) and blood concentrations are determined mainly by hepatic metabolism, which may be increased or decreased in several diseases and by concomitant drug therapy. (mdpi.com)
  • Theophylline belongs to a class of medications called bronchodilators , used in treating asthma and other airway diseases. (medicinenet.com)
  • Theophylline is used for the relief and prevention of airway narrowing (bronchospasm) in patients with asthma . (medicinenet.com)
  • The frequency of theophylline overdose has greatly decreased as the use of theophylline for the treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has declined, because of its narrow therapeutic window and the effectiveness of inhaled beta-agonists. (medscape.com)
  • Theophylline is used to treat the symptoms of asthma or other lung conditions that block your airways, such as emphysema or chronic bronchitis. (healthline.com)
  • Theophylline is indicated for the treatment of the symptoms and reversible airflow obstruction associated with chronic asthma and other chronic lung diseases, e.g., emphysema and chronic bronchitis . (rxlist.com)
  • Theophylline is a methylxanthine used in the treatment of obstructive pulmonary diseases such as asthma and emphysema. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Since theophylline is frequently prescribed for asthma, we designed a placebo-controlled randomised crossover trial to examine the influence of zileuton on theophylline pharmacokinetics. (nih.gov)
  • Upon initiation of zileuton, the typical asthma patient may require dosage reductions of one-half, and monitoring of plasma theophylline concentrations is recommended. (nih.gov)
  • In this entry, I would like to discuss the use of theophylline for asthma both in the past and present. (healthcentral.com)
  • Theophylline is a drug that has been in use for asthma since the 1950's. (healthcentral.com)
  • Because there were few alternatives, most patients with chronic asthma that caused daily symptoms between the 1960s and 1980s were taking some preparation of theophylline. (healthcentral.com)
  • During the 1980s, there were several developments in asthma treatments that changed the lives of asthma sufferers and decreased the use of theophylline. (healthcentral.com)
  • In the late 1990s, theophylline was relegated to second or third line status in the treatment of chronic asthma. (healthcentral.com)
  • While theophylline is still not a reasonable choice as a sole agent in asthma treatment, its use is being reevaluated as an option to add on to existing medications in an individual whose asthma is not optimally controlled. (healthcentral.com)
  • While there are many newer medications for the treatment of chronic asthma with few side effects, some patients may benefit from the addition of theophylline to their current medication regimen. (healthcentral.com)
  • Whether theophylline is an option for your asthma treatment should be discussed with your doctor. (healthcentral.com)
  • Theophylline and guaifenesin combination is used to treat or prevent the symptoms of asthma or to treat chronic bronchitis and emphysema. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Sustained-release theophylline (Theo-24, Theochron, Uniphyl) helps to open airways and reduce inflammation in the lungs in people with COPD or asthma. (sharecare.com)
  • Theophylline is sometimes prescribed, in combination with an inhaled corticosteroid, when asthma is not well controlled with an inhaled corticosteroid and a leukotriene modifier. (sharecare.com)
  • Once among the most common treatments for asthma, theophylline is no longer widely used, having been replaced by drugs that cause fewer side effects. (memorialhealth.com)
  • Theophylline attenuates circulating vitamin B 6 levels in children with asthma. (memorialhealth.com)
  • How does theophylline help asthma? (asthma.org.uk)
  • Some people with asthma are prescribed theophylline as an 'add on' treatment, to take as well as their usual reliever and preventer asthma inhalers. (asthma.org.uk)
  • Theophylline relaxes the smooth muscles in your airways so they open up and can let air flow through them more easily," says Asthma UK's in-house GP Dr Andy Whittamore. (asthma.org.uk)
  • If you suddenly stop taking theophylline, your asthma symptoms may return, which could lead to a potentially fatal asthma attack. (asthma.org.uk)
  • Theophylline to take at home is usually prescribed by a specialist for adults and children whose asthma isn't well managed with other medicines. (asthma.org.uk)
  • If you take theophylline every day at home, this type of it will not be useful during an asthma attack," says Dr Andy. (asthma.org.uk)
  • If you're given theophylline to help manage your asthma every day, it needs to be taken regularly - usually every 12 hours, as prescribed by your doctor. (asthma.org.uk)
  • If you're taking theophylline to help manage your asthma every day, what else do you need to know? (asthma.org.uk)
  • Your GP or asthma nurse will arrange for you to have a blood test five days after you first start taking theophylline and at least three days after any dose adjustment. (asthma.org.uk)
  • It is important you always go for these tests, even if you are well, because it means your GP or asthma nurse can make sure that the level of theophylline in your blood stays at a safe level," says Dr Andy. (asthma.org.uk)
  • Besides asthma, theophyllines are widely applied, as such drugs as 'Theodur' and 'Theodrip,' to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD: chronic bronchitis, pulmonary emphysema), which are common in the elderly. (horiba.com)
  • Theodur (Theophylline) is a medication used to treat symptoms of asthma, bronchitis, emphysema, and other breathing problems. (bigmountaindrugs.com)
  • Theophylline, which is inexpensive and widely available, remains one of the most commonly prescribed drugs worldwide for the treatment of asthma and COPD. (archbronconeumol.org)
  • Theophylline-Etofylline is used to treat status asthmaticus (severe asthma attacks), dyspnea, pulmonary edema, and bronchospasms associated with respiratory disorders such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and emphysema. (internationaldrugmart.com)
  • Theophylline-Etofylline is an oral medication that treats lung diseases like asthma, bronchitis, pulmonary edema, wheezing, bronchospasms and so on. (internationaldrugmart.com)
  • In conclusion, chronic treatment with theophylline reduces the reactivity of the airways to methacholine, which might be beneficial in the treatment of persistent asthma. (ersjournals.com)
  • St. John's Wort, rifampin, and carbamazepine decrease levels of theophylline and potentially its effect by increasing its elimination. (medicinenet.com)
  • These drugs can increase the levels of theophylline in your body. (healthline.com)
  • Both smoking and excessive caffeine consumption can alter the blood levels of theophylline, which may affect the dosing. (drugs.com)
  • Evidence suggests the herb St. John's wort can lower blood levels of theophylline, making it less effective. (memorialhealth.com)
  • Sometimes blood tests are required in order to make sure the levels of theophylline are within the range that will be effective, yet not high enough to cause unwanted side effects. (medbroadcast.com)
  • In 2014, the American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC) reported 133 single exposures to theophylline or aminophylline, 20 of them in children or adolescents up to 19 years of age. (medscape.com)
  • To investigate the possible mechanisms by which theophylline affects the control of ventilation, neuromuscular drive and ventilatory function were examined in 7 healthy men receiving an incremental intravenous aminophylline dosing schedule to achieve plasma theophylline concentrations of 5, 10, and 15 µg/ml. (springer.com)
  • You'll only ever be given theophylline intravenously if you're in hospital (usually in the form of aminophylline). (asthma.org.uk)
  • Aminophylline (Theophylline, Theo-Dur, etc. (guinealynx.info)
  • The reliability and accuracy of salivary theophylline levels as a predictor of serum theophylline levels was investigated in 28 hospitalized chronic asthmatics, free of other chronic diseases, on continuous aminophylline infusion for greater than 24 hours. (eurekamag.com)
  • Taking theophylline and aminophylline may deplete vitamin B6. (stlukes-stl.com)
  • Drug Monograph: Theophylline, Aminophylline, 2016. (stlukes-stl.com)
  • There is a narrow margin between the blood level of theophylline that is needed for the medicine to be effective and the blood level that is high enough to cause side effects. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Horiba, Ltd. has developed 'Automatic Theophylline Monitoring System LT-110' for measurement of blood level of theophylline, the most widely used antasthmatic. (horiba.com)
  • This test measures the level of theophylline in your blood. (brighamandwomens.org)
  • But theophylline can be harmful in high doses or if the theophylline level in your blood is too high, so your healthcare provider may want to test your level of theophylline. (brighamandwomens.org)
  • A small amount of theophylline is one of the products of caffeine metabolic processing in the liver . (wikipedia.org)
  • Smoking cigarettes or marijuana can affect the amount of theophylline in your body. (healthline.com)
  • If the amount of theophylline is too high, side effects are more likely to occur. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Certain diets (e.g., high protein/low carbohydrate or high carbohydrate/low protein) may change the effect of theophylline. (medhelp.org)
  • Certain medications such as phenobarbital and phenytoin may decrease the effect of theophylline. (medi-vet.com)
  • Certain medications such as cimetidine, erythromycin, levothyroxine and quinolone antibiotics such as Baytril may cause an increase in the effect of theophylline. (medi-vet.com)
  • 2) The inhibitory effect of theophylline was mimicked by 2 other alkylxanthines, 8-phenyltheophylline and 8-p-sulfophenyltheophylline. (jneurosci.org)
  • 3) The inhibitory effect of theophylline was mimicked by adenosine deaminase, an enzyme that breaks down and inactivates adenosine. (jneurosci.org)
  • Effect of theophylline on exercise performance in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. (bmj.com)
  • To prevent any kind of negative interaction, make sure you inform your doctor of any drugs you are taking including non-prescription medication, OTCs, health supplements like vitamins, minerals, herbal medicine and so on which may interfere with the effect of Theophylline-Etofylline. (internationaldrugmart.com)
  • The main objective was to determine in preterm infants with recurrent apnea, if treatment with CPAP compared with treatment with theophylline leads to a clinically important reduction in apnea or use of mechanical ventilation, without clinically important side effects. (cochrane.org)
  • RESULTS--Pulmonary function tests showed no improvement in the flow parameters but showed an improvement in MVV after treatment with theophylline. (bmj.com)
  • This study investigated the effect of chronic treatment with theophylline for its ability to alter airway responsiveness, as indicated by changes in airway sensitivity and reactivity to inhaled methacholine. (ersjournals.com)
  • After 2 months of treatment with theophylline there was a significant lowering of airway reactivity (slope) to methacholine and improvement in methacholine sensitivity (PC20). (ersjournals.com)
  • The use of theophylline is complicated by its interaction with various drugs and by the fact that it has a narrow therapeutic window . (wikipedia.org)
  • Theophylline and caffeine are drugs that ease breathing and stimulate respiration (methylxanthines). (labtestsonline.org)
  • Both theophylline and caffeine levels may need to be monitored because the range of concentrations in which the drugs are effective but not toxic is narrow and in some cases the dose given does not always correlate well with concentrations in the blood. (labtestsonline.org)
  • Which drugs or supplements interact with theophylline? (medicinenet.com)
  • Theophylline metabolism is inhibited by drugs that affect the cytochrome P450 system such as cimetidine, macrolides, and fluoroquinolones. (medscape.com)
  • Theophylline belongs to a class of drugs called methylxanthines. (healthline.com)
  • Examples of drugs that can cause interactions with theophylline are listed below. (healthline.com)
  • When you take these drugs with theophylline, you may need a larger dose for them to work. (healthline.com)
  • In addition, certain concurrent illnesses and alterations in normal physiology (see Table I) and co-administration of other drugs (see Table II) can significantly alter the pharmacokinetic characteristics of theophylline. (nih.gov)
  • Theophylline belongs to a class of drugs known as xanthines. (medhelp.org)
  • After a 15-day washout period, theophylline was resumed and the other study drugs reversed. (nih.gov)
  • Many drugs interact and interfere with the metabolism of theophylline. (labtestsonline.org.uk)
  • Many drugs can interact with theophylline. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • We conclude that an interaction between theophylline and erythromycin, affecting both drugs, can be shown with concentrations of the drugs within the therapeutic range. (lu.se)
  • Alkylxanthine drugs, such as theophylline, block adenosine receptors, inhibit phosphodiesterases and other enzymes, and cause the release of calcium from intracellular stores. (jneurosci.org)
  • These drugs may be more specific adenosine receptor antagonists than theophylline. (jneurosci.org)
  • Drugs such as theophylline can be used to stimulate breathing or continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) which helps breathing by blowing air into the baby through a mask or tube. (cochrane.org)
  • Despite the introduction of new drugs, and its narrow therapeutic index, theophylline is still recommended for COPD treatment. (cochrane.org)
  • Theophylline oral tablet is only available as a generic drug. (healthline.com)
  • Theophylline oral tablet doesn't cause drowsiness but it can cause other side effects. (healthline.com)
  • Theophylline oral tablet can interact with other medications, vitamins, or herbs you may be taking. (healthline.com)
  • Theophylline Oral Solution, USP is available as a solution intended for oral administration, containing 80 mg of theophylline anhydrous per 15 mL (one tablespoonful). (nih.gov)
  • Theophylline Oral Solution is alcohol free. (nih.gov)
  • Theophylline Oral Solution has pH of 4.3 to 4.7. (nih.gov)
  • Overview Theophylline is rapidly and completely absorbed after oral administration in solution or immediate-release solid oral dosage form. (nih.gov)
  • If beta agonists are not available, an oral theophylline loading dose can be used as a temporary measure. (drugs.com)
  • THEOLAIR Tablets contain 125 mg or 250 mg of theophylline anhydrous intended for oral administration. (rxlist.com)
  • Each extended-release capsule, for oral administration, contains 125 mg, 200 mg, or 300 mg anhydrous theophylline in the form of long-acting beads within a dye-free hard gelatin capsule. (nih.gov)
  • 7.Katz A, Buskila D, Sukenik S. Oral mexiletine-theophylline interaction. (webmd.com)
  • Grand mal seizure induced by oral theophylline. (bmj.com)
  • One of the dosage forms available for Theophylline is Oral Suspension. (wedgewoodpharmacy.com)
  • 37 strengths of Theophylline Oral Suspension are available, ranging from 10 mg/ml to 200 mg/ml. (wedgewoodpharmacy.com)
  • The main objective of the study is to determine the effects of low-dose oral theophylline added to combination treatment with long-acting β-agonist (LABA) and inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) in patients with severe Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) on the rate of exacerbations defined as increase of symptoms that requires a change of medication (antibiotics and/or systemic glucocorticoid) or hospitalisation. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • To determine the effectiveness of oral theophylline when compared to placebo in patients with stable COPD. (cochrane.org)
  • Two patients developed a disabling amnesic syndrome after seizures associated with oral theophylline treatment. (bmj.com)
  • Theo-24 is available as capsules intended for oral administration, containing 100 mg, 200 mg, 300 mg, or 400 mg of anhydrous theophylline per capsule, in an extended-release formulation which allows a 24-hour dosing interval for appropriate patients. (endo.com)
  • Oral theophylline has been used in COPD for its bronchodilatory properties for more than 70 years. (archbronconeumol.org)
  • Nuelin SA prolonged-release tablets contain the active ingredient theophylline. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Nuelin SA tablets are designed to release the theophylline slowly over 12 hours. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • THEOLAIR (theophylline tablets) Tablets also contain: colloidal silicon dioxide, lactose , magnesium stearate, and pregelatinized starch. (rxlist.com)
  • Trace amounts of theophylline are also found in brewed tea, although brewed tea provides only about 1 mg/l, which is significantly less than a therapeutic dose. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cardiovascular system: Theophylline stimulates beta1-receptors and can cause atrial tachydysrhythmias such as sinus and supraventricular tachycardia, even at therapeutic levels. (medscape.com)
  • In general, maintaining peak serum theophylline concentrations between 10 and 15 mcg/mL will achieve most of the drug's potential therapeutic benefit while minimizing the risk of serious adverse events. (nih.gov)
  • Administration of the median theophylline dose required to achieve a therapeutic serum theophylline concentration in a given population may result in either sub-therapeutic or potentially toxic serum theophylline concentrations in individual patients. (rxlist.com)
  • Theophylline exerts its therapeutic effects by promoting catecholamine release, which results in enhanced β-agonism. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Theophylline is also an adenosine antagonist, which in therapeutic doses enhances bronchodilatation. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Accordingly, theophylline dosages in patients receiving zileuton should be adjusted to maintain levels within the therapeutic range. (nih.gov)
  • narrow therapeutic index in relation to theophylline Acid diffuses easily crushed or proton-pump inhibitors and analgesic combinations. (imagenenaccion.org)
  • He is absorbed from carbon rather than an acute narrow therapeutic index in relation to theophylline coronary events, if the number of 160/98 mmHg. (imagenenaccion.org)
  • What is the dosage for theophylline? (medicinenet.com)
  • Dosage adjustment should be guided by serum theophylline concentration measurement (see PRECAUTIONS , Laboratory Tests and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION, Table VI ). (rxlist.com)
  • If the patient's symptoms are well controlled, there are no apparent adverse effects, and no intervening factors that might alter dosage requirements (see WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS ), serum theophylline concentrations should be monitored at 6 month intervals for rapidly growing children and at yearly intervals for all others. (rxlist.com)
  • Table VI contains recommendations for theophylline dosage adjustment based upon serum theophylline concentrations. (rxlist.com)
  • In general, these recommendations should serve as the upper limit for dosage adjustments in order to decrease the risk of potentially serious adverse events associated with unexpected large increases in serum theophylline concentration. (rxlist.com)
  • Follow the Theophylline-Etofylline dosage prescribed by your physician. (internationaldrugmart.com)
  • Theophylline causes the muscles surrounding the airways to relax, by a mechanism that is not fully understood. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • By opening the airways, theophylline makes it easier to breathe. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Theophylline opens airways by relaxing the smooth muscles in the walls of the airways. (medicinenet.com)
  • Theophylline works by opening the airways in your lungs. (healthline.com)
  • Theophylline was recognized as a drug that could loosen tight airways, but for this effect, blood levels needed to be at a point that caused jitteriness and upset stomach (similar to the effects from an 'overdose' of caffeine). (healthcentral.com)
  • In addition, theophylline has been shown to have so-called 'anti-inflammatory' effects on the airways. (healthcentral.com)
  • Theophylline continues to play a major role in therapy for reactive airways disease. (annals.org)
  • Theophylline can help to relieve breathlessness by relaxing muscles in your airways so they open up. (asthma.org.uk)
  • Theophylline helps to ease the cough, wheezing, shortness of breath, and troubled breathing associated with these conditions by allowing relaxation of the tubes ( bronchi ) of the airways, thereby permitting increased amounts of air to flow through them. (medbroadcast.com)
  • Theophylline and continuous positive airways pressure (CPAP) are two treatments that have been used to prevent apnea and its consequences. (cochrane.org)
  • Theophylline reduces inflammation or irritation in lungs and airways, relaxes smooth muscles in the airways and digestive system, and stimulates the central nervous system. (brighamandwomens.org)
  • Do not stop taking theophylline without talking to your doctor. (medlineplus.gov)
  • You should stop taking theophylline and seek medical attention if you experience potential signs and symptoms of excessive drug levels such as nausea, vomiting, persistent headache, insomnia, and rapid heartbeat. (drugs.com)
  • Do not crush or chew the capsules as this will cause the whole dose of theophylline to be released and absorbed into the body at once. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • You should tell your doctor if you are a smoker, as you may need a higher than normal dose of theophylline. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • The dose of theophylline must be individualized on the basis of peak serum theophylline concentration measurements in order to achieve a dose that will provide maximum potential benefit with minimal risk of adverse effects. (rxlist.com)
  • The dose of theophylline is carefully determined by your doctor based on your age and response to the medication. (medbroadcast.com)
  • These results suggest that in animals with PAC, metabolism of theophylline was impaired as a result of a reduction in total hepatic oxygen delivery. (biomedsearch.com)
  • 11.Ueno K, Miyai K, Seki T, Kawaguchi Y. Interaction between theophylline and mexiletine. (webmd.com)
  • 15.Ueno K, Miyai K, Kato M, Kawaguchi Y, Suzuki T. Mechanism of interaction between theophylline and mexiletine. (webmd.com)
  • Potential metabolic interaction between theophylline and St. John's wort. (memorialhealth.com)
  • The pharmacokinetics of theophylline vary widely among similar patients and cannot be predicted by age, sex, body weight or other demographic characteristics. (nih.gov)
  • Influence of mexiletine on the pharmacokinetics of theophylline in healthy volunteers. (webmd.com)
  • Advances have recently been made in understanding the pharmacokinetics of theophylline. (annals.org)
  • Theophylline also can be helpful in patients with emphysema and chronic bronchitis when their symptoms are partially related to reversible airway narrowing. (medicinenet.com)
  • If you have these symptoms while taking this drug, you may have too much theophylline in your body. (healthline.com)
  • Theophylline is usually only added when inhaled bronchodilators or corticosteroids aren't controlling your symptoms. (sharecare.com)
  • Conclusions Low-dose, slow-release theophylline reduces symptoms of AMS in association with alleviation of events of periodic breathing and oxygen desaturations. (wiley.com)
  • Low-dose Theophylline had no significant effects on total nasal symptom scores, rhinosinusitis symptoms questionnaire and nasal patency assessed using peak nasal inspiratory flow. (ersjournals.com)
  • It is best to avoid smoking and to limit caffeine consumption during theophylline therapy. (drugs.com)
  • The results demonstrated that the composite of molecularly imprinted polymers and multiwalled carbon nanotubes not only possessed a rapid dynamics but also exhibited a good selectivity toward theophylline, compared to caffeine. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Theophylline may also be prescribed to treat apnoea in premature babies, but caffeine citrate is the preferred medicine. (labtestsonline.org.uk)
  • Theophylline is a chemical similar to caffeine. (brighamandwomens.org)
  • Theophylline is a medication closely related to caffeine. (cvcavets.com)
  • Caffeine and theophylline as adenosine receptor antagonists in humans. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Substantial in vitro and animal data suggest that methylxanthines, such as caffeine and theophylline, act as adenosine receptor antagonists. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Take theophylline exactly as directed. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Continue to take theophylline even if you feel well. (medlineplus.gov)
  • When you take theophylline at home it's usually as a tablet or capsule that lasts all day. (asthma.org.uk)
  • How often do you need to take theophylline? (asthma.org.uk)
  • Do not take theophylline in larger or smaller amounts or for longer than recommended. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • The molecular formula of anhydrous theophylline is C 7 H 8 N 4 O 2 with a molecular weight of 180.17. (nih.gov)
  • Table V. Dosing initiation and titration (as anhydrous theophylline). (rxlist.com)
  • Acebrophylline, an airway mucoregulator and anti-inflammatory agent is a combination product of ambroxol and theophylline 7 acetic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Theophylline (3-methyxanthine) has been used to treat airway diseases for over 70 years. (mdpi.com)
  • We used xanthine as the new target ligand during positive selection followed by negative selection using theophylline. (springer.com)
  • Our goal was to evolve xanthine-specific transcriptional and translational RSs from existing RSs that bind theophylline. (springer.com)
  • Our attempt to evolve new xanthine RSs from theophylline RSs did not succeed. (springer.com)
  • The steady-state peak serum theophylline concentration is a function of the dose, the dosing interval, and the rate of theophylline absorption and clearance in the individual patient. (rxlist.com)
  • 16 healthy adult males were given theophylline (Slo-Phyllin) 200mg 4 times daily for 5 days and either zileuton 800mg twice daily or a matching placebo. (nih.gov)
  • We aimed to test the efficacy of low-dose, slow-release theophylline for the prevention of AMS in a placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized trial. (wiley.com)
  • Methods Twenty healthy male volunteers (mean age 34.7 y) were randomized (random allocation) to receive either 300 mg theophylline daily or placebo 5 days prior, during ascent, and during a stay at 4,559 m altitude. (wiley.com)
  • Mean endogenous creatinine clearance of the theophylline group was significantly increased compared with the creatinine clearance in infants receiving placebo (21.84 ± 7.96 vs 6.42 ± 4.16). (aappublications.org)
  • The theophylline group achieved an average serum level of 12.7 μg/mL (range: 7.5-18.9 μg/mL) at 36 to 48 hours of live versus traces (an average serum level of .87 μg/mg) in the placebo group. (aappublications.org)
  • Patient will be recruited during an hospitalisation due to COPD exacerbation and randomised at the time of discharge to receive theophylline 100 mg or placebo on top of combination therapy with inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting beta agonist. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Compared with placebo, theophylline significantly improved the time to onset of myocardial ischemia (1 mm of ST-segment depression) from 7.8 +/- 3.7 to 9.5 +/- 3.7 minutes (p less than 0.03) and the exercise duration from 9 +/- 3.4 to 10.1 +/- 3.5 minutes (p less than 0.04). (biomedsearch.com)
  • Ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring showed that, during theophylline administration, the heart rate was higher than during placebo throughout the 24 hours (p less than 0.05). (biomedsearch.com)
  • Compared with placebo, theophylline decreased the total ischemic time from 97 +/- 110 to 70 +/- 103 minutes (p less than 0.05). (biomedsearch.com)
  • The patients (mean age 68 years) were studied before and after one month of placebo and one month of treatment with a sustained release preparation of theophylline administered orally. (bmj.com)
  • We conducted a double-blind, randomised placebo controlled crossover study of Theophylline 200 mgs twice a day for 4 weeks in 21 patients with persistent rhinitis. (ersjournals.com)
  • If you are currently using the medication listed above, tell your doctor or pharmacist before starting theophylline. (medhelp.org)
  • Theophylline should not be used in patients allergic to this class of medication. (medi-vet.com)
  • Theophylline must be taken regularly as prescribed so that blood levels of the medication are always in the correct range for effectiveness. (medbroadcast.com)
  • Theophylline may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • Serum concentrations of erythromycin fell significantly, by more than 30%, with concurrent theophylline medication. (lu.se)
  • Because of differences in theophylline clearance, the dose needed to achieve a peak theophylline of 10 to 20 mcg/mL varies up to fourfold (e.g. 400 to 1600 mg orally daily for adults, 10 to 36 mg/kg/day for children). (drugs.com)
  • This systematic review shows that orally administered theophylline improves lung function and levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood. (cochrane.org)
  • Bronchodilation occurs over the serum theophylline concentration range of 5 to 20 mcg/mL. (nih.gov)
  • The time to the peak theophylline concentration was delayed by 0.5 hours and the half-life was significantly prolonged by 1.5 hours. (nih.gov)
  • Bronchodilation occurs over the serum theophylline concentration range of 5-20 mcg/mL. (nih.gov)
  • Tubular performance was assessed as the concentration of β2-microglobulin (β2M) determined by enzyme immunoassay, on the first voided urine 12 hours after theophylline administration. (aappublications.org)
  • The formula predicted the serum theophylline concentration within 1.51 microgram/mL in 76% of the samples and within 1.88 microgram/mL in 100% of the samples. (eurekamag.com)
  • Horita N, Miyazawa N, Kojima R, Inoue M, Ishigatsubo Y, Kaneko T. Chronic Use of Theophylline and Mortality in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Meta-analysis. (medscape.com)
  • These patients include those with liver disease , older men with chronic lung diseases, infants, patients with high fever or heart failure , and patients taking other medications that increase blood theophylline levels. (medicinenet.com)
  • In patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease whose cardiopulmonary performance is limited by their ventilatory capacity the administration of theophylline may improve exercise performance. (bmj.com)
  • CONCLUSIONS--Theophylline improved cardiorespiratory performance in these patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease mainly by increasing the ventilatory capacity. (bmj.com)
  • Drug interactions might happen either when Theophylline-Etofylline is taken along with another drug or with particular foods. (internationaldrugmart.com)
  • 1 Additionally, at high doses, theophylline is a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, which prolongs the effects of β-agonism by preventing the breakdown of cyclic adenosine monophosphate. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Theophylline given by gavage at high doses decreased testicular weight in rats and mice, but there was no change in semen characteristics. (inchem.org)
  • Theophylline overdose can occur if you accidentally take too much at one time, or if your daily doses are too high. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • Their results clearly showed that the hypoxemia-induced drop in GFR could be avoided by the administration of low doses of theophylline. (aappublications.org)
  • Repeated doses of activated charcoal may be given with a dose of 20 g every 2 hours in adults for 6 to 12 hours, depending on the serum theophylline level. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Management of theophylline overdose patients in the intensive care unit. (medscape.com)
  • It has been shown that theophylline may reverse the clinical observations of steroid insensitivity in patients with COPD and asthmatics who are active smokers (a condition resulting in oxidative stress) via a distinctly separate mechanism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Theophylline should be used cautiously in patients with high blood pressure , peptic ulcer disease, seizure disorders, and serious heart disease, especially heart rhythm problems. (medicinenet.com)
  • Theophylline is metabolized mainly by the liver and dosages should be reduced in patients with liver dysfunction. (medicinenet.com)
  • however, theophylline continues to be prescribed for some patients. (medscape.com)
  • It is, therefore, recommended that serum theophylline concentrations be measured frequently in acutely ill patients (e.g., at 24-hr intervals) and periodically in patients receiving long-term therapy, e.g., at 6 to 12 month intervals. (nih.gov)
  • For a given population there is no single theophylline dose that will provide both safe and effective serum concentrations for all patients. (rxlist.com)
  • In acutely ill patients, serum theophylline concentrations should be monitored at frequent intervals, e.g., every 24 hours. (rxlist.com)
  • Table V contains theophylline dosing titration schema recommended for patients in various age groups and clinical circumstances. (rxlist.com)
  • The study aims at assessing that theophylline is effective in patients with no prodromes, normal heart and with low values of plasmatic adenosine compared with a propensity-score matched untreated control population who have received an implantable cardiac monitor (ICM) for diagnosis of unexplained or atypical reflex syncope. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Theophylline has been used for 3 decades in ordinary medical practice to tentatively prevent syncopal recurrences in patients affected by neurally-mediated syncope. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Theophylline was much more effective in selected patients with syncope without prodromes and normal heart who had ECG documentation of long pauses at the time of syncopal attack and low values of baseline plasmatic adenosine. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Since theophylline is a non-selective antagonist of purinergic receptors, it has been hypothesized that purinergic receptors are involved in the mechanism of syncope in such patients. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Conversely, theophylline was suspected to be ineffective (or less effective) in patients affected by other forms of neurally-mediated syncope. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The present study aims at assessing that theophylline is effective in patients with no prodromes, normal heart and with low values of plasmatic adenosine compared with a propensity-score matched untreated control population. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Patients will be followed up until the first primary endpoint event with a maximum follow-up of 24 months since start of theophylline treatment. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Theophylline in Patients With Unexplained Syncope and Low Adenosine. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Theophylline should be used with caution in patients with severe heart disease, liver or kidney disease, hyperthyroidism, hypertension or stomach ulcers. (medi-vet.com)
  • The patients, who were recruited form inpatient wards, intensive care units, and emergency departments of a University Medical Center and a Veterans Administration Medical Center, had serum theophylline concentrations (STC) greater than 30 mg/L. There were 14 men and two women with a mean age of 66 years. (nih.gov)
  • Although the number of patients using it and therefore the number of toxic exposures are declining, toxic exposure to theophylline continues to have a relatively high morbidity and mortality ( Figure 1 ). (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • How should patients with theophylline intoxication be managed? (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Twenty paired blood and saliva theophylline levels from 12 patients (group 1) were used to develop a formula for predicting serum theophylline levels from salivary levels. (eurekamag.com)
  • Twenty-one paired blood and saliva theophylline levels from 16 patients (group 2) were used to test the formula obtained. (eurekamag.com)
  • thus under controlled conditions of steady-state pharmacokinetics in patients free of other diseases, salivary theophylline levels can be used to accurately predict serum levels. (eurekamag.com)
  • 1 Despite it being used the world over, in industrialized countries the role of theophylline has changed dramatically in the last decades, and it has become a third-line treatment for poorly-controlled patients. (archbronconeumol.org)
  • Theophylline increases the force of contraction of diaphragmatic muscles. (nih.gov)
  • Theophylline increases the expression and activity of HDAC and improves steroid sensitivity thereby decreases oxidative stress. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Theophylline increases pyridoxal kinase activity independently from vitamin B 6 nutritional status. (memorialhealth.com)
  • The data suggest that papaverine is a potent, direct inhibitor of adenosine transport across both L and AL membranes whereas it is likely that theophylline increases net adenosine influx across the L membrane and decreases adenosine influx across the AL membrane by indirect metabolic effects. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Specifically, as part of promotion of proper use of 'Theodur' and 'Theodrip,' MRs (medical representatives) at Nikken Chemicals Co., Ltd. will provide medical professionals with information on blood theophylline level measurement, and collect reciprocal information, which will be shared with our company through IT. (horiba.com)
  • More frequent measurements should be made in the presence of any condition that may significantly alter theophylline clearance (see PRECAUTIONS , Laboratory tests). (nih.gov)
  • tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to theophylline, any other medications, or any of the ingredients in theophylline preparations. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Many other medications may also interact with theophylline, so be sure to tell your doctor about all the medications you are taking, even those that do not appear on this list. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Does Theophylline In 5% Dextrose Solution interact with other medications? (webmd.com)
  • It is important that you don't take more theophylline than prescribed, even if your breathing does not get better, because levels at which signs of overdose take place are not as high as most medications. (medbroadcast.com)
  • Amnesic syndrome after theophylline associated seizures: iatrogenic brain injury. (bmj.com)
  • Such seizures are more likely in the elderly, in the presence of pre-existing neurological disease, and when theophylline is given with certain antibiotics and cimetidine. (bmj.com)
  • Supportive care for theophylline intoxication includes prevention of further absorption, interruption of enterohepatic circulation and treatment of complications including arrhythmias and seizures. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Three volunteers receiving theophylline plus zileuton withdrew from the trial prematurely. (nih.gov)
  • Davi MJ, Sankaran K, Simons FER, Seshia MM, Rigatto H (1978) Physiologic changes induced by theophylline in the treatment of apnea in preterm infants. (springer.com)
  • Slo-phyllin prolonged-release capsules contain the active ingredient theophylline. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Slo-phyllin capsules are designed to release the theophylline slowly over 12 hours. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • The Department of Health and Social Care (DHSC) has issued a supply disruption alert (SDA) stating that, Merck, the manufacturer of Slo-phyllin® (theophylline) capsules, has discontinued production of all strengths of this medicine due to manufacturing issues. (npa.co.uk)
  • Inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting beta agonist + theophylline (Slophylline capsules 100 mg/Theo-dur Retard 100 mg b.i.d. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Theo-24 Extended-release capsules meet Drug Release Test 6 as published in the current USP monograph for Theophylline Extended-release Capsules. (endo.com)
  • We gave ten healthy volunteers theophylline as an intravenous loading dose (5 mg X kg-1) over 1 h, followed by a maintenance infusion (0.5 mg X kg-1 X h-1) for 5 h. (lu.se)
  • 2016. https://www.unboundmedicine.com/washingtonmanual/view/Washington-Manual-of-Medical-Therapeutics/602666/4/Theophylline. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Theophylline distributes poorly into body fat, therefore, mg/kg dose should be calculated on the basis of ideal body weight. (rxlist.com)
  • What preparations of theophylline are available? (medicinenet.com)
  • Theophylline is synthesized on an industrial scale and is used principally in pharmaceutical preparations. (inchem.org)
  • Points clinically relevant to the daily use of theophylline derivatives and the importance of sustained-release preparations are discussed. (annals.org)
  • The main actions of theophylline involve: relaxing bronchial smooth muscle increasing heart muscle contractility and efficiency (positive inotrope) increasing heart rate (positive chronotropic) increasing blood pressure increasing renal blood flow anti-inflammatory effects central nervous system stimulatory effect mainly on the medullary respiratory center. (wikipedia.org)
  • Newly discovered actions of theophylline include dose-dependent improvement of diaphragmatic contractility, augmentation of ventilatory response to hypoxia, and sleep disturbances (especially with high-dose treatments). (annals.org)
  • The plasma clearance of theophylline was reduced in 9 of the 10 subjects. (lu.se)
  • Administration of theophylline in the diet at dose levels that were mildly toxic to adults caused decreased numbers of litters per breeding pair, decreased live litter size, an increased number of resorptions and decreased neonatal weight. (inchem.org)
  • A second infusion of theophylline was given after 9 days of treatment with 1 g erythromycin base daily, and the concentrations of theophylline were determined during the infusion periods. (lu.se)
  • A significant increase in both AUC and mean plasma concentrations of theophylline was seen during erythromycin treatment. (lu.se)
  • Since low micromolar concentrations of theophylline depressed spontaneous transmitter release, this action may result from adenosine receptor blockade and inhibition of a tonic, stimulatory effect of adenosine. (jneurosci.org)
  • This hypothesis was supported by the following experimental results: (1) Micromolar concentrations of theophylline reversed the effects of applied adenosine on neuromuscular transmission. (jneurosci.org)
  • Theophylline may cause side effects. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Theophylline is excreted in breast milk and may cause mild side effects such as irritability in the infant. (medicinenet.com)
  • Using theophylline together with formoterol may increase cardiovascular side effects such as heart palpitations, increased heart and pulse rates, and blood pressure elevations. (drugs.com)
  • Because of these powerful new treatments, as well as the modest benefits of theophylline and its side effects, theophylline fell out of favor. (healthcentral.com)
  • List Theophylline In 5% Dextrose Solution side effects by likelihood and severity. (webmd.com)
  • Theophylline-Etofylline might have some side effects but it's not possible to anticipate them. (internationaldrugmart.com)
  • Theophylline comes as an extended-release (long-acting) tablet, extended-release capsule, and a solution (liquid) to take by mouth. (medlineplus.gov)