Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.
Subset of helper-effector T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete IL-17, IL-17F, and IL-22. These cytokines are involved in host defenses and tissue inflammation in autoimmune diseases.
Homeostatic control of the immune system by secretion of different cytokines by the Th1 and Th2 cells. The concentration dependent binding of the various cytokines to specific receptors determines the balance (or imbalance leading to disease).
A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.
A proinflammatory cytokine produced primarily by T-LYMPHOCYTES or their precursors. Several subtypes of interleukin-17 have been identified, each of which is a product of a unique gene.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.
Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Time period from 1601 through 1700 of the common era.
Inbred BALB/c mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been selectively bred to be genetically identical to each other, making them useful for scientific research and experiments due to their consistent genetic background and predictable responses to various stimuli or treatments.
Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.
Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.
Inbred C57BL mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been produced by many generations of brother-sister matings, resulting in a high degree of genetic uniformity and homozygosity, making them widely used for biomedical research, including studies on genetics, immunology, cancer, and neuroscience.
Time period from 1401 through 1500 of the common era.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Time period from 1501 through 1600 of the common era.
A GATA transcription factor that is found predominately in LYMPHOID CELL precursors and has been implicated in the CELL DIFFERENTIATION of HELPER T-CELLS. Haploinsufficiency of GATA3 is associated with HYPOPARATHYROIDISM; SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS; and renal anomalies syndrome.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-12 is a 70 kDa protein that is composed of covalently linked 40 kDa and 35 kDa subunits. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cells and plays a role in the stimulation of INTERFERON-GAMMA production by T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen to 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, dihydrobiopterin, and water. EC 1.14.16.2.
Soluble factors which stimulate growth-related activities of leukocytes as well as other cell types. They enhance cell proliferation and differentiation, DNA synthesis, secretion of other biologically active molecules and responses to immune and inflammatory stimuli.
A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.
An orphan nuclear receptor found in the THYMUS where it plays a role in regulating the development and maturation of thymocytes. An isoform of this protein, referred to as RORgammaT, is produced by an alternatively transcribed mRNA.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A cytokine synthesized by T-LYMPHOCYTES that produces proliferation, immunoglobulin isotype switching, and immunoglobulin production by immature B-LYMPHOCYTES. It appears to play a role in regulating inflammatory and immune responses.
A cytokine that promotes differentiation and activation of EOSINOPHILS. It also triggers activated B-LYMPHOCYTES to differentiate into IMMUNOGLOBULIN-secreting cells.
CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.
A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-23 is comprised of a unique 19 kDa subunit and 40 kDa subunit that is shared with INTERLEUKIN-12. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cells
Proteins containing a region of conserved sequence, about 200 amino acids long, which encodes a particular sequence specific DNA binding domain (the T-box domain). These proteins are transcription factors that control developmental pathways. The prototype of this family is the mouse Brachyury (or T) gene product.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-4. Stat6 has been shown to partner with NF-KAPPA B and CCAAT-ENHANCER-BINDING PROTEINS to regulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of interleukin-4 responsive GENES.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).
An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-12 in T-LYMPHOCYTES. Stat4 is an important signaling molecule for differentiation in TH1 CELLS.
An experimental animal model for central nervous system demyelinating disease. Inoculation with a white matter emulsion combined with FREUND'S ADJUVANT, myelin basic protein, or purified central myelin triggers a T cell-mediated immune response directed towards central myelin. The pathologic features are similar to MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, including perivascular and periventricular foci of inflammation and demyelination. Subpial demyelination underlying meningeal infiltrations also occurs, which is also a feature of ENCEPHALOMYELITIS, ACUTE DISSEMINATED. Passive immunization with T-cells from an afflicted animal to a normal animal also induces this condition. (From Immunol Res 1998;17(1-2):217-27; Raine CS, Textbook of Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p604-5)
Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).

Highly purified Th17 cells from BDC2.5NOD mice convert into Th1-like cells in NOD/SCID recipient mice. (1/1282)

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Interleukin-17-producing T-helper cells and related cytokines in human airways exposed to endotoxin. (2/1282)

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Zinc suppresses Th17 development via inhibition of STAT3 activation. (3/1282)

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Extracellular vesicles are key intercellular mediators in the development of immune dysfunction to allergens in the airways. (4/1282)

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A formal analysis of cytokine networks in chronic fatigue syndrome. (5/1282)

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Immunomodulatory properties of stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth. (6/1282)

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Expression of the T helper 17-associated cytokines IL-17A and IL-17F in asthma and COPD. (7/1282)

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The atypical chemokine receptor CCX-CKR scavenges homeostatic chemokines in circulation and tissues and suppresses Th17 responses. (8/1282)

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Th2 cells, or T helper 2 cells, are a type of CD4+ T cell that plays a key role in the immune response to parasites and allergens. They produce cytokines such as IL-4, IL-5, IL-13 which promote the activation and proliferation of eosinophils, mast cells, and B cells, leading to the production of antibodies such as IgE. Th2 cells also play a role in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases such as asthma, atopic dermatitis, and allergic rhinitis.

It's important to note that an imbalance in Th1/Th2 response can lead to immune dysregulation and disease states. For example, an overactive Th2 response can lead to allergic reactions while an underactive Th2 response can lead to decreased ability to fight off parasitic infections.

It's also worth noting that there are other subsets of CD4+ T cells such as Th1, Th17, Treg and others, each with their own specific functions and cytokine production profiles.

Th1 cells, or Type 1 T helper cells, are a subset of CD4+ T cells that play a crucial role in the cell-mediated immune response. They are characterized by the production of specific cytokines, such as interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin-2 (IL-2). Th1 cells are essential for protecting against intracellular pathogens, including viruses, bacteria, and parasites. They activate macrophages to destroy ingested microorganisms, stimulate the differentiation of B cells into plasma cells that produce antibodies, and recruit other immune cells to the site of infection. Dysregulation of Th1 cell responses has been implicated in various autoimmune diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and type 1 diabetes.

T helper 17 (Th17) cells are a subset of CD4+ T cells, which are a type of white blood cell that plays a crucial role in the immune response. Th17 cells are characterized by their production of certain cytokines, including interleukin-17 (IL-17), IL-21, and IL-22. They are involved in the inflammatory response and play a key role in protecting the body against extracellular bacteria and fungi. However, an overactive Th17 response has been implicated in several autoimmune diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and psoriasis. Therefore, understanding the regulation of Th17 cells is important for developing new therapies to treat these conditions.

Th1-Th2 balance refers to the regulation of the immune response by two subsets of T helper cells, Th1 and Th2. These cell types produce different cytokines that mediate distinct types of immune responses. A balanced Th1-Th2 response is critical for maintaining immune homeostasis and protecting the body against various pathogens.

Th1 cells primarily mediate cell-mediated immunity, which involves activating macrophages, natural killer (NK) cells, and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) to eliminate intracellular pathogens such as viruses and bacteria. Th1 cells produce cytokines like interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin-2 (IL-2).

Th2 cells, on the other hand, mediate humoral immunity, which involves activating B cells to produce antibodies against extracellular pathogens like parasites and toxins. Th2 cells produce cytokines like interleukin-4 (IL-4), interleukin-5 (IL-5), interleukin-10 (IL-10), and interleukin-13 (IL-13).

An imbalance in the Th1-Th2 response can lead to various immune-related disorders. For example, an overactive Th1 response can result in autoimmune diseases, while an overactive Th2 response can contribute to allergic and atopic conditions like asthma and eczema. Therefore, maintaining a balanced Th1-Th2 response is crucial for optimal immune function and overall health.

Interleukin-4 (IL-4) is a type of cytokine, which is a cell signaling molecule that mediates communication between cells in the immune system. Specifically, IL-4 is produced by activated T cells and mast cells, among other cells, and plays an important role in the differentiation and activation of immune cells called Th2 cells.

Th2 cells are involved in the immune response to parasites, as well as in allergic reactions. IL-4 also promotes the growth and survival of B cells, which produce antibodies, and helps to regulate the production of certain types of antibodies. In addition, IL-4 has anti-inflammatory effects and can help to downregulate the immune response in some contexts.

Defects in IL-4 signaling have been implicated in a number of diseases, including asthma, allergies, and certain types of cancer.

Interleukin-17 (IL-17) is a type of cytokine, which are proteins that play a crucial role in cell signaling and communication during the immune response. IL-17 is primarily produced by a subset of T helper cells called Th17 cells, although other cell types like neutrophils, mast cells, natural killer cells, and innate lymphoid cells can also produce it.

IL-17 has several functions in the immune system, including:

1. Promoting inflammation: IL-17 stimulates the production of various proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and enzymes from different cell types, leading to the recruitment of immune cells like neutrophils to the site of infection or injury.
2. Defending against extracellular pathogens: IL-17 plays a critical role in protecting the body against bacterial and fungal infections by enhancing the recruitment and activation of neutrophils, which can engulf and destroy these microorganisms.
3. Regulating tissue homeostasis: IL-17 helps maintain the balance between immune tolerance and immunity in various tissues by regulating the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of epithelial cells, fibroblasts, and other structural components.

However, dysregulated IL-17 production or signaling has been implicated in several inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, such as psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, and inflammatory bowel disease. Therefore, targeting the IL-17 pathway with specific therapeutics has emerged as a promising strategy for treating these conditions.

Cytokines are a broad and diverse category of small signaling proteins that are secreted by various cells, including immune cells, in response to different stimuli. They play crucial roles in regulating the immune response, inflammation, hematopoiesis, and cellular communication.

Cytokines mediate their effects by binding to specific receptors on the surface of target cells, which triggers intracellular signaling pathways that ultimately result in changes in gene expression, cell behavior, and function. Some key functions of cytokines include:

1. Regulating the activation, differentiation, and proliferation of immune cells such as T cells, B cells, natural killer (NK) cells, and macrophages.
2. Coordinating the inflammatory response by recruiting immune cells to sites of infection or tissue damage and modulating their effector functions.
3. Regulating hematopoiesis, the process of blood cell formation in the bone marrow, by controlling the proliferation, differentiation, and survival of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells.
4. Modulating the development and function of the nervous system, including neuroinflammation, neuroprotection, and neuroregeneration.

Cytokines can be classified into several categories based on their structure, function, or cellular origin. Some common types of cytokines include interleukins (ILs), interferons (IFNs), tumor necrosis factors (TNFs), chemokines, colony-stimulating factors (CSFs), and transforming growth factors (TGFs). Dysregulation of cytokine production and signaling has been implicated in various pathological conditions, such as autoimmune diseases, chronic inflammation, cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders.

T-lymphocytes, also known as T-cells, are a type of white blood cell that plays a key role in the immune response. They help to protect the body from infection and disease by identifying and attacking foreign substances such as viruses and bacteria.

Helper-inducer T-lymphocytes, also known as CD4+ T-cells or Th0 cells, are a specific subset of T-lymphocytes that help to coordinate the immune response. They do this by activating other immune cells, such as B-lymphocytes (which produce antibodies) and cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (which directly attack infected cells). Helper-inducer T-lymphocytes also release cytokines, which are signaling molecules that help to regulate the immune response.

Helper-inducer T-lymphocytes can differentiate into different subsets of T-cells, depending on the type of cytokines they are exposed to. For example, they can differentiate into Th1 cells, which produce cytokines that help to activate cytotoxic T-lymphocytes and macrophages; or Th2 cells, which produce cytokines that help to activate B-lymphocytes and eosinophils.

It is important to note that helper-inducer T-lymphocytes play a crucial role in the immune response, and dysfunction of these cells can lead to immunodeficiency or autoimmune disorders.

"History, 19th Century" is not a medical term or concept. It refers to the historical events, developments, and figures related to the 1800s in various fields, including politics, culture, science, and technology. However, if you are looking for medical advancements during the 19th century, here's a brief overview:

The 19th century was a period of significant progress in medicine, with numerous discoveries and innovations that shaped modern medical practices. Some notable developments include:

1. Edward Jenner's smallpox vaccine (1796): Although not strictly within the 19th century, Jenner's discovery laid the foundation for vaccination as a preventive measure against infectious diseases.
2. Germ theory of disease: The work of Louis Pasteur, Robert Koch, and others established that many diseases were caused by microorganisms, leading to the development of antiseptic practices and vaccines.
3. Anesthesia: In 1842, Crawford Long first used ether as an anesthetic during surgery, followed by the introduction of chloroform in 1847 by James Simpson.
4. Antisepsis and asepsis: Joseph Lister introduced antiseptic practices in surgery, significantly reducing postoperative infections. Later, the concept of asepsis (sterilization) was developed to prevent contamination during surgical procedures.
5. Microbiology: The development of techniques for culturing and staining bacteria allowed for better understanding and identification of pathogens.
6. Physiology: Claude Bernard's work on the regulation of internal body functions, or homeostasis, contributed significantly to our understanding of human physiology.
7. Neurology: Jean-Martin Charcot made significant contributions to the study of neurological disorders, including multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's disease.
8. Psychiatry: Sigmund Freud developed psychoanalysis, a new approach to understanding mental illnesses.
9. Public health: The 19th century saw the establishment of public health organizations and initiatives aimed at improving sanitation, water quality, and vaccination programs.
10. Medical education reforms: The Flexner Report in 1910 led to significant improvements in medical education standards and practices.

Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) is a soluble cytokine that is primarily produced by the activation of natural killer (NK) cells and T lymphocytes, especially CD4+ Th1 cells and CD8+ cytotoxic T cells. It plays a crucial role in the regulation of the immune response against viral and intracellular bacterial infections, as well as tumor cells. IFN-γ has several functions, including activating macrophages to enhance their microbicidal activity, increasing the presentation of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and II molecules on antigen-presenting cells, stimulating the proliferation and differentiation of T cells and NK cells, and inducing the production of other cytokines and chemokines. Additionally, IFN-γ has direct antiproliferative effects on certain types of tumor cells and can enhance the cytotoxic activity of immune cells against infected or malignant cells.

I believe there might be a bit of confusion in your question. A "history" in medical terms usually refers to the detailed account of a patient's symptoms, illnesses, and treatments received, which is used by healthcare professionals to understand their health status and provide appropriate care. It is not typically associated with a specific century like the 17th century.

If you are asking for information about the medical practices or significant developments in the field of medicine during the 17th century, I would be happy to provide some insight into that. The 17th century was a time of great advancement in medical knowledge and practice, with several key figures and events shaping the course of medical history.

Some notable developments in medicine during the 17th century include:

1. William Harvey's discovery of the circulation of blood (1628): English physician William Harvey published his groundbreaking work "De Motu Cordis" (On the Motion of the Heart and Blood), which described the circulatory system and the role of the heart in pumping blood throughout the body. This discovery fundamentally changed our understanding of human anatomy and physiology.
2. The development of the microscope (1600s): The invention of the microscope allowed scientists to observe structures that were previously invisible to the naked eye, such as cells, bacteria, and other microorganisms. This technology opened up new avenues of research in anatomy, physiology, and pathology, paving the way for modern medical science.
3. The establishment of the Royal Society (1660): The Royal Society, a prominent scientific organization in the UK, was founded during this century to promote scientific inquiry and share knowledge among its members. Many notable scientists and physicians, including Robert Hooke and Christopher Wren, were part of the society and contributed significantly to the advancement of medical science.
4. The Smallpox Vaccination (1796): Although this occurred near the end of the 18th century, the groundwork for Edward Jenner's smallpox vaccine was laid during the 17th century. Smallpox was a significant public health issue during this time, and Jenner's development of an effective vaccine marked a major milestone in the history of medicine and public health.
5. The work of Sylvius de le Boe (1614-1672): A Dutch physician and scientist, Sylvius de le Boe made significant contributions to our understanding of human anatomy and physiology. He was the first to describe the circulation of blood in the lungs and identified the role of the liver in metabolism.

These are just a few examples of the many advancements that took place during the 17th century, shaping the course of medical history and laying the foundation for modern medicine.

BALB/c is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The strain was developed at the Institute of Cancer Research in London by Henry Baldwin and his colleagues in the 1920s, and it has since become one of the most commonly used inbred strains in the world.

BALB/c mice are characterized by their black coat color, which is determined by a recessive allele at the tyrosinase locus. They are also known for their docile and friendly temperament, making them easy to handle and work with in the laboratory.

One of the key features of BALB/c mice that makes them useful for research is their susceptibility to certain types of tumors and immune responses. For example, they are highly susceptible to developing mammary tumors, which can be induced by chemical carcinogens or viral infection. They also have a strong Th2-biased immune response, which makes them useful models for studying allergic diseases and asthma.

BALB/c mice are also commonly used in studies of genetics, neuroscience, behavior, and infectious diseases. Because they are an inbred strain, they have a uniform genetic background, which makes it easier to control for genetic factors in experiments. Additionally, because they have been bred in the laboratory for many generations, they are highly standardized and reproducible, making them ideal subjects for scientific research.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "History, 20th Century" is a broad and complex topic that refers to the events, developments, and transformations that occurred throughout the world during the 1900s. It is not a medical term or concept. If you're interested in learning more about this historical period, I would recommend consulting a history textbook, reputable online resources, or speaking with a historian. They can provide detailed information about the political, social, economic, and cultural changes that took place during the 20th century.

I believe there might be a bit of confusion in your question. A "history" in medical terms usually refers to the detailed account of a patient's symptoms, illnesses, and treatments received, which is used by healthcare professionals to understand their health status and provide appropriate care. It is not typically associated with a specific century like the 18th century.

If you are asking for information about the medical practices or significant developments in the field of medicine during the 18th century, I would be happy to provide some insight into that! The 18th century was a time of great advancement and change in the medical field, with many notable discoveries and innovations. Some examples include:

* The development of smallpox vaccination by Edward Jenner in 1796
* The discovery of oxygen by Joseph Priestley in 1774
* The invention of the thermometer by Gabriel Fahrenheit in 1714
* The publication of "An Inquiry into the Causes and Effects of the Variolae Vaccinae" by Edward Jenner in 1798, which helped to establish the concept of vaccination
* The founding of the Royal Society of Medicine in London in 1773
* The development of new surgical techniques and instruments, such as the use of tourniquets and catgut sutures.

C57BL/6 (C57 Black 6) is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The term "inbred" refers to a strain of animals where matings have been carried out between siblings or other closely related individuals for many generations, resulting in a population that is highly homozygous at most genetic loci.

The C57BL/6 strain was established in 1920 by crossing a female mouse from the dilute brown (DBA) strain with a male mouse from the black strain. The resulting offspring were then interbred for many generations to create the inbred C57BL/6 strain.

C57BL/6 mice are known for their robust health, longevity, and ease of handling, making them a popular choice for researchers. They have been used in a wide range of biomedical research areas, including studies of cancer, immunology, neuroscience, cardiovascular disease, and metabolism.

One of the most notable features of the C57BL/6 strain is its sensitivity to certain genetic modifications, such as the introduction of mutations that lead to obesity or impaired glucose tolerance. This has made it a valuable tool for studying the genetic basis of complex diseases and traits.

Overall, the C57BL/6 inbred mouse strain is an important model organism in biomedical research, providing a valuable resource for understanding the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying human health and disease.

I believe there might be a bit of confusion in your question. A "medical definition" refers to the explanation of a medical term or concept. On the other hand, "15th century" is a historical time period and does not have a medical definition per se. However, I can provide you with some context regarding the medical advancements and practices during the 15th century.

The 15th century was marked by significant developments in medicine, particularly in Europe, as it transitioned from medieval to early modern medicine. Some key aspects of 15th-century medicine include:

1. Universities and medical education: Universities became more prominent centers for medical education, with institutions like the University of Bologna, Padua, Montpellier, and Salamanca playing crucial roles in shaping medical thought. Medical faculties taught subjects such as anatomy, physiology, pathology, surgery, and pharmacology based on ancient Greek and Roman texts, mainly Galen and Hippocrates.

2. Anatomical studies: The 15th century saw the beginning of a more accurate understanding of human anatomy. Italian anatomist and physician Mondino de Luzzi (c. 1270–1326) is known for his influential anatomy textbook, "Anathomia," which was widely used during this period. Later in the century, Andreas Vesalius (1514–1564), often regarded as the founder of modern human anatomy, began his groundbreaking work on detailed dissections and accurate representations of the human body.

3. Renaissance of medical illustrations: The 15th century marked a revival in medical illustrations, with artists like Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519) creating highly accurate anatomical drawings based on dissections. These detailed images helped physicians better understand the human body and its functions.

4. Development of hospitals: Hospitals during this time became more organized and specialized, focusing on specific medical conditions or patient populations. For example, mental health institutions, known as "madhouses" or "asylums," were established to treat individuals with mental illnesses.

5. Plague and public health: The ongoing threat of the bubonic plague (Black Death) led to increased efforts in public health, including improved sanitation practices and the establishment of quarantine measures for infected individuals.

6. Humoral theory: Although challenged by some during this period, the ancient Greek humoral theory—which posited that the balance of four bodily fluids or "humors" (blood, phlegm, black bile, and yellow bile) determined a person's health—remained influential in medical practice.

7. Surgery: Barber-surgeons continued to perform various surgical procedures, including bloodletting, tooth extraction, and amputations. However, anesthesia was still not widely used, and pain management relied on opium or alcohol-based preparations.

8. Pharmacology: The use of herbal remedies and other natural substances to treat illnesses remained popular during the 15th century. Physicians like Nicholas Culpeper (1616–1654) compiled extensive lists of medicinal plants and their uses, contributing to the development of modern pharmacology.

9. Astrology and medicine: Despite growing skepticism among some scholars, astrological beliefs continued to influence medical practice in the 15th century. Physicians often consulted astrological charts when diagnosing and treating patients.

10. Medical education: Universities across Europe offered formal medical education, with students studying anatomy, physiology, pathology, and pharmacology. However, many practitioners still learned their trade through apprenticeships or self-study.

CD4-positive T-lymphocytes, also known as CD4+ T cells or helper T cells, are a type of white blood cell that plays a crucial role in the immune response. They express the CD4 receptor on their surface and help coordinate the immune system's response to infectious agents such as viruses and bacteria.

CD4+ T cells recognize and bind to specific antigens presented by antigen-presenting cells, such as dendritic cells or macrophages. Once activated, they can differentiate into various subsets of effector cells, including Th1, Th2, Th17, and Treg cells, each with distinct functions in the immune response.

CD4+ T cells are particularly important in the immune response to HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), which targets and destroys these cells, leading to a weakened immune system and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections. The number of CD4+ T cells is often used as a marker of disease progression in HIV infection, with lower counts indicating more advanced disease.

I believe there might be a bit of confusion in your question. A "history" in medical terms usually refers to the detailed account of a patient's symptoms, illnesses, and treatments over time. It is a crucial part of the medical record and helps healthcare professionals understand the patient's health status and inform their care plans.

On the other hand, "16th century" refers to a specific period in history, spanning from 1501 to 1600 AD.

There isn't a direct medical definition for 'History, 16th Century.' However, if you are interested in learning about the medical advancements and practices during that time, I would be happy to provide some information. The 16th century was marked by significant developments in anatomy, surgery, and pharmacology, thanks to pioneers like Andreas Vesalius, Ambroise Paré, and William Shakespeare, who incorporated medical themes into his plays.

GATA3 transcription factor is a protein that plays a crucial role in the development and function of various types of cells, particularly in the immune system and the nervous system. It belongs to the family of GATA transcription factors, which are characterized by their ability to bind to specific DNA sequences through a zinc finger domain.

The GATA3 protein is encoded by the GATA3 gene, which is located on chromosome 10 in humans. This protein contains two zinc fingers that allow it to recognize and bind to the GATAA sequence in the DNA. Once bound, GATA3 can regulate the transcription of nearby genes, either activating or repressing their expression.

In the immune system, GATA3 is essential for the development of T cells, a type of white blood cell that plays a central role in the adaptive immune response. Specifically, GATA3 helps to promote the differentiation of naive T cells into Th2 cells, which produce cytokines that are involved in the defense against parasites and allergens.

In addition to its role in the immune system, GATA3 has also been implicated in the development and function of the nervous system. For example, it has been shown to play a role in the differentiation of neural crest cells, which give rise to various types of cells in the peripheral nervous system.

Mutations in the GATA3 gene have been associated with several human diseases, including HDR syndrome (hypoparathyroidism, deafness, and renal dysplasia) and certain types of cancer, such as breast cancer and bladder cancer.

Lymphocyte activation is the process by which B-cells and T-cells (types of lymphocytes) become activated to perform effector functions in an immune response. This process involves the recognition of specific antigens presented on the surface of antigen-presenting cells, such as dendritic cells or macrophages.

The activation of B-cells leads to their differentiation into plasma cells that produce antibodies, while the activation of T-cells results in the production of cytotoxic T-cells (CD8+ T-cells) that can directly kill infected cells or helper T-cells (CD4+ T-cells) that assist other immune cells.

Lymphocyte activation involves a series of intracellular signaling events, including the binding of co-stimulatory molecules and the release of cytokines, which ultimately result in the expression of genes involved in cell proliferation, differentiation, and effector functions. The activation process is tightly regulated to prevent excessive or inappropriate immune responses that can lead to autoimmunity or chronic inflammation.

Interleukin-12 (IL-12) is a naturally occurring protein that is primarily produced by activated macrophages and dendritic cells, which are types of immune cells. It plays a crucial role in the regulation of the immune response, particularly in the development of cell-mediated immunity.

IL-12 is composed of two subunits, p35 and p40, which combine to form a heterodimer. This cytokine stimulates the differentiation and activation of naive T cells into Th1 cells, which are important for fighting intracellular pathogens such as viruses and bacteria. IL-12 also enhances the cytotoxic activity of natural killer (NK) cells and CD8+ T cells, which can directly kill infected or malignant cells.

In addition to its role in the immune response, IL-12 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and psoriasis. As a result, therapeutic strategies targeting IL-12 or its signaling pathways have been explored as potential treatments for these conditions.

Cell differentiation is the process by which a less specialized cell, or stem cell, becomes a more specialized cell type with specific functions and structures. This process involves changes in gene expression, which are regulated by various intracellular signaling pathways and transcription factors. Differentiation results in the development of distinct cell types that make up tissues and organs in multicellular organisms. It is a crucial aspect of embryonic development, tissue repair, and maintenance of homeostasis in the body.

A "knockout" mouse is a genetically engineered mouse in which one or more genes have been deleted or "knocked out" using molecular biology techniques. This allows researchers to study the function of specific genes and their role in various biological processes, as well as potential associations with human diseases. The mice are generated by introducing targeted DNA modifications into embryonic stem cells, which are then used to create a live animal. Knockout mice have been widely used in biomedical research to investigate gene function, disease mechanisms, and potential therapeutic targets.

T-lymphocyte subsets refer to distinct populations of T-cells, which are a type of white blood cell that plays a central role in cell-mediated immunity. The two main types of T-lymphocytes are CD4+ and CD8+ cells, which are defined by the presence or absence of specific proteins called cluster differentiation (CD) molecules on their surface.

CD4+ T-cells, also known as helper T-cells, play a crucial role in activating other immune cells, such as B-lymphocytes and macrophages, to mount an immune response against pathogens. They also produce cytokines that help regulate the immune response.

CD8+ T-cells, also known as cytotoxic T-cells, directly kill infected cells or tumor cells by releasing toxic substances such as perforins and granzymes.

The balance between these two subsets of T-cells is critical for maintaining immune homeostasis and mounting effective immune responses against pathogens while avoiding excessive inflammation and autoimmunity. Therefore, the measurement of T-lymphocyte subsets is essential in diagnosing and monitoring various immunological disorders, including HIV infection, cancer, and autoimmune diseases.

Ovalbumin is the major protein found in egg white, making up about 54-60% of its total protein content. It is a glycoprotein with a molecular weight of around 45 kDa and has both hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions. Ovalbumin is a single polypeptide chain consisting of 385 amino acids, including four disulfide bridges that contribute to its structure.

Ovalbumin is often used in research as a model antigen for studying immune responses and allergies. In its native form, ovalbumin is not allergenic; however, when it is denatured or degraded into smaller peptides through cooking or digestion, it can become an allergen for some individuals.

In addition to being a food allergen, ovalbumin has been used in various medical and research applications, such as vaccine development, immunological studies, and protein structure-function analysis.

"Cells, cultured" is a medical term that refers to cells that have been removed from an organism and grown in controlled laboratory conditions outside of the body. This process is called cell culture and it allows scientists to study cells in a more controlled and accessible environment than they would have inside the body. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including tissues, organs, or fluids from humans, animals, or cell lines that have been previously established in the laboratory.

Cell culture involves several steps, including isolation of the cells from the tissue, purification and characterization of the cells, and maintenance of the cells in appropriate growth conditions. The cells are typically grown in specialized media that contain nutrients, growth factors, and other components necessary for their survival and proliferation. Cultured cells can be used for a variety of purposes, including basic research, drug development and testing, and production of biological products such as vaccines and gene therapies.

It is important to note that cultured cells may behave differently than they do in the body, and results obtained from cell culture studies may not always translate directly to human physiology or disease. Therefore, it is essential to validate findings from cell culture experiments using additional models and ultimately in clinical trials involving human subjects.

Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase (also known as Tyrosinase or Tyrosine hydroxylase) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the synthesis of catecholamines, which are neurotransmitters and hormones in the body. This enzyme catalyzes the conversion of the amino acid L-tyrosine to 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) by adding a hydroxyl group to the 3rd carbon atom of the tyrosine molecule.

The reaction is as follows:

L-Tyrosine + O2 + pterin (co-factor) -> L-DOPA + pterin (oxidized) + H2O

This enzyme requires molecular oxygen and a co-factor such as tetrahydrobiopterin to carry out the reaction. Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase is found in various tissues, including the brain and adrenal glands, where it helps regulate the production of catecholamines like dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine. Dysregulation of this enzyme has been implicated in several neurological disorders, such as Parkinson's disease.

Interleukins (ILs) are a group of naturally occurring proteins that are important in the immune system. They are produced by various cells, including immune cells like lymphocytes and macrophages, and they help regulate the immune response by facilitating communication between different types of cells. Interleukins can have both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory effects, depending on the specific interleukin and the context in which it is produced. They play a role in various biological processes, including the development of immune responses, inflammation, and hematopoiesis (the formation of blood cells).

There are many different interleukins that have been identified, and they are numbered according to the order in which they were discovered. For example, IL-1, IL-2, IL-3, etc. Each interleukin has a specific set of functions and targets certain types of cells. Dysregulation of interleukins has been implicated in various diseases, including autoimmune disorders, infections, and cancer.

Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is an anti-inflammatory cytokine that plays a crucial role in the modulation of immune responses. It is produced by various cell types, including T cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells. IL-10 inhibits the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-12, and downregulates the expression of costimulatory molecules on antigen-presenting cells. This results in the suppression of T cell activation and effector functions, which ultimately helps to limit tissue damage during inflammation and promote tissue repair. Dysregulation of IL-10 has been implicated in various pathological conditions, including chronic infections, autoimmune diseases, and cancer.

Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 1, Group F, Member 3 (NR1F3) is a gene that encodes for the retinoic acid-related orphan receptor alpha (RORα) protein. RORα is a type of nuclear receptor, which are transcription factors that regulate gene expression in response to various signals, including hormones and other molecules. RORα plays important roles in several biological processes, such as the regulation of circadian rhythm, immune function, and metabolism.

NR1F3/RORα has been identified as a critical regulator of the development and function of various immune cells, including T cells, B cells, and dendritic cells. It is also involved in the regulation of lipid metabolism and energy homeostasis, and its dysregulation has been implicated in several metabolic disorders, such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

Furthermore, NR1F3/RORα has been shown to play a role in the development of certain cancers, including breast cancer, prostate cancer, and leukemia. Therefore, understanding the function and regulation of NR1F3/RORα is an active area of research with potential therapeutic implications for various diseases.

Dendritic cells (DCs) are a type of immune cell that play a critical role in the body's defense against infection and cancer. They are named for their dendrite-like projections, which they use to interact with and sample their environment. DCs are responsible for processing antigens (foreign substances that trigger an immune response) and presenting them to T cells, a type of white blood cell that plays a central role in the immune system's response to infection and cancer.

DCs can be found throughout the body, including in the skin, mucous membranes, and lymphoid organs. They are able to recognize and respond to a wide variety of antigens, including those from bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. Once they have processed an antigen, DCs migrate to the lymph nodes, where they present the antigen to T cells. This interaction activates the T cells, which then go on to mount a targeted immune response against the invading pathogen or cancerous cells.

DCs are a diverse group of cells that can be divided into several subsets based on their surface markers and function. Some DCs, such as Langerhans cells and dermal DCs, are found in the skin and mucous membranes, where they serve as sentinels for invading pathogens. Other DCs, such as plasmacytoid DCs and conventional DCs, are found in the lymphoid organs, where they play a role in activating T cells and initiating an immune response.

Overall, dendritic cells are essential for the proper functioning of the immune system, and dysregulation of these cells has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including autoimmune disorders and cancer.

Transgenic mice are genetically modified rodents that have incorporated foreign DNA (exogenous DNA) into their own genome. This is typically done through the use of recombinant DNA technology, where a specific gene or genetic sequence of interest is isolated and then introduced into the mouse embryo. The resulting transgenic mice can then express the protein encoded by the foreign gene, allowing researchers to study its function in a living organism.

The process of creating transgenic mice usually involves microinjecting the exogenous DNA into the pronucleus of a fertilized egg, which is then implanted into a surrogate mother. The offspring that result from this procedure are screened for the presence of the foreign DNA, and those that carry the desired genetic modification are used to establish a transgenic mouse line.

Transgenic mice have been widely used in biomedical research to model human diseases, study gene function, and test new therapies. They provide a valuable tool for understanding complex biological processes and developing new treatments for a variety of medical conditions.

Interleukin-13 (IL-13) is a cytokine that plays a crucial role in the immune response, particularly in the development of allergic inflammation and hypersensitivity reactions. It is primarily produced by activated Th2 cells, mast cells, basophils, and eosinophils. IL-13 mediates its effects through binding to the IL-13 receptor complex, which consists of the IL-13Rα1 and IL-4Rα chains.

IL-13 has several functions in the body, including:

* Regulation of IgE production by B cells
* Induction of eosinophil differentiation and activation
* Inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine production by macrophages
* Promotion of mucus production and airway hyperresponsiveness in the lungs, contributing to the pathogenesis of asthma.

Dysregulation of IL-13 has been implicated in various diseases, such as allergic asthma, atopic dermatitis, and chronic rhinosinusitis. Therefore, targeting IL-13 with biologic therapies has emerged as a promising approach for the treatment of these conditions.

Interleukin-5 (IL-5) is a type of cytokine, which is a small signaling protein that mediates and regulates immunity, inflammation, and hematopoiesis. IL-5 is primarily produced by activated T cells, especially Th2 cells, as well as mast cells, eosinophils, and innate lymphoid cells (ILCs).

The primary function of IL-5 is to regulate the growth, differentiation, activation, and survival of eosinophils, a type of white blood cell that plays a crucial role in the immune response against parasitic infections. IL-5 also enhances the ability of eosinophils to migrate from the bone marrow into the bloodstream and then into tissues, where they can participate in immune responses.

In addition to its effects on eosinophils, IL-5 has been shown to have a role in the regulation of B cell function, including promoting the survival and differentiation of B cells into antibody-secreting plasma cells. Dysregulation of IL-5 production and activity has been implicated in several diseases, including asthma, allergies, and certain parasitic infections.

Regulatory T-lymphocytes (Tregs), also known as suppressor T cells, are a subpopulation of T-cells that play a critical role in maintaining immune tolerance and preventing autoimmune diseases. They function to suppress the activation and proliferation of other immune cells, thereby regulating the immune response and preventing it from attacking the body's own tissues.

Tregs constitutively express the surface markers CD4 and CD25, as well as the transcription factor Foxp3, which is essential for their development and function. They can be further divided into subsets based on their expression of other markers, such as CD127 and CD45RA.

Tregs are critical for maintaining self-tolerance by suppressing the activation of self-reactive T cells that have escaped negative selection in the thymus. They also play a role in regulating immune responses to foreign antigens, such as those encountered during infection or cancer, and can contribute to the immunosuppressive microenvironment found in tumors.

Dysregulation of Tregs has been implicated in various autoimmune diseases, including type 1 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, and multiple sclerosis, as well as in cancer and infectious diseases. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms that regulate Treg function is an important area of research with potential therapeutic implications.

Interleukin-23 (IL-23) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine, which is a type of signaling molecule used for communication between cells in the immune system. It is a heterodimeric protein composed of two subunits: p19 and p40. IL-23 plays a crucial role in the adaptive immune response by promoting the differentiation and activation of T-cells, particularly Th17 cells, which are involved in inflammatory responses.

IL-23 is produced primarily by activated dendritic cells and macrophages in response to various stimuli such as pathogens or tissue damage. Dysregulation of IL-23 has been implicated in several autoimmune diseases, including psoriasis, inflammatory bowel disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and multiple sclerosis. Therefore, therapeutic strategies targeting IL-23 are being explored as potential treatments for these conditions.

T-box domain proteins are a family of transcription factors that share a highly conserved DNA-binding domain, known as the T-box. The T-box domain is a DNA-binding motif that specifically recognizes and binds to T-box binding elements (TBEs) in the regulatory regions of target genes. These proteins play crucial roles during embryonic development, particularly in the formation of specific tissues and organs, such as the heart, limbs, and brain. Mutations in T-box domain proteins can lead to various congenital defects and developmental disorders. Some examples of T-box domain proteins include TBX1, TBX5, and TBX20.

Immunologic adjuvants are substances that are added to a vaccine to enhance the body's immune response to the antigens contained in the vaccine. They work by stimulating the immune system and promoting the production of antibodies and activating immune cells, such as T-cells and macrophages, which help to provide a stronger and more sustained immune response to the vaccine.

Immunologic adjuvants can be derived from various sources, including bacteria, viruses, and chemicals. Some common examples include aluminum salts (alum), oil-in-water emulsions (such as MF59), and bacterial components (such as lipopolysaccharide or LPS).

The use of immunologic adjuvants in vaccines can help to improve the efficacy of the vaccine, particularly for vaccines that contain weak or poorly immunogenic antigens. They can also help to reduce the amount of antigen needed in a vaccine, which can be beneficial for vaccines that are difficult or expensive to produce.

It's important to note that while adjuvants can enhance the immune response to a vaccine, they can also increase the risk of adverse reactions, such as inflammation and pain at the injection site. Therefore, the use of immunologic adjuvants must be carefully balanced against their potential benefits and risks.

The spleen is an organ in the upper left side of the abdomen, next to the stomach and behind the ribs. It plays multiple supporting roles in the body:

1. It fights infection by acting as a filter for the blood. Old red blood cells are recycled in the spleen, and platelets and white blood cells are stored there.
2. The spleen also helps to control the amount of blood in the body by removing excess red blood cells and storing platelets.
3. It has an important role in immune function, producing antibodies and removing microorganisms and damaged red blood cells from the bloodstream.

The spleen can be removed without causing any significant problems, as other organs take over its functions. This is known as a splenectomy and may be necessary if the spleen is damaged or diseased.

STAT6 (Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 6) is a transcription factor that plays a crucial role in the immune response, particularly in the development of Th2 cells and the production of cytokines. It is activated by cytokines such as IL-4 and IL-13 through phosphorylation, which leads to its dimerization and translocation into the nucleus where it binds to specific DNA sequences and regulates the expression of target genes. STAT6 is involved in a variety of biological processes including allergic responses, inflammation, and tumorigenesis. Mutations in the STAT6 gene have been associated with immunodeficiency disorders and certain types of cancer.

Flow cytometry is a medical and research technique used to measure physical and chemical characteristics of cells or particles, one cell at a time, as they flow in a fluid stream through a beam of light. The properties measured include:

* Cell size (light scatter)
* Cell internal complexity (granularity, also light scatter)
* Presence or absence of specific proteins or other molecules on the cell surface or inside the cell (using fluorescent antibodies or other fluorescent probes)

The technique is widely used in cell counting, cell sorting, protein engineering, biomarker discovery and monitoring disease progression, particularly in hematology, immunology, and cancer research.

Adoptive transfer is a medical procedure in which immune cells are transferred from a donor to a recipient with the aim of providing immunity or treating a disease, such as cancer. This technique is often used in the field of immunotherapy and involves isolating specific immune cells (like T-cells) from the donor, expanding their numbers in the laboratory, and then infusing them into the patient. The transferred cells are expected to recognize and attack the target cells, such as malignant or infected cells, leading to a therapeutic effect. This process requires careful matching of donor and recipient to minimize the risk of rejection and graft-versus-host disease.

Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is a type of antibody that plays a key role in the immune response to parasitic infections and allergies. It is produced by B cells in response to stimulation by antigens, such as pollen, pet dander, or certain foods. Once produced, IgE binds to receptors on the surface of mast cells and basophils, which are immune cells found in tissues and blood respectively. When an individual with IgE antibodies encounters the allergen again, the cross-linking of IgE molecules bound to the FcεRI receptor triggers the release of mediators such as histamine, leukotrienes, prostaglandins, and various cytokines from these cells. These mediators cause the symptoms of an allergic reaction, such as itching, swelling, and redness. IgE also plays a role in protecting against certain parasitic infections by activating eosinophils, which can kill the parasites.

In summary, Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is a type of antibody that plays a crucial role in the immune response to allergens and parasitic infections, it binds to receptors on the surface of mast cells and basophils, when an individual with IgE antibodies encounters the allergen again, it triggers the release of mediators from these cells causing the symptoms of an allergic reaction.

Animal disease models are specialized animals, typically rodents such as mice or rats, that have been genetically engineered or exposed to certain conditions to develop symptoms and physiological changes similar to those seen in human diseases. These models are used in medical research to study the pathophysiology of diseases, identify potential therapeutic targets, test drug efficacy and safety, and understand disease mechanisms.

The genetic modifications can include knockout or knock-in mutations, transgenic expression of specific genes, or RNA interference techniques. The animals may also be exposed to environmental factors such as chemicals, radiation, or infectious agents to induce the disease state.

Examples of animal disease models include:

1. Mouse models of cancer: Genetically engineered mice that develop various types of tumors, allowing researchers to study cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis.
2. Alzheimer's disease models: Transgenic mice expressing mutant human genes associated with Alzheimer's disease, which exhibit amyloid plaque formation and cognitive decline.
3. Diabetes models: Obese and diabetic mouse strains like the NOD (non-obese diabetic) or db/db mice, used to study the development of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively.
4. Cardiovascular disease models: Atherosclerosis-prone mice, such as ApoE-deficient or LDLR-deficient mice, that develop plaque buildup in their arteries when fed a high-fat diet.
5. Inflammatory bowel disease models: Mice with genetic mutations affecting intestinal barrier function and immune response, such as IL-10 knockout or SAMP1/YitFc mice, which develop colitis.

Animal disease models are essential tools in preclinical research, but it is important to recognize their limitations. Differences between species can affect the translatability of results from animal studies to human patients. Therefore, researchers must carefully consider the choice of model and interpret findings cautiously when applying them to human diseases.

STAT4 (Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 4) is a transcription factor protein that plays a crucial role in the immune response. When activated, STAT4 translocates to the nucleus and binds to specific DNA sequences, regulating the expression of target genes involved in various cellular processes such as differentiation, proliferation, and activation of immune cells like T-cells.

Activation of STAT4 occurs through phosphorylation by receptor associated kinases, following cytokine stimulation, particularly interleukin (IL)-12 and type I interferons. Once activated, STAT4 forms homodimers or heterodimers with other STAT proteins, which then translocate to the nucleus and bind to specific DNA sequences called gamma-activated sites (GAS) in the promoter regions of target genes.

Mutations in the STAT4 gene have been associated with various autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and multiple sclerosis, highlighting its importance in maintaining immune homeostasis.

Autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a model of inflammatory demyelinating disease used in medical research to study the mechanisms of multiple sclerosis (MS) and develop new therapies. It is experimentally induced in laboratory animals, typically mice or rats, through immunization with myelin antigens or T-cell transfer. The resulting immune response leads to inflammation, demyelination, and neurological dysfunction in the central nervous system (CNS), mimicking certain aspects of MS.

EAE is a valuable tool for understanding the pathogenesis of MS and testing potential treatments. However, it is essential to recognize that EAE is an experimental model and may not fully recapitulate all features of human autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

An allergen is a substance that can cause an allergic reaction in some people. These substances are typically harmless to most people, but for those with allergies, the immune system mistakenly identifies them as threats and overreacts, leading to the release of histamines and other chemicals that cause symptoms such as itching, sneezing, runny nose, rashes, hives, and difficulty breathing. Common allergens include pollen, dust mites, mold spores, pet dander, insect venom, and certain foods or medications. When a person comes into contact with an allergen, they may experience symptoms that range from mild to severe, depending on the individual's sensitivity to the substance and the amount of exposure.

"CD5L/AIM Regulates Lipid Biosynthesis and Restrains Th17 Cell Pathogenicity". Cell. 163 (6): 1413-1427. doi:10.1016/j.cell. ... Th17 pathogenic refers to a distinct phenotype of Th17 cells which is associated with immunopathology. The development of the ... Th17 pathogenic cells were identified as one of the cross-reactive cell subsets disrupting the protective myelin sheath of ... Th17 pathogenic cells were identified as one of the cross-reactive cell subsets causing inflammatory synovial and cartilage ...
Korn, Thomas; Bettelli, Estelle; Oukka, Mohamed; Kuchroo, Vijay K. (2009). "IL-17 and Th17 Cells". Annual Review of Immunology ... Some key differences between EAE in mice, and MS in humans include: B-cells: Some research points to anti-CD20 B-cells being ... It may also be induced by the passive transfer of T cells specifically reactive to these myelin antigens. Depending on the ... In many protocols, mice are coinjected with pertussis toxin to break down the blood-brain barrier and allow immune cells access ...
Th17 cells represent the most prominent T cell subset that responds to IL-23, although IL-23 has been implicated in inhibiting ... Th17 cells produce IL-17, a proinflammatory cytokine that enhances T cell priming and stimulates the production of other ... Korn T, Bettelli E, Oukka M, Kuchroo VK (2009). "IL-17 and Th17 Cells". Annual Review of Immunology. 27: 485-517. doi:10.1146/ ... Produced by dendritic cells and macrophages, IL-23 is an important part of the inflammatory response against infection. It ...
... and the subset of immune cells called Th17 cells. He is also a member of the Broad Institute in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and ... He was also the first to identify a link between high salt and generation of Th17 cells, suggesting a role of high salt diets ... Many of his groundbreaking discoveries - most notably TIM-3 and Th17 cells - have developed into therapies for patients, with ... Patel, Dhavalkumar D.; Kuchroo, Vijay K. (15 December 2015). "Th17 Cell Pathway in Human Immunity: Lessons from Genetics and ...
Korn T, Bettelli E, Oukka M, Kuchroo VK (2009). "IL-17 and Th17 Cells". Annual Review of Immunology. 27: 485-517. doi:10.1146/ ... Distribution of STAT4 is restricted to myeloid cells, thymus and testis. In resting human T cells it is expressed at very low ... Pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-12 is produced in heterodimer form by B cells and antigen-presenting cells. Binding of IL-12 to IL ... activated by cytokines.STAT4 is required for the development of Th1 cells from naive CD4+ T cells and IFN-γ production in ...
Tesmer LA, Lundy SK, Sarkar S, Fox DA (June 2008). "Th17 cells in human disease". Immunological Reviews. 223: 87-113. doi: ... Interleukin 8 is a chemokine produced by macrophages and other cell types such as epithelial cells, airway smooth muscle cells ... T-cell replacing factor III, B-cell activating factor, B-cell differentiation factor, and "Heidikine") and interleukin 2 (TSF, ... Th2 cells, through production of IL-4, have an important function in B-cell responses that involve class switch recombination ...
Hernández-Santos N, Gaffen SL (May 2012). "Th17 cells in immunity to Candida albicans". Cell Host & Microbe. 11 (5): 425-35. ... Chang SH, Reynolds JM, Pappu BP, Chen G, Martinez GJ, Dong C (October 2011). "Interleukin-17C promotes Th17 cell responses and ... Another family subunit IL-17RE is highly expressed in Th17 cells. Signaling via IL-17R protects our body against several ... a member of IL-17 family ligands produced by T helper 17 cells (Th17). IL-17R family consists of 5 members: IL-17RA, IL-17RB, ...
This is supported by the fact that ILC3 cells mirror the phenotype of Th17 cells, and a subset of ILC3 cells has also been ... Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune disorder driven by autoreactive T-cells, mainly Th1 and Th17 cells. Disruption in gut ... August 2018). "Innate Lymphoid Cells: 10 Years On". Cell. 174 (5): 1054-1066. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2018.07.017. PMID 30142344. ... including cells lysis and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. LTi cells (lymphoid tissue-inducing cells) are a ...
... called a CD4 T cell. Stockinger's research has provided insights into a particular type of CD4 T cell, called a Th17 cell, ... the first to define mechanisms underlying the differentiation of Th17 cells and demonstrated substantial pasticity in TH17 cell ... Stockinger, B.; Veldhoen, M. (2007). "Differentiation and function of Th17 T cells". Current Opinion in Immunology. 19 (3): 281 ... Stockinger, B; Zal, T; Zal, A; Gray, D (1996). "B cells solicit their own help from T cells". The Journal of Experimental ...
Th17 cells stimulate a strong inflammatory response, whereas TReg cells stimulate the opposite effect. The former tend to rely ... An example of this is found in the immune system, where CD4+ cells can differentiate into Th17 or TReg cells (among other ... In cell biology, single-cell variability occurs when individual cells in an otherwise similar population differ in shape, size ... Similar to variation in the metabolome, the proteins present in a cell and their abundances can vary from cell to cell in an ...
... contains smaller amounts of red blood cells. The collected blood product, which contains red blood cells, platelets and ... doi:10.1160/TH17-01-0015. PMID 28251234. S2CID 4333989. Carson, Jeffrey L.; Stanworth, Simon J.; Dennis, Jane A.; Trivella, ... Waters JH (December 2004). "Indications and contraindications of cell salvage". Transfusion. 44 (12 Suppl): 40S-4S. doi:10.1111 ... current medical literature shows that in most circumstances a restrictive threshold is as safe as a more liberal red cell ...
Vitamin A and TGF-beta promote T cell differentiation into regulatory T cells opposed to Th17 cells, even in the presence of IL ... These Treg cells are different from helper T cells. Another regulatory T cell subset is Treg17 cells. Regulatory T cells are ... The iTregs are able to differentiate into RORγt-expressing cells and thus acquire the phenotype of Th17 cells. These cells are ... All T cells begin as CD4-CD8-TCR- cells at the DN (double-negative) stage, where an individual cell will rearrange its T cell ...
IL-17 induces Th17 cells and Th17 response. Psoriasis is one of the autoimmune diseases in which the γδ T cells together with ... Gamma delta T cells (γδ T cells) are T cells that have a γδ T-cell receptor (TCR) on their surface. Most T cells are αβ (alpha ... Naive T cells Memory T cells Helper T cells Cytotoxic T cells Natural killer T cells Innate immune system Adaptive immune ... On the other hand, pathogenic γδ T cells produce IL-17. This cytokine induces Th17 cells differentiation, and dendritic cell- ...
2013). "Dynamic Regulatory Network Controlling Th17 Cell Differentiation." Nature 496 (2013): 461-68. "Shalek Lab". shaleklab. ... 2014). "Large-Scale Single-Cell RNA-Seq Reveals Strategies for Regulating Cell-to-Cell Dynamic Variability through Paracrine ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2019.06.029. ISSN 0092-8674. PMC 6662628. PMID 31348891. "Technique identifies T cells primed for certain ... 2013). "Single-Cell Transcriptomics Reveals Bimodality in Expression and Splicing in Immune Cells." Nature 498 (2013): 236-40. ...
"Human gut bacterial metabolism drives Th17 activation and colitis". Cell Host & Microbe. 30 (1): 17-30.e9. doi:10.1016/j.chom. ... E. lenta levels are enriched in inflammatory bowel disease, and the bacterium has been shown to activate T helper 17 cells. It ...
... promotes the apoptosis of Th-17 pro-inflammatory lymphocytes; promotes B cell lymphocytes to differentiate into antibody ... Mast cells: inhibit their infiltration into inflamed tissues and, in lung mast cells, the release of histamine. Dendritic cells ... T cells, mast cells, and dendritic cells as well as in vascular tissue; GPR32 (also termed the RvD1 receptor or DRV1) is ... gamma delta T cells, and Natural killer T cells. The cited cells then proceeded to neutralize invading organisms, limit tissue ...
CCR6 is expressed on B-cells, immature dendritic cells (DC), T-cells (Th1, Th2, Th17, Treg), natural killer T cells (NKT cells ... Some Th17 cells migrate via chemokine gradient of CCL20 to inflammatory sites and themselves can express more CCL20 to bring in ... Proinflammatory Th17 cells express CCR6 and its ligand CCL20. CCR6 influences their migration to sites of inflammation. ... more Th17 cells and regulatory T-cells (Treg). This can lead to chronic inflammation. In some models, the lack of CCR6 leads to ...
"Induction of intestinal Th17 cells by segmented filamentous bacteria". Cell. 139 (3): 485-498. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2009.09.033. ... Gut Immune Maturation Depends on Colonization with a Host-Specific Microbiota (Cell Volume 149, Issue 7 2012 1578 - 1593) At ... in the terminal ileum in close proximity to the intestinal epithelium where they are thought to help induce T helper 17 cell ...
Increased expression of miRNA-326 in PBMC cells is also prevalent in those with MS and is known to encourage Th17 cell ... transmembrane receptor meaning it is able to communicate from cell to cell and help the cell attach and adhere to nearby cells ... Th17 is a subset of T helper cells that secrete pro-inflammatory interleukin(IL)-17. Traditionally vitamin D suppresses ... Marwaha AK, Leung NJ, McMurchy AN, Levings MK (2012). "TH17 Cells in Autoimmunity and Immunodeficiency: Protective or ...
"Th17 cells are long lived and retain a stem cell-like molecular signature". Immunity. 35 (6): 972-85. doi:10.1016/j.immuni. ... CD4+ T cells can also promote tumor rejection. CD4+ T cells enhance CD8+ T cell function and can directly destroy tumor cells. ... CD8+ T cells can exist in a stem cell-like state, capable of clonal proliferation. Human T memory stem cells express a gene ... Adoptive cell transfer (ACT) is the transfer of cells into a patient. The cells may have originated from the patient or from ...
Human TH17 Cells Are Long-Lived Effector Memory Cells. Sci Transl Med 3, 104ra100, doi:10.1126/scitranslmed.3002949 (2011). Zou ... Cell 170, 548-563 e516, doi:10.1016/j.cell.2017.07.008 (2017). Xia H, W. W., Crespo J, Kryczek I, Li W, Wei S, Bian Z, Maj T, ... Cell 173, 1770-1782, doi:10.1016/j.cell.2018.04.034 (2018). Lin, H. et al. Host expression of PD-L1 determines efficacy of PD- ... Effector T Cells Abrogate Stroma-Mediated Chemoresistance in Ovarian Cancer. Cell 165, 1092-1105 (2016). Kryczek, I. et al. IL- ...
Th17 cells) are a distinct lineage from the Th1 and Th2 CD4+ lineages and the differentiation of Th17 cells requires STAT3 and ... "Induction of intestinal Th17 cells by segmented filamentous bacteria". Cell. 139 (3): 485-98. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2009.09.033. ... lesions as well as peripheral blood has been documented before the identification of Th17 cells. Human TH17 cells have been ... produced by cytotoxic T cells. Indeed, data from ovarian cancer suggest that Th17 cells are positively correlated with NK cell- ...
Sarkar, Sujata; Fox, David A. (May 2010). "Targeting IL-17 and Th17 Cells in Rheumatoid Arthritis". Rheumatic Disease Clinics ... and suppresses Th17 cells, both implicated in rheumatoid arthritis. This effect is dose-dependent in humans, and UCDA is ... "A Small-Molecule Inhibitor of BCL6 Kills DLBCL Cells In Vitro and In Vivo". Cancer Cell. 17 (4): 400-411. doi:10.1016/j.ccr. ... "miR-144-3p inhibits cell proliferation of colorectal cancer cells by targeting BCL6 via inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signaling ...
Th17 cells have been added to this list. Innate-like T cells or unconventional T cells represent some subsets of T cells that ... Cytotoxic T cells (TC cells, CTLs, T-killer cells, killer T cells) destroy virus-infected cells and tumor cells, and are also ... T helper cells (TH cells) assist other lymphocytes, including the maturation of B cells into plasma cells and memory B cells, ... Gamma delta T cells (γδ T cells) represent a small subset of T cells which possess a γδ TCR rather than the αβ TCR on the cell ...
Marwaha AK, Leung NJ, McMurchy AN, Levings MK (2012). "TH17 Cells in Autoimmunity and Immunodeficiency: Protective or ... It is mostly eliminated by being taken up into cells via endocytosis and being broken down inside them. Secukinumab is a ... which is produced mainly by inflammatory T helper 17 cells. IL17A is upregulated in serum of people with psoriasis and in the ... and promotes inflammation when it binds to the interleukin-17 receptor which is expressed in various types of cells, including ...
IL-9 is produced by variety of cells like mast cells, NKT cells, Th2, Th17, Treg, ILC2, and Th9 cells in different amounts. ... Th9 cells are regarded as the major CD4+ T cells that produce IL-9. Il-9 is a cytokine secreted by CD4+ helper cells that acts ... It was first purified and characterized as a T cell and mast cell growth factor and termed as P40, based on their molecular ... IL-9 was found to be the first physiological stimulus triggering BCL3 expression in T cells and mast cells by the analysis done ...
It's produced by a variety of immune cells such as macrophages, neutrophils and epithelial cells, or Th17 population. Moreover ... March 2018). "Th17 cells regulate the production of CXCL1 in breast cancer". International Immunopharmacology. 56: 320-329. doi ... its expression can be also induced indirectly by IL-1, TNF-α or IL-17 produced again by Th17 cells and is triggered mainly by ... "Interaction between Tumor-Associated Dendritic Cells and Colon Cancer Cells Contributes to Tumor Progression via CXCL1". ...
"Th17-associated cytokines promote human airway smooth muscle cell proliferation". FASEB Journal. 26 (12): 5152-60. doi:10.1096/ ... Journal of Molecular Cell Biology. 2 (4): 223-30. doi:10.1093/jmcb/mjq017. PMC 2948820. PMID 20671117. Kotenko SV, Izotova LS, ... IL-10-related T cell-derived inducible factor, IL-TIF) receptor complexes". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 276 (4): 2725- ...
showed that TH1 and TH2 cells express higher levels of ODC than regulatory T (Treg) cells and TH17 cells, which corresponded to ... "Metabolic modeling of single Th17 cells reveals regulators of autoimmunity". Cell. 184 (16): 4168-4185.e21. doi:10.1016/j.cell. ... They concluded that polyamine-related enzyme expression was enhanced in pathogenic TH17 and suppressed in Treg cells. Kern AD, ... using T-cell specific ODC cKO mice showed that T cells can function and proliferate normally in vivo and other polyamine ...
Like other T helper cells, Th17 cells closely interact with B cells in response to pathogens. Th17 cells are involved in B cell ... the loss of Th17 cell populations can contribute to chronic infection. Th17 cells, particularly auto-specific Th17 cells, are ... The protective and non-pathogenic Th17 cells induced by IL-6 and TGF-β are termed as Treg17 cells. The pathogenic Th17 cells ... Additionally, the loss of Th17 cells in the intestine leads to a loss of balance between inflammatory Th17 cells and Treg cells ...
... leading to identification of the molecular mechanisms that drive differentiation of Th17 T cells. This … ... termed Th17, which is distinct from Th1, Th2 and Treg subsets. There has been much progress in the past year, ... IL-17-producing T cells have recently been classified as a new effector T-cell subset, ... IL-17-producing T cells have recently been classified as a new effector T-cell subset, termed Th17, which is distinct from Th1 ...
Prior phenotypic evaluation by CyTOF has identified increases in activated CD8 T cells with activation of Th17 T cells, as well ... flow cytometry that autoimmune toxicity in patients is associated with higher absolute numbers of CD4 and CD8 T cells with Th17 ... and demonstrate that both idelalisib and duvelisib can inhibit T cell proliferation as well as Th1 and Treg differentiation in ... suggesting that loss of Tregs may be permissive for Th17 activation to lead to autoimmune toxicity. Clinical trials to restore ...
... cells are involved in the pathogenesis of IBD, which makes them an attractive therapeutic target. Th17 cells preferentially ... This review highlights critical roles of Th17 cells in the pathogenesis of IBD and the rationale for using probiotics as a ... The potential molecular mechanisms by which probiotics modulate Th17 cells differentiation and production are also discussed. ... novel therapeutic approach for IBD through manipulation of Th17 cells. ...
Th17, and CD3,sup,+,/sup,CD4,sup,+,/sup,IL-2,sup,+,/sup,Th22 cells as well as higher levels of Th1/Th17/Th22-type cytokines ... Our findings demonstrated that an imbalance between Tregs and Th1-Th17-Th22 cells might contribute to the pathogenic process of ... Th1-Th17-Th22 cells in the pathogenic process of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). The numbers of Foxp3,sup,+,/sup,Tregs and Th1, ... Th17, and Th22 cells were measured in 32 AIH patients using flow cytometry. Moreover, a murine model of experimental autoimmune ...
Unhealthy microbes in the mouth trigger specialized immune cells that inflame and destroy tissues, leading to bone loss ... Also, the amount of Th17 cells correlated with disease severity. Similarly, more Th17 cells accumulated in the gums of mice ... To see if blocking Th17 cells could reduce periodontal disease, the researchers genetically engineered mice to lack Th17 cells ... "Our results suggest that immune cells known as T helper 17 (Th17) cells are drivers of this process, providing the link between ...
Li H, Zhu L, Wang R, Xie L, Ren J, Ma S, Zhang W, Liu X, Huang Z, Chen B, et al. Aging weakens Th17 cell pathogenicity and ... Aging weakens Th17 cell pathogenicity and ameliorates experimental autoimmune uveitis in mice.. ... The ISSCR Releases Global Standards to Enhance Rigor and Reproducibility of Stem Cell Research ...
... discusses the phase 1 investigation of the Th17 dendritic cell vaccine in ovarian cancer, and how it could potentially improve ... prompting interest in harnessing Th17 cells. Accordingly, a Th17-stimulating dendritic cell vaccine was developed to ... Dr Cannon on the Investigation of the Th17 Dendritic Cell Vaccine in Ovarian Cancer. August 23, 2023. Martin Cannon, PhD ... A correlation between Th17 cell infiltration and prolonged overall survival in patients with ovarian cancer patients was ...
... autoreactive Th17 effector CD4 T cells and that inhibition of this pathway suppressed Th17 development and Th17 mediated ... CD4 T cells play a central role in the development and maintenance of chronic, autoimmune diseases; Th17 cells are associated ... Modifying the fate of CD4+ T-cells to transition from either inflammatory T cells or regulatory T cells is extremely relevant ... cells. We never would have predicted that result given the dogma in the literature states Th17 cells require glycolysis and ...
High Dietary Salt Aggravates Experimental Neuroinflammation in Mice Via Induction of Th17 Cells (S50.003). Ralf Linker, Arndt ... High Dietary Salt Aggravates Experimental Neuroinflammation in Mice Via Induction of Th17 Cells (S50.003) ... but boosted Th17 cell polarization up to 10-fold (n=6-11 p.g. p,0.001). This process involved p38 dependent pathways in vitro ... Analysis of gene expression revealed a shift towards Th17 helper T cell driven autoimmunity by HSD. Expression of IL-17A and ...
Bona Fide Th17 Cells without Th1 Functional Plasticity Protect against Influenza. J Immunol. 2022 04 15; 208(8):1998-2007. ...
The ERS-education website provides centralised access to all educational material produced by the European Respiratory Society. It is the worlds largest CME collection for lung diseases and treatment offering high quality e-learning and teaching resources for respiratory specialists. This distance learning portal contains up-to-date study material for the state-of-the-art in Pulmonology.
Th17 cells are critical drivers of autoimmune diseases and immunopathology. There is an unmet need to develop therapies ... Here, we report that anxiolytic FGIN-1-27 inhibits differentiation and pathogenicity of Th17 cells in vitro and in vivo using ... Anxiolytic Drug FGIN-1-27 Ameliorates Autoimmunity by Metabolic Reprogramming of Pathogenic Th17 Cells Singh, A;Dashnyam, M; ... model of Th17 cell-driven pathology. Remarkably, we found that the effects of FGIN-1-27 were independent of translocator ...
... and Th17 cytokines, and induced maturation of dendritic cells into APCs. Thus, Vδ3 T cells are glycolipid-reactive T cells with ... and Th17 cytokines, and induced maturation of dendritic cells into APCs. Thus, Vδ3 T cells are glycolipid-reactive T cells with ... and Th17 cytokines, and induced maturation of dendritic cells into APCs. Thus, Vδ3 T cells are glycolipid-reactive T cells with ... and Th17 cytokines, and induced maturation of dendritic cells into APCs. Thus, Vδ3 T cells are glycolipid-reactive T cells with ...
Apoptosis Maintains Hydrogen Sulfide Levels to Safeguard Against Aberrant th17 cell differentiation. Published:. 5 October 2023 ...
This study aimed to analyze the association of Tregs and Th17 cells development factors and anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO) ... Real-time PCR and ELISA was used to assess the status of Tregs and Th17 related transcription factors and cytokines in mRNA and ... TPO + RPL group showed a higher Th17 frequency compared to healthy controls and TPO + controls groups (p = 0.0002 and p = 0.04 ... After blood sampling, the frequency of Th17 and Tregs was evaluated using flow cytometry. ...
"CD5L/AIM Regulates Lipid Biosynthesis and Restrains Th17 Cell Pathogenicity". Cell. 163 (6): 1413-1427. doi:10.1016/j.cell. ... Th17 pathogenic refers to a distinct phenotype of Th17 cells which is associated with immunopathology. The development of the ... Th17 pathogenic cells were identified as one of the cross-reactive cell subsets disrupting the protective myelin sheath of ... Th17 pathogenic cells were identified as one of the cross-reactive cell subsets causing inflammatory synovial and cartilage ...
T-helper 17 (Th17) cells have been implicated in host defense and control of mucosal pathogens, including B. pertussis. Type I ... Lung Th17 cells increased significantly in B. pertussis-infected mice only at 10 days post-infection (dpi) and later. However, ... In addition, blocking IFNa production in mice restored an early increase in Th17 cells during B. pertussis infection. The ... In addition, we exposed dendritic cells and CD4+ T cells to IFNa in vitro, and employed pDC- blocking and depleting antibodies ...
... * QMRO Home ... Annexin-A1 restricts Th17 cells and attenuates the severity of autoimmune disease. ... Annexin-A1 restricts Th17 cells and attenuates the severity of autoimmune disease ...
"Th17 Cells" by people in this website by year, and whether "Th17 Cells" was a major or minor topic of these publications. ... Zhang X, Tao Y, Chopra M, Dujmovic-Basuroski I, Jin J, Tang Y, Drulovic J, Markovic-Plese S. IL-11 Induces Th17 Cell Responses ... "Th17 Cells" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... Nowatzky J, Manches O, Khan SA, Godefroy E, Bhardwaj N. Modulation of human Th17 cell responses through complement receptor 3 ( ...
Th17 cells deficient for Sgk1 and treated with IL23 * Th17 cells differentiated from CD4+ T cells under high salt (NaCl) ... COPD Co-infection With Tuberculosis on Th17 Cell Differentiation. *The Effects of Nanocurcumin on Treg Cells and Th17 Cells ... The involvement of TH17 cells in the pathogenesis of IBD. * The protective and pathogenic role of Th17 cell plasticity and ... Treg, Th17 Cells, NKT in Epithelial Ovarian Tumor. *Study of Recovery of Intestinal CD4+ and Th17 T Cells in HIV-infected ...
CD4+ T cells are key in mediating the host protective and homeostatic responses. Yet, CD4+ T cells are also known to be the ... Yet, CD4+ T cells are also known to be the main drivers of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) when this balance is perturbed. ... Many subsets of CD4+ T cells have been identified as players in perpetuating chronic intestinal inflammation. Over the last few ... Many subsets of CD4+ T cells have been identified as players in perpetuating chronic intestinal inflammation. Over the last few ...
PPAR gamma activation drives Th17 cells into a Treg phenotype Carbo A., Hontecillas R., Hoops S., Kronsteiner-Dobramysl B., Lu ... Red blood cell tension protects against severe malaria in the Dantu blood group ... Whole blood versus red cell concentrates for children with severe anaemia: a secondary analysis of the Transfusion and ... Plasma inflammatory biomarkers predict CD4+ T-cell recovery and viral rebound in HIV-1 infected Africans on suppressive ...
Recent studies that reconstructed regulatory networks in mammalian cells have focused on short-term responses and relied on ... Despite their importance, the molecular circuits that control the differentiation of naive T cells remain largely unknown. ... a proinflammatory T-cell subset that has been implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple autoimmune diseases. The TH17 ... T-cell subsets. Our study identifies and validates 39 regulatory factors, embeds them within a comprehensive temporal network ...
Defective formation of IgA memory B cells, Th1 and Th17 cells in symptomatic patients with selective IgA deficiency. In: ... Defective formation of IgA memory B cells, Th1 and Th17 cells in symptomatic patients with selective IgA deficiency. / ... Defective formation of IgA memory B cells, Th1 and Th17 cells in symptomatic patients with selective IgA deficiency. Clinical ... title = "Defective formation of IgA memory B cells, Th1 and Th17 cells in symptomatic patients with selective IgA deficiency", ...
... increased frequencies of Th17 cells were found with a positive correlation in SLEDAI. Higher frequencies of Th17 cells were ... Human TH17 cells are long-lived effector memory cells. Sci Transl Med 2011;3:104ra 100. ... Increased Th17 cells in flow cytometer-sorted CD45RO-positive memory CD4 T cells from patients with systemic lupus ... Increased Th17 cells in flow cytometer-sorted CD45RO-positive memory CD4 T cells from patients with systemic lupus ...
Th17-DC vaccines induce a unique T cell-mediated cytokine network. To determine if Th17-DC-induced T cell immunity was ... non-antigen pulsed Th17-inducing DCs (Th17-DCs), antigen-pulsed cDCs (Ag+cDCs) or antigen-pulsed Th17-DCs (Ag+Th17 DCs). (B) ... Th17 cell-derived IL-17 is dispensable for B cell antibody production. Cytokine 2012;59:108-14. doi:10.1016/j.cyto.2012.03.018 ... non-antigen Th17-DCs (Th17-DCs), antigen-pulsed cDCs (Ag+cDCs), antigen-pulsed Th17-DCs (Ag+Th17 DCs)) at day 42 following ...
CD4+ T helper 17 (Th17) cells protect vertebrate hosts from extracellular pathogens at mucosal surfaces. Th17 cells form from ... N2 - CD4+ T helper 17 (Th17) cells protect vertebrate hosts from extracellular pathogens at mucosal surfaces. Th17 cells form ... AB - CD4+ T helper 17 (Th17) cells protect vertebrate hosts from extracellular pathogens at mucosal surfaces. Th17 cells form ... abstract = "CD4+ T helper 17 (Th17) cells protect vertebrate hosts from extracellular pathogens at mucosal surfaces. Th17 cells ...
A Metabolic Switch for Th17 Pathogenicity.. Davis, Fred P; Kanno, Yuka; OShea, John J. Cell ; 163(6): 1308-10, 2015 Dec 03. ... T helper 17 (Th17) cells are critical for host defense but can also drive autoimmunity. This divergent behavior is explored by ... and Wang et al., who identify inflammation-associated genes by measuring gene expression in nearly 1,000 individual Th17 cells ... Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/patologia Análise de Sequência de RNA Análise de Célula Única Células Th17/metabolismo ...
We found that MSC-Exo greatly reduced the intensity of ongoing EAU as their parent cells by reducing the infiltration of T cell ... The in vitro effects of MSC-Exo on immune cell migration and responder T cell proliferation were examined by chemotactic assays ... However, no inhibitory effect of MSC-Exo on IRBP-specific T cell proliferation was observed. These results suggest that MSC-Exo ... Furthermore, the chemoattractive effects of CCL2 and CCL21 on inflammatory cells were inhibited by MSC-Exo. ...
Compared to TH17 cells, TH1/17 cells have gene signatures with marked similarity to mouse pathogenic TH17 cells. Assessing 15 ... which can be used to both identify pathogenic TH17 cells and to measure the effect of treatment on TH17 cells in human ... Here we show that human peripheral blood IFN-γ+IL-17+ (TH1/17) and IFN-γ−IL-17+ (TH17) CD4+ T cells display distinct ... Transcriptional signature of human pro-inflammatory TH17 cells identifies reduced IL10 gene expression in multiple sclerosis. * ...
  • IL-17-producing T cells have recently been classified as a new effector T-cell subset, termed Th17, which is distinct from Th1, Th2 and Treg subsets. (nih.gov)
  • Here we sought to further understand the effects of idelalisib and duvelisib in vitro, and demonstrate that both idelalisib and duvelisib can inhibit T cell proliferation as well as Th1 and Treg differentiation in vitro, while promoting Th2 and Th17 differentiation. (nature.com)
  • This study is aimed at examining the potential role of regulatory T- (Treg-) Th1-Th17-Th22 cells in the pathogenic process of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). (hindawi.com)
  • Moreover, a murine model of experimental autoimmune hepatitis (EAH) was also established and used to investigate the function of Treg-Th1-Th17-Th22 cells in disease progression. (hindawi.com)
  • Importantly, blockade of oxidative phosphorylation led to the emergence of Foxp3+ regulatory CD4 T (Treg) cells. (uab.edu)
  • Honestly, the whole study was based on the unexpected finding that mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation is essential early for promoting Th17 cell differentiation and suppressing the emergence of regulatory CD4 T (Treg) cells. (uab.edu)
  • We never would have predicted that result given the dogma in the literature states Th17 cells require glycolysis and Treg utilize oxidative phosphorylation to function. (uab.edu)
  • In this specific case, inhibition of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation impeded the emergence of autoreactive, pathogenic Th17 cells and instead promoted the generation of Treg that can suppress chronic inflammation and autoimmunity. (uab.edu)
  • Th17 cells are associated with the induction of numerous diseases, whereas Treg cells are known to inhibit and dampen inflammatory responses. (uab.edu)
  • I think when my student repeated the principle finding that inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation blocked Th17 differentiation and promoted the emergence of Foxp3+ Treg cells more than five times. (uab.edu)
  • Th17 cells are a very heterogenous subset and can switch to display all T helper-like phenotype markers including those typical for Th2, Treg and Tfh. (wikipedia.org)
  • Isolation of naive T cells from a murine model of lupus revealed increased levels of CaMK4 following stimulation with Th17-inducing cytokines but not following Treg, Th1, or Th2 induction. (jci.org)
  • be classified into subsets including Th1 Th2 Th17 T follicular helper (Tfh) and regulatory (Treg) cells predicated on their cytokine profile and/or features.8 Pathogenic HIV/SIV infections of human beings and RMs are connected with key perturbations from the relative percentage of the various CD4+ T-cell subsets. (bio2009.org)
  • Additionally, Treg IL-10 + and IL-22 + cells were increased. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Research on vitamin D regulation of thymocyte selection, Th1 and Th17 cells, T-cell programed cell death, and T-regulatory (Treg) cells is summarized and integrated into model mechanisms. (frontiersin.org)
  • Real-time PCR and ELISA was used to assess the status of Tregs and Th17 related transcription factors and cytokines in mRNA and protein level, respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Increased Th17 cytokines (IL-21, IL-17 and IL-23) level in these patients has led to neutrophil rich inflammation in uterus and consequent embryo growth inhibition and abortion [ 13 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Th17 cells gain the pathogenic phenotype by induction with pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-23 during their maturation. (wikipedia.org)
  • GM-CSF and IL-17 were recognised as the main effector cytokines secreted by Th17 pathogenic cells that promote the development of immunopathology. (wikipedia.org)
  • The following higher responsiveness to IL-23 stimulation, which is one of the key cytokines involved in Th17 pathogenic switch, and reduced production of regulatory anti-inflammatory IL-10 result in the phenotype change. (wikipedia.org)
  • The non-immune cells of synovial tissue are expressing the CCR6 ligands upon pro-inflammatory stimulation with IL-17, IL-1β, GM-CSF cytokines secreted by originally recruited immune cells, this is one of the mechanisms of the vicious circle of chronic joint inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Elevated levels of IL-17, IL-23, GM-CSF pro-inflammatory cytokines associated with Th17 pathogenic cells play a key role in demyelination and consequent multiple sclerosis manifestations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Finally, a number of biologics that target CD4 + T cell differentiation into inflammatory subsets or their byproducts (i.e., cytokines) have shown efficacy in treating patients with IBD ( 5 - 7 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Given the importance of CD4 + Th cells in the disease process, this review will focus on how Th cells differentiate in the inflamed intestinal tract during IBD and how the Th lineage-specific cytokines and transcription factors (TFs) contribute to disease. (frontiersin.org)
  • Interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-23, cytokines induced during early stages of IBD, play important roles in differentiation of interferon (IFN)-γ/tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-producing Th1 cells as well as IL-17-producing Th17 cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Their function depends on T cell receptor (TCR) signaling and cytokines that activate signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). (autophagy.center)
  • Such increased disease activity in IDO-deficient mice correlated early with increased production of the proinflammatory cytokines interferon-gamma and interleukin-17 by lymph node T cells and later with increased infiltration of Th1 and Th17 cells in the inflamed joints. (ox.ac.uk)
  • This anastomotic study demonstrated a decrease in IEC TLR4 expression and microbiome diversity which then coincided with increased expansion of regulatory and pro-inflammatory immune cells and cytokines. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A previous study demonstrated that the activation of CD4+ T cells (Th1) by influenza vaccination leads to the secretion of Th1-type cytokines (e.g., interferon-γ) ( 10 ), which activates macrophage phagocytosis and may subsequently kill intracellular M. tuberculosis . (cdc.gov)
  • Natural-killer (NK) cells are specialized lymphocytes that have cytotoxic properties in addition to their ability to produce cytokines that assist in the orchestration of adaptive immunity. (medscape.com)
  • They secrete cytokines to stimulate various effector cells, such as cytotoxic T cells, B cells and macrophages. (biolegend.com)
  • They can be divided into 2 categories: cytotoxic, which kill infected cells directly, and helper, which make proteins called cytokines that instruct other cells to make certain molecules, move to a specific location or develop in a particular way. (nih.gov)
  • Depending on which cytokines are present as a T cell matures, it can become one of many types of helper T cell, each of which has a distinct role in immunity. (nih.gov)
  • Past studies have found that a combination of 3 cytokines-interleukin-1-beta (IL-1-beta), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta)-drive Th17 cell development. (nih.gov)
  • To further explore Th17 development, the scientists exposed immature mouse T cells to a variety of cytokines in culture. (nih.gov)
  • This shows that Th17 cells behave differently depending on which cytokines drove their development, with IL-23 producing Th17 cells that are more likely to cause autoimmune disease. (nih.gov)
  • During the process of airway inflammation, complex interactions of innate and adaptive immune cells as well as structural cells and their cytokines have many important roles. (cdc.gov)
  • T helper (Th) 2 cells, which recruit and accumulate in the lungs and produce a range of different effector cytokines. (cdc.gov)
  • However, more recent studies have revealed the potential collaboration of other helper T cells and their cytokines in this process. (cdc.gov)
  • The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge about the possible roles of newly identified helper T cells derived cytokines (IL-9, 17, 22, 25 and IL-33) in asthma. (cdc.gov)
  • There is an unmet need to develop therapies targeting pathogenic Th17 cells for the treatment of autoimmune disorders. (listlabs.com)
  • Our findings suggest that the small molecule FGIN-1-27 can be re-purposed to relieve autoimmunity by metabolic reprogramming of pathogenic Th17 cells. (listlabs.com)
  • English We have previously reported the molecular signature of murine pathogenic TH17 cells that induce experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in animals. (usi.ch)
  • Compared to TH17 cells, TH1/17 cells have gene signatures with marked similarity to mouse pathogenic TH17 cells. (usi.ch)
  • Our results define the molecular signature of human pro-inflammatory TH17 cells, which can be used to both identify pathogenic TH17 cells and to measure the effect of treatment on TH17 cells in human autoimmune diseases. (usi.ch)
  • Pathogenic Th17 cells play important roles in many autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. (autophagy.center)
  • Deletion of STIM1 in pathogenic Th17 cells reduces the expression of genes required for mitochondrial function and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) but enhances reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. (autophagy.center)
  • Furthermore, Th22 cells are associated with inflammatory conditions and numerous autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) [ 12 , 13 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are important regulators of immune tolerance to self-antigens [ 14 , 15 ], and their impairment has been associated with the development of autoimmune diseases [ 16 , 17 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Th17 cells are critical drivers of autoimmune diseases and immunopathology. (listlabs.com)
  • Here we combine transcriptional profiling at high temporal resolution, novel computational algorithms, and innovative nanowirebased perturbation tools to systematically derive and experimentally validate a model of the dynamic regulatory network that controls the differentiation of mouse T H 17 cells, a proinflammatory T-cell subset that has been implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple autoimmune diseases. (shaleklab.com)
  • These cells are implicated in autoimmune diseases including rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, psoriasis/psoriatic arthritis, Sjo˝gren syndrome, multiple sclerosis, inflammatory bowel disease and type 1 diabetes. (bmj.com)
  • Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based therapy for the treatment of autoimmune diseases has demonstrated a particular promise after its successful applications in both animal models and patients. (nature.com)
  • Collectively, our results suggest that CaMK4 inhibition has potential as a therapeutic strategy for Th17-driven autoimmune diseases. (jci.org)
  • A better understanding of the complex signals between these cells will help researchers design better ways to prevent and treat autoimmune diseases. (nih.gov)
  • Harrington says her study "found that mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation is important for the differentiation of pathogenic, autoreactive Th17 effector CD4 T cells and that inhibition of this pathway suppressed Th17 development and Th17 mediated autoimmunity. (uab.edu)
  • Analysis of gene expression revealed a shift towards Th17 helper T cell driven autoimmunity by HSD. (neurology.org)
  • A group of studies have also indicated a correlation between thyroid autoimmunity and increased Th17 and decreased Tregs cells frequency [ 15 , 16 , 17 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Objectives Th17/IL-17 dysregulation is involved in human autoimmunity, and recent evidence suggests the character of long-lived differentiated memory cells in Th17. (bmj.com)
  • T helper 17 (Th17) cells are critical for host defense but can also drive autoimmunity . (bvsalud.org)
  • however, the factors that promote Th17-driven autoimmunity are unclear. (jci.org)
  • Researchers discovered a new pathway for the development of Th17 cells, a type of helper T cell involved in autoimmunity. (nih.gov)
  • However, TGF-beta also drives the development of other T cells (regulatory T cells) that dampen the inflammatory response and help prevent autoimmunity. (nih.gov)
  • The discovery of IL-23 as a driving force in Th17 development points to potential new targets for therapies against autoimmunity. (nih.gov)
  • Mice lacking PI3Kγ show increased CD8 T cell activation and cytotoxicity due to transcriptional activation of NFκB and inhibition of C/EBPβ in macrophages within the microenvironment [ 9 ]. (nature.com)
  • Similarly, more Th17 cells accumulated in the gums of mice with periodontitis compared to healthy mice, which served as a control group. (dentistrytoday.com)
  • To see if the oral microbiome might be the trigger for Th17 cell accumulation, the researchers placed mice on a broad-spectrum antibiotic cocktail. (dentistrytoday.com)
  • They found that eliminating oral microbes prevented expansion of Th17 cells in the gums of mice with periodontitis while leaving other immune cells unaffected, suggesting that an unhealthy bacterial population triggers Th17 cell accumulation. (dentistrytoday.com)
  • To see if blocking Th17 cells could reduce periodontal disease, the researchers genetically engineered mice to lack Th17 cells or gave the animals a small-molecule drug that prevents Th17 cell development, finding similar outcomes: reduced bone loss from periodontitis. (dentistrytoday.com)
  • Aging weakens Th17 cell pathogenicity and ameliorates experimental autoimmune uveitis in mice. (stembook.org)
  • In vitro, restimulation of MOG primed splenocytes from mice on a HSD led to increased expression of IL-17 and Th17 signature genes. (neurology.org)
  • In humans, Th17 pathogenic cells are associated with diseases like multiple sclerosis (MS) or rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and in mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). (wikipedia.org)
  • Mice with RBPJ deficiency have less severe manifestations and faster recovery from experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis due to fewer Th17 cells developing the pathogenic phenotype. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lung Th17 cells increased significantly in B. pertussis-infected mice only at 10 days post-infection (dpi) and later. (sjsu.edu)
  • In addition, blocking IFNa production in mice restored an early increase in Th17 cells during B. pertussis infection. (sjsu.edu)
  • Wu, Victoria, "Plasmacytoid dendritic cell-derived IFNa modulates Th17 differentiation during Bordetella pertussis infection in mice" (2014). (sjsu.edu)
  • Methods ID8 tumor cells were injected intraperitoneally into mice. (bmj.com)
  • Mice were treated with Th17-DC or conventional DC (cDC) vaccine alone or with immune checkpoint blockade (ICB). (bmj.com)
  • Using T cell-specific loss-of-function experiments, we find that two components of the Polycomb repressive complex 1.1 (PRC1.1), BCL6 corepressor (BCOR) and KDM2B, which helps target the complex to unmethylated CpG DNA islands, are required for optimal Th17 cell formation in mice after Streptococcus pyogenes infection. (umn.edu)
  • Furthermore, naive T cells from mice lacking CaMK4 did not produce IL-17. (jci.org)
  • We observed increases in dermal mast cells in imiquimod-induced psoriatic dermatitis in mice accompanied by the expression of epidermal stem cell factor (SCF), a critical mast cell growth factor. (ewha.ac.kr)
  • A distinct TCRβ hi CD4 + T cells subset after anastomosis was 10-20-fold greater than in control mice. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To assess the potential role of the AhR in PM-mediated activation of DCs, co-stimulation, and cytokine expression, bone marrow (BM)-derived macrophages and DCs from C57BL/6 wildtype or AhR knockout (AhR-/-) mice were treated with PM. Th17 differentiation was assessed via co-cultures of wildtype or AhR-/- BMDCs with autologous naive T cells. (cdc.gov)
  • They transferred the cells into mice engineered to lack mature T cells of their own. (nih.gov)
  • Mice that received Th17 cells from IL-23 cultures showed more severe symptoms of EAE. (nih.gov)
  • We observed a significant increase in IFN-γ-producing CD8 + T cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of immunocompetent mice that repeatedly aspirated A. fumigatus conidia in contrast to mice challenged with A. versicolor , a species that is not typically associated with invasive, disseminated disease. (cdc.gov)
  • Airway IFN-γ + CD8 + T-cells were decreased and lung germination was eliminated in mice that aspirated A. fumigatus conidia that were formaldehyde-fixed or heat-inactivated. (cdc.gov)
  • Furthermore, A. fumigatus particles exhibited greater persistence in the lungs of recipient mice when compared to non-viable A. fumigatus or A. versicolor , and this correlated with increased maintenance of airway memory-phenotype CD8 + T cells. (cdc.gov)
  • Human γδ T cells expressing the Vδ3 TCR make up a minor lymphocyte subset in blood but are enriched in liver and in patients with some chronic viral infections and leukemias. (manchester.ac.uk)
  • Over the last few decades, understanding of how each subset of Th cells plays a role has dramatically increased. (frontiersin.org)
  • CD4 T helper (Th) cells can differentiate from naïve status into antigen-experienced effectors with distinct characteristics, such as the interleukin 17 (IL-17)-secreting Th17 subset. (bmj.com)
  • A shortage of functional STAT3 blocks the maturation of T cells (specifically a subset known as Th17 cells) and other immune cells. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Interleukin (IL)-9-producing subset called Th9 cell, Th22 cells which primarily secrete IL-22, IL-13 and tumor necrosis factor- and Th25 cells via producing IL-25 are believed to be important for initiating allergic reactions and developing airway inflammation. (cdc.gov)
  • Her research on T-cell receptor signaling, as well as the inhibition of mitochondrial OXPHOS and Th17 pathogenicity, will truly make a difference for many patients. (uab.edu)
  • Here, we report that anxiolytic FGIN-1-27 inhibits differentiation and pathogenicity of Th17 cells in vitro and in vivo using the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model of Th17 cell-driven pathology. (listlabs.com)
  • On the other hand, regulation of the Th17 immune response by TGFβ1 and IL-10 is known to inhibit Th17 pathogenicity. (wikipedia.org)
  • RBPJ transcriptional regulator involved in the Notch signalling pathway promotes Th17 pathogenicity by activating the expression of IL23R and repressing the expression of IL-10. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Th17 cells CD5L is predominantly expressed in non-pathogenic ones, where it functions as a pathogenicity repressor. (wikipedia.org)
  • A Metabolic Switch for Th17 Pathogenicity. (bvsalud.org)
  • Nevertheless, many intriguing questions remain to be answered regarding the regulation of Th17-mediated responses as well as their interactions with the other T-cell subsets. (nih.gov)
  • I have always been interested in understanding what regulates the differentiation and specification of distinct subsets of effector CD4 T cells, especially that of the Th17 lineage. (uab.edu)
  • Vδ3 T cells accounted for ∼0.2% of circulating T cells, included CD4+, CD8+, and CD4-CD8 - subsets, and variably expressed CD56, CD161, HLA-DR, and NKG2D but neither NKG2A nor NKG2C. (manchester.ac.uk)
  • Th17 pathogenic cells were identified as one of the cross-reactive cell subsets causing inflammatory synovial and cartilage disruption in joints causing rheumatoid arthritis disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Th17 pathogenic cells were identified as one of the cross-reactive cell subsets disrupting the protective myelin sheath of neurons causing multiple sclerosis disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many subsets of CD4 + T cells have been identified as players in perpetuating chronic intestinal inflammation. (frontiersin.org)
  • The T H 17 transcriptional network consists of two self-reinforcing, but mutually antagonistic, modules, with 12 novel regulators, the coupled action of which may be essential for maintaining the balance between T H 17 and other CD4 + T-cell subsets. (shaleklab.com)
  • The SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI) and other laboratory parameters were further correlated with frequencies of different T cell subsets. (bmj.com)
  • We found that MSC-Exo greatly reduced the intensity of ongoing EAU as their parent cells by reducing the infiltration of T cell subsets, and other inflammatory cells, in the eyes. (nature.com)
  • Single-cell analysis reveals a specific shift from highly inflammatory cell subsets toward a resting state upon demethylase inhibition. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In recent years, several newly identified T helper (TH) cell subsets, such as TH9, TH17, and TH22 cells, and their respective cytokine products, IL-9, IL-17, and IL-22, have been reported to play critical roles in the development of chronic inflammation in the colorectum. (nord.no)
  • Removing bacteria by tooth-brushing and dental care controls inflammation, but not permanently, suggesting there are other factors at play," said NIDCR clinical investigator and senior author Niki Moutsopoulos, DDS, PhD. "Our results suggest that immune cells known as T helper 17 (Th17) cells are drivers of this process, providing the link between oral bacteria and inflammation. (dentistrytoday.com)
  • RNA analysis showed the Th17-blocking drug led to reduced expression of genes involved in inflammation, tissue destruction, and bone loss, suggesting that Th17 cells may mediate these processes in periodontitis. (dentistrytoday.com)
  • Microbiota dysbiosis, disruption of metabolic functions and homeostasis with subsequent high levels of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and cholesterol present in the gastrointestinal tract of obese patients are leading to chronic low-grade inflammation which has an impact on Th17 pathogenic formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inflammatory bowel disease is a complex set of diseases that includes Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), each with multiple bacterial, immune, and non-immune cell types contributing to inflammation. (frontiersin.org)
  • who identify inflammation -associated genes by measuring gene expression in nearly 1,000 individual Th17 cells and show that CD5L affects the expression of pro-inflammatory genes by altering lipid synthesis. (bvsalud.org)
  • In this study, we determined the effects of keratinocytes on mast cell accumulation during Th17-mediated skin inflammation. (ewha.ac.kr)
  • Here, we show that abolishing STIM1 and Ca2+ influx in T cells expressing a hyperactive form of STAT3 (STAT3C) attenuates pathogenic Th17 cell function and inflammation associated with STAT3C expression. (autophagy.center)
  • Our findings establish Ca2+ influx as a critical regulator of mitochondrial function and oxidative stress in pathogenic Th17 cell-mediated multiorgan inflammation. (autophagy.center)
  • CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that the induction of IDO controls the accumulation of Th1 and Th17 pathogenic T cells at the site of inflammation during collagen-induced arthritis. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Since chronic inflammation is a potent driving force for the development of human colorectal cancer (CRC), the contributions of TH9/IL-9, TH17/IL-17, and TH22/IL-22 in the pathogenesis of CRC have recently become an increasingly popular area of scientific investigation. (nord.no)
  • IL-1β mediates chronic intestinal inflammation by promoting the accumulation of IL-17A secreting innate lymphoid cells and CD4(+) Th17 cells. (ox.ac.uk)
  • We show that IL-1β promotes innate immune pathology in Helicobacter hepaticus-triggered intestinal inflammation by augmenting the recruitment of granulocytes and the accumulation and activation of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs). (ox.ac.uk)
  • Binding of complement to a foreign substance, or antigen, amplifies and augments the body's innate immune system by means of its role as an opsonin (a factor that enhances phagocytosis of unwanted particles) and as a chemoattractant (a factor that recruits cells to areas of inflammation). (medscape.com)
  • In addition, the effects of macrophages in the occurrence and development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and their role in inducing fibrosis, activating T cells, reducing colitis, and treating intestinal inflammation were also reviewed in this paper. (frontiersin.org)
  • These helper T cells make a cytokine called IL-17 that causes inflammation. (nih.gov)
  • increased macrophage-derived lining cells are prominent along with vessel inflammation. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Diabetes Mellitus is a metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia due to deficient insulin production type 1 or type 2, that is preceded by systemic inflammation, leading to reduced pancreatic β-cell function, apoptosis and insulin resistence 3 , the latter being more prevalent in adults. (bvsalud.org)
  • Th17 pathogenic refers to a distinct phenotype of Th17 cells which is associated with immunopathology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Th17 pathogenic cells are known to display pro-inflammatory features like expressing transcription factor T-bet and secreting cytokine IFNγ, resembling Th1-like phenotype. (wikipedia.org)
  • An important molecule in the Th17 pathogenic phenotype generation is the transcription factor Foxo1. (wikipedia.org)
  • Loss of CD5L expression drives Th17 cells to the pathogenic phenotype through the subsequent changes in lipid metabolism, and through the alteration of binding of the transcription factor RORγt to its target genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The function of important molecules in Th17 pathogenic development like IL-23, CD5L, ACC1 and others are altered in patients with obesity contributing to the phenotype switch. (wikipedia.org)
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of MSCs on the phenotype, cytokine profile, and functionality of naive and non-naive CD4 + T-cells from healthy donors (HD) and patients with autoimmune arthritis under Th17-cytokine polarizing conditions in an explorative way using a transwell system prohibiting any cell-cell-contact. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In isolated naive CD4 + T-cells from HD and patients, MSCs suppressed the differentiation of naive towards an effector phenotype while memory and naive cells showed higher percentages in culture with MSCs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The root cause of the observed antiinflammatory phenotype in stimulated Th17 cells is reduced expression of key metabolic transcription factors, such as PPRC1. (ox.ac.uk)
  • PM-treated DCs were essential in endowing T cells with a Th17-phenotype, which was associated with enhanced expression of MHC class II and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2. (cdc.gov)
  • In conclusion, PM enhances DC activation that primes naive T cell differentiation towards a Th17-like phenotype in an AhR-dependent manner. (cdc.gov)
  • Furthermore, the role of pathogens and pathogen-derived molecules in influencing effector T-cell polarization needs to be re-evaluated in the light of the differentiation conditions that favor Th17 T-cell responses. (nih.gov)
  • Martin Cannon, PhD, discusses the phase 1 investigation of the Th17 dendritic cell vaccine in ovarian cancer, and how it could potentially improve suboptimal responses when treated with immunotherapy alone in this population. (onclive.com)
  • Martin Cannon, PhD, professor, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (UAMS) College of Medicine, discusses the phase 1 investigation of the Th17 dendritic cell vaccine in ovarian cancer, and how it could potentially improve suboptimal responses when treated with immunotherapy alone in this population. (onclive.com)
  • Accordingly, a Th17-stimulating dendritic cell vaccine was developed to potentially improve immune responses and clinical outcomes in this space, Cannon begins. (onclive.com)
  • A comparison of T-cell frequency before and after vaccination showed that the vaccine successfully stimulated Th1, Th17, and antibody responses to FRα in most patients with ovarian cancer. (onclive.com)
  • Our findings demonstrate that a high salt diet boosts Th17 responses thus exacerbating autoimmune neuroinflammation. (neurology.org)
  • The recruitment and cytokine secretion of lung pDCs during infection with B. pertussis correlate with the delayed Th17 responses, suggesting a role for pDCs in Th17 differentiation that may account for a longer-lasting disease. (sjsu.edu)
  • Nowatzky J, Manches O, Khan SA, Godefroy E, Bhardwaj N. Modulation of human Th17 cell responses through complement receptor 3 (CD11?b/CD18) ligation on monocyte-derived dendritic cells. (jefferson.edu)
  • CD4 + T cells are key in mediating the host protective and homeostatic responses. (frontiersin.org)
  • These cells primarily produce interferon (IFN)-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) that, respectively, activate macrophages and direct cytotoxic CD8 + T cell responses, that in turn promote elimination of intracellular pathogens such as viruses and bacteria ( 8 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Recent studies that reconstructed regulatory networks in mammalian cells have focused on short-term responses and relied on perturbation-based approaches that cannot be readily applied to primary T cells. (shaleklab.com)
  • Conclusions These findings emphasize using biologically relevant immune modifiers, like Th17-DC vaccines, in OC treatment to reshape the tumor microenvironment and enhance clinical responses to ICB therapy. (bmj.com)
  • Although mast cells are traditionally thought to function as effector cells in allergic responses, they have increasingly been recognized as important regulators of various immune responses. (ewha.ac.kr)
  • CD-MFs demonstrated reduced capacity to suppress T h 1 and T h 17 responses from activated CD4+ T cells. (psu.edu)
  • abstract = "Increased T helper (Th)1/Th17 immune responses are a hallmark of Crohn{\textquoteright}s disease (CD) immunopathogenesis. (psu.edu)
  • Furthermore, we show that IL-1β promotes Th17 responses from CD4(+) T cells and ILCs in the intestine, and we describe synergistic interactions between IL-1β and IL-23 signals that sustain innate and adaptive inflammatory responses in the gut. (ox.ac.uk)
  • T helper (Th) cells play important roles in regulating immune responses. (biolegend.com)
  • The objective of this study was to explore the role of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) in ambient particulate matter (PM)-mediated activation of dendritic cells (DCs) and Th17-immune responses in vitro. (cdc.gov)
  • Therefore, murine airway CD8 + T cell-responses to aspiration of Aspergillus conidia may be mediated in part by the ability of conidia to germinate in the host lung tissue. (cdc.gov)
  • In addition, we exposed dendritic cells and CD4+ T cells to IFNa in vitro, and employed pDC- blocking and depleting antibodies in vivo. (sjsu.edu)
  • We examined frequencies of Th17 cells by sorting the purified CD4 T cells bearing the CD45RO marker, followed by intracellular IL-17A staining after in vitro activation. (bmj.com)
  • 1 , 2 Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have increased levels of IL-17 in blood and renal tissues, and higher frequencies of Th17 cells are found by directly measuring CD4-positive IL-17-producing T cells upon in vitro activation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), with inconsistent results regarding the correlation between IL-17 levels or frequencies of Th17 cells and disease activities. (bmj.com)
  • 3 , 4 Indeed, there are difficulties in defining human CD4-positive IL-17-producing cells by flow cytometry because of the very low frequencies in PBMC samples and the problem of background after in vitro activation. (bmj.com)
  • Using PBMC from 48 patients with SLE and 48 age- and sex-matched healthy individuals, we examined the frequency of Th17 cells in purified CD4-positive T cells bearing CD45RO, a well-known differentiated memory T cell marker, followed by intracellular IL-17A staining upon in vitro activation. (bmj.com)
  • The in vitro effects of MSC-Exo on immune cell migration and responder T cell proliferation were examined by chemotactic assays and lymphocyte proliferation assays, respectively. (nature.com)
  • Further, keratinocytes promoted mast cell proliferation following stimulation with IL−17 in vitro. (ewha.ac.kr)
  • In the presence of TGF-β, IL-9 may induce differentiation of naive CD4 + T-cells towards Th17 cells, while IL-9 also affects thymus-derived natural Tregs (nTregs) and enhances their suppressive function in vitro [ 26 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The researchers reasoned that if Th17 cells are as important to periodontitis as the animal studies suggested, a lack of Th17 cells should protect against gum disease. (dentistrytoday.com)
  • Collectively these data suggest that depletion of IL-21-making Compact disc4+ T cells distinguishes intensifying from non-progressive SIV an infection of RMs and Text message and claim that depletion of Compact disc4+IL-21+ T cells is normally mixed up in preferential lack of Th17 cells that's connected with SIV disease development. (bio2009.org)
  • Type I IFN has been well characterized as an antiviral cytokine, but recent studies linking it to the inhibition of Th17 differentiation have led to investigation of whether type I IFN may be detrimental during bacterial infections. (sjsu.edu)
  • Genetic or pharmacologic inhibition of CaMK4 decreased the frequency of IL-17-producing T cells and ameliorated EAE and lupus-like disease in murine models. (jci.org)
  • Inhibition of CaMK4 reduced Il17 transcription through decreased activation of the cAMP response element modulator α (CREM-α) and reduced activation of the AKT/mTOR pathway, which is known to enhance Th17 differentiation. (jci.org)
  • STIM1 deletion or inhibition of OXPHOS is associated with a non-pathogenic Th17 gene expression signature and impaired pathogenic Th17 cell function. (autophagy.center)
  • Histone H3K27me3 demethylases regulate human Th17 cell development and effector functions by impacting on metabolism. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The translational aspect of our studies is pinpointing a new approach to blocking the tissue destruction we see in periodontitis by inhibiting Th17 development. (dentistrytoday.com)
  • Prior phenotypic evaluation by CyTOF has identified increases in activated CD8 T cells with activation of Th17 T cells, as well as decreases in Tregs, particularly in patients with toxicity. (nature.com)
  • These same tissues show depletion of Tregs as compared to CLL patients without toxicity, suggesting that loss of Tregs may be permissive for Th17 activation to lead to autoimmune toxicity. (nature.com)
  • The numbers of Foxp3 + Tregs and Th1, Th17, and Th22 cells were measured in 32 AIH patients using flow cytometry. (hindawi.com)
  • Additionally, the numbers of CD3 + CD4 + CD25 + Foxp3 + Tregs were negatively correlated with the numbers of Th1-Th17-Th22 cells. (hindawi.com)
  • Interestingly, the percentages of spleen Tregs, expression of Foxp3 mRNA, and liver IL-10 levels decreased, whereas the percentages of spleen Th1-Th17-Th22 cells, expression of T-bet/AHR/ROR γ t mRNA, and liver IFN- γ , IL-17, and IL-22 levels increased in the murine model of EAH. (hindawi.com)
  • Our findings demonstrated that an imbalance between Tregs and Th1-Th17-Th22 cells might contribute to the pathogenic process of AIH. (hindawi.com)
  • This study aimed to analyze the association of Tregs and Th17 cells development factors and anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO) antibodies in RPL patients. (biomedcentral.com)
  • After blood sampling, the frequency of Th17 and Tregs was evaluated using flow cytometry. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The exposure of uterus to seminal fluid induces the CD4 + T cells differentiation into Tregs, leading to uterus environment to be rife with these cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Type I Interferon (IFN) has recently been documented to inhibit Th17 differentiation and IL-17 production. (sjsu.edu)
  • Genome-wide expression and BCOR chromatin immunoprecipitation studies revealed that BCOR directly represses Lef1, Runx2, and Dusp4, whose products inhibit Th17 differentiation. (umn.edu)
  • The immunogenicity and safety of the Th17-stimulating dendritic cell vaccine in patients with stage IIIC-IV ovarian cancer was evaluated in a single-arm, open-label, phase 1 clinical trial (NCT02111941), Cannon details. (onclive.com)
  • Patients received the dendritic cell vaccine in the maintenance setting following the completion of upfront surgery and chemotherapy, he says. (onclive.com)
  • To determine if Th17-inducing vaccines are therapeutically effective in OC, we created a murine model of Th17-inducing dendritic cell (DC) (Th17-DC) vaccination generated by stimulating IL-15 while blocking p38 MAPK in bone marrow-derived DCs, followed by antigen pulsing. (bmj.com)
  • We further demonstrate directly using intracellular flow cytometry that autoimmune toxicity in patients is associated with higher absolute numbers of CD4 and CD8 T cells with Th17 differentiation in peripheral blood prior to therapy, and that gastrointestinal tissues from patients with active autoimmune complications of PI3Kδ inhibitors show infiltration with Th17 + T cells. (nature.com)
  • A correlation between Th17 cell infiltration and prolonged overall survival in patients with ovarian cancer patients was identified in previous research, prompting interest in harnessing Th17 cells. (onclive.com)
  • In addition to well-characterized Th1 and Th17 lymphocytes, a new IL-22-producing T cell, termed Th22 cell, has been described as expressing its key cytokine IL-22, which can activate signal transduction and transcription 3 (STAT3) [ 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Evidence for CD4 + T-cell involvement in autoimmune disease pathogenesis and for paracrine calcitriol signaling to CD4 + T lymphocytes is summarized to support the thesis that calcitriol is sunlight's main protective signal transducer in autoimmune disease risk. (frontiersin.org)
  • Gene-environment interactions, sunlight and vitamin D, and T lymphocytes as autoimmune disease initiators and vitamin D targets are discussed to explain the rationale for reviewing vitamin D mechanisms in T cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Activation of helper T cells also drives their secretion of tumor necrosis factor α, which attracts additional macrophages and lymphocytes and promotes granuloma formation to control the spread of M. tuberculosis ( 3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The adaptive immune system consists of 2 types of lymphocytes: T cells (70-75% of the adaptive immune force) and B cells (10-20% of the adaptive immune force). (medscape.com)
  • Lymphocytes that infiltrate the synovial tissue are primarily CD4 + T cells. (msdmanuals.com)
  • In recent years, it was shown that T helper 17 (Th17) cells are involved in the pathogenesis of IBD, which makes them an attractive therapeutic target. (mdpi.com)
  • However, little is known about the role of Th22 cells in the pathogenesis of AIH. (hindawi.com)
  • We believe that Th22 cells may partially contribute to the pathogenesis of AIH, and their expressions are likely time-dependent. (hindawi.com)
  • Animal modeling and human mechanistic data are summarized to support the view that vitamin D probably influences thymic negative selection, effector Th1 and Th17 pathogenesis and responsiveness to extrinsic cell death signals, FoxP3 + CD4 + T-regulatory cell and CD4 + T-regulatory cell type 1 (Tr1) cell functions, and a Th1-Tr1 switch. (frontiersin.org)
  • Harrington's study, "Mitochondrial Oxidative Phosphorylation Regulates the Fate Decision between Pathogenic Th17 and Regulatory T Cells," was recently published in the journal Cell Reports . (uab.edu)
  • Modifying the fate of CD4+ T-cells to transition from either inflammatory T cells or regulatory T cells is extremely relevant to inflammatory and autoimmune conditions. (uab.edu)
  • We used multicolor flow cytometry to characterize the immune cells in our infection model and to study the effects of IFNa on Th17 differentiation. (sjsu.edu)
  • T-helper 17 (Th17) cells have been implicated in host defense and control of mucosal pathogens, including B. pertussis. (sjsu.edu)
  • Th1 cells are important for protecting against infectious pathogens. (frontiersin.org)
  • CD4 + T helper 17 (Th17) cells protect vertebrate hosts from extracellular pathogens at mucosal surfaces. (umn.edu)
  • The bi-stable switch would enable T cells to integrate signals from pathogens, hormones, cell-cell interactions, and soluble mediators and respond in a biologically appropriate manner. (frontiersin.org)
  • These cells play a key role in early resistance to intestinal pathogens. (frontiersin.org)
  • Mechanistically, we showed that oxidative phosphorylation regulates the strength of the T cell receptor signal and that this subsequently controls the induction of the key transcription factor BATF. (uab.edu)
  • Indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase-mediated tryptophan catabolism regulates accumulation of Th1/Th17 cells in the joint in collagen-induced arthritis. (ox.ac.uk)
  • IL-21 regulates Th17 cell homeostasis enhances the differentiation of storage B cells and antibody-secreting plasma cells and promotes the maintenance of Compact disc8+ T-cell replies. (bio2009.org)
  • In the immune system, the STAT3 protein regulates genes that are involved in the maturation of immune system cells, especially certain types of T cells . (medlineplus.gov)
  • Gut microbiota regulates K/BxN autoimmune arthritis through follicular helper T but not Th17 cells. (msdmanuals.com)
  • DC vaccines treated with IL-15 and p38 MAPK inhibitor are more effective than standard DC vaccines at generating antigen-specific Th17 T cells in vivo. (bmj.com)
  • Furthermore treatment with IL-21 elevated the in vivo degrees of Th17 cells in SIV-infected RMs. (bio2009.org)
  • Here we show that human peripheral blood IFN-γ+IL-17+ (TH1/17) and IFN-γ−IL-17+ (TH17) CD4+ T cells display distinct transcriptional profiles in high-throughput transcription analyses. (usi.ch)
  • In mature Th17 cells, GSK-J4 induces an altered transcriptional program with a profound metabolic reprogramming and concomitant suppression of IL-17 cytokine levels and reduced proliferation. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In recent years, it has become appreciated that distinct metabolic pathways and intermediates can regulate CD4 T cell function, hence we wanted to further investigate how metabolic changes in developing Th17 cells influence cell fate. (uab.edu)
  • Thus, Vδ3 T cells are glycolipid-reactive T cells with distinct Ag specificities but functional similarities to NKT cells. (manchester.ac.uk)
  • Multiple sclerosis and T1D have distinct target organs, genetic risk factors, onset ages, and female to male ratios, but target organ-specific T cells as initiators unite these diseases. (frontiersin.org)
  • These findings shed light on Th17 development, revealing 2 kinds of Th17 cells with distinct functions. (nih.gov)
  • Despite their importance, the molecular circuits that control the differentiation of naive T cells remain largely unknown. (shaleklab.com)
  • Th17 cells form from naive precursors when signals from the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) and certain cytokine receptors induce the expression of the RORγt transcription factor, which activates a set of Th17-specific genes. (umn.edu)
  • Magnetically isolated naive and non-naive CD4 + T-cells were stimulated under Th17-polarizing proinflammatory cytokine conditions in presence and absence of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). (biomedcentral.com)
  • After an incubation period of 6 days, the proportions of the T-cell subpopulations TEMRA (CD45RA + CD27 − ), memory (CD45RA − CD27 + ), effector (CD45RA − CD27 − ) and naive cells (CD45RA + CD27 + ) were determined. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition, recent studies also suggested that Th17 cells and further released cytokine IL-17 may induce accumulation of proinflammatory cells [ 8 , 9 ], which contributed to the occurrence of AIH. (hindawi.com)
  • thus, tissue-specific influences are important for promoting mast cell accumulation and survival in the skin and the gastrointestinal tract. (ewha.ac.kr)
  • Taken together, our results revealed that the Th17-mediated inflammatory environment promotes mast cell accumulation through keratinocyte-derived SCF. (ewha.ac.kr)
  • Using a T cell transfer colitis model, we demonstrate a key role for T cell-specific IL-1 receptor (IL-1R) signals in the accumulation and survival of pathogenic CD4(+) T cells in the colon. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Initial results from the study were reported in 2020, and demonstrated that vaccination with Th17-inducing folate-receptor alpha (FRα)-loaded dendritic cells was safe, generated antigen-specific immunity, and was associated with increased remission, Cannon reports. (onclive.com)
  • Interleukin (IL)-12, which is secreted by antigen-presenting cells, acts via signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)4 to promote the differentiation of naïve T cells into Th1 cells ( 9 - 11 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Overgrowth of Candida is protected against by local T cells and interleukin (IL)-17. (medscape.com)
  • [ 4 ] Moreover, estrogen has recently been shown to play a significant role in the development and function of Th17 cells, as well as the production of interleukin (IL)-17. (medscape.com)
  • We analyzed the frequencies, phenotypes, restriction elements, and functions of fresh and expanded peripheral blood Vδ3 T cells. (manchester.ac.uk)
  • By directly measuring the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), elevated circulating frequencies of Th17 cells have been reported in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with inconsistent results regarding the correlation with disease activities. (bmj.com)
  • IL-9 and Th9 cells are overexpressed in synovial tissue while proportion of Th9 cells are increased in peripheral blood from RA patients [ 28 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this particular study, we focused on a mouse model of the human autoimmune disorder Multiple Sclerosis, however, we think that these findings are applicable to other T cell mediated disorders such as Rheumatoid Arthritis and Inflammatory Bowel Disease. (uab.edu)
  • Remarkably, we found that the effects of FGIN-1-27 were independent of translocator protein (TSPO), the reported target for this small molecule, and instead were driven by a metabolic switch in Th17 cells that led to the induction of the amino acid starvation response and altered cellular fatty acid composition. (listlabs.com)
  • Defective IgA response to atypical intestinal commensals in IL-21 receptor deficiency reshapes immune cell homeostasis and mucosal immunity. (jefferson.edu)
  • IEC TLR4 activation and signaling is required for mucosal healing, leading to inflammatory factor release that recruits immune cells to limit bacteria invasion. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Many immune cell types function alongside gut microbiota to promote mucosal healing in the steady state and during injury. (biomedcentral.com)
  • CD90 + (myo-)fibroblasts (MFs) are abundant cells in the normal (N) intestinal mucosa contributing to mucosal tolerance via suppression of T h 1 cell activity through cell surface membrane-bound PD-L1 (mPD-L1). (psu.edu)
  • Macrophages, which are functional plasticity cells, have the ability to phagocytize and digest foreign substances and acquire pro-(M1-like) or anti-inflammatory (M2-like) phenotypes according to their microenvironment. (frontiersin.org)
  • The large number of macrophages in the intestinal tract, play a significant role in maintaining the homeostasis of microorganisms on the surface of the intestinal mucosa and in the continuous renewal of intestinal epithelial cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • On the other hand, phagosomes are formed when the pathogen is engulfed by macrophages and fuse with lysosomes to release enzymes and toxic substances, resulting in killing or having cytotoxic effects on bacteria and tumor cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • The lamina propria of the small intestine is the main site of the intestinal immune system, which contains a large number of macrophages, CD4 T cells, and dendritic cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Finally, the researchers studied a group of 35 patients at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center with a gene defect causing them to lack Th17 cells. (dentistrytoday.com)
  • Gene expression analysis found that Th17 cells from TGF-beta cultures had higher levels of an anti-inflammatory cytokine called IL-10. (nih.gov)
  • The STAT3 protein is also involved in the formation of cells that build and break down bone tissue, which could help explain why STAT3 gene mutations lead to the skeletal and dental abnormalities characteristic of this condition. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In these studies, CD4 + T cell-depleting and blocking antibodies caused remission from disease in a number of CD and UC patients examined, suggesting a prominent role of CD4 + T cells in propagating disease ( 1 , 2 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • However, the effects of keratinocytes on mast cells were significantly diminished in the presence of anti−CD117 (stem cell factor receptor) blocking antibodies. (ewha.ac.kr)
  • By contrast, supplementation of the CD-MF:T-cell co-cultures with MMP inhibitors or anti-MMP neutralizing antibodies restored the CD-MF-mediated suppression. (psu.edu)
  • Plasma cells produce antibodies (eg, rheumatoid factor [RF], anticyclic citrullinated peptide [anti-CCP] antibody) that contribute to these complexes, but destructive arthritis can occur in their absence. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Diminished allergic disease in patients with STAT3 mutations reveals a role for STAT3 signaling in mast cell degranulation. (cdc.gov)
  • TH17 Cells in STAT3 Related Hyper-IgE Syndrome. (cdc.gov)
  • Deficiency of Th17 cells in hyper IgE syndrome due to mutations in STAT3. (lu.se)
  • Results In SLE, increased frequencies of Th17 cells were found with a positive correlation in SLEDAI. (bmj.com)
  • There was a positive correlation between frequencies of Th17 cells and daily proteinuria amount. (bmj.com)
  • Assessing 15 representative signature genes in patients with multiple sclerosis, we find that TH1/17 cells have elevated expression of CXCR3 and reduced expression of IFNG, CCL3, CLL4, GZMB, and IL10 compared to healthy controls. (usi.ch)
  • However, no inhibitory effect of MSC-Exo on IRBP-specific T cell proliferation was observed. (nature.com)
  • These data are consistent with an effect of GSK-J4 on Th17 T cell differentiation pathways directly related to proliferation and include regulation of effector cytokine profiles. (ox.ac.uk)
  • This study demonstrates that manipulating metabolic pathways in CD4 T cells can alter the functional properties of the cells, which is key for solving chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. (uab.edu)
  • An unhealthy population of microbes in the mouth triggers specialized immune cells that inflame and destroy tissues, leading to the type of bone loss associated with a severe form of gum disease, according to researchers at the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research ( NIDCR ) and the University of Pennsylvania School of Dental Medicine who say their findings have implications for new treatment approaches for the condition. (dentistrytoday.com)
  • This review summarizes recent findings and currently available data for understanding the vital role and therapeutic significance of TH9/IL-9, TH17/IL-17, and TH22/IL-22 in the development of colorectal tumorigenesis. (nord.no)
  • T helper (Th) cells are CD4+ effector T cells that play a critical role in immunity by shaping the inflammatory cytokine environment in a variety of physiological and pathological situations. (ox.ac.uk)
  • When Mycobacterium tuberculosis infects a host, T-cell-mediated immunity plays a major role in protecting against the development of TB. (cdc.gov)
  • In this context, M. tuberculosis -induced T-cell-mediated immunity activates macrophage phagocytosis and kills intracellular M. tuberculosis ( 3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Previous studies have also demonstrated that the M. bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccine effectively protects infants from TB through the activation of conventional T-cell immunity ( 4 , 5 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Innate immunity resides in the skin, mucous membranes, polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells, complement system, and a select group of cells that possess cytotoxic capabilities. (medscape.com)
  • Secreted aspartyl proteinases (SAPs) are hydrolytic enzymes secreted by Candida that contribute to virulence by degrading host cell mebranes and molecular mediators of host immunity. (medscape.com)