GATA3 Transcription Factor
Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 1, Group F, Member 3
T-Box Domain Proteins
STAT6 Transcription Factor
Disease Models, Animal
STAT4 Transcription Factor
Encephalomyelitis, Autoimmune, Experimental
Prevention of collagen-induced arthritis by gene delivery of soluble p75 tumour necrosis factor receptor. (1/5809)Collagen type II-induced arthritis (CIA) in DBA/1 mice can be passively transferred to SCID mice with spleen B- and T-lymphocytes. In the present study, we show that infection ex vivo of splenocytes from arthritic DBA/1 mice with a retroviral vector, containing cDNA for the soluble form of human p75 receptor of tumour necrosis factor (TNF-R) before transfer, prevents the development of arthritis, bone erosion and joint inflammation in the SCID recipients. Assessment of IgG subclass levels and studies of synovial histology suggest that down-regulating the effector functions of T helper-type 1 (Th1) cells may, at least in part, explain the inhibition of arthritis in the SCID recipients. In contrast, the transfer of splenocytes infected with mouse TNF-alpha gene construct resulted in exacerbated arthritis and enhancement of IgG2a antibody levels. Intriguingly, infection of splenocytes from arthritic DBA/1 mice with a construct for mouse IL-10 had no modulating effect on the transfer of arthritis. The data suggest that manipulation of the immune system with cytokines, or cytokine inhibitors using gene transfer protocols can be an effective approach to ameliorate arthritis. (+info)
Enhanced Th1 activity and development of chronic enterocolitis in mice devoid of Stat3 in macrophages and neutrophils. (2/5809)We have generated mice with a cell type-specific disruption of the Stat3 gene in macrophages and neutrophils. The mutant mice are highly susceptible to endotoxin shock with increased production of inflammatory cytokines such as TNF alpha, IL-1, IFN gamma, and IL-6. Endotoxin-induced production of inflammatory cytokines is augmented because the suppressive effects of IL-10 on inflammatory cytokine production from macrophages and neutrophils are completely abolished. The mice show a polarized immune response toward the Th1 type and develop chronic enterocolitis with age. Taken together, Stat3 plays a critical role in deactivation of macrophages and neutrophils mainly exerted by IL-10. (+info)
Interleukin-18 binding protein: a novel modulator of the Th1 cytokine response. (3/5809)An interleukin-18 binding protein (IL-18BP) was purified from urine by chromatography on IL-18 beads, sequenced, cloned, and expressed in COS7 cells. IL-18BP abolished IL-18 induction of interferon-gamma (IFNgamma), IL-8, and activation of NF-kappaB in vitro. Administration of IL-18BP to mice abrogated circulating IFNgamma following LPS. Thus, IL-18BP functions as an inhibitor of the early Th1 cytokine response. IL-18BP is constitutively expressed in the spleen, belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily, and has limited homology to the IL-1 type II receptor. Its gene was localized on human chromosome 11q13, and no exon coding for a transmembrane domain was found in an 8.3 kb genomic sequence. Several Poxviruses encode putative proteins highly homologous to IL-18BP, suggesting that viral products may attenuate IL-18 and interfere with the cytotoxic T cell response. (+info)
Reciprocal control of T helper cell and dendritic cell differentiation. (4/5809)It is not known whether subsets of dendritic cells provide different cytokine microenvironments that determine the differentiation of either type-1 T helper (TH1) or TH2 cells. Human monocyte (pDC1)-derived dendritic cells (DC1) were found to induce TH1 differentiation, whereas dendritic cells (DC2) derived from CD4+CD3-CD11c- plasmacytoid cells (pDC2) induced TH2 differentiation by use of a mechanism unaffected by interleukin-4 (IL-4) or IL-12. The TH2 cytokine IL-4 enhanced DC1 maturation and killed pDC2, an effect potentiated by IL-10 but blocked by CD40 ligand and interferon-gamma. Thus, a negative feedback loop from the mature T helper cells may selectively inhibit prolonged TH1 or TH2 responses by regulating survival of the appropriate dendritic cell subset. (+info)
Enhanced Th1 and dampened Th2 responses synergize to inhibit acute granulomatous and fibrotic responses in murine schistosomiasis mansoni. (5/5809)In murine schistosomiasis mansoni, CD4(+) Th1 and Th2 cells participate in the ovum-induced granulomatous inflammation. Previous studies showed that the interleukin-12 (IL-12)-induced Th1 response strongly suppressed the Th2-cell-mediated pulmonary granuloma development in naive or primed mice. However, liver granulomas were only moderately suppressed in egg-vaccinated, recombinant IL-12 (rIL-12)-treated infected mice. The present study shows that repeated rIL-12 injections given during early granuloma development at 5 to 7 weeks after infection prolonged the Th1 phase and resulted in gamma interferon-mediated suppression of liver granulomas. The timing is crucial: if given at 6 to 8 weeks, during the Th2-dominated phase of florid granuloma growth, the treatment is ineffective. Daily injections of rIL-12 given between 5 and 7.5 weeks during the period of granuloma growth achieved a somewhat-stronger diminution in granuloma growth with less deposition of collagen but caused 60% mortality and liver pathology. In contrast, combined treatment with rIL-12 and anti-IL-4-anti-IL-10 monoclonal antibody (MAb) injections given during the Th2 phase strongly inhibited liver granuloma growth without mortality. The diminished inflammatory response was accompanied by less deposition of collagen in the liver. Moreover, neutralization of endogenous IL-12 by anti-IL-12 MAbs effectively decreased the early Th1 phase (between 5 and 6 weeks after infection) but not the developing Th2 phase (5 to 7 weeks) of granuloma development. These studies indicate that the granulomatous response in infected mice can be manipulated by utilizing the Th1-Th2-subset antagonism with potential salutary results in the amelioration of fibrous pathology. (+info)
Interleukin-10 inhibits expression of both interferon alpha- and interferon gamma- induced genes by suppressing tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT1. (6/5809)Interleukin-10 (IL-10) helps maintain polarized T-helper cells in a T-helper lymphocyte 2 (Th2) phenotype. Part of this process involves the prevention of the development of Th1 cells, which are a primary source of interferon gamma (IFNgamma), a potent activator of monocytes and an inhibitor of Th2 proliferation. Because monocytes and macrophages are important mediators of Th1-type responses, such as delayed-type hypersensitivity, we sought to determine if IL-10 could directly mediate inhibition of IFNgamma- and IFNalpha-induced gene expression in these cells. Highly purified monocytes were incubated with IL-10 for 60 to 90 minutes before the addition of IFNgamma or IFNalpha. IL-10 preincubation resulted in the inhibition of gene expression for several IFN-induced genes, such as IP-10, ISG54, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1. The reduction in gene expression resulted from the ability of IL-10 to suppress IFN-induced assembly of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) factors to specific promoter motifs on IFNalpha- and IFNgamma-inducible genes. This was accomplished by preventing the IFN-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT1, a component of both IFNalpha- and IFNgamma-induced DNA binding complexes. Therefore, IL-10 can directly inhibit STAT-dependent early response gene expression induced by both IFNalpha and IFNgamma in monocytes by suppressing the tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT1. This may occur through the ability of IL-10 to induce expression of the gene, suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3). (+info)
Interleukin-12 induces expression of interferon regulatory factor-1 via signal transducer and activator of transcription-4 in human T helper type 1 cells. (7/5809)IRF-1-deficient mice show a striking defect in the development of T helper 1 (Th1) cells. In the present report, we investigate the expression of IRF-1 during differentiation of human T helper cells. No significant differences of IRF-1 mRNA expression were found in established Th1 and Th2 cells; however, interleukin 12 (IL-12) induced a strong up-regulation of IRF-1 transcripts in Th1 but not in Th2 cells. We demonstrate that IL-12-induced up-regulation of IRF-1 is mediated by signal transducer and activator of transcription-4, which binds to the interferon (IFN)-gamma-activated sequence present in the promoter of the IRF-1 gene. Strong IL-12-dependent activation of a reporter gene construct containing the IRF-1 IFN-gamma-activated sequence element provides further evidence for the key role of signal transducer and activator of transcription-4 in the IL-12-induced up-regulation of IRF-1 transcripts in T cells. IRF-1 expression was strongly induced after stimulation of naive CD4(+) T cells via the T cell receptor, irrespective of the cytokines present at priming, indicating that this transcription factor does not play a major role in initiating a Th1-specific transcriptional cascade in differentiating helper T cells. However, our finding that IRF-1 is a target gene of IL-12 suggests that some of the IL-12-induced effector functions of Th1 cells may be mediated by IRF-1. (+info)
Cytokine network and resident renal cells in glomerular diseases. (8/5809)This review has highlighted the cytokine network which is involved in renal damage from an initial, even transient, stage to extensive glomerular and tubulointerstitial sclerosis. Studies of a variety of different proliferative glomerulonephritides have documented the prominent role of macrophages in infiltrating mesangium, subendothelial area and crescentic formation. Thus, they stimulate crescent glomerular cells to produce other cytokines and growth factors. The identification of other mediators, released by the monocytes in the interstitium, exemplifies the important role of these cells in progressive interstitial scarring through the release of fibrogenic cytokines. In addition, renal tubular cells have been found to produce a vast array of cytokines and growth factors which participate in the generation of renal interstitial scarring. (+info)
1) They share similarities with humans: Many animal species share similar biological and physiological characteristics with humans, making them useful for studying human diseases. For example, mice and rats are often used to study diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer because they have similar metabolic and cardiovascular systems to humans.
2) They can be genetically manipulated: Animal disease models can be genetically engineered to develop specific diseases or to model human genetic disorders. This allows researchers to study the progression of the disease and test potential treatments in a controlled environment.
3) They can be used to test drugs and therapies: Before new drugs or therapies are tested in humans, they are often first tested in animal models of disease. This allows researchers to assess the safety and efficacy of the treatment before moving on to human clinical trials.
4) They can provide insights into disease mechanisms: Studying disease models in animals can provide valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms of a particular disease. This information can then be used to develop new treatments or improve existing ones.
5) Reduces the need for human testing: Using animal disease models reduces the need for human testing, which can be time-consuming, expensive, and ethically challenging. However, it is important to note that animal models are not perfect substitutes for human subjects, and results obtained from animal studies may not always translate to humans.
6) They can be used to study infectious diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study infectious diseases such as HIV, TB, and malaria. These models allow researchers to understand how the disease is transmitted, how it progresses, and how it responds to treatment.
7) They can be used to study complex diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study complex diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. These models allow researchers to understand the underlying mechanisms of the disease and test potential treatments.
8) They are cost-effective: Animal disease models are often less expensive than human clinical trials, making them a cost-effective way to conduct research.
9) They can be used to study drug delivery: Animal disease models can be used to study drug delivery and pharmacokinetics, which is important for developing new drugs and drug delivery systems.
10) They can be used to study aging: Animal disease models can be used to study the aging process and age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. This allows researchers to understand how aging contributes to disease and develop potential treatments.
The disease is typically induced in laboratory animals such as mice or rats by immunizing them with myelin proteins, such as myelin basic protein (MBP) or proteolipid protein (PLP), emulsified in adjuvants. The resulting immune response leads to the production of autoantibodies and activated T cells that cross the blood-brain barrier and attack the CNS.
EAE is used as a model for MS because it shares many similarities with the human disease, including:
1. Demyelination: EAE induces demyelination of nerve fibers in the CNS, which is also a hallmark of MS.
2. Autoimmune response: The immune response in EAE is triggered by autoantigens, similar to MS.
3. Chronic course: EAE is a chronic disease with recurrent relapses, similar to MS.
4. Lesion distribution: EAE lesions are distributed throughout the CNS, including the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, brainstem, and spinal cord, which is also true for MS.
EAE has been used extensively in the study of MS to investigate the immunopathogenesis of the disease, to develop new diagnostic markers and treatments, and to test the efficacy of potential therapeutic agents.
Biological therapy for inflammatory bowel disease
T helper cell
T helper 3 cell
Altered Schaedler flora
Catalase-related immune-responsive domain
T helper 17 cell
CD4+ T cells and antitumor immunity
Mucosal associated invariant T cell
Gamma delta T cell
Human T-lymphotropic virus 1
Th 9 cell
Type 1 regulatory T cell
Interferon type II
Epigenetics of neurodegenerative diseases
List of MeSH codes (A11)
Herpes simplex research
T-cell mediated immunity after AZD1222 vaccination: A polyfunctional spike-specific Th1 response with a diverse TCR repertoire ...
Competition between colitogenic Th1 and Th17 cells contributes to the amelioration of colitis<...
Adult T-cell progenitors retain myeloid potential | Nature
Transcriptomic Analysis of the Effect of GAT-2 Deficiency on Differentiation of Mice Naïve T Cells Into Th1 Cells |i|In Vitro|...
Comparison of the Th1, IFN-γ Secreting Cells and FoxP3 Expression between Patients with Stable Graft Function and Acute...
Placental uptake and transfer of environmental chemicals relating to allergy in childhood years | PLUTOCRACY Project | Results ...
Safranal | GreenMedInfo | Substance | Natural Medicine | Alternative
Frontiers | Systems Biomedicine of Rabies Delineates the Affected Signaling Pathways
JCI - First-dose mRNA vaccination is sufficient to reactivate immunological memory to SARS-CoV-2 in subjects who have recovered...
Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis: Background, Pathophysiology, Etiology
Evaluation of the Safety and Immunogenicity of a SARS-CoV-2 rS Nanoparticle Vaccine With/Without Matrix-M Adjuvant - Full Text...
St. Jude and Scripps Research Institute scientists help launch Human Dark Proteome Initiative
Homology mediated end joining enables efficient non-viral targeted integration of large DNA templates in primary human T cells ...
Toxins | An Open Access Journal from MDPI
T. Zhang - Search Results - PubMed
Category:Astrocytes - Wikimedia Commons
Chikungunya Fever, Hong Kong - Volume 12, Number 11-November 2006 - Emerging Infectious Diseases journal - CDC
Longitudinal characterisation of B and T-cell immune responses after the booster dose of COVID-19 mRNA-vaccine in people with...
Human CD40 Ligand/TNFSF5 Antibody AF617: R&D Systems
WHO EMRO | T-cell cytokine production and endothelial dysfunction in type 2 diabetic patients with nephropathy | Volume 15,...
Beryllium Toxicity: Literature Cited | Environmental Medicine | ATSDR
State-of-the-art: rheumatoid arthritis | Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
Episode 5: 50+ Years in the Making, RSV Vaccine Arrives
Suppression of Ongoing Experimental Arthritis by a Chinese Herbal Formula (Huo-Luo-Xiao-Ling Dan) Involves Changes in Antigen...
NIOSHTIC-2 Search Results - Full View
Evolutionary Psychiatry: 2011
- The percentage of Th1 CD4+ IFN-γ+ cells was determined on PBMC by flow cytometry and the number of IFN-γ secreting cells by ELISPOT method. (ac.ir)
- Antibody response was measured by anti-receptor-binding domain (RBD)-IgG detection, cell-mediated response by an interferon (IFN)-γ release assay (IGRA), Th1 cytokines and T-cell memory profile by flow cytometry. (bmj.com)
- Methods: By using flow cytometry, we analyzed the frequency of senescent T cells (Tsens) in the peripheral blood from 100 elderly patients hospitalized for COVID-19 and compared the difference between mild/moderate and severe/critical illness. (bvsalud.org)
- CD4+ memory T cells from multiple sclerosis patients had significantly higher levels of p-STAT3/p-STAT4, and p-STAT3/p-STAT4 heterodimers were observed upon IL-23 signaling, suggesting that p-STAT3/p-STAT4 induced by IL-23 signaling orchestrate the generation of pathogenic T cells in CNS autoimmunity, regardless of Th1 or Th17 phenotype. (jci.org)
- Western blot shows conditioned media (CM) from Th17 cells. (rndsystems.com)
- In addition to Th1 and Th2 cells, Th17, Treg and T Fh cells have also been described 7 , Treg cells are associated with reduction of clinical scores of disease in soft and hard tissues 8 . (bvsalud.org)
- Usually, protective and destructive roles are assigned to the Th1 and Th17 3,9-11 cells, while Th2 and Treg cells are more involved in processes that reduce the destruction of the periodontium 10 . (bvsalud.org)
- The immune response, orchestrated by helper (Th1, Th2, and Th17) and regulatory (Treg) T cells, is modulated by stress and Vitamin D (Vit-D). Although the immunomodulatory functions of both are known, their specific roles on Th cells have not been fully clarified, yet. (who.int)
- Th17 and Treg cells were lower in subchronic stress exposed mice. (who.int)
- However, T-bet represses Tfh cell functionalities, promoting full Th1 cell differentiation. (elsevier.com)
- The classical model of haematopoiesis postulates that, in the first step of differentiation, the stem cell generates common myelo-erythroid progenitors and common lymphoid progenitors (CLPs). (nature.com)
- This study investigated the role of GABA transporter (GAT)-2 in the differentiation of type 1 helper T (Th1) cells . (bvsalud.org)
- Th1 cell differentiation was induced and transcriptome and bioinformatics analyses were carried out. (bvsalud.org)
- We found that GAT-2 deficiency promoted the differentiation of naïve T cells into Th1 cells . (bvsalud.org)
- Such information is mediated immunity, secreting the cytokine crucial to determine the optimal approach interferon-gamma (IFN) that inhibits Th2 to improve the immune response of DN cell differentiation. (who.int)
- The factors that promote the differentiation of pathogenic T cells in autoimmune diseases are poorly defined. (jci.org)
- Iron performs an essential position in host-pathogen interactions, in being an important ingredient for each pathogen and host metabolism, but in addition by impacting immune cell differentiation and anti-microbial effector pathways. (holliseden.com)
- Differentiation into Th1 depends on the presence of IFN-γ and IL-12, which bind to receptors on the surface of CD4 T cells 5 . (bvsalud.org)
- This binding initiates a cascade of events that culminates in differentiation into Th1 cells, by increasing the transcription factor T-bet 12 . (bvsalud.org)
- Th2 cells have a differentiation process which is dependent on IL-4, which causes the activation of the transcription factor STAT 6 . (bvsalud.org)
- They secrete cytokines to stimulate various effector cells, such as cytotoxic T cells, B cells and macrophages. (biolegend.com)
- This panel allows simultaneous quantification of 5 human cytokines, including IL-2, 6, 10, IFN-γ and TNF-α, which are collectively secreted by Th1. (biolegend.com)
- Firstly, adaptive immune responses may be broadly categorised into two antagonistic subtypes (Th1 and Th2), each with its own set of molecular mediators or cytokines. (bmj.com)
- Expression of cytokines and chemokines in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was quite different in mice exposed to four particle types, as well as expression of antigen presentation-related surface proteins on BAL cells. (cdc.gov)
- CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes play an import role in the inflammatory response, as these cells may manage the profile of cytokines produced against an infectious agent 4 . (bvsalud.org)
- Progression of periodontal lesions is caused by dysregulation of molecules (cytokines) released by specific cell populations 5 . (bvsalud.org)
- They can be distinguished based on the profile of cytokines produced: Th1 cells produce characteristic cytokines such as IL-2, IFN-γ, TNF-β, IL-12, while active Th2 cells secrete IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-136. (bvsalud.org)
- Compared with HCWs, PwMS presented a higher frequency of CD4 + and CD8 + terminally differentiated effector memory cells and of CD4 + effector memory (T EM ) cells, independently of the stimulus suggesting the association of this phenotype with MS status. (bmj.com)
- Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions. (bvsalud.org)
- We also assessed correlations between the percentage of Tsens and the quantity and quality of spike-specific antibodies by ELISA, neutralizing antibody test kit and Elispot assay respectively, cytokine production profile of COVID-19 reactive T cells as well as plasma soluble factors by cytometric bead array (CBA). (bvsalud.org)
- Oxytocin may specifically inactivate SARS-COV-2 spike protein and block viral entry into cells via angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 by suppressing serine protease and increasing interferon levels and number of T-lymphocytes. (frontiersin.org)
- CD40 ligand, CD40L (also known as CD154, TRAP or gp39), is a 261 amino acid type II transmembrane glycoprotein belonging to the TNF family, CD40L is expressed predominantly on activated CD4 + T lymphocytes, and also found in other types of cells, like NK cells, mast cells, basophils and eosinophils. (rndsystems.com)
- CD40 is expressed on B lymphocytes, monocytes, dendritic cells and thymic epithelium. (rndsystems.com)
- Total cell number, mononuclear phagocytes, polymorphonuclear leukocytes, lymphocytes, and LDH levels were significantly increased in ASB and CNT-exposed mice. (cdc.gov)
- There are limited clinical investigations identifying the percentage of T helper 1 (Th1) and T regulatory (Treg) cells in stable as well as rejected kidney allografts, a concept which needs to be more studied. (ac.ir)
- Stress exposure caused differential Th and Treg responses, acute stress shifting the response to Th1, and subchronic stress shifting the response to Th2. (who.int)
- The higher percentage of CD4+ IFN-γ+Th1 subset and number of IFN-γ secreting cells and also the lower expression of Foxp3 could prone the patients to acute rejection episode post transplantation. (ac.ir)
- With ChIP-seq, we defined the genome-wide targets of T-bet and found that it repressed Bcl6 and other markers of Tfh cells, thereby attenuating the nascent Tfh cell-like phenotype in the late phase of Th1 cell specification. (elsevier.com)
- Our results provide evidence for the immunomodulatory function of GABA signaling in T cell -mediated immunity and can guide future studies on the etiology and management of autoimmune diseases . (bvsalud.org)
- Many point to regulation of adaptive immunity, including ptpn22 (protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 22 which regulates lymphocyte activation), ctla4 and cd40 (both implicated in co-stimulation of T cells). (bmj.com)
- Herein, we showed interleukin-12 acting via the transcription factor STAT4 induced both Il21 and Bcl6 genes, generating cells with features of both Tfh and Th1 cells. (elsevier.com)
- Our data argue that Tfh and Th1 cells share a transitional stage through the signal mediated by STAT4, which promotes both phenotypes. (elsevier.com)
- Tfh-like cells were rapidly generated after Toxoplasma gondii infection in mice, but T-bet constrained Tfh cell expansion and consequent germinal center formation and antibody production. (elsevier.com)
- To define the minimum signals required for development of encephalitogenic T cells that cause CNS autoimmunity, myelin-specific T cells were differentiated with various cytokine cocktails, and pathogenicity was determined by transfer into mice. (jci.org)
- A ) Cells were collected and adoptively transferred into B10.PL mice (10 × 10 6 cells per mouse). (jci.org)
- This study investigated effects of four fibrous materials, i.e. nanofibrillar/nanocrystalline celluloses (NCF and CNC), single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and crocidolite asbestos (ASB), on pulmonary inflammation and immune responses found in the lungs, as well as the effects on spleen and peripheral blood immune cell subsets. (cdc.gov)
- My research on biomarkers and T cells (immune cells that guard against infections and cancers) has been translated into clinical trials affecting the treatment of patients receiving hematopoietic cell transplantation for leukemia. (jci.org)
- While the number of available receptors targeting tumor specific antigens continues to grow, the current reliance on viral vectors for clinical production of engineered immune cells remains a significant bottleneck limiting translation of promising new therapies. (biorxiv.org)
- Importantly, our method is readily adaptable to cGMP compliant manufacturing and clinical scale-up, offering a near-term alternative to the use of viral vectors for production of genetically engineered T cells for cancer immunotherapy. (biorxiv.org)
- For Cohort 3: Advanced HIV disease (defined as CD4 count less than 200 cells/mm3 or WHO HIV clinical stage 3 or 4) prior to initiation (or re-initiation) of ART. (who.int)
- In experimental studies, the inability to suppress such T-cell proliferation was associated with disease progression. (medscape.com)
- Aim: To evaluate the involvement of Th2 cells in different periods of the active phase of experimental periodontal disease and expression of the R1 subunit of the receptor for IFN-γ during the early and advanced progression of the disease. (bvsalud.org)
- However, whether the senescence of T cells impact the progression to severe COVID-19 in the elderly individuals remains unclear. (bvsalud.org)
- The mycobacterial heat-shock protein 65 (Bhsp65) is one of the major antigenic targets of the T cell response of arthritic rats [ 28 - 31 ]. (hindawi.com)
- RNA sequencing revealed 2984 differentially expressed genes including 1616 that were up-regulated and 1368 that were down-regulated in GAT-2 KO cells compared to WT cells , which were associated with 950 enriched Gene Ontology terms and 33 enriched Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways. (bvsalud.org)
- Polymorphisms in Th1-type cell-mediated response genes and risk of gastric cancer. (cdc.gov)
- The transcriptional profiles of these individual cells, coupled with assembled T cell receptor (TCR) sequences, enable us to identify 11 T cell subsets based on their molecular and functional properties and delineate their developmental trajectory. (nih.gov)
- T-cells have 2 subsets of betic patients with and without nephropathy. (who.int)
- T-cells have 2 subsets of helper cells: T-helper type 1 (Th1) and type 2 (Th2). (who.int)
- We therefore hypothesized that the subclass distribution of IgG production occurring in experimental silicosis would suggest TH1 activation as the primary stimulus for IgG production. (cdc.gov)
- Chimeric antigen receptor redirected T cells (CAR- T cells) have achieved inspiring outcomes in patients with B cell malignancies, and are now being investigated in other hematologic malignancies and solid tumors. (nih.gov)
- Redirecting T cell specificity by introduction of exogenous tumor antigen specific receptor molecules has created a paradigm shift in adoptive cell therapy for cancer. (biorxiv.org)
- IL-6+IL-23 or IL-12+IL-23 generated encephalitogenic T cells and recapitulated the essential cytokine signals provided by antigen-presenting cells, and both IL-6 and IL-12 induced IL-23 receptor expression on both mouse and human naive T cells. (jci.org)
- Although all monomeric, dimeric and trimeric forms of soluble CD40L can bind to CD40, the trimeric form of soluble CD40L has the most potent biological activity through oligomerization of cell surface CD40, a common feature of TNF receptor family members. (rndsystems.com)
- This signal together with the T Cell Receptor (TCR) induces the expression of GATA-3. (bvsalud.org)
- experimental transfer of DNA has shown that the variant significantly upregulates the IL-4Rα response to IL-4 stimulation resulting in increased Th2 cell growth and IgE synthesis. (bmj.com)
- Recent studies using rodent models have shown that experimental silicosis is associated with a T-helper (TH)1 pattern of T-cell activation in the lungs and lung-associated lymph nodes after silica inhalation, which are also the sites of increased IgG production. (cdc.gov)
- Differently, T-cell response evaluated by IGRA remained stable in PwMS independently of therapy. (bmj.com)
- This suppression of arthritis was associated with significant alterations in the T cell proliferative and cytokine responses as well as the antibody response against the disease-related antigen, mycobacterial heat-shock protein 65 (Bhsp65). (hindawi.com)
- The results revealed that pulmonary exposure to fibrous materials led to discrete local immune cell polarization patterns with a TH2-like response caused by ASB and TH1-like immune reaction to NCF, while CNT and CNC caused non-classical or non-uniform responses. (cdc.gov)
- The T cell response, crucial for immune system function, differs on the basis of stress exposure as such the Vit-D treatment. (who.int)
- The aim of our study was to compare the percentage of CD4+ IFN-γ+ cells, the number of IFN-γ secreting cells and the amount of FoxP3 expression in patients with or without stable graft function, to determine the roles of these immunological factors in stable and rejected renal allografts. (ac.ir)
- T helper (Th) cells play important roles in regulating immune responses. (biolegend.com)
- In general, strong viral promot- mals against an idiotypic antibody of a B- ers such as cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Rous cell lymphoma, carcinoembryonic antigen, sarcoma virus (RSV) have been employed human Ig V region, MHC class I molecules, and have proven effective in animal models. (who.int)
- Furthermore, this antiarthritic activity of HLXL is associated with changes in both the T cell and the antibody responses against Bhsp65. (hindawi.com)
- The percentage of CD4+ Tsens was negatively correlated with spike-specific antibody titers, neutralization ability and COVID-19 reactive IL-2+ CD4+ T cells. (bvsalud.org)
- Additionally, IL-2 producing T cells and plasma levels of IL-2 were positively correlated with antibody levels. (bvsalud.org)
- Safranal alleviated OVA-induced asthma model and inhibits mast cell activation. (greenmedinfo.com)
- The epidemiological relationship between helminth infestation and atopy in currently underdeveloped countries is complex and unresolved, with suggestions that atopic individuals may suffer less parasitisation and that helminthic infection may moderate atopic disorder, perhaps by saturating mast cell IgE receptors with non-allergen directed IgE. (bmj.com)
- Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a leading selectin), and soluble thrombomodulin--are cause of chronic renal failure and is a grow- providing further evidence of the relation- ing concern given the increasing incidence ship between endothelial cell activation and of type 2 diabetes. (who.int)
- For RSV, it's mostly the ciliated, bronchial, or epithelial cells, and the type I pneumocytes in the alveolar space. (medscape.com)
- Kawamoto, H., Ohmura, K. & Katsura, Y. Direct evidence for the commitment of hematopoietic stem cells to T, B and myeloid lineages in murine fetal liver. (nature.com)
- I was pleased to again care for patients receiving hematopoietic cell transplantation, the most effective form of immunotherapy before the advent of T cell therapies. (jci.org)
- Antibodies against terest in cells of the vaccinated animal, but is the viral influenza proteins nucleoprotein unable to replicate in this species (1,2). (who.int)
- Here, we describe an optimized methodology for efficient CRISPR-Cas9 based, non-viral engineering of primary human T cells that overcomes key limitations of previous approaches. (biorxiv.org)
- It helps fuse the viral membrane to the host cell or target membrane, and that's how the viral genome gets into the cell to start the replication process. (medscape.com)
- The three identical protomers grab the host cell, and then the two ends - the one end inserted into the host and the other end inserted into the viral membrane - come back together, they're pulled together, and that creates a fusion core that allows the virus replication process to start. (medscape.com)
- Here we provide clonal evidence that the early cell populations in the adult thymus contain progenitors that have lost the potential to generate B cells but retain substantial macrophage potential as well as T-cell, natural killer (NK)-cell and dendritic-cell potential. (nature.com)
- T-cell progenitors in adult thymus that have lost B-cell potential retain macrophage potential. (nature.com)
- T-cell progenitors retain macrophage potential after B-cell potential has been shut off. (nature.com)
- During haematopoiesis, pluripotent haematopoietic stem cells are sequentially restricted to give rise to a variety of lineage-committed progenitors. (nature.com)
- Interleukin-1 alpha genotype and outcome of unrelated donor haematopoietic stem cell transplantation for chronic myeloid leukaemia. (cdc.gov)
- In PwMS, total Th1 and IFN-γ CD4 + T-cell responders to spike protein were increased from T2 to T3. (bmj.com)
- The autoimmune nature of diabetes and inflammatory cytokine IL-10 (as markers the major contribution of lymphocyte T- of inflammatory changes) and the soluble cells are well established. (who.int)
- We also show that such T-cell progenitors can give rise to macrophages in the thymic environment in vivo . (nature.com)
- The autoimmune nature of diabetes and the major contribution of lymphocyte T-cells are well established. (who.int)
- As it approaches the cell, the top of it unfolds, and it inserts itself into the target cell membrane. (medscape.com)
- Adoptive cellular therapy using genetically engineered immune cells holds tremendous promise for the treatment of advanced cancers. (biorxiv.org)
- In order to differentiate into Th1 or Th2 cells, CD4 T cells must become antigen-activated. (bvsalud.org)
- The neurotransmitter Î³- aminobutyric acid ( GABA ) is known to affect the activation and function of immune cells . (bvsalud.org)
- Les IFN et les IL-10 étaient signi cativement élevés chez ceux qui présentaient une néphropathie diabétique (ND) et une maladie rénale en phase terminale (MRPT) par rapport aux témoins et aux patients diabétiques sans ND. (who.int)
- Here, we characterised the kinetics of B-cell and T-cell immune responses in patients with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) after the booster dose. (bmj.com)
- On the native virus that's budding off of cells, the protein starts as a prefusion. (medscape.com)
- DEGs that were positively correlated with FANCI were involved in various processes, including the cell cycle, VEGF pathway, immune system processes, and biogenesis of ribonucleoproteins. (medsci.org)
- found evidence and they did not require insulin therapy of endothelial cell injury in renal failure for glucose control. (who.int)
- IFN-γ R1 was detected at an early stage during the active phase of disease, but the expression of positive cells remained unaltered during the remaining period of the study. (bvsalud.org)
- 200 cells/mm3 or WHO stage 3 or 4. (who.int)