Effects of persistent selective suppression of ganglionic butyrylcholinesterase on steady state and regenerating levels of acetylcholinesterase: implications regarding function of butyrylcholinesterase and regulation of protein synthesis. (1/13)Persistent selective suppression of the butyrylcholinesterase (cholinesterase; acylcholine acyl-hydrolase, EC 188.8.131.52) activity of the superior cervical, stellate, and ciliary ganglia of cats by the daily administration of tetramonoisopropyl pyrophosphortetramide, 3.0 mumol/kg, intravenously, for 6 days produced a significant elevation in the levels of ganglionic acetylcholinesterase (acetylcholine hydrolase, EC 184.108.40.206). When the same procedure was preceded by the inactivation of over 95% of the ganglionic acetylcholinesterase by sarin, 2.0 mumol/kg, intravenously, the rate of regeneration of acetylcholinesterase was decreased. Results are interpreted as evidence that ganglionic butyrylcholinesterase may serve as a precursor to acetylcholinesterase, and that the level of butyrylcholinesterase may regulate the rate of acetylcholinesterase synthesis. (+info)
Butyrylcholinesterase accelerates cocaine metabolism: in vitro and in vivo effects in nonhuman primates and humans. (2/13)Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) is known to metabolize cocaine in humans. In the present study, three different experiments were performed to determine whether the addition of horse serum-derived BChE would accelerate the metabolism of cocaine. In the first experiment, the addition of BChE to squirrel monkey plasma in vitro reduced the half-life of cocaine by over 80%, decreased the production of the metabolic product benzoylecgonine, and increased ecgonine methyl ester formation. The effect of BChE on cocaine metabolism was reversed by a specific BChE inhibitor. In the second, in vivo, experiment, exogenously administered BChE reduced peak cocaine concentrations when given to anesthetized squirrel monkeys. Finally, incubation of cocaine with added BChE in human plasma in vitro resulted in a decrease in cocaine half-life similar to that observed with squirrel monkey plasma. The magnitude of the decrease in cocaine half-life was proportional to the amount of added BChE. Together, these results indicate that exogenously administered BChE can accelerate cocaine metabolism in such a way as to potentially lessen the behavioral and toxic effects of cocaine. Therefore, BChE may be useful as a treatment for cocaine addiction and toxicity. (+info)
Determinants of substrate specificity of a second non-neuronal secreted acetylcholinesterase from the parasitic nematode Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. (3/13)We recently reported on a non-neuronal secreted acetylcholinesterase (AChE B) from the nematode parasite Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. Here we describe the primary structure and enzymatic properties of a second secreted variant, termed AChE C after the designation of native AChE isoforms from this parasite. As for the former enzyme, AChE C is truncated at the carboxyl terminus in comparison with the Torpedo AChE, and three of the 14 aromatic residues that line the active site gorge are substituted by nonaromatic residues, corresponding to Tyr70 (Ser), Trp279 (Asn) and Phe288 (Met). A recombinant form of AChE C was highly expressed by Pichia pastoris. The enzyme was monomeric and hydrophilic, and displayed a marked preference for acetylthiocholine as substrate. A double mutation (W302F/W345F, corresponding to positions 290 and 331 in Torpedo) rendered the enzyme 10-fold less sensitive to excess substrate inhibition and two times less susceptible to the bis quaternary inhibitor BW284C51, but did not radically affect substrate specificity or sensitivity to the 'peripheral site' inhibitor propidium iodide. In contrast, a triple mutant (M300G/W302F/W345F) efficiently hydrolysed propionylthiocholine and butyrylthiocholine in addition to acetylthiocholine, while remaining insensitive to the butyrylcholinesterase-specific inhibitor iso-OMPA and displaying a similar profile of excess substrate inhibition as the double mutant. These data highlight a conserved pattern of active site architecture for nematode secreted AChEs characterized to date, and provide an explanation for the substrate specificity that might otherwise appear inconsistent with the primary structure in comparison to other invertebrate AChEs. (+info)
Analysis of the forms of acetylcholinesterase from adult mouse brain. (4/13)The solubilization of 80% of the acetylcholinesterase activity of mouse brain was performed by repeated 2h incubations of homogenates at 37 degrees C in an aqueous medium. Analysis of the soluble extract by gel filtration on Sephadex G-200 showed that up to 80% of the enzyme activity was eluted in a peak which was estimated to consist of molecules of about 74000mol.wt. This peak was called the monomer form of the enzyme. After 3 days at 4 degrees C, the soluble extract was re-analysed and was eluted from the column in four peaks of about 74000, 155000, 360000 and 720000 mol.wt. Since the total activity of the enzyme in these peaks was the same as that in the predominantly monomer elution profile of fresh enzyme, we concluded that the monomer had aggregated, possibly into dimers, tetramers and octomers. Extracts of the enzyme were analysed by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis and the resulting multiple bands of enzyme activity on gels were shown to separate according to their molecular sizes, that is by molecular sieving. All these forms had similar susceptibilities to the inhibitors eserine, tetra-isopropyl pyrophosphoramide and compound BW 284c51 [1,5-bis-(4-allyldimethylammoniumphenyl)pentan-3-one dibromide]. Thus the forms of the enzyme in mouse brain which can be detected by gel filtration and polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis may all be related to a single low-molecular-weight form which aggregates during storage. This supports similar suggestions made for the enzyme in other locations. (+info)
Properties of growth-related acetylcholinesterase in a cell line of fibroblastic origin. (5/13)We have previously reported the presence and regulation of an acetylcholine-hydrolyzing enzyme in high density suspension cultures of WRL-10A fibroblasts where its activity increases 100-fold when growth is arrested. Substrate specificity, substrate inhibition, and product identification studies indicate that this enzyme is acetylcholinesterase (AChE, EC 220.127.116.11). Treatment of whole cells with 5 mM diazotized sulfanilic acid revealed that most of the AChE is located on the external surface of the cell membrane. It was also found that the enzyme is released in the medium at a rate of 0.5 U/h/mg cell protein and that within a 24-h period the de novo synthesized and liberated AChE is equivalent to 90% of the activity associated with the cells. No similar synthesis of AChE was found in six order fibroblastic cell lines examined. These and related findings indicating that acetylcholine is also present in high density populations of WRL-10A cells suggest that this unique phenotype may be used profitably in exploring further the relationship between components of the cholinergic system and non-neuronal cell growth. (+info)
Comparative effects of oral chlorpyrifos exposure on cholinesterase activity and muscarinic receptor binding in neonatal and adult rat heart. (6/13)Organophosphorus (OP) pesticides elicit acute toxicity by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase (AChE), the enzyme responsible for inactivating acetylcholine (ACh) at cholinergic synapses. A number of OP toxicants have also been reported to interact directly with muscarinic receptors, in particular the M(2) muscarinic subtype. Parasympathetic innervation to the heart primarily regulates cardiac function by activating M(2) receptors in the sinus node, atrial-ventricular node and conducting tissues. Thus, OP insecticides can potentially influence cardiac function in a receptor-mediated manner indirectly by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase and directly by binding to muscarinic M(2) receptors. Young animals are generally more sensitive than adults to the acute toxicity of OP insecticides and age-related differences in potency of direct binding to muscarinic receptors by some OP toxicants have been reported. We thus compared the effects of the common OP insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) on functional signs of toxicity and cardiac cholinesterase (ChE) activity and muscarinic receptor binding in neonatal and adult rats. Dosages were based on acute lethality (i.e., 0.5 and 1x LD(10): neonates, 7.5 and 15 mg/kg; adults, 68 and 136 mg/kg). Dose- and time-related changes in body weight and cholinergic signs of toxicity (involuntary movements) were noted in both age groups. With 1x LD(10), relatively similar maximal reductions in ChE activity (95%) and muscarinic receptor binding (approximately 30%) were noted, but receptor binding reductions appeared earlier in adults and were more prolonged in neonates. In vitro inhibition studies indicated that ChE in neonatal tissues was markedly more sensitive to inhibition by the active metabolite of chlorpyrifos (i.e., chlorpyrifos oxon, CPO) than enzyme in adult tissues (IC(50) values: neonates, 17 nM; adults, 200 nM). Chelation of free calcium with EDTA had relatively little effect on in vitro cholinesterase inhibition, suggesting that differential A-esterase activity was not responsible for the age-related difference in cholinesterase sensitivity between age groups. Pre-incubation of neonatal and adult tissues with selective inhibitors of AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) indicated that a majority (82-90%) of ChE activity in the heart of both neonates and adults was BChE. The rapid onset (by 4h after dosing) of changes in muscarinic receptor binding in adult heart may be a reflection of the more potent direct binding to muscarinic receptors by chlorpyrifos oxon previously reported in adult tissues. The results suggest that ChE activity (primarily BChE) in neonatal heart may be inherently more sensitive to inhibition by some anticholinesterases and that toxicologically significant binding to muscarinic receptors may be possible with acute chlorpyrifos intoxication, potentially contributing to age-related differences in sensitivity. (+info)
Characterization of cholinesterases in plasma of three Portuguese native bird species: application to biomonitoring. (7/13)(+info)
Recombinant human butyrylcholinesterase G390V, the fluoride-2 variant, expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells, is a low affinity variant. (8/13)Kinetics of recombinant fluoride-2 variant of human butyrylcholinesterase (Gly390 Val) secreted by Chinese hamster ovary cells were compared to recombinant usual and to usual butyrylcholinesterase purified from human plasma. The usual and fluoride-2 variant were indistinguishable with regard to hydrolysis of benzoylcholine (Km = 5 microM), neutral esters, and at high concentrations of acetylthiocholine, propionylthiocholine, and butyrylthiocholine. However, at low substrate concentrations Km values for acetylthiocholine and succinyldithiocholine were 2-6-fold higher for the fluoride-2 variant. pH rate profiles revealed small differences in pKa that could be attributed to changes in the active site histidine environment. On the other hand, Arrhenius plot analysis of o-nitrophenylbutyrate hydrolysis at pH 7.5 showed no difference in activation energy between fluoride-2 and usual butyrylcholinesterases. Both exhibited an anomalous temperature dependence with a wavelike change in activation energy around 18 degrees C. Affinity of the fluoride-2 variant for sodium fluoride, tacrine, dibucaine, amodiaquin, and succinyldicholine was lower than for usual enzyme. Apparent Ki for succinyldicholine was 125 microM for the fluoride-2 variant and 20 microM for the usual enzyme. Organophosphate inhibition showed equivalent reactivity, indicating that the point mutation altered only the binding properties of the variant. Thus, Km and Ki changes explain the succinyldicholine sensitivity of people carrying the fluoride-2 variant. (+info)
Tetraisopropylpyrophosphamide (TIPP) is not typically considered a medical compound, but rather a chemical reagent used in laboratory settings for various research purposes. However, I can provide a general chemical definition for you:
Tetraisopropylpyrophosphamide (C12H28N2O4P) is an organophosphorus compound with the molecular formula [(i-Pr)2P(O)]2. It is a colorless liquid that is used as a reagent in organic synthesis, particularly for the preparation of phosphate esters and other organophosphorus compounds.
It's important to note that TIPP is highly toxic and should be handled with appropriate precautions in a laboratory setting. It can cause skin and eye irritation, respiratory problems, and may be harmful if swallowed or inhaled. Therefore, it is not used in medical treatments or therapies for patients.