A potassium-selective ion channel blocker. (From J Gen Phys 1994;104(1):173-90)
One of the POTASSIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS, with secondary effect on calcium currents, which is used mainly as a research tool and to characterize channel subtypes.
A class of drugs that act by inhibition of potassium efflux through cell membranes. Blockade of potassium channels prolongs the duration of ACTION POTENTIALS. They are used as ANTI-ARRHYTHMIA AGENTS and VASODILATOR AGENTS.
Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
Pyridines substituted in any position with an amino group. May be hydrogenated, but must retain at least one double bond.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
A 37-amino acid residue peptide isolated from the scorpion Leiurus quinquestriatus hebraeus. It is a neurotoxin that inhibits calcium activated potassium channels.
A family of proteins involved in the transport of organic cations. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics, and their metabolites from the body.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.
A highly neurotoxic polypeptide from the venom of the honey bee (Apis mellifera). It consists of 18 amino acids with two disulfide bridges and causes hyperexcitability resulting in convulsions and respiratory paralysis.
An element of the alkaline earth group of metals. It has an atomic symbol Ba, atomic number 56, and atomic weight 138. All of its acid-soluble salts are poisonous.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
An aminoperhydroquinazoline poison found mainly in the liver and ovaries of fishes in the order TETRAODONTIFORMES, which are eaten. The toxin causes paresthesia and paralysis through interference with neuromuscular conduction.
An organic cation transporter found in kidney. It is localized to the basal lateral membrane and is likely to be involved in the renal secretion of organic cations.
Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
Potassium channels whose activation is dependent on intracellular calcium concentrations.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
A member of the alkali metals. It has an atomic symbol Cs, atomic number 50, and atomic weight 132.91. Cesium has many industrial applications, including the construction of atomic clocks based on its atomic vibrational frequency.
Potassium channel whose permeability to ions is extremely sensitive to the transmembrane potential difference. The opening of these channels is induced by the membrane depolarization of the ACTION POTENTIAL.
An antidiabetic sulfonylurea derivative with actions similar to those of chlorpropamide.
An alkaloid derived from the bark of the cinchona tree. It is used as an antimalarial drug, and is the active ingredient in extracts of the cinchona that have been used for that purpose since before 1633. Quinine is also a mild antipyretic and analgesic and has been used in common cold preparations for that purpose. It was used commonly and as a bitter and flavoring agent, and is still useful for the treatment of babesiosis. Quinine is also useful in some muscular disorders, especially nocturnal leg cramps and myotonia congenita, because of its direct effects on muscle membrane and sodium channels. The mechanisms of its antimalarial effects are not well understood.
Venoms from animals of the order Scorpionida of the class Arachnida. They contain neuro- and hemotoxins, enzymes, and various other factors that may release acetylcholine and catecholamines from nerve endings. Of the several protein toxins that have been characterized, most are immunogenic.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
Inorganic compounds that contain barium as an integral part of the molecule.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
An optical isomer of quinine, extracted from the bark of the CHINCHONA tree and similar plant species. This alkaloid dampens the excitability of cardiac and skeletal muscles by blocking sodium and potassium currents across cellular membranes. It prolongs cellular ACTION POTENTIALS, and decreases automaticity. Quinidine also blocks muscarinic and alpha-adrenergic neurotransmission.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.
A major class of calcium activated potassium channels whose members are voltage-dependent. MaxiK channels are activated by either membrane depolarization or an increase in intracellular Ca(2+). They are key regulators of calcium and electrical signaling in a variety of tissues.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Venoms from snakes of the family Elapidae, including cobras, kraits, mambas, coral, tiger, and Australian snakes. The venoms contain polypeptide toxins of various kinds, cytolytic, hemolytic, and neurotoxic factors, but fewer enzymes than viper or crotalid venoms. Many of the toxins have been characterized.
An element that is an alkali metal. It has an atomic symbol Rb, atomic number 37, and atomic weight 85.47. It is used as a chemical reagent and in the manufacture of photoelectric cells.
The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A subfamily of shaker potassium channels that shares homology with its founding member, Shab protein, Drosophila. They regulate delayed rectifier currents in the NERVOUS SYSTEM of DROSOPHILA and in the SKELETAL MUSCLE and HEART of VERTEBRATES.
A shaker subfamily that is prominently expressed in NEURONS and are necessary for high-frequency, repetitive firing of ACTION POTENTIALS.
A group of slow opening and closing voltage-gated potassium channels. Because of their delayed activation kinetics they play an important role in controlling ACTION POTENTIAL duration.
A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cellular membranes.
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A potassium-channel opening vasodilator that has been investigated in the management of hypertension. It has also been tried in patients with asthma. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p352)
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
Inorganic or organic compounds that contain sulfur as an integral part of the molecule.
Endogenously-synthesized compounds that influence biological processes not otherwise classified under ENZYMES; HORMONES or HORMONE ANTAGONISTS.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
A phylum of the kingdom Metazoa. Mollusca have soft, unsegmented bodies with an anterior head, a dorsal visceral mass, and a ventral foot. Most are encased in a protective calcareous shell. It includes the classes GASTROPODA; BIVALVIA; CEPHALOPODA; Aplacophora; Scaphopoda; Polyplacophora; and Monoplacophora.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.
Compounds with a core of fused benzo-pyran rings.
Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A trace element that is a component of vitamin B12. It has the atomic symbol Co, atomic number 27, and atomic weight 58.93. It is used in nuclear weapons, alloys, and pigments. Deficiency in animals leads to anemia; its excess in humans can lead to erythrocytosis.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
A delayed rectifier subtype of shaker potassium channels that is commonly mutated in human episodic ATAXIA and MYOKYMIA.
Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
An element with atomic symbol Cd, atomic number 48, and atomic weight 114. It is a metal and ingestion will lead to CADMIUM POISONING.
A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.
A potent vasodilator agent with calcium antagonistic action. It is a useful anti-anginal agent that also lowers blood pressure.
A histamine congener, it competitively inhibits HISTAMINE binding to HISTAMINE H2 RECEPTORS. Cimetidine has a range of pharmacological actions. It inhibits GASTRIC ACID secretion, as well as PEPSIN and GASTRIN output.
Drugs that interrupt transmission at the skeletal neuromuscular junction by causing sustained depolarization of the motor end plate. These agents are primarily used as adjuvants in surgical anesthesia to cause skeletal muscle relaxation.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
Agents having as their major action the interruption of neural transmission at nicotinic receptors on postganglionic autonomic neurons. Because their actions are so broad, including blocking of sympathetic and parasympathetic systems, their therapeutic use has been largely supplanted by more specific drugs. They may still be used in the control of blood pressure in patients with acute dissecting aortic aneurysm and for the induction of hypotension in surgery.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
A cytotoxic sulfhydryl reagent that inhibits several subcellular metabolic systems and is used as a tool in cellular physiology.
Potassium channels that contain two pores in tandem. They are responsible for baseline or leak currents and may be the most numerous of all K channels.
A cardioactive glycoside consisting of rhamnose and ouabagenin, obtained from the seeds of Strophanthus gratus and other plants of the Apocynaceae; used like DIGITALIS. It is commonly used in cell biological studies as an inhibitor of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE.
Compounds containing polymethylene bis-trimethylammonium cations. Members of this group frequently act as ganglionic blockers and neuromuscular depolarizing agents.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Clusters of multipolar neurons surrounded by a capsule of loosely organized CONNECTIVE TISSUE located outside the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
An opisthobranch mollusk of the order Anaspidea. It is used frequently in studies of nervous system development because of its large identifiable neurons. Aplysiatoxin and its derivatives are not biosynthesized by Aplysia, but acquired by ingestion of Lyngbya (seaweed) species.
Therapeutic introduction of ions of soluble salts into tissues by means of electric current. In medical literature it is commonly used to indicate the process of increasing the penetration of drugs into surface tissues by the application of electric current. It has nothing to do with ION EXCHANGE; AIR IONIZATION nor PHONOPHORESIS, none of which requires current.
Voltage-gated potassium channels whose primary subunits contain six transmembrane segments and form tetramers to create a pore with a voltage sensor. They are related to their founding member, shaker protein, Drosophila.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Electrodes with an extremely small tip, used in a voltage clamp or other apparatus to stimulate or record bioelectric potentials of single cells intracellularly or extracellularly. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
A chelating agent relatively more specific for calcium and less toxic than EDETIC ACID.
Lanthanum. The prototypical element in the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol La, atomic number 57, and atomic weight 138.91. Lanthanide ion is used in experimental biology as a calcium antagonist; lanthanum oxide improves the optical properties of glass.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.
The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.
An order of the class Amphibia, which includes several families of frogs and toads. They are characterized by well developed hind limbs adapted for jumping, fused head and trunk and webbed toes. The term "toad" is ambiguous and is properly applied only to the family Bufonidae.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
A major class of calcium-activated potassium channels that are found primarily in excitable CELLS. They play important roles in the transmission of ACTION POTENTIALS and generate a long-lasting hyperpolarization known as the slow afterhyperpolarization.
A delayed rectifier subtype of shaker potassium channels that is the predominant VOLTAGE-GATED POTASSIUM CHANNEL of T-LYMPHOCYTES.
A species of the family Ranidae occurring in a wide variety of habitats from within the Arctic Circle to South Africa, Australia, etc.

Further evidence that prostaglandins inhibit the release of noradrenaline from adrenergic nerve terminals by restriction of availability of calcium. (1/952)

1 Guinea-pig vasa deferentia were continuously superfused after labelling the transmitter stores with [3H](-)-noradrenaline. Release of [3H]-(-)-noradrenaline was induced by transmural nerve stimulation. 2 Prostglandin E2 (14 nM) drastically reduced the release of [3H]-(-)-noradrenaline, while tetraethylammonium (2 mM), rubidium (6 mM), phenoxybenzamine (3 muM) each in the presence or absence of Uptake 1 or 2 blockade, and prolonged pulse duration (from 0.5 to 2.0 ms) all significantly increased the release of [3H]-(-)-noradrenaline per nerve impulse. 3 The inhibitory effect of prostaglandin E2 on evoked release of [3H]-(-)-noradrenaline was significantly reduced by tetraethylammonium, rubidium and prolonged pulse duration, whilst it was actually enhanced by phenoxybenzamine. This indicates that increased release of noradrenaline per nerve impulse does not per se counteract the inhibitory effect of prostaglandin E2. 4 It is concluded that tetraethylammonium, rubidium and prolonged pulse duration counteracted the inhibitory effect of prostaglandin E2 on T3H]-(-)-noradrenaline release by promoting calcium influx during the nerve action potential. The results are consistent with, and add more weight to the view that prostaglandins inhibit the release of noradrenaline by restriction of calcium availability.  (+info)

The interaction of n-tetraalkylammonium compounds with a human organic cation transporter, hOCT1. (2/952)

Polyspecific organic cation transporters in epithelia play an important role in the elimination of many endogenous bioactive amines and therapeutically important drugs. Recently, the first human organic cation transporter (hOCT1) was cloned from liver. The purpose of the current study was to determine the effect of molecular size and hydrophobicity on the transport of organic cations by hOCT1. We studied the interaction of a series of n-tetraalkylammonium (n-TAA) compounds (alkyl chain length, N, ranging from 1 to 6 carbons) with hOCT1 in a transiently transfected human cell line, HeLa. [14C]tetraethylammonium (TEA) uptake was measured under different experimental conditions. Both cis-inhibition and trans-stimulation studies were carried out. With the exception of tetramethylammonium, all of the n-TAAs significantly inhibited [14C]TEA uptake. A reversed correlation of IC50 values (range, 3.0-260 microM) with alkyl chain lengths or partition coefficients (LogP) was observed. trans-Stimulation studies revealed that TEA, tetrapropylammonium, tetrabutylammonium, as well as tributylmethylammonium trans-stimulated TEA uptake mediated by hOCT1. In contrast, tetramethylammonium and tetrapentylammonium did not trans-stimulate [14C]TEA uptake, and tetrahexylammonium demonstrated an apparent "trans-inhibition" effect. These data indicate that with increasing alkyl chain lengths (N >/= 2), n-TAA compounds are more poorly translocated by hOCT1 although their potency of inhibition increases. Similar findings were obtained with nonaliphatic hydrocarbons. These data suggest that a balance between hydrophobic and hydrophilic properties is necessary for binding and subsequent translocation by hOCT1.  (+info)

Arterial flow conditions downregulate thrombomodulin on saphenous vein endothelium. (3/952)

BACKGROUND: The antithrombogenic properties of venous endothelium may be attenuated when vein is implanted in the arterial circulation. Such changes may facilitate thrombosis, which is the final common pathway for saphenous vein arterial bypass graft occlusion. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using human saphenous vein in a validated ex vivo flow circuit, we investigated (1) the possibility that arterial flow conditions (mean pressure, 100 mm Hg, 90 cpm, approximately 200 mL/min) alter the concentration of proteins involved in regulating thrombosis at the vessel wall and (2) the influence of ion channel blockade on such effects. Concentrations of thrombomodulin and tissue factor were quantified by Western blotting (ratio of von Willebrand factor staining) and immunohistochemistry (as a percentage of CD31-staining area). Thrombomodulin concentrations after 90 minutes of venous and arterial flow conditions were quantified by immunostaining (68.9+/-4.8% and 41.0+/-3.0% CD31, respectively; P<0.01) and by Western blotting (1.35+/-0.20 and 0. 15+/-0.03 ratio of von Willebrand factor, respectively; P<0.01). The ability of endothelial cells to generate activated protein C also decreased from 62+/-14 to 19+/-10 ng. min-1. 1000 cells-1 (P=0.01). The significant reduction in thrombomodulin was attenuated if calcium was removed from the perfusate but not by external vein stenting. Inclusion in the vein perfusate of drugs that reduce calcium entry (including Gd3+, to block stretch-activated ion channels, and nifedipine) abolished the reduction in thrombomodulin concentration observed after arterial flow conditions. In freshly excised vein, negligible concentrations of tissue factor were detected on the endothelium and concentrations did not increase after 90 minutes of arterial flow conditions, although the inclusion of nifedipine caused the immunostaining to increase from 3.0+/-0.4% to 8.5+/-0.7% CD31 (P<0.02). CONCLUSIONS: In saphenous vein endothelium exposed to arterial flow conditions, there is rapid downregulation of thrombomodulin, sufficient to limit protein C activation, by a calcium-dependent mechanism.  (+info)

Metabotropic GABA receptors facilitate L-type and inhibit N-type calcium channels in single salamander retinal neurons. (4/952)

1. Whole-cell voltage clamp experiments were performed on isolated spiking retinal neurons from the salamander retina. Calcium channel currents were studied using barium as the charge carrier while potassium and sodium currents were suppressed with TEA and TTX, respectively. 2. Baclofen, a metabotropic GABA receptor agonist, both enhanced and suppressed high-voltage-activated calcium channel current. Baclofen facilitated an L-type channel current, and this effect was not voltage dependent. As reported previously, baclofen inhibited an N-type channel current and this action was voltage dependent. 3. While the suppressive effect was mediated by a fast-acting, direct G-protein action, the facilitatory effect was slower and was blocked by inhibitors of protein kinase C (PKC), either GF-109203x or the PKC (19-36) sequence fragment. 4. The pharmacology of the inhibitory and facilitatory responses differed. Commonly used antagonists of metabotropic GABA receptors, CGP35348 and CGP55845, were more potent antagonists of the inhibitory response. Similarly, a selective agonist at the metabotropic GABA receptor, APMPA, was also more effective in eliciting the inhibitory response. 5. These observations indicate that there may be two baclofen-sensitive metabotropic GABA receptors with opposing effects on calcium channel current. This is the first description of a facilitatory action of GABAB receptors and indicates that GABA may not function exclusively as an inhibitory transmitter.  (+info)

Novel membrane transporter OCTN1 mediates multispecific, bidirectional, and pH-dependent transport of organic cations. (5/952)

In the present study, functional characteristics of organic cation transporter (OCTN)1, which was cloned as the pH-dependent tetraethylammonium (TEA) transporter when expressed in mammalian human embryonic kidney (HEK)293 cells, were further investigated using Xenopus oocytes as well as HEK293 cells as gene expression systems. When OCTN1-derived complementary RNA was injected into Xenopus oocytes, pH-dependent transport of [14C]TEA was observed as the same in HEK293 cells. In contrast, a replacement of sodium ions with potassium ions in the surrounding medium did not cause any change in [14C]TEA uptake in Xenopus oocytes expressed with OCTN1. In addition, when OCTN1 was expressed in HEK293 cells, efflux of TEA from the cells was pH dependent, with an accelerated rate at acidic external medium pH. Accordingly, membrane potential or sodium ions are suggested to have no influence on [14C]TEA transport and the transport activity of OCTN1 is directly affected by pH itself. Furthermore, addition of the unlabeled TEA in external medium enhanced the efflux of preloaded [14C]TEA. These observations suggest that OCTN1 is a pH-dependent and bidirectional TEA transporter. OCTN1-mediated [14C]TEA uptake was inhibited by various organic cations such as cimetidine, procainamide, pyrilamine, quinidine, quinine, and verapamil. In addition, uptakes of cationic compounds such as [3H]pyrilamine, [3H]quinidine, and [3H]verapamil and zwitterionic L-[3H]carnitine were increased by expression of OCTN1 in Xenopus oocytes. Accordingly, OCTN1 was functionally demonstrated to be a multispecific and pH-dependent organic cation transporter, which presumably functions as a proton/organic cation antiporter at the renal apical membrane and other tissues.  (+info)

A transfected cell model for the renal toxin transporter, rOCT2. (6/952)

A cDNA for the organic cation transporter (rOCT2) of the rat kidney was inserted into the retroviral plasmid pLXSN. This plasmid was used to stably transfect NIH3T3 cells. The transfected cell line exhibited an enhanced rate of tetraethylammonium (TEA) uptake and efflux compared to wild-type NIH3T3 cells. Uptake of TEA by the transfected cells was markedly reduced upon incubation at 4 degrees C. When the extracellular pH was lowered from 8.1 to 5.9, uptake was also reduced, suggesting inhibition of rOCT2 by extracellular protons. The apparent K(m) for TEA in the transfected cells was 141 microM. The classical organic cation transport inhibitors, cyanine 863 and cimetidine, produced noncompetitive inhibition with apparent Ki values of 0.81 and 198 microM, respectively. Daunomycin, vinblastine, and the deoxyadenosine analogs, 2'-deoxytubercidin and 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine, did not appear to be substrates for rOCT2. However, the anticancer drug, cisplatin, competitively inhibited TEA uptake by rOCT2 with an apparent Ki value of 925 microM, suggesting that rOCT2 may play a role in its renal secretion. In summary, transfected NIH3T3 cells provide a facile system by which this and other organic ion transporters can be studied.  (+info)

The effect of deep pore mutations on the action of phenylalkylamines on the Kv1.3 potassium channel. (7/952)

We investigated the action of the phenylalkylamines verapamil and N-methyl-verapamil on the Kv1.3 potassium channel using the whole-cell configuration of the patch-clamp technique. Our goal was to identify their binding as a prerequisite for using the phenylalkylamines as small, well-defined molecular probes, not only to expand the structural findings made with peptide toxins or by crystallization, but also to use them as lead compounds for the generation of more potent and therefore more specific K+ channel modulators. Competition experiments with charybdotoxin, known to interact with external residues of Kv1.3, showed no interaction with verapamil. The internal application of quarternary N-methyl-verapamil in combination with verapamil suggested competition for the same internal binding site. Verapamil affinity was decreased 6 fold by a mutation (M395V) in a region of the internal pore which forms part of the internal tetraethylammonium (TEA+) binding site, although mutations at neighbouring residues (T396 and T397) were without effect. Modification of C-type inactivation by mutations in the internal pore suggest that this region participates in the inactivation process. The action of phenylalkylamines and local anaesthetics on L-type Ca2+ channels and Na channels, respectively, and verapamil on Kv1.3 indicate very similar blocking mechanisms. This might allow the use of these compounds as molecular probes to map the internal vestibule of all three channel types.  (+info)

Activity-dependent modulation of K+ currents at presynaptic terminals of mammalian central synapses. (8/952)

1. The activity-dependent regulation of presynaptic K+ currents at the CA3-CA1 synapse in the rat hippocampus was investigated during a train of evoked afferent action potentials. The waveforms of presynaptic compound action potentials (cAPs) and presynaptic Ca2+ transients ([Ca2+]pre,t) were measured with fluorescent voltage-sensitive and Ca2+-sensitive indicators in rat brain slices. 2. Under control conditions, presynaptic cAPs and the accompanying [Ca2+]pre,t displayed similar amplitudes for each stimulus, suggesting that there was no cumulative change of K+ and Ca2+ currents during the test train. However, when a subgroup of presynaptic K+ channels was blocked by a low concentration of 4-aminopyridine (4-AP, 40 microM), a significant facilitation of the [Ca2+]pre,t was observed. 3. This phenomenon was not due to a direct action of 4-AP on presynaptic Ca2+ channels, but to cumulative suppression of the K+ conductance as indicated by the corresponding change in waveforms of the cAP and presynaptic fibre volley. The observed facilitation was not an artifact by virtue of increased fibre recruitment, nor was it related to the accumulation of extracellular K+; rather, it was dependent on Ca2+ influx and stimulation frequency. The time course of recovery from facilitation was closely related to the decay of the intracellular Ca2+ concentration. 4. The facilitation was not blocked by a saturating concentration of 4-AP (8 mM) but was reduced during the application of the K+ channel blocker tetraethylammonium (TEA, 10 mM), implicating the involvement of TEA-sensitive K+ channels. Such activity-dependent suppression of presynaptic K+ conductance could lead to excessive transmitter release and might explain the hippocampal epileptiform activity that can be induced by application of 4-AP.  (+info)

Tetraethylammonium ion (TEA) and its longer chain derivatives have been used extensively to block currents through K-selective ion channels. Substantial information has been gained about the structure and gating mechanisms of K and other cation channels from the analysis of the blocking interactions of TEA and other quaternary ammonium ions. We now present an analysis of blocking interactions between single Cl-selective ion channels from acutely dissociated rat cortical neurons and externally applied TEA. TEA applied to the extracellular membrane surface (TEAo) blocked Cl channels in a voltage-dependent manner, with hyperpolarizing potentials favoring block. The voltage dependence of block could be adequately fit assuming that TEA enters the channel pore and binds to a site located approximately 28% of the way through the membrane electrical field. The dose-response relationship between fractional current and [TEA]o at a fixed holding potential of -40 mV was well fit to a simple model with two ...
ResearcherID 1. Liu X, Yang PS, Yang W, and Yue DT. Enzyme-inhibitor-like tuning of Ca(2+) channel connectivity with calmodulin. Nature 2010 Feb 18; 463(7283) 968-72. doi:10.1038/nature08766 pmid:20139964. 2. Chen P, Liu XD, Zhang W, Zhou J, Wang P, Yang W, and Luo J. Modeling and simulation of ion channels and action potentials in taste receptor cells. Sci China C Life Sci 2009 Nov; 52(11) 1036-47. doi:10.1007/s11427-009-0138-9 pmid:19937202. 3. Liu XD and Kourennyi DE. Effects of tetraethylammonium on Kx channels and simulated light response in rod photoreceptors. Ann Biomed Eng 2004 Oct; 32(10) 1428-42. pmid:15535060. 4. Kourennyi DE, Liu XD, Hart J, Mahmud F, Baldridge WH, and Barnes S. Reciprocal modulation of calcium dynamics at rod and cone photoreceptor synapses by nitric oxide. J Neurophysiol 2004 Jul; 92(1) 477-83. doi:10.1152/jn.00606.2003 pmid:14985410. 5. Sun H, Liu X, Xiong Q, Shikano S, and Li M. Chronic inhibition of cardiac Kir2.1 and HERG potassium channels by celastrol with ...
ResearcherID 1. Liu X, Yang PS, Yang W, and Yue DT. Enzyme-inhibitor-like tuning of Ca(2+) channel connectivity with calmodulin. Nature 2010 Feb 18; 463(7283) 968-72. doi:10.1038/nature08766 pmid:20139964. 2. Chen P, Liu XD, Zhang W, Zhou J, Wang P, Yang W, and Luo J. Modeling and simulation of ion channels and action potentials in taste receptor cells. Sci China C Life Sci 2009 Nov; 52(11) 1036-47. doi:10.1007/s11427-009-0138-9 pmid:19937202. 3. Liu XD and Kourennyi DE. Effects of tetraethylammonium on Kx channels and simulated light response in rod photoreceptors. Ann Biomed Eng 2004 Oct; 32(10) 1428-42. pmid:15535060. 4. Kourennyi DE, Liu XD, Hart J, Mahmud F, Baldridge WH, and Barnes S. Reciprocal modulation of calcium dynamics at rod and cone photoreceptor synapses by nitric oxide. J Neurophysiol 2004 Jul; 92(1) 477-83. doi:10.1152/jn.00606.2003 pmid:14985410. 5. Sun H, Liu X, Xiong Q, Shikano S, and Li M. Chronic inhibition of cardiac Kir2.1 and HERG potassium channels by celastrol with ...
Squid giant axons internally perfused with a 30 mM NaF solution and bathed in a 100 mM CaCl2 solution, which are known to produce long lasting action potentials in response to pulses of outward current, were investigated. The effects of tetrodotoxin (TTX) and of tetraethylammonium ion (TEA+) on such action potentials were studied. The results are summarized as follows: (a) An addition of 1--3 microM TTX to the external solution altered but did not block the action potentials; it increased the height of the action potential by approximately 15 mV, and it decreased the membrane conductance as the peak of excitation by about two-thirds. (b) Voltage-clamp experiments performed with both NaCl and TTX in the external CaCl2 solution revealed that the TTX-insensitive action potential does not involve a rise in gNa, whereas the experiments performed without TTX showed that the action potential is accompanied by a large rise in gNa. (c) Internally applied TEA+ was shown to selectively block the ...
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Endogenous voltage-gated potassium currents were investigated in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells using whole-cell voltage clamp recording. Depolarizing voltage steps from -70 mV triggered an outwardly rectified current in nontransfected HEK293 cells. This current had an amplitude of 296 pA at +40 mV and a current density of 19.2 pA/pF. The outward current was eliminated by replacing internal K+ with Cs+ and suppressed by the K+ channel blockers tetraethylammonium and 4-aminopyridine. Raising external K+ attenuated the outward current and shifted the reversal potential towards positive potentials as predicted by the Nernst equation. The current had a fast activation phase but inactivated slowly. These features implicate delayed rectifier (I(K))-like channels as mediators of the observed current, which was comparable in size to I(K) currents in many other cells. A small native inward rectifier current but no transient outward current I(A), the M current I(M), ...
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0043] Beta zeolite is usually synthesized from a reaction mixture containing a templating agent. The use of templating agents for synthesizing beta zeolite is well known in the art. For example, U.S. Pat. No. 3,308,069 and Re No. 28,341 describe using tetraethylammonium hydroxide and U.S. Pat. No. 5,139,759, which is hereby incorporated herein by reference in its entirety, describes using the tetraethylammonium ion derived from the corresponding tetraethylammonium halide. Another standard method of preparing beta zeolite is described in the book titled Verified Synthesis of Zeolitic Materials, by H. Robson (editor) and K. P. Lillerud (XRD Patterns), second revised edition, ISBN 0-444-50703-5, Elsevier, 2001. It is believed that the choice of a particular templating agent is not critical to the success of the process disclosed herein. In one embodiment, the beta zeolite is calcined in air at a temperature of from 500 to 700° C. for a time sufficient to remove to remove the templating agent from ...
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Tetraethylammonium Hydroxide is a quaternary ammonium salt and is one of the simplest members of organic compounds its solution is used for your research needs, Other Services Anklesvar
Tetraethylammonium hydroxide solution ~25% in methanol (~1.5 M); CAS Number: 77-98-5; Synonyms: TEA hydroxide; Linear Formula: (C2H5)4N(OH); find Sigma-Aldrich-86631 MSDS, related peer-reviewed papers, technical documents, similar products & more at Sigma-Aldrich
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Enhanced brain motor activity in patients with MS after a single dose of 3,4-diaminopyridine. Neurology. 2004 Jun 08; 62(11):2044-50 ...
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Up to 15 patients over the age of 18 years with a diagnosis of LEMS are eligible to enroll if they are medically stable. They may receive 3,4 diaminopyridine in addition to other treatments and standard of care investigations for LEMS under supervision of the primary investigator. Safety laboratory studies and EKGs will be obtained.. The study has been approved by the University of Pittsburgh IRB. There is a local Data-Safety Monitoring Board.. The investigator has a hold on enrolling new subjects. ...
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Frog sciatic nerves were excised and treated in a Ringers solution containing the surface-active agent, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTMB). Such CTMB-treated nerves were compared to normal, untreated nerves with respect to their susceptibility to conduction block produced by six lipid-insoluble quaternary ammonium ions; the CTMB-treated nerves were rendered especially susceptible to rapid, reversible conduction block. A possible mechanism of CTMB action is proposed, involving chemo-dissection of permeability barriers which normally surround the individual axons. The findings that acetylcholine, curare, etc. can produce reversible, axonal conduction block in CTMB-treated nerves are not inconsistent with a theory of cholinergic impulse conduction.. ...
Normal Tyrode solution contained (in mM) 140 NaCl, 5.4 KCl, 1.8 CaCl2, 0.5 MgCl2, 0.33 NaH2PO4, 5.5 glucose, and 5 HEPES (pH adjusted to 7.4 with NaOH). In some experiments, the concentration of Ca2+in Tyrode solution was reduced to 0.3, 0.7, or 1.2 mM. The nominally Ca2+-free Tyrode solution was prepared by simply omitting CaCl2(no added EGTA) from the normal Tyrode solution. The free Ca2+concentration in the nominally Ca2+-free Tyrode solution is estimated to be in the range of a few to 20 μM.31,32 The extracellular solution used to measure whole cell TRPC currents was K+-free Tyrode solution supplemented with nisoldipine, which contained (in mM) 140 NaCl, 1.8 CaCl2, 0.5 MgCl2, 0.33 NaH2PO4, 5.5 glucose, 0.001 nisoldipine, and 5 HEPES (pH adjusted to 7.4 with NaOH). The pipette solution contained (in mM) 90 Cs-aspartate, 30 CsCl, 20 tetraethylammonium chloride, 2 MgCl2, 5 adenosine 5′-triphosphate (Tris salt), 0.1 guanosine 5′-triphosphate (dilithium salt), 5 EGTA, 2 CaCl2, and 5 HEPES ...
The onset of both Ca in healthy outlets for differential effect on normal hearts from nitric oxide alone is disturbed the study they are elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone status of the Actonel store without prescription right ventricle plus lysophosphatidylcholine consistent with mM TEA blocks using the ...
Three components of tail currents at −40 mV, shown on a log-log scale. The data record is from the middle panel of Fig. 5 B. The dashed curves are the three f
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Surface Reactions of Chlorophyll a Monolayers at a Water-Air Interface. Photochemistry and Complex Formation. AU - Aghion, J.. AU - Broyde, S. B.. AU - Brody, S. S.. PY - 1969/7/1. Y1 - 1969/7/1. N2 - Monolayers of chlorophyll a were spread at a water-air interface in a Wilhelmy plate film balance, and surface isotherms were measured under various conditions. On aqueous phosphate buffer at pH 7.8 the area per molecule (extrapolated to zero pressure) was 122 Å2. With tetraethylammonium chloride or methyl viologen dissolved in the subphase, the area per molecule increased with the substrate concentration in accordance with a Langmuir-type adsorption isotherm. This increase in area was attributed to complex formation. Equilibrium constants for complex formation between chlorophyll and substrates were calculated to be 7.2 X 102 and 2.6 X 103 M-1 for methyl viologen and tetraethylammonium chloride, respectively. Mixed monolayers of chlorophyll a and cytochrome c or egg albumin were ...
Looking for 4-aminopyridine? Find out information about 4-aminopyridine. C5H6N2 White crystals with a melting point of 158.9°C; soluble in water; used as a repellent for birds. Abbreviated 4-AP. McGraw-Hill Dictionary of... Explanation of 4-aminopyridine
Water channel, Aqp1; inhibited by HgCl2 and tetraethylammonium. Plays a role in water homeostasis during blood feeding and humidity adaptation of A. gambiae, a major mosquito vector of human malaria in Africa (Liu et al., 2011 ...
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Electrical activity of enzymatically isolated, smooth muscle cells from hog carotid arteries was recorded under current clamp and voltage clamp. Under the experimental conditions, membrane potential usually was not stable, and spontaneous hyperpolarizing transients of approximately 100-msec duration were recorded. The amplitude of the transients was markedly voltage dependent and ranged from about 20 mV at a membrane potential of 0 mV to undetectable at membrane potentials negative to -60 mV. Under voltage clamp, transient outward currents displayed a similar voltage dependency. These fluctuations reflect a K+ current; they were abolished by 10 mM tetraethylammonium chloride, a K+ channel blocker, and the current fluctuations reversed direction in high extracellular K+ concentration. Modulators of intracellular Ca2+ concentration also affected electrical activity. Lowering intracellular Ca2+ concentration by addition of 10 mM EGTA to the pipette solution or suppressing sarcoplasmic reticulum ...
Reversal potential of the sustained current followed the Nernst slope for potassium. The reversal potential was measured from tail currents with varying externa
Returns the value 8.3144598. The molar gas constant is a physical constant which is featured in many fundamental equations in the physical sciences, such as the ideal gas law and the Nernst equation. DAQExpress does not support FPGA devices
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He prepared three ethylamines and tetraethylammonium compounds and established their structural relationship to ammonia. After ... Hofmann successfully converted ammonia into ethylamine and the compounds diethylamine, triethylamine, and tetraethylammonium. ... The inner cylinder is open at the top to allow addition of water and an ionic compound to improve conductivity, such as a small ... Heating quaternary tetraethylammonium hydroxide yielded tertiary triethylamine vapour. This became the basis of what is now ...
Chlorotetrafluorosilicate (IV) (SiClF4−) can form a stable a pale yellow crystalline compound tetraethylammonium ... Chlorotrifluorosilane can form an addition compound with pyridine with formula SiClF3.2py (py=pyridine) An addition compound ... This addition compound is made by mixing trimethylamine vapour with Chlorotrifluorosilane and condensing out a solid at -78°C. ... Chlorotrifluorosilane is an organic gaseous compound with formula SiClF3 composed of silicon, fluorine and chlorine. It is a ...
... form isomorphous salts the tetrahedral metatellurate ion is only found in a few compounds such as the tetraethylammonium salt ... The compound Cs2K2TeO5 contains TeO4− 5 ions which are trigonal bipyramidal. The compound Rb6Te2O9 contains both TeO4− 5 and ... Other compounds whose stoichiometry suggests the presence of TeO4− 5 may contain either the dimeric Te 2O8− 10 made up of two ... Compounds containing the octahedral TeO6− 6 anion are known, these include Ag6TeO6, Na6TeO6 and Hg3TeO6. There are also ...
Australia Tetraethylammonium chloride, a chemical compound Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, a measure of antioxidant ...
Tetraethylammonium (TEA) is a compound that, like a number of neurotoxins, was first identified through its damaging effects to ... From this basic understanding, the use of common compounds such as tetrodotoxin, tetraethylammonium, and bungarotoxins have led ... Botulinum Toxin (BTX) is a group of neurotoxins consisting of eight distinct compounds, referred to as BTX-A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H, ... As neurotoxins are compounds which adversely affect the nervous system, a number of mechanisms through which they function are ...
... (TEAB) is a quaternary ammonium compound with the chemical formula C8H20N+Br−, often written as " ... Tetraethylammonium Tetraethylammonium chloride Tetraethylammonium iodide D. N. Kevill and N. H. Cromwell (1961). "Elimination ... The overall reaction is: 2R1Br + 2KO2 → R1-O-O-R1 + 2KBr + O2 In common with tetraethylammonium chloride and tetraethylammonium ... The acute toxicity of TEAB is comparable to that of tetraethylammonium chloride and tetraethylammonium iodide. These data, ...
... (TEAC) is a quaternary ammonium compound with the chemical formula (C2H5)4N+Cl−, sometimes written ... In common with tetraethylammonium bromide and tetraethylammonium iodide, TEAC has been used as a source of tetraethylammonium ... Tetraethylammonium Tetraethylammonium bromide Tetraethylammonium iodide Tetramethylammonium chloride The Merck Index, 10th Ed ... The acute toxicity of TEAC is comparable to that of tetraethylammonium bromide and tetraethylammonium iodide. These data are ...
The compound is a common reagent in organic synthesis. It is also employed in the preparation of zeolites. Tetraethylammonium ... Tetraethylammonium hydroxide is the organic compound with the formula (C2H5)4NOH, abbreviated Et4NOH. It is the ... Anhydrous Tetraethylammonium hydroxide has not been isolated. It is prepared from tetraethylammonium bromide by salt metathesis ... Treatment of Et4NOH with a wide range of acids gives water and the other tetraethylammonium salts: Et 4 NOH + HX ⟶ Et 4 NX + H ...
... is the chemical compound with the formula (N(C2H5)4)FeCl4. It is the tetraethylammonium ...
... is the chemical compound with the formula (N(C2H5)4)2NiCl4. It is the ... Stucky, G. D.; Folkers, J. B.; Kistenmacher, T. J. (1967). "The Crystal and Molecular Structure of Tetraethylammonium ... tetraethylammonium salt of the blue-colored tetrahedral anion [NiCl4]2-. Naida S. Gill; F. B. Taylor (1967). "Tetrahalo ...
... is the chemical compound with the formula (N(C2H5)4)2Fe2OCl6. It is the ... The salt can be prepared by treatment of tetraethylammonium tetrachloroferrate with sodium trimethylsiloxide. Do, Y.; Simhon, E ... tetraethylammonium salt of [Fe2OCl6]2-. Many related salts of [Fe2OCl6]2- are known. The anion consists of a pair of ...
... is a quaternary ammonium compound with the chemical formula C8H20N+I−. It has been used as the source ... Tetraethylammonium Tetraethylammonium bromide Tetraethylammonium chloride The Merck Index, 10th Ed., p.1316, Rahway: Merck & Co ... Tetraethylammonium iodide is commercially available, but can be prepared by the reaction between triethylamine and ethyl iodide ... E. Wait and H. M. Powell (1958). "The crystal and molecular structure of tetraethylammonium iodide." J. Chem. Soc. 1872-1875. N ...
4N+ tetraethylammonium, (C 2H 5) 4N+ tetrapropylammonium, (C 3H 7) 4N+ tetrabutylammonium, (C 4H 9) 4N+ or abbreviated Bu 4N+ ... Onium compounds at IUPAC Onium compounds at IUPAC Overview at chem.qmul.ac.uk Onium compounds at the US National Library of ... Compounds of an onium cation and some other negative ion are known as onium compounds or onium salts. Onium ions and onium ... protonated organomercury compounds; formed as intermediates in oxymercuration reactions) carbynium ions, protonated carbynes, ...
The red flakes that precipitate must be filtered before the alcohol cools, else the compound decomposes. Bis(tetraethylammonium ... "bis(tetraethylammonium) tetraiodonickelate". webbook.nist.gov. Retrieved 14 June 2016.. ...
"Ethanolamine Compounds (MEA, DEA, TEA And Others)". Safe Cosmetics. Retrieved 2020-06-17. "tetraethylammonium , Ligand page , ... Triethylamine is the chemical compound with the formula N(CH2CH3)3, commonly abbreviated Et3N. It is also abbreviated TEA, yet ... Triethylamine is mainly used in the production of quaternary ammonium compounds for textile auxiliaries and quaternary ammonium ... this abbreviation must be used carefully to avoid confusion with triethanolamine or tetraethylammonium, for which TEA is also a ...
... may refer to Tetraethylammonium chloride Triethylammonium chloride, the hydrochloride salt of triethylamine This ... set index page lists chemical compounds articles associated with the same name. If an internal link led you here, you may wish ...
Compounds of an onium cation and some other anion are known as onium compounds or onium salts. Onium ions and onium compounds ... 4N+ tetraethylammonium, (C2H5)4N+ tetrapropylammonium, (C3H7)4N+ tetrabutylammonium, (C4H9)4N+ or abbreviated Bu4N+ trimethyl ... Cations, Queen Mary University of London) Ions and Radicals, Queen Mary University of London Onium compounds at the US National ... protonated organomercury compounds; formed as intermediates in oxymercuration reactions) diphenylcarbenium, (C 6H 5) 2CH+ (di- ...
The compound is prepared by treating solutions of molybdate, [MoO4]2− with hydrogen sulfide in the presence of ammonia: (NH4) ... Goodman, JT; Rauchfuss, TB (2002). "Tetraethylammonium-tetrathioperrhenate [Et4N][ReS4]". Inorganic Syntheses. 33: 107-110. doi ... Compound Summary for Bis-choline tetrathiomolybdate Brewer, GJ; Hedera, P; Kluin, KJ; Carlson, M; et al. (2003). "Treatment of ... Ammonium tetrathiomolybdate is the chemical compound with the formula (NH4)2MoS4. This bright red ammonium salt is an important ...
... is an inorganic compound of rhenium, commonly used for the syntheses of other rhenium complexes. ... ZnBrO2CCH3 It also reacts with tetraethylammonium bromide in diglyme to give [NEt4]2[ReBr3(CO)3)], an important precursor to ... 2 CO This route avoids the formation of the tetraethylammonium bromide byproduct, which is often difficult to remove from ... compounds containing the rhenium tricarbonyl fragment. Heating bromopentacarbonylrhenium(I) in water give the triaquo complex: ...
This compound exhibits strongly reducing properties, and slowly yields hydrogen gas when dissolved in water. The lithium and ... Via cation exchange, it can be converted to the corresponding tetraethylammonium salt, (N(C2H5)4)2ReH9. Isostructural with TcH2 ... ISBN 0130-39913-2), p.254 Abrahams, S. C.; Ginsberg, A. P.; Knox, K. (1964). "Transition Metal-Hydrogen Compounds. II. The ... Potassium nonahydridorhenate(VII) is an inorganic compound having the formula K2ReH9. This colourless salt is soluble in water ...
Some key compounds that have seen clinical use are identified in the muscle relaxants template box below. Of the many tried as ... The potassium channel blocker tetraethylammonium (TEA) has been shown to reverse the effects of tubocurarine. It is thought to ... The efforts unleashed a multitude of compounds borne from structure-activity relations developed from the tubocurare molecule. ...
... are often readily available precursors for other inorganic compounds. Mentioned above, the halide compounds can ... G. D. Stucky; J. B. Folkers; T. J. Kistenmacher (1967). "The Crystal and Molecular Structure of Tetraethylammonium ... Metal halides are compounds between metals and halogens. Some, such as sodium chloride are ionic, while others are covalently ... For example, the chloride ligands of aluminium chloride bridge two aluminium centers, thus the compound with the empirical ...
Quaternary ammonium compounds have also been shown to have antimicrobial activity. Certain quaternary ammonium compounds, ... tetraethylammonium bromide, didecyldimethylammonium chloride and domiphen bromide. Also good against fungi, amoebas, and ... Quaternary ammonium compounds are prepared by the alkylation of tertiary amines with a halocarbon. In older literature this is ... Quaternary ammonium compounds are cationic detergents, as well as disinfectants, and as such can be used to remove organic ...
It is a common precursor to other iron compounds in research laboratory, but no applications exist for this compound. Like most ... FeBr2 reacts with two equivalents of tetraethylammonium bromide to give [(C2H5)4N]2FeBr4. FeBr2 reacts with bromide and bromine ... Iron(II) bromide is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula FeBr2. The anhydrous compound is a yellow or brownish- ... FeBr2 possesses a strong metamagnetism at 4.2 K and has long been studied as a prototypical metamagnetic compound. Haberecht, J ...
Related compounds Other anions. tetramethylammonium hydroxide Other cations. tetraethylammonium chloride Except where otherwise ...
The main phenotypical effect of autosomal recessive mutations, either compound heterozygous or homozygous, in the SLC22A5 gene ... Organic cations transported by this protein include tetraethylammonium (TEA) without involvement of sodium. The relative uptake ...
On Earth the compound is encountered mainly as a solution, not as the solid, but NH4SH ice is believed to be a substantial ... Goodman, J. T.; Rauchfuss, T. B. (2002). "Tetraethylammonium-tetrathioperrhenate [Et4N][ReS4]". Inorganic Syntheses. 33: 107- ... Ammonium hydrosulfide is the chemical compound with the formula (NH4)HS. It is the salt derived from the ammonium cation and ... 1990). "Physical Constants of Inorganic Compounds". CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (71st ed.). CRC Press, inc. p. 4-45 ( ...
... conducting studies on the effects of tetraethylammonium, amphetamine, reserpine, lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), Nembutal, ... interest from pharmaceutical companies concerned with exploring the behavioral effects of pharmacological compounds for ...
These compounds are often important commercial sources of transition metal chlorides. Several hydrated metal chlorides are not ... Stucky, G. D.; Folkers, J. B.; Kistenmacher, T. J. (1967). "The Crystal and Molecular Structure of Tetraethylammonium ... These compounds are often important reagents because they are soluble and anhydrous. Greenwood, Norman N.; Earnshaw, Alan (1997 ... Brignole, A. B.; Cotton, F. A.; Dori, Z. (1972). "Rhenium and Molybdenum Compounds Containing Quadruple Bonds". Inorg. Synth. ...
... compounds, work that led to an understanding of the structures of such coordination compounds. Reaction of 1-norbonyllithium ... can be prepared using tetraethylammonium chloride: CoCl 2 + 2 [(C2H5)4N]Cl → [(C2H5)4N)]2[CoCl4] The [CoCl4]2− ion is the blue ... The anhydrous compound can be prepared by heating the hydrates. On rapid heating or in a closed container, each of the 6-, 2-, ... The compound forms several hydrates CoCl 2•nH 2O, for n = 1, 2, 6, and 9. Claims of the formation of tri- and tetrahydrates ...
Sneader, Walter (2005). "Plant Product Analogues and Compounds Derived from Them". Drug discovery : a history. Chichester: John ...
"1,4-dihydropyridine - Compound Summary". Pubchem Compound. USA: National Center for Biotechnology Information. 27 March 2005. ...
Bromide compounds (e.g., lithium bromide, potassium bromide, sodium bromide). *Carbamazepine. *Chloralose ...
CompoundsEdit. See also: Category:Rhenium compounds.. Rhenium compounds are known for all the oxidation states between −3 and + ... Goodman, J. T.; Rauchfuss, T. B. (2002). Tetraethylammonium-tetrathioperrhenate [Et4N] [ReS4]. Inorganic Syntheses. 33. pp. 107 ... Other compoundsEdit. Rhenium diboride (ReB2) is a hard compound having the hardness similar to that of tungsten carbide, ... These are white, water-soluble compounds.[24]. Halides and oxyhalidesEdit. The most common rhenium chlorides are ReCl6, ReCl5, ...
Compound. α2δ. GABAB Phenibut. ND. 177 (R)-Phenibut. 23. 92 ... Tetraethylammonium. *Vernakalant. *hERG (KCNH2, Kv11.1)- ...
"dipropylacetamide - Compound Summary". PubChem Compound. USA: National Center for Biotechnology Information. 24 June 2005. ... M 25 [1186293-14-0] is also one of the compounds that has a reputation. ...
Goodman J. T.; Rauchfuss, T. B. (2002). "Tetraethylammonium-tetrathioperrhenate [Et4N] [ReS4]". Inorganic Syntheses. 33: 107- ... Margarita A. Ryashentseva (1998). "Rhenium-containing catalysts in reactions of organic compounds". Russian Chemical Reviews. ...
Chemical compounds. *Neurochemistry. *Toxins by organ system affected. Hidden categories: *Commons category link is on Wikidata ...
"Divergent cardiac effects of the first and second generation hypoglycemic sulfonylurea compounds". Diabetes Research and ...
Bromide compounds (e.g., potassium bromide). *Carbamates (e.g., meprobamate). *Carbamazepine. *Chloralose ...
... is a cyclized analogue of orphenadrine, diphenhydramine, and tofenacin, with each of these compounds different from one ... The Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems. 46 (11): 1001-16. doi:10.3109/00498254.2015.1136989. PMID 26796604.. .mw- ...
... is the organosulfur compound with the formula Na2C3S5, abbreviated Na2dmit. It is ... is purified as the tetraethylammonium salt of the zincate complex [Zn(C3S5)2]2-. This salt converts to the bis(thioester) upon ...
This family of compounds are sometimes called scorpionate ligands. As suggested by the resonance structures, the nitrogen ... which can be crystallised as its tetraethylammonium salt (see figure): Mo(CO)3(CH3CN)3 + KTp → K[TpMo(CO)3] + 3 CH3CN ... trispyrazolylborate compounds have been applied to a variety of themes. In bioinorganic chemistry, some of the first ... 2 CO Electronically related compounds are known, such as CpMn(CO)3 and [(9-ane-S3)Mn(CO)3]+. The labile acetonitrile complex Mo ...
... (or just nickel chloride), is the chemical compound NiCl2. The anhydrous salt is yellow, but the more ... G. D. Stucky; J. B. Folkers; T. J. Kistenmacher (1967). "The Crystal and Molecular Structure of Tetraethylammonium ... Prolonged inhalation exposure to nickel and its compounds has been linked to increased cancer risk to the lungs and nasal ... In case one needs a pure compound without presence of cobalt, nickel chloride can be obtained cautiously heating ...
... induced acetylcholine hyperactivity in rat tracheal segments by the compound.. ...
Tetraethylammonium fluoride , C8H20FN , CID 69582 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification ...
6. Substitution of extracellular Ca by Ba or intracellular injection of tetraethylammonium generated prolonged action ... Tetraethylammonium Compounds * Barium * Sodium * Calcium Grant support * NS-13742/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/United States ...
Tetraethylammonium Compounds / pharmacology * Time Factors Substances * Chloramines * Potassium Channels * Tetraethylammonium ...
0/Tetraethylammonium Compounds; 60-40-2/Mecamylamine; 7440-09-7/Potassium; 7440-70-2/Calcium ... blocked by 100 microM cadmium and by 5 mM tetraethylammonium) were characterized in these neurons. In addition, IK(Ca) slow was ...
... an organic component other than the compounds of component (B is disclosed. The aqueous dispersion has no problem of rotting ... at least one compound selected from the group consisting of 2-bromo-2-nitro-1,3-propanediol, 2-bromo-2-nitro-1,3-butanediol, 2, ... tetraethylammonium hydroxide. All these compounds were added as a 5 wt% aqueous solution. ... At least one compound selected from the group consisting of 2-bromo-2-nitro-1,3-propanediol, 2-bromo-2-nitro-1,3-butanediol, 2, ...
He prepared three ethylamines and tetraethylammonium compounds and established their structural relationship to ammonia. After ... Hofmann successfully converted ammonia into ethylamine and the compounds diethylamine, triethylamine, and tetraethylammonium. ... The inner cylinder is open at the top to allow addition of water and an ionic compound to improve conductivity, such as a small ... Heating quaternary tetraethylammonium hydroxide yielded tertiary triethylamine vapour. This became the basis of what is now ...
The compound is a common reagent in organic synthesis. It is also employed in the preparation of zeolites. Tetraethylammonium ... Tetraethylammonium hydroxide is the organic compound with the formula (C2H5)4NOH, abbreviated Et4NOH. It is the ... Anhydrous Tetraethylammonium hydroxide has not been isolated. It is prepared from tetraethylammonium bromide by salt metathesis ... Treatment of Et4NOH with a wide range of acids gives water and the other tetraethylammonium salts: Et 4 NOH + HX ⟶ Et 4 NX + H ...
Tetraethylammonium. Potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily A member 1. target. DB08837. Tetraethylammonium. Multidrug and ... Tetraethylammonium. Solute carrier family 22 member 8. transporter. DB08837. Tetraethylammonium. pH-gated potassium channel ... Tetraethylammonium. Solute carrier family 22 member 1. transporter. DB08837. Tetraethylammonium. Solute carrier family 22 ... Tetraethylammonium. Solute carrier family 22 member 3. transporter. DB08837. Tetraethylammonium. Solute carrier family 22 ...
Acidic impurities in dihydroxyaromatic compounds such as bisphenol A, as illustrated by sulfonic acids and mercaptocarboxylic ... Examples of quaternary ammonium compounds aretetramethylammonium hydroxide (hereinafter sometimes "TMAH"); tetraethylammonium ... Suitable basic co-catalysts include quaternary ammonium compounds, quaternary phosphonium compounds and mixtures thereof. ... iron compounds formed by corrosion of iron-containing reaction vessels by strongly acidic compounds also present.. According to ...
1 tetraethyl ammonium phosphate Chemical compound 0 claims description 4 * 229940073455 tetraethylammonium hydroxide Drugs 0 ... tetraethyl ammonium phosphate, tetraethyl ammonium fluoride, tetraethyl ammonium bromide, tetraethyl ammonium chloride, ... tetraethyl ammonium phosphate, tetraethyl ammonium fluoride, tetraethyl ammonium bromide, tetraethyl ammonium chloride, ... C07C-ACYCLIC OR CARBOCYCLIC COMPOUNDS * C07C1/00-Preparation of hydrocarbons from one or more compounds, none of them being a ...
Tetraethylammonium Compounds. Quaternary ammonium compounds that consist of an ammonium cation where the central nitrogen atom ... Quaternary Ammonium Compounds. Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to ... Ammonium Compounds. Inorganic compounds that include a positively charged tetrahedral nitrogen (ammonium ion) as part of their ... Trimethyl Ammonium Compounds. QUATERNARY AMMONIUM COMPOUNDS containing three methyl groups, having the general formula of (CH3) ...
By using anionic (PAH, etc.) and cationic compounds (tetraethylammonium bromide, etc.), tubular secretion has been classified ... The estimated IC50 value of digoxin (1.3 μM) was also in the similar range to the K m value of digoxin (7.8 μM). Compounds ... The compounds used for uptake assay were purchased from commercial sources. [14C]Pravastatin (588.3 MBq/mmol) and [14C] ... Dose-dependent inhibition by various compounds on [3H]digoxin (a) or [125I]T3 (b) uptake via human OATP4C1. The OATP4C1- ...
Procedure control: contains reference compound and inoculum. Reference substance:. other: Sodium Benzoate. Parameter:. % ... The test item Tetraethylammonium chloride(CAS No.56-34-8) undergoes 75.30 % biodegradation after 14 days in the test condition ... The test item Tetraethylammonium chloride(CAS No.56-34-8) undergoes 75.30 % biodegradation after 14 days in the test condition ...
ALUMINUM COMPOUNDS. in progress. This compound group is populated from some of the aluminum compounds in Pharos. The AOEC ... Compound Groups. COMPOUND GROUP NAME. POPULATION STATUS DATE POPULATED. DESCRIPTION. PROFILE TYPE # MEMBERS. # HAZARDS. ... Toluene Diisocyanate (TDI) Compounds. incomplete. This compound group is defined by the SMILES string CC1=C(C=C(C=C1))N=C=O. ... Uranium compounds, insoluble. incomplete. This compound group has not yet been assigned a structural definition.. other. 0. 2. ...
POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC COMPOUNDS - Compound Group. incomplete. This compound group has not yet been assigned a structural ... Compound Groups. COMPOUND GROUP NAME. POPULATION STATUS DATE POPULATED. DESCRIPTION. PROFILE TYPE # MEMBERS. # HAZARDS. ... Phenyl arsenic compounds. in progress. This compound group is defined by the SMILES string [As][CH]1=[CH][CH]=C([CH]=[CH]1). ... Phenyltin compounds. in progress. This compound group is defined by the SMILES string C1=CC=C(C=C1)[Sn]. For more information ...
Anionic compounds, salicylate and p-aminohippuric acid, and cationic compound, tetraethylammonium, which are substrates of OAT ... Other organic compounds, salicylate, p-aminohippuric acid, tetraethylammonium, cyclosporin A, and digoxin had no effect, ... Among other organic compounds examined, sulfobromophthalein and taurocholic acid were inhibitory at 100 μM (to 18.9 and 69.3% ... Cell-to-medium ratio was obtained by dividing the cellular uptake amount by the concentration of test compound in the uptake ...
MA uptake was insensitive to additions of amiloride, amine-containing compounds tetramethyl- and tetraethylammonium chloride, ...
The aromatic compound and alkylating agent are flowed over the catalyst bed at a predetermined liquid hourly space velocity ... tetraethylammonium; tetrapropylammonium; tetrabutylammonium; tetra-t-butylammonium; tetrapentylammonium; tetraphenylammonium.; ... Examples of quaternary compounds are the hydroxide, chloride, iodide, bromide and carbonite salts of the following cations: ... The pillars of the clay are now fluorided by treating the pillared clay with a solution of a fluoride compound. Examples of ...
The transport of organic cations is inhibited by a broad array of compounds like tetramethylammonium (TMA), cocaine, lidocaine ... tetraethylammonium (TEA), N-1-methylnicotinamide (NMN), 4-(4-(dimethylamino)styryl)-N-methylpyridinium (ASP), the endogenous ... compounds choline, guanidine, histamine, epinephrine, adrenaline, noradrenaline and dopamine, and the drugs quinine, and ... Translocates a broad array of organic cations with various structures and molecular weights including the model compounds 1- ...
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as cholines. These are organic compounds containing a N,N,N- ... Also transports organic cations such as tetraethylammonium (TEA) without.... Gene Name. SLC22A4. Uniprot ID. Q9H015. Uniprot ... Organic compounds. Super Class. Organic nitrogen compounds. Class. Organonitrogen compounds. Sub Class. Quaternary ammonium ... KEGG Compound. C00114. PubChem Compound. 305. PubChem Substance. 46508132. ChemSpider. 299. BindingDB. 50026220. ChEBI. 15354. ...
... and tetraethylammonium molybdenum pentacarbonyl bromide (ALF 062), reference 2. All compounds were freshly prepared as 10 mM ... Antimicrobial Action of Carbon Monoxide-Releasing Compounds. Lígia S. Nobre, João D. Seixas, Carlos C. Romão, Lígia M. Saraiva ... Antimicrobial Action of Carbon Monoxide-Releasing Compounds. Lígia S. Nobre, João D. Seixas, Carlos C. Romão, Lígia M. Saraiva ... Antimicrobial Action of Carbon Monoxide-Releasing Compounds. Lígia S. Nobre, João D. Seixas, Carlos C. Romão, Lígia M. Saraiva ...
Group IV B metal compounds, catalyst systems comprising such mono(cyclopentadienyl) metal compounds and an activator, and to a ... L is a neutral Lewis base such as diethylether, tetraethylammonium chloride, tetrahydrofuran, dimethylaniline, aniline, ... Of these compounds, the most preferred is that compound wherein R1 and R2 are methyl, each Q is methyl, n is 12, and the ... Thus, specific compounds within Formula IV are those wherein each Q is chloro. Also, the corresponding compounds wherein each Q ...
Tetraethylammonium. Tetraethylammonium (TEA) is a compound that, like a number of neurotoxins, was first identified through its ... the use of common compounds such as tetrodotoxin, tetraethylammonium, and bungarotoxins have led to a much deeper understanding ... Botulinum Toxin (BTX) is a group of neurotoxins consisting of seven distinct compounds, referred to as BTX-A,B,C,D,E,F,G, which ... As neurotoxins are compounds which adversely affect the nervous system, a number of mechanisms through which they function are ...
Commun., 262 (1975). In CH3CN, the products are the corresponding o- and p-acetamido compounds (cf Ritter reaction). ... Tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate is used as a phase transfer catalyst in organic synthesis. It finds application as an ... and tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate for application in solid-state supercapacitor. Polym. Eng. Sci. 2015, 55 (7), 1536- ...
... quaternary ammonium compounds, such as tetraethylammonium bromide, cetyl triethyl ammonium bromide, tetra-n-heptylammonium ... The compounding is carried out at temperatures of from about 200 C. to about 400 C. The compounded material may be pelletized ... Any dihalobenzenoid or dinitrobenzenoid compound or mixtures thereof can be employed in this invention which compound or ... the fluorine compounds for fast reactivity and the chlorine compounds for their inexpensiveness. Fluorine substituted benzenoid ...
Acyl Coenzyme A Chemical Compounds * Tetraethylammonium Chemical Compounds * Coenzyme A Chemical Compounds ... Changes of free fatty acids and Acyl-CoAs in rat brain hippocampal slice with tetraethylammonium-induced long-term potentiation ... Changes of free fatty acids and Acyl-CoAs in rat brain hippocampal slice with tetraethylammonium-induced long-term potentiation ... title = "Changes of free fatty acids and Acyl-CoAs in rat brain hippocampal slice with tetraethylammonium-induced long-term ...
wherein the ammonium salt is formed with at least one of a compound selected from tetraethyl ammonium, tetrabutylammonium, ... If R2, R3 or R4 is an organic compound, then the organic compound preferably has a carbon chain length of 2 to 15 carbon atoms ... Suitable compounds for forming ammonium salts include tetraethyl ammonium, tetrabutylammonium, benzyltributylammonium, ... Specific ammonium salts include tetraethyl ammonium nitrate, tetrabutylammonium fluoride, tetraethylammonium nitrate, ...
These compounds have 1) low oxidation potential, 2) fast reaction kinetics between the electroactive center of an enzyme and ... the compound, 3) slow oxidation of osmium by oxygen, and 4) excellent solubility in aqueous medium. These mediators are ... compounds useful as redox mediators in electrochemical biosensors. ... Next, tetraethylammonium sulfate, tetraethylammonium carbonate, or tetraethylammonium sulfite is added to the saturated ...
4N+ tetraethylammonium, (C 2H 5) 4N+ tetrapropylammonium, (C 3H 7) 4N+ tetrabutylammonium, (C 4H 9) 4N+ or abbreviated Bu 4N+ ... Onium compounds at IUPAC Onium compounds at IUPAC Overview at chem.qmul.ac.uk Onium compounds at the US National Library of ... Compounds of an onium cation and some other negative ion are known as onium compounds or onium salts. Onium ions and onium ... protonated organomercury compounds; formed as intermediates in oxymercuration reactions) carbynium ions, protonated carbynes, ...
  • Inhibition of tetraethylammonium chloride(TEA)-induced acetylcholine hyperactivity in rat tracheal segments by the compound. (nih.gov)
  • C) establishing the level of alkali metal hydroxide in the polycarbonate-forming reaction mixture at a value which is at most 1 molar ppm, based on dihydroxyaromatic compound, in excess of that of at least one of sulfonic acid,mercaptocarboxylic acid, salicylic acid and ferric chloride. (patentgenius.com)
  • The test item Tetraethylammonium chloride(CAS No.56-34-8) undergoes 75.30 % biodegradation after 14 days in the test condition. (europa.eu)
  • MA uptake was insensitive to additions of amiloride, amine-containing compounds tetramethyl- and tetraethylammonium chloride, glutamine, and urea. (xenbase.org)
  • 14. The fiber according to claim 13 wherein the quaternary ammonium compound is selected from the group consisting of: dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride, stearyltrimethylammonium chloride, stearyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride, didodecyldimethylammonium chloride, tetraethylammonium chloride, polyethoxylated quaternary ammonium chloride and mixtures thereof. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 3. When the cells were voltage clamped at -50 mV in the presence of tetrodotoxin (TTX) and tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA), depolarizing jumps evoked inward calcium currents which were contaminated by outward chloride currents, followed by slowly decaying inward chloride tail currents. (nih.gov)
  • Glibenclamide and tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA) also did not influence the relaxation induced by the compounds. (cumhuriyet.edu.tr)
  • Bradykinin- and Ca 2+ -activated K + currents were identified and shown to be blocked by the alkylammonium compound, tetrabutylammonium chloride and by the scorpion toxin, noxiustoxin , but not by apamin or tetraethylammonium chloride. (springer.com)
  • Quaternary ammonium compounds that consist of an ammonium cation where the central nitrogen atom is bonded to four ethyl groups. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Compounds of an onium cation and some other negative ion are known as onium compounds or onium salts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Onium ions and onium compounds are inversely analogous to -ate ions and ate complexes: Lewis bases form onium ions when the central atom gains one more bond and becomes a positive cation. (wikipedia.org)
  • formed as intermediates in oxymercuration reactions) carbynium ions, protonated carbynes, have a divalent carbon atom with a +1 charge methynium cation, H 2C+ (protonated methylidyne radical) Onium compounds at IUPAC Onium compounds at IUPAC Overview at chem.qmul.ac.uk Onium compounds at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) IUPAC definition George A. Olah (1998), Onium Ions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although some guanidine compounds were reported as superior substrates for organic cation transporter (OCT)2 than OCT1, it was unclear whether this guanidino group was an important factor in determining the specificity of hOCT1 and hOCT2. (ovid.com)
  • Organic cation transporters play an important role in the absorption, distribution, and elimination of clinical agents, toxic substances, and endogenous compounds. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Organic cation transporters play a critical role in the elimination of therapeutic compounds in the liver and the kidney. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The organic cation transporter, OCT1, is likely to play a significant role in the elimination of a variety of therapeutic compounds. (aspetjournals.org)
  • These are organic compounds containing a N,N,N-trimethylethanolammonium cation. (bovinedb.ca)
  • The intracellular cationic compounds were secreted by the apical H + /organic cation antiport system, which was driven by an oppositely directed H + gradient. (asnjournals.org)
  • A prototype substrate, tetraethylammonium (TEA), has been used consistently for the functional characterization of these organic cation transport systems in the kidney ( 3 - 7 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • Transport of the prototypical organic cation tetraethylammonium (TEA) by the Malpighian tubules, ureters and gut of Drosophila melanogaster was studied using two novel electrophysiological techniques. (biologists.org)
  • Both techniques exploited the high selectivity of the cation exchanger potassium tetra- p -chlorophenylborate for tetraalkylammonium compounds relative to inorganic cations such as K + . In the first technique, TEA fluxes were measured using a non-invasive self-referencing TEA-selective microelectrode positioned in the unstirred layer near the surface of each tissue. (biologists.org)
  • It is prepared from tetraethylammonium bromide by salt metathesis, using a hydroxide-loaded ion exchange column or by the action of silver oxide. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1- 14 C]-Tetraethylammonium Bromide ([ 14 C]TEA) was provided by Perkin Elmer (Boston, MA). (aspetjournals.org)
  • The transepithelial transport of organic cations (OCs) plays an important role in the excretion of xenobiotic compounds from the body by means of the liver and kidney, and from the cerebrospinal fluid via the choroid plexus ( Pritchard and Miller, 1993 ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • The compounds used for uptake assay were purchased from commercial sources. (pnas.org)
  • Taurocholate and sulfobromophthalein inhibited the uptake, whereas other tested anionic and cationic compounds did not. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The mechanisms for this tumor specificity of platinum-based compounds are poorly understood but could be related to differences in uptake. (aacrjournals.org)
  • However, differences in the mechanism(s) controlling the cellular uptake and efflux of these platinum compounds, although rarely investigated, could also be important because reduced intracellular accumulation is the most common observation in cisplatin-resistant cells ( 16 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Guanidine, creatinine and aminoguanidine more markedly inhibited the uptake of [ 14 C]tetraethylammonium (TEA) by hOCT2 than by hOCT1. (ovid.com)
  • 3 H]tetraethylammonium uptake in HeLa cells stably expressing hOCT1 was inhibited to varying extents by a diverse set of 30 molecules. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In addition to cationic compounds, anionic estrone sulfate, acyclovir, and ganciclovir were also recognized as substrates of these transporters. (elsevier.com)
  • Vectorial secretion of cationic compounds across the tubular epithelial cells is an important function of the kidney. (asnjournals.org)
  • It is widely known that the basolateral entry of cationic compounds is mediated mainly by hepatic hOCT1 (SLC22A1) and renal hOCT2 (SLC22A2) in humans, depending on the membrane potential ( 9 - 11 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • [6] The term can also be used to classify endogenous compounds which when abnormally concentrated can prove neurologically toxic. (citizendium.org)
  • Barba F. (1998) Electrosynthesis of Heterocyclic Compounds and Other Alternative Electrosynthetic Processes. (springer.com)
  • 6. Substitution of extracellular Ca by Ba or intracellular injection of tetraethylammonium generated prolonged action potentials lasting for several seconds and showing a plateau more ositive than those obtained in norrmal circumstances by either non-inactivating Na or Ca currents. (nih.gov)
  • This fraction prolonged the compound action potentials by increasing their duration and rise time in a dose-dependent manner. (scielo.br)
  • Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. (drugbank.ca)
  • belongs to the class of organic compounds known as catecholamines and derivatives. (hmdb.ca)
  • Catecholamines and derivatives are compounds containing 4-(2-Aminoethyl)pyrocatechol [4-(2-aminoethyl)benzene-1,2-diol] or a derivative thereof formed by substitution. (hmdb.ca)
  • 6. The compound of claim 4, wherein the carbocyclic alcohol is selected from the group consisting of cyclohexanol, cyclopentanol, cyclooctanol, cyclodecanol, cyclododecanol, exonorborneol, and derivatives of any of the foregoing which contain at least one aliphatic or aromatic carbon branch. (google.com)
  • We provide independent and unbiased information on manufacturers, prices, production news and consumers for the global and regional (North America, Asia and Europe) market of Tetraethylammonium fluoride hydrate. (reportsnreports.com)
  • In compounds with lower rates of absorption, fluorine is electrovalently bound and is present as the fluoride ion, whereas in compounds with greater rates of fluorine absorption, fluorine is covalently bound. (europa.eu)
  • QUATERNARY AMMONIUM COMPOUNDS containing three methyl groups, having the general formula of (CH3)3N+R. (bioportfolio.com)
  • 12. The fiber according to claim 11 wherein the cationic agent is selected from the group consisting of: quaternary ammonium compounds, quatemary alkyl amines, quatemary aryl amines, imidizolinium quats, polyethoxylated quatemary alkyl amines and mixture thereof. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 13. The fiber according to claim 1 wherein the association agent is selected from the group consisting of: quatemary ammonium compounds, amine oxides and amines. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • A quaternary ammonium compound used to treat carnitine deficiency or to stimulate gastric and pancreatic secretions in hyperlipoproteinemia. (drugbank.com)
  • By treating ethyl iodide with alcoholic ammonia in a sealed tube under pressure at 423 K,a mixture of primary, secondary and tertiary amines along with the quaternary compound(Tetraethyl ammonium iodide) is produced and the individual compounds have to separated. (blogspot.com)
  • Three potassium currents, IM (blocked by 1 mM barium and by 30 microM bethanechol), IA (blocked by 2 mM 4-aminopyridine) and IK(Ca) fast (blocked by 100 microM cadmium and by 5 mM tetraethylammonium) were characterized in these neurons. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The concentrations of the test compounds that inhibited the lipoxygenase activity by 50% (IC 50 ) were determined by monitoring the effect of increasing concentrations of these compounds in the assays on the degree of inhibition. (scielo.org)
  • These findings suggested that DL0805 is a novel vasorelaxant compound associated with inhibition of Rho/ROCK signaling pathway. (mdpi.com)
  • Nitro compounds-induced inhibition of high-potassium membrane depolarization was time-dependent. (niscair.res.in)
  • The invention relates to new, liquid-crystalline diglycidyle compounds of optionally ring-substituted 4-hydroxyphenyl 4-hydroxybenzoates, a synthesis of p-epoxypropoxy-phenyl p-epoxy-propoxybenzoate, furthermore epoxy resin mixtures containing the new diglycidyle compounds, and the use of the new diglycidyl compounds and the epoxy resin mixtures thereof in curable mixtures. (patents.com)
  • Methods of using the compound and compositions thereof are also provided. (justia.com)
  • Also describes the method of production thereof, intermediate compounds, and a pharmaceutical composition having anti-fungal activity. (russianpatents.com)
  • All of these compounds reverted SDF1α-induced proliferation, suggesting the involvement of multiple intracellular pathways. (aspetjournals.org)
  • These results suggest that hMATE1 and hMATE2-K function together as a detoxication system, by mediating the tubular secretion of intracellular ionic compounds across the brush-border membranes of the kidney. (elsevier.com)
  • Using HEK293 cells transfected with human (h)OCT1 or hOCT2 cDNA, we assessed the role of hOCT1 and/or hOCT2 in the transport of guanidine compounds such as uremic toxins and therapeutic agents. (ovid.com)
  • Among guanidine compounds, aminoguanidine was identified as a new superior substrate for hOCT2. (ovid.com)
  • In the presence of oppositely directed H + -gradient, the transport activities of various compounds such as tetraethylammonium, 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium, cimetidine, metformin, creatinine, guanidine, procainamide, and topotecan were stimulated in hMATE1- and hMATE2-K-expressing cells. (elsevier.com)
  • A number of compounds related to TEA + (tetraethylammoniumion) were injected into squid axons and their effects on g K (the potassium conductance) were determined. (rupress.org)
  • NTHWMYGWWRZVTN-UHFFFAOYSA-N Sodium silicate Chemical compound 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[Na+]. (google.com)
  • 5. The process of claim 3 wherein the alkali metal compound is sodium hydroxide. (patents.com)
  • The test compounds were prepared in methanol of concentrations 50, 25, 12.5, 6.25 and 3.125 µ M. The reaction mixture contained 160 µ L (100 mM) sodium phosphate buffer (pH 8.0), 10 µ L of test-compound solution and 20 µ L of lipoxygenase solution. (scielo.org)
  • His research on aniline helped lay the basis of the aniline-dye industry, and his research on coal tar laid the groundwork for his student Charles Mansfield's practical methods for extracting benzene and toluene and converting them into nitro compounds and amines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Secondary amines give oily nitroso compounds. (blogspot.com)
  • The polarization of the plasma membrane exhibited by applied nitro-compounds was appreciable at physiologically significant concentrations of extracellular Ca2+. (niscair.res.in)
  • Properties leading to the susceptibility of nervous tissue include a high surface area of neurons, a high lipid content which retains lipophilic toxins, high blood flow to the brain inducing increased effective toxin exposure, and the persistence of neurons through an individual's lifetime, leading to compounding of damages. (citizendium.org)
  • Furthermore, resveratrol has the ability to inhibit the electrical activity of neurons [ 26 , 30 , 50 ], enabling this compound ideal as a neuroprotective agent against excitatory effects on neurons. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Choline, also known as bilineurine or choline ion, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as cholines. (bovinedb.ca)
  • Choline exists as a solid, possibly soluble (in water), and an extremely weak basic (essentially neutral) compound (based on its pKa) molecule. (bovinedb.ca)
  • Inorganic compounds that contain nitrogen as an integral part of the molecule. (drugbank.com)
  • Includes inorganic polymer syntheses and preparation of important inorganic solids, syntheses used in the development of pharmacologically active inorganic compounds, small-molecule coordination complexes, and related compounds. (wiley.com)
  • 1981 IIT MCQ) an oily nitroso compound N-Nitroso diethyl amine and water are formed. (blogspot.com)
  • Phenylbutylamines are compounds containing a phenylbutylamine moiety, which consists of a phenyl group substituted at the fourth carbon by an butan-1-amine. (t3db.ca)
  • These data suggest that human OATP4C1/rat Oatp4c1 might be a first step of the transport pathway of digoxin and various compounds into urine in the kidney. (pnas.org)
  • The kidney has the essential role for elimination of various compounds from the circulation. (pnas.org)
  • 1. Liquid-crystalline diglycidyl compounds of the formula (1) ##STR5## in which R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.3 and R.sub.4, independently of one another, denote hydrogen, halogen or alkyl having 1 to 6 C atoms. (patents.com)
  • With a series of n -tetraalkylammonium (nTAA) compounds, a correlation between increasing alkyl chain length and affinity for the four OCT1 homologs was observed. (aspetjournals.org)
  • With a series of nTAA compounds with varying alkyl chain lengths, we found a correlation between increasing alkyl chain length and affinity for OCT1 regardless of the species. (aspetjournals.org)
  • 32 Tris(tetraethylammonium) Nonachlorodivanadate(III). (wiley.com)
  • However, the ATP-sensitive K + channel blocker glibenclamide and Ca 2+ -activated K + channel blocker tetraethylammonium did not affect the DL0805-induced relaxation. (mdpi.com)
  • Tetraethylammonium hydroxide is the organic compound with the formula (C2H5)4NOH, abbreviated Et4NOH. (wikipedia.org)
  • 3. Process for the preparation of diglycidyl compounds of the formula (I) corresponding to claim 1, characterized in that 4-hydroxyphenyl 4-hydroxybenzoates or ring substituted 4-hydroxyphenyl 4-hydroxybenzoates are reacted, with epichlorohydrin in the presence of catalysts and alkali metal compounds. (patents.com)
  • 4. Curable mixtures, containing diglycidyl compounds of the formula (I) according to claim 1, optionally blended with di-, tri-, and tetraglycidyl compounds and a curing agent for epoxy resins. (patents.com)
  • Provided herein are compounds of formula (I) useful for the treatment of PPAR-delta related diseases (e.g. mitochondrial diseases, muscular diseases, vascular diseases, demyelinating diseases and metabolic diseases). (sumobrain.com)
  • The present invention relates to compounds of the formula (1) which are suitable for use in electronic devices, in particular organic electroluminescent devices, and to electronic devices which comprise these compounds. (sumobrain.com)
  • There is disclosed a compound having Formula (I), Formula (II), Formula (III), Formula (VIII), Formula (IX), or Formula (X) The variables are described in detail in the application. (sumobrain.com)
  • 2. The silsesquioxane compound according to claim 1 represented by the formula (I): (R 1 SiO 3 /2) m (R 2 SiO 3 /2) n (R 3 SiO 3 /2). (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • The described compounds are very useful as UV light absorbers and may be used to form improved coating compositions which usually include a transparent, polymeric matrix material. (google.com)
  • Provided herein are deuterated compounds and compositions useful in increasing PPAR5 activity. (sumobrain.com)
  • The compounds and compositions provided herein are useful for the treatment of PPAR5 related diseases (e.g., muscular diseases, vascular disea. (sumobrain.com)
  • The present invention relates to compounds, processes for their synthesis, compositions and methods for the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. (allindianpatents.com)
  • A compound useful for reducing fouling in a hydrocarbon refining process is provided. (justia.com)
  • In contrast, the human homolog hOCT1 exhibited weaker interactions with the nTAA compounds. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Trans -stimulation studies and current measurements in voltage-clamped oocytes demonstrated that larger nTAA compounds were transported at greater rates in oocytes expressing hOCT1, whereas smaller nTAAs were transported at greater rates in oocytes expressing mOCT1 or rOCT1. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Furthermore, a group of phenylpyridinium and quinolinium compounds were used to investigate the spatial limitations of the hOCT1 binding site. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Together, the BLM and BBM transporters responsible for the transcellular flux of OCs from the blood to the tubule fluid or bile and hence play an important role in removing many compounds from the systemic circulation. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Because the elimination of many therapeutic drugs is significantly influenced by the interaction of these compounds with OC transporters, information pertinent to predicting the kinetics of such interactions may be useful in estimating the pharmacokinetics of a broad range of pharmaceuticals. (aspetjournals.org)
  • These compounds have 1) low oxidation potential, 2) fast reaction kinetics between the electroactive center of an enzyme and the compound, 3) slow oxidation of osmium by oxygen, and 4) excellent solubility in aqueous medium. (patentgenius.com)
  • However, other cluster II compounds, including tetraethylammonium (TEA), diphenidol and phenyltoloxamine, were mixed-type inhibitors of MPP transport (i.e., decreasing J max and increasing K t ). (elsevier.com)
  • The rise of membrane potential has not been achieved as dihydropyridine-sensitive Ca2+-channels were blocked by nitrendipine or nonselective inhibitors of K+ channels, 4-aminopyridine, and tetraethylammonium. (niscair.res.in)
  • Water is obviously a low toxicity, non-flammable solvent capable of dissolving many ionic and polar compounds. (edaq.com)
  • This study was designed to elucidate the mechanism underlying renal tubular secretion of tanshinol and to compare different ways to manipulate systemic exposure to the compound. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Acidic impurities in dihydroxyaromatic compounds such as bisphenol A, as illustrated by sulfonic acids and mercaptocarboxylic acids, can have an adverse effect on the molecular weight of a polycarbonate prepared therefrom by transesterification. (patentgenius.com)
  • Provided is a novel method for inexpensively producing, in high yield, a polymerizable compound useful for liquid crystal display elements. (sumobrain.com)
  • An object of the present invention is to provide a silsesquioxane compound that is capable of producing a coating film with excellent heat resistance and scratch resistance, and that has excellent compatibility with general polymerizable unsaturated compounds as well as polymerizable unsaturated compounds with high polarity. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 6. The active energy ray-curable composition according to claim 5, further comprising a polymerizable unsaturated compound. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Despite distinct structural differences between compounds in this class, SSRIs possess similar pharmacological activity. (t3db.ca)