A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.

The histone acetylase PCAF is a phorbol-ester-inducible coactivator of the IRF family that confers enhanced interferon responsiveness. (1/10860)

Transcription factors of the interferon regulatory factor (IRF) family bind to the type I interferon (IFN)-responsive element (ISRE) and activate transcription from IFN-inducible genes. To identify cofactors that associate with IRF proteins, DNA affinity binding assays were performed with nuclear extracts prepared from tissue culture cells. The results demonstrated that the endogenous IRFs bound to the ISRE are complexed with the histone acetylases, PCAF, GCN5, and p300/CREB binding protein and that histone acetylase activities are accumulated on the IRF-ISRE complexes. By testing recombinant proteins, we show that PCAF directly binds to some but not all members of the IRF family through distinct domains of the two proteins. This interaction was functionally significant, since transfection of PCAF strongly enhanced IRF-1- and IRF-2-dependent promoter activities. Further studies showed that expression of PCAF and other histone acetylases was markedly induced in U937 cells upon phorbol ester treatment, which led to increased recruitment of PCAF to the IRF-ISRE complexes. Coinciding with the induction of histone acetylases, phorbol ester markedly enhanced IFN-alpha-stimulated gene expression in U937 cells. Supporting the role for PCAF in conferring IFN responsiveness, transfection of PCAF into U937 cells led to a large increase in IFN-alpha-inducible promoter activity. These results demonstrate that PCAF is a phorbol ester-inducible coactivator of the IRF proteins which contributes to the establishment of type I IFN responsiveness.  (+info)

Activation of IkappaB kinase beta by protein kinase C isoforms. (2/10860)

The atypical protein kinase C (PKC) isotypes (lambda/iotaPKC and zetaPKC) have been shown to be critically involved in important cell functions such as proliferation and survival. Previous studies have demonstrated that the atypical PKCs are stimulated by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and are required for the activation of NF-kappaB by this cytokine through a mechanism that most probably involves the phosphorylation of IkappaB. The inability of these PKC isotypes to directly phosphorylate IkappaB led to the hypothesis that zetaPKC may use a putative IkappaB kinase to functionally inactivate IkappaB. Recently several groups have molecularly characterized and cloned two IkappaB kinases (IKKalpha and IKKbeta) which phosphorylate the residues in the IkappaB molecule that serve to target it for ubiquitination and degradation. In this study we have addressed the possibility that different PKCs may control NF-kappaB through the activation of the IKKs. We report here that alphaPKC as well as the atypical PKCs bind to the IKKs in vitro and in vivo. In addition, overexpression of zetaPKC positively modulates IKKbeta activity but not that of IKKalpha, whereas the transfection of a zetaPKC dominant negative mutant severely impairs the activation of IKKbeta but not IKKalpha in TNF-alpha-stimulated cells. We also show that cell stimulation with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate activates IKKbeta, which is entirely dependent on the activity of alphaPKC but not that of the atypical isoforms. In contrast, the inhibition of alphaPKC does not affect the activation of IKKbeta by TNF-alpha. Interestingly, recombinant active zetaPKC and alphaPKC are able to stimulate in vitro the activity of IKKbeta but not that of IKKalpha. In addition, evidence is presented here that recombinant zetaPKC directly phosphorylates IKKbeta in vitro, involving Ser177 and Ser181. Collectively, these results demonstrate a critical role for the PKC isoforms in the NF-kappaB pathway at the level of IKKbeta activation and IkappaB degradation.  (+info)

Enhanced adhesion of Pasteurella multocida to cultured turkey peripheral blood monocytes. (3/10860)

Capsular hyaluronic acid (HA) mediates adhesion of serogroup A strains of Pasteurella multocida to elicited turkey air sac macrophages (TASM). In contrast, freshly isolated turkey peripheral blood monocytes (TPBM) do not bind serogroup A strains. Following culture of TPBM for 6 days in chamber slides, adhesion of the bacteria to TPBM increased gradually. Incubation in chamber slides coated with entactin-collagen IV-laminin (ECL) attachment matrix or exposure to phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) further enhanced the adhesion of P. multocida to TPBM. Addition of HA, but not Arg-Gly-Asp peptide, to TPBM culture inhibited bacterial adherence similarly to the inhibition previously reported for TASM. Exposure of TPBM to monoclonal antibody directed against HA-binding cell surface proteoglycan (CD44) decreased binding of P. multocida. Collectively, these findings indicate that P. multocida adhesion to TPBM is mediated by capsular HA and can be increased by culture on ECL attachment matrix or PMA exposure. Additionally, the findings suggest that the capsular mucopolysaccharide of serogroup A strains of P. multocida recognizes an isoform of CD44 expressed on cultured TPBM.  (+info)

Modulation of basal intracellular calcium by inverse agonists and phorbol myristate acetate in rat-1 fibroblasts stably expressing alpha1d-adrenoceptors. (4/10860)

In rat-1 fibroblasts stably expressing alpha1d-adrenoceptors BMY 7378, phentolamine, chloroethylclonidine and 5-methyl urapidil decreased basal [Ca2+]i. WB 4101 induced a very small effect on this parameter but when added before the other antagonists it blocked their effect. All these agents inhibited the action of norepinephrine. Phorbol myristate acetate also blocked the effect of norepinephrine and decreased basal [Ca2+]i. Staurosporine inhibited these effects of the phorbol ester. Our results suggest that: (1) alpha1d-adrenoceptors exhibit spontaneous ligand-independent activity, (2) BMY 7378, phentolamine, chloroethylclonidine and 5-methyl urapidil act as inverse agonists and (3) protein kinase C activation blocks spontaneous and agonist-stimulated alpha1d-adrenoceptor activity.  (+info)

Down-regulation of oxytocin-induced cyclooxygenase-2 and prostaglandin F synthase expression by interferon-tau in bovine endometrial cells. (5/10860)

Oxytocin (OT) is responsible for the episodic release of luteolytic prostaglandin (PG) F2alpha from the uterus in ruminants. The attenuation of OT-stimulated uterine PGF2alpha secretion by interferon-tau (IFN-tau) is essential for prevention of luteolysis during pregnancy in cows. To better understand the mechanisms involved, the effect of recombinant bovine IFN-tau (rbIFN-tau) on OT-induced PG production and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and PGF synthase (PGFS) expression in cultured endometrial epithelial cells was investigated. Cells were obtained from cows at Days 1-3 of the estrous cycle and cultured to confluence in RPMI medium supplemented with 5% steroid-free fetal calf serum. The cells were then incubated in the presence or absence of either 100 ng/ml OT or OT+100 ng/ml rbIFN-tau for 3, 6, 12, and 24 h. OT significantly increased PGF2alpha and PGE2 secretion at all time points (p < 0.01), while rbIFN-tau inhibited the OT-induced PG production and reduced OT receptor binding in a time-dependent manner. OT increased the steady-state level of COX-2 mRNA, measured by Northern blot, which was maximal at 3 h (9-fold increase) and then decreased with time (p < 0.01). OT also caused an increase in COX-2 protein, which peaked at 12 h (11-fold increase), as measured by Western blot. Addition of rbIFN-tau suppressed the induction of COX-2 mRNA (89%, p < 0.01) and COX-2 protein (50%, p < 0.01) by OT. OT also increased PGFS mRNA, and this stimulation was attenuated by rbIFN-tau (p < 0.01). To ensure that the decrease in COX-2 was not solely due to down-regulation of the OT receptor, cells were stimulated with a phorbol ester (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate; PMA) in the presence and absence of rbIFN-tau. The results showed that rbIFN-tau also decreased PMA-stimulated PG production and COX-2 protein. It can be concluded that rbIFN-tau inhibition of OT-stimulated PG production is due to down-regulation of OT receptor, COX-2, and PGFS.  (+info)

Acetyl-CoA:1-O-alkyl-2-lyso-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine acetyltransferase is directly activated by p38 kinase. (6/10860)

Acetyl-CoA:1-O-alkyl-2-lyso-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine acetyltransferase, along with phospholipase A2, is a key regulator of platelet-activating factor biosynthesis via the remodeling pathway. We have now obtained evidence in human neutrophils indicating that this enzyme is regulated by a specific member of the mitogen-activated protein kinases, namely the p38 kinase. We earlier demonstrated that tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) as well as N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine treatment leads to increased phosphorylation and activation of p38 kinase in human neutrophils. Strikingly, in the present study these stimuli increased the catalytic activity of acetyltransferase up to 3-fold, whereas 4-phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, which activates the extracellular-regulated kinases (ERKs) but not p38 kinase, had no effect. Furthermore, a selective inhibitor of p38 kinase, SB 203580, was able to abolish the TNF-alpha- and N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine-induced activation of acetyltransferase. The same effect was not observed in the presence of an inhibitor that blocked ERK activation (PD 98059). Complementing the findings in intact cells, we have shown that recombinant, activated p38 kinase added to microsomes in the presence of Mg2+ and ATP increased acetyltransferase activity to the same degree as in microsomes obtained from TNF-alpha-stimulated cells. No activation of acetyltransferase occurred upon treatment of microsomes with either recombinant, activated ERK-1 or ERK-2. Finally, the increases in acetyltransferase activity induced by TNF-alpha could be ablated by treating the microsomes with alkaline phosphatase. Thus acetyltransferase appears to be a downstream target for p38 kinase but not ERKs. These data from whole cells as well as cell-free systems fit a model wherein stimulus-induced acetyltransferase activation is mediated by a phosphorylation event catalyzed directly by p38 kinase.  (+info)

Molecular mechanisms of proliferation in endometrial tumour cells. (7/10860)

The human endometrium normally undergoes a cyclic proliferation process followed by differentiation under the influence of ovarian steroids and locally produced growth and differentiation factors. Understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in controlling these processes is of great interest, since imbalances between proliferation- and differentiation-promoting signals can have pathophysiological consequences ranging from infertility to endometrial hyperplasia and tumour formation. The present work reviews aspects of the role played by oncogenes and ovarian steroid receptors in modulating proliferation of endometrial tumour cells. The expression pattern and possible roles of protein kinase C (PKC) subunits are discussed in the context of response-specificity of endometrial tumour cells to tumour-promoting agents such as 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol acetate (TPA) and possible implications for anti-tumour therapy.  (+info)

Expression of dominant negative Erk2 inhibits AP-1 transactivation and neoplastic transformation. (8/10860)

The mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinases or extracellular signal-regulated kinases (Erks) are activated in response to Ras expression or exposure to tumor promoters or to growth factors, and have been implicated in AP-1 transactivation in some models. We have shown that tumor promoter induced activation of the transcription factor AP-1 is required for induced neoplastic transformation in the Balb/C JB6 cell model. Jun and Fos family protein levels have been found not to be limiting for AP-1 response. The present study asks whether activation of Erks1 and 2 is required for AP-1 transactivation and transformation of JB6 cells and whether Erks might be targeted for cancer prevention. Expression of either of two different dominant negative kinase inactive Erk2 mutants in transformation sensitive (P+) JB6 cells substantially inhibited the tumor promoter induced activation of Erks1 and 2 and of AP-1 measured by a collagenase-luciferase reporter. Multiple mutant Erk2 expressing clonal lines were also rendered non-responsive to induced neoplastic transformation. These observations, together with our recent finding attributing AP-1 non-responsiveness to Erk deficiency in a clonal line of transformation resistant (P-) cells, argue for a requirement for Erks1 and/or 2 activation in AP-1 transactivation in the mouse JB6 neoplastic progression model, and suggest the utility of Erks as a prevention target.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of phorbol myristate acetate-induced lung injury on airway blood flow. AU - Barman, Scott A. AU - Ardell, J. L.. AU - Taylor, A. E.. PY - 1995/1/1. Y1 - 1995/1/1. N2 - The effects of phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) induced lung injury on the pulmonary and systemic blood flow contributions to the trachea and main bronchi (upper airways) were assessed in anesthetized dogs by injecting 15 μm radiolabeled microspheres into the right and left heart, respectively. Upper airway blood flow was studied in lungs given the following treatments: (1) PMA; (2) PMA in lungs pretreated with the thromboxane synthetase inhibitor OKY-046, and (3) PMA in lungs pretreated with the antioxidant catalase. After microsphere injections, the tracheal cartilage, tracheal muscle-mucosa, and main bronchi were excised. The results of this study indicate that under normal conditions, tracheal mucosa [33-52 ml·min-·(100 g)-1] and tracheal cartilage [18-27 ml·min-1·(100 g)-1] blood flow is primarily ...
We isolated a group of genes that are rapidly and transiently induced in 3T3 cells by tetradecanoyl phorbol acetate (TPA). These genes are called TIS genes (for TPA-inducible sequences). Epidermal growth factor (EGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), and TPA activated TIS gene expression with similar induction kinetics. TPA pretreatment to deplete protein kinase C activity did not abolish the subsequent induction of TIS gene expression by epidermal growth factor or fibroblast growth factor; both peptide mitogens can activate TIS genes through a protein kinase C-independent pathway(s). We also analyzed TIS gene expression in three TPA-nonproliferative variants (3T3-TNR2, 3T3-TNR9, and A31T6E12A). The results indicate that (i) modulation of a TPA-responsive sodium-potassium-chloride transport system is not necessary for TIS gene induction either by TPA or by other mitogens and (ii) TIS gene induction is not sufficient to guarantee a proliferative response to mitogenic stimulation. ...
Calcium-activated, phospholipid- and diacylglycerol (DAG)-dependent serine/threonine-protein kinase that is involved in positive and negative regulation of cell proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, migration and adhesion, cardiac hypertrophy, angiogenesis, platelet function and inflammation, by directly phosphorylating targets such as RAF1, BCL2, CSPG4, TNNT2/CTNT, or activating signaling cascades involving MAPK1/3 (ERK1/2) and RAP1GAP. Depending on the cell type, is involved in cell proliferation and cell growth arrest by positive and negative regulation of the cell cycle. Can promote cell growth by phosphorylating and activating RAF1, which mediates the activation of the MAPK/ERK signaling cascade, and/or by up-regulating CDKN1A, which facilitates active cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) complex formation. In cells stimulated by the phorbol ester PMA, can trigger a cell cycle arrest program which is associated with the accumulation of the hyper-phosphorylated growth-suppressive form of RB1 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Characterization of the inhibition of interleukin 2 mRNA accumulation by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate in primary lymphocytes. AU - Garlisi, C. G.. AU - Mastro, A. M.. PY - 1992. Y1 - 1992. N2 - We found previously that bovine lymph node cells (LNC) incubated with 12- O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) for 18 h proliferate only to a limited degree on subsequent stimulation with concanavalin A (Con A), or with the comitogenic combination of Con A plus TPA. The lack of proliferation was traced to a lack of secretion of interleukin 2 (IL-2). Lack of secretion was paralled by a decrease in IL-2 mRNA levels. In this study we further characterized how TPA pretreatment affected IL-2 mRNA production. We found that TPA depressed IL-2 mRNA accumulation in a dose-dependent manner after at least 10 h of pretreatment. In contrast, pretreatment from 4 to 6 h augmented IL-2 mRNA accumulation. Furthermore, LNC stimulated with ionomycin plus TPA were less susceptible to inhibition by ...
Effect of PMA treatment on the expression of cyclins and cdks in IEC-18 cells. Cells were exposed to 100 nM PMA for the indicated times (U, untreated) and subje
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Comparison of M-line and other myofibril components during reversible phorbol ester treatment.. AU - Doetschman, T. C.. AU - Eppenberger, H. M.. PY - 1984/3/1. Y1 - 1984/3/1. N2 - The events occurring during phorbol ester mediated destruction of myofibrils in differentiated muscle cells were followed at the fluorescence and electron microscope levels using antibodies which bind troponin-T, a newly discovered 185 000 dalton M-line protein called myomesin and muscle type creatine kinase. The following series of events is proposed. Within one day of phorbol ester treatment, Z-bands and thin filaments, including troponin-T, are absent from many myofibrils resulting in the rapid loss of longitudinal and lateral alignment. A-bands become randomly oriented and clustered into ever smaller compartments within the rounding, myosac-like, multinucleated cells until after 3 days of treatment they too disappear. The M-line proteins are always present in existing A-bands. These results suggest ...
The present studies were undertaken to determine whether the CDKI FP could enhance PMA-induced maturation in human leukemia cells. The rationale for this investigation stemmed from several considerations: (a) FP has been shown to induce differentiation in some cell types (e.g., non-small cell lung cancer cells; Ref. 21 ); and (b) inhibition of cell cycle progression by FP might promote a leukemic cell differentiation program (47) . Contrary to expectations, coexposure to FP for 24 h strikingly opposed PMA-induced differentiation in U937 cells and instead significantly increased apoptosis. These events were associated with increased mitochondrial dysfunction, activation of caspases, and loss of clonogenic survival; moreover, enhanced cell death after PMA/FP cotreatment was also observed in promyelocytic leukemia cells (HL-60) and in U937 cells overexpressing the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2. These events may reflect the complex reciprocal relationship that exists between differentiation and ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Enhanced vascular reactivity to protein kinase C activators in genetically hypertensive rats. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Recent studies have indicated a link between levels of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and development of the multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotype. The ATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2 (ABCG2) is a major MDR-related transporter protein that is frequently overexpressed in cancer patients. In this study, we aimed to evaluate any positive correlation between COX-2 and ABCG2 gene expression using the COX-2 inducer 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) in human breast cancer cell lines. ABCG2 mRNA and protein expression was studied using real-time RT-PCR and flow cytometry, respectively. A significant increase of COX-2 mRNA expression (up to 11-fold by 4 h) was induced by TPA in MDA-MB-231 cells, this induction effect being lower in MCF-7 cells. TPA caused a considerable increase up to 9-fold in ABCG2 mRNA expression in parental MCF-7 cells, while it caused a small enhancement in ABCG2 expression up to 67 % by 4 h followed by a time-dependent decrease in ABCG2 mRNA expression in MDA-MB-231 cells.
In the present study, ISL, a flavonoid isolated from licorice, was revealed to be a potent therapeutic agent for ACC. Although this natural flavonoid has been extensively considered as an antineoplastic agent in various human cancers (Hsu et al., 2005; Yoshida et al., 2008; Ye et al., 2009) and has shown inhibitory effects on the phorbol myristate acetate-induced angiogenic process of endothelial cells (Kang et al., 2010), this is the first study regarding prevention of tumor angiogenesis as an important component of the antitumor mechanisms of ISL. In this study, we demonstrated for the first time that ISL was a potent inhibitor of tumor-induced angiogenesis in ACC. Initially, by using growth analysis and viability measurement, we determined that ISL at a concentration of 0 to 20 μM did not induce significant ACC cell death but only effectively decreased the cell growth activity. Further investigation revealed that ISL at these concentrations not only significantly prevented ACC-mediated ...
Using oligonucleotide microarray, we have identified and cloned a novel gene that was induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) in CD18 pancreatic cancer cells. In-silico analysis suggested localization of the gene product to the endoplasmic reticulum, thus we named it TPA induced Trans-Membrane Protein (TTMP). We found that TTMP is highly expressed in normal human pancreas, but has low expression in cancer cell lines. Confocal immunofluorescence microscopy localized TTMP to the endoplasmic reticulum. CD 18 and HeLa cells stably expressing TTMP inhibited cell proliferation. Conversely, siRNA duplexes targeted to TTMP in CD18 cells led to an increase in cell proliferation, as did clones expressing an in-frame N-terminal truncation of TTMP. Cell cycle analysis showed that TTMP induced a G1 phase arrest in pancreatic cancer cells. Finally, the promoter of TTMP was cloned, and basal activity was found to be dependent on Sp1 ...
The protein kinase C (PKC) activator 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) activated cell death in androgen-sensitive LNCaP cells but not in androgen-independent DU-145 or PC-3 cells, whose growth was significantly decreased by PKC inhibitors staurosporine and H7. All cell lines had similar le …
Heparin is a potent inhibitor of the proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells. This agent selectively inhibits the transcription of tissue-type plasminogen activator and interstitial collagenase, probably by decreasing the binding of activator protein-1 (AP-1) to phorbol ester-responsive elements in the promoters of these genes. Decreased AP-1 binding is not due to a direct inhibition by heparin, since heparinase digestion of nuclear extracts prepared from heparin-treated smooth muscle cells does not restore AP-1 binding activity. Treatment of cells with heparin suppresses the expression of Jun B, one of the components of AP-1. The major effect of heparin is at the level of posttranslational modification of Jun B. Results from pulse-chase labeling experiments show that the newly synthesized Jun B is rapidly converted to a higher-molecular-weight form and that conversion is suppressed by heparin. Evidence is presented suggesting that the heparin-inhibited event is ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Reversal of defective IL-6 production in lipopolysaccharide-tolerant mice by phorbol myristate acetate. AU - Mengozzi, Manuela. AU - Sironi, Marina. AU - Gadina, Massimo. AU - Ghezzi, Pietro. PY - 1991/8/1. Y1 - 1991/8/1. N2 - The development of LPS tolerance has been suggested to be mediated by an inhibition of cytokine synthesis. Here we have studied serum IL-6 and TNF levels in mice after LPS administration. Repeated administration of LPS (35 μg daily for 4 days) to mice induced a refractoriness (tolerance) to subsequent administrations of LPS in terms of induction of circulating IL-6 and TNF. To investigate the mechanism by which LPS down-regulates its own induction of cytokine synthesis and the relationship between IL-6 and TNF production, we attempted to revert the inhibition of IL-6 and TNF production using agents like PMA or IFN-γ, previously reported to activate macrophage production of cytokines. Pretreatment with PMA (4 μg, 10 min before LPS) partially restored IL-6 ...
cytosolic-nuclear tumor promoter binding protein: binds tumor promoters such as tetradecanoylphorbol-13 acetate, teleocidins, aplysiatoxin & thapsigargin; MW 70 kDa existing in cytosolic fraction as a complex with the 90 kDa heat-shock protein; natural ligand is yakkasterone; amino acid sequence has been determined
Activation of PPI hydrolysis by carbachol elicits a robust translocation of CaM from membranes into cytosol which was previously shown to be mimicked by the addition of the calcium ionophore ionomycin and the phorbol ester TPA28 ...
T cell activation via the T cell receptor (T3-Ti complex) by OKT3 results in modulation of the T3-Ti complex, but does not affect T4, T8, or T11 antigen expression. To study the effect of other T cell activators on these T cell membrane antigens, the authors incubated mononuclear cells for 0-3 days with lectins or pharmacologic agents and stained with monoclonal antibodies to their antigens. The median fluorescence intensity (MFI) was measured with a fluorescence activated cell sorter. Activation of PBL with Con A, PHA, calcium ionophore A23187, or with dbcAMP, isoproterenol, or theophyllin had minimal effects on the MFI of T3, T4, T8, or T11. Phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), a protein kinase C activator which stimulates PBL though an alternate pathway, caused a 90-100% reduction of T3 and T4 MFI, a 25% reduction in T8 MFI, and a 400% increase in T11 MFI after 2 days. Addition of A23187 slightly increased these effects. PMA induced a 2-3-fold increase in cell diameter concomitant with the ...
Carcinogenesis is caused by a cumulative, multistage process that mainly consists of initiation, promotion, and progression. ROS, which are produced as a result of the metabolism of molecular oxygen via biochemical reactions in cells, play a key role in tumor promotion. Some tumor promoters accelerate/induce the conversion of initiated cells (carcinogen-mediated mutation or potential stem cells) into tumorigenic cells possibly via the production of oxidative/inflammatory responses (30, 31). TPA (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate), a phorbol ester, is a tumor promoter that induces the neoplastic/tumorigenic transformation of preneoplastic JB6 cells through the overproduction of ROS (32). In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of SFN on TPA-stimulated neoplastic transformation in the mouse epidermal JB6 P+ cell line to assess whether SFN is able to block tumor promoter-induced tumorigenesis in skin cells. Our results show that SFN was effective when it was given together with ...
Amplifier Denon PMA-800NE, PMA800NEB, The Denon PMA-800NE integrated amplifier sets new heights in premium audio performance with digital inputs and a built-in phono equalizer, From deep bass to detailed highs, listen to your favourite high-resolution audio content with the 192kHz/24bit D/A converter, At 85W (4 Ohms) per channel, the PMA-800NE supplies enough power to drive your speakers for optimal sound
Topical application of marine briarane-type diterpenes effectively inhibits 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced inflammation and dermatitis in murine skin. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Perecko T, Drabikova K, Rackova L, Ciz M, Podborska M, Lojek A, Harmatha J, Smidrkal J, Nosal R, Jancinova V. Molecular targets of the natural antioxidant pterostilbene: effect on protein kinase C, caspase-3 and apoptosis in human neutrophils in vitro. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2010 Jan; 31(Suppl 2): 84-90 ...
The responsiveness to IL-4 with and without costimulation with anti-IgM antibodies or phorbolester was studied in 35 cases of low grade non-Hodgkin Iymphoma by analyzing enhancement of CD23 and HLA dass li expression. The predominant phenotype responds directly to IL-4. Separate differentiation states can be distinguished according to coordinate or differential upregulation of CD23 and HLA dass II molecules by IL-4 alone, and differences in responsiveness to anti-IgM antibodies. A particular subgroup of B-lymphoma cells defines a separate stage of B-eeil differentiation. They fail to express high affinity binding sites for IL-4 and accordingly do not respond to IL-4- mediated signals. Cross-linking membrane lgM receptors or direct activation of protein kinase C via phorbolester induces IL-4 receptor expression and subsequent IL-4 reactivity ...
The responsiveness to IL-4 with and without costimulation with anti-IgM antibodies or phorbolester was studied in 35 cases of low grade non-Hodgkin Iymphoma by analyzing enhancement of CD23 and HLA dass li expression. The predominant phenotype responds directly to IL-4. Separate differentiation states can be distinguished according to coordinate or differential upregulation of CD23 and HLA dass II molecules by IL-4 alone, and differences in responsiveness to anti-IgM antibodies. A particular subgroup of B-lymphoma cells defines a separate stage of B-eeil differentiation. They fail to express high affinity binding sites for IL-4 and accordingly do not respond to IL-4- mediated signals. Cross-linking membrane lgM receptors or direct activation of protein kinase C via phorbolester induces IL-4 receptor expression and subsequent IL-4 reactivity ...
I have started measuring in-situ Protein Kinase C activity in permeabilized cells grown in 96-well plates, based on a few references from the literature such as: Heasley L.E., J.Biol.Chem., 1989, 264, 8646. I always get high activity after stimulation with phorbol esters and very low activity after treatment with PKC inhibitors. The problem is that the activity in untreated cells is often almost as high as in stimulated cells. Any advice or protocol would be welcome. Thanks Bernard medbpl at emory.edu ...
During activation, PKC isoforms translocate to the plasma membrane (Nishizuka, 1984), and are autophosphorylated at multiple amino acid residues (Keranen et al., 1995; Newton, 2003). We attempted to measure PKC activation directly via: 1) PKCδ immunostaining (Fig. 6A), 2) membrane/cytosol fractionation and PKCδ Western blotting (Brown et al., 2005), 3) anti-phospho-PKCδ Western blotting (Sumandea et al., 2008), 4) anti-pan-phospho-PKC Western blotting (Iwabu et al., 2004), 5) a GFP biosensor based on the C1 domains of PKCγ (Oancea et al., 1998), and 6) a FRET biosensor of PKC activity (Violin et al., 2003). Unfortunately, we did not observe endogenous PKC activation with any of these techniques after stimulating endogenous M3 receptors with carbachol, and were therefore unable to directly measure the effect of DGKη on endogenous PKC activity. This did not reflect technical limitations, as we did observe endogenous PKCδ activation after direct stimulation with PMA (Fig. 6A). Instead, our ...
We have previously shown that multiple topical applications, over 11 days, of the phorbol ester 12- O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) induces a persistent inflammatory reaction characterized by...
Viktige forbindelser for romstasjonen, slike som ulike væsker, miljøkontroll og livsstøtte-systemer, elektriske og datasystemer går igjennom Unity for å forsyne arbeids- og boligområdene på romstasjonen. Mer enn 50 000 mekaniske deler, 216 ledninger for å frakte væsker og gass og 121 interne og eksterne elektriske kabler, er installert i modulen. Unity er laget av aluminium. Før oppskyting ombord i Endeavour ble «Pressurized Mating Adapters» (PMA-1 og PMA-2) montert på koblingsmekanismene foran og bak på Unity. Disse adapterne tillater bruk av både de amerikanske romfergene og russiske moduler. PMA-1 forbinder nå permanent Unity med modulen Zarja. PMA-2 brukes for tilkobling av romfergen. Koblet til utsiden av PMA-1 er datamaskiner, eller «multiplexer-demultiplexers» (MDMs), som sørget for den tidlige kontrollen over Unity. Unity er også utstyrt med et kommunikasjonssystem som tillater data, lyd og lavhastighets data video-overføringer til Houston. Dette var ment som et ...
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Aldrich-547158; trans,trans-2,4-Hexadienyl acetate 0.97; CAS No.: 1516-17-2; Synonyms: Sorbyl acetate; Linear Formula: CH3(CH=CH)2CH2OC(O)CH3; Empirical Formula: C8H12O2; find related products, papers, technical documents, MSDS & more at Sigma-Aldrich.
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In vitro studies have shown that the phorbol ester, 12-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) induces neural crest cell differentiation into melanocytes, and stimulates proliferation and differentiation of normal melanocytes. As TPA is not a physiological agent, its action is clearly mimicking some in vivo pathway involved in these processes. An understanding of the effect of TPA on the expression of melanogenic genes will therefore provide valuable insight into the molecular mechanisms regulating melanocyte differentiation. In this study, we utilized primary cultures of neural crest cells and an immortalized melanocyte cell line (DMEL-2) which proliferates in the absence of TPA, to explore the effects of TPA on key melanogenic effectors. In neural crest cells, TPA was found to be necessary for both microphthalmia associated transcription factor (Mitf) up-regulation and for melanin synthesis. Using northern blots, we show that in DMEL-2 cells, TPA significantly increases the messenger ribonucleic acid
Phorbol ester-sensitive EL4 murine thymoma cells respond to phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate with activation of ERK mitogen-activated protein kinases, synthesis of interleukin-2, and death, whereas phorbol ester-resistant variants of this cell line do not exhibit these responses. Additional aspects of the resistant phenotype were examined, using a newly-established resistant cell line. Phorbol ester induced morphological changes, ERK activation, calcium-dependent activation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), interleukin-2 synthesis, and growth inhibition in sensitive but not resistant cells. A series of protein kinase C activators caused membrane translocation of protein kinase Cs (PKCs) alpha, eta, and theta in both cell lines. While PKC eta was expressed at higher levels in sensitive than in resistant cells, overexpression of PKC eta did not restore phorbol ester-induced ERK activation to resistant cells. In sensitive cells, PKC activators had similar effects on cell viability and ERK ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Selectivity of connexin 43 channels is regulated through protein kinase C-dependent phosphorylation. AU - Ek-Vitorin, Jose F.. AU - King, Timothy J.. AU - Heyman, Nathanael S.. AU - Lampe, Paul D.. AU - Burt, Janis M.. PY - 2006/6. Y1 - 2006/6. N2 - Coordinated contractile activation of the heart and resistance to ischemic injury depend, in part, on the intercellular communication mediated by Cx43-composed gap junctions. The function of these junctions is regulated at multiple levels (assembly to degradation) through phosphorylation at specific sites in the carboxyl terminus (CT) of the Cx43 protein. We show here that the selective permeability of Cx43 junctions is regulated through protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent phosphorylation at serine 368 (S368). Selective permeability was measured in several Cx43-expressing cell lines as the rate constant for intercellular dye diffusion relative to junctional conductance. The selective permeability of Cx43 junctions under control ...
Phorbol ester tumor promoters and the anti-tumor-promoter dexamethasone share a molecular target: modulation of the transcription factor AP-1 by novel type of ...
DDT1 MF-2 cells, which are derived from hamster vas deferens smooth muscle, contain alpha 1-adrenergic receptors (54,800 +/- 2700 sites per cell) that are coupled to stimulation of inositol phospholipid metabolism. Incubation of these cells with tumor-promoting phorbol esters, which stimulate calcium- and phospholipid-dependent protein kinase, leads to a marked attenuation of the ability of alpha 1-receptor agonists such as norepinephrine to stimulate the turnover of inositol phospholipids. This turnover was measured by determining the 32P content of phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidic acid after prelabeling of the cellular ATP pool with 32Pi. These phorbol ester-treated cells also displayed a decrease in binding affinity of cellular alpha 1 receptors for agonists with no change in antagonist affinity. By using affinity chromatography on the affinity resin Affi-Gel-A55414, the alpha 1 receptors were purified approximately equal to 300-fold from control and phorbol ester-treated 32Pi-prelabeled ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Anti-inflammatory effects of licorice and roasted licorice extracts on TPA-induced acute inflammation and collagen-induced arthritis in mice. AU - Chung, Won Yoon. AU - Kim, Ki Rim. AU - Jeong, Chan Kwon. AU - Park, Kwang Kyun. AU - Choi, Jong Hoon. AU - Park, Jung Han Yoon. AU - Lim, Soon Sung. PY - 2010/5/6. Y1 - 2010/5/6. N2 - The anti-inflammatory activity of licorice (LE) and roated licorice (rLE) extracts determined in the murine phorbol ester-induced acute inflammation model and collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model of human rheumatoid arthritis. rLE possessed greater activity than LE in inhibiting phorbol ester-induced ear edema. Oral administration of LE or rLE reduced clinical arthritis score, paw swelling, and histopathological changes in a murine CIA. LE and rLE decreased the levels of proinflammatory cytokines in serum and matrix metalloproteinase-3 expression in the joints. Cell proliferation and cytokine secretion in response to type II collagen or ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of bee venom and its fractions on the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines in PMA-differentiated U937 cells co-stimulated with LPS. AU - Tusiimire, Jonans. AU - Wallace, Jennifer. AU - Woods, Nicola. AU - Dufton, Mark J.. AU - Parkinson, John A.. AU - Abbott, Grainne. AU - Clements, Carol J.. AU - Young, Louise. AU - Park, Jin Kyu. AU - Jeon, Jong Woon. AU - Ferro, Valerie A.. AU - Watson, David G.. PY - 2016/4/19. Y1 - 2016/4/19. N2 - The venom of Apis mellifera (honey bee) has been reported to play a role in immunotherapy, but existing evidence to support its immuno-modulatory claims is insufficient. Four fractions from whole bee venom (BV) were separated using medium pressure liquid chromatography. Their ability to induce the production of cytokines TNFα, IL-1β and IL-6 in phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA)-treated U937 cells was assessed. The levels of the three cytokines produced by stimulation with the four fractions and crude BV without LPS were not ...
The activity of calcium-, phospholipid-dependent protein kinase (PKc) was measured in (a) total extracts, (b) crude membrane, and (c) cytosolic fractions of chick embryo myogenic cells differentiating in culture. Total PKc activity slowly declines during the course of terminal myogenesis in contrast to the activity of cAMP-dependent protein kinase, which was also measured in the same cells. Myogenic cells at day 1 of culture possess high particulate and low soluble PKc activity. A dramatic decline of particulate PKc activity occurs during myogenic cell differentiation and is accompanied, through day 4, by a striking rise of the soluble activity. The difference in the subcellular distribution of PKc between replicating myoblasts and myotubes is confirmed by phosphorylation studies conducted in intact cells. These studies demonstrate that four polypeptides whose phosphorylation is stimulated by the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol 13-acetate in myotubes, are spontaneously phosphorylated ...
AP-1 transcriptional activity is stimulated by the transformation promoters phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate, TPA) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) in promotion-sensitive (P+) but not in promotion-resistant (P-) JB6 mouse epidermal cell lines. Although TPA stimulates expression of the jun and fos family genes, only c-jun expression shows higher elevation in P+ cells than in P- cells. The present study tests the hypothesis that induced AP-1 activity is required for tumor promoter-induced transformation in JB6 P+ cells. Both retinoic acid and the glucocorticoid fluocinolone acetonide inhibited basal and TPA-induced AP-1 activities that were tested with a stromelysin promoter-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene in P+ cells. Since both retinoic acid and fluocinolone acetonide are active in inhibiting TPA-induced anchorage-independent transformation of P+ cells in the dose range that blocks TPA-induced AP-1 activity, their antipromoting effects may ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Differential effects of protein kinase C on the levels of epithelial Na+ channel subunit proteins. AU - Stockand, James D. AU - Hui-Fang, B.. AU - Schenck, J.. AU - Malik, B.. AU - Middleton, P.. AU - Schlanger, L. E.. AU - Eaton, D. C.. PY - 2000/8/18. Y1 - 2000/8/18. N2 - Regulation of epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) subunit levels by protein kinase C (PKC) was investigated in A6 cells. PKC activation altered ENaC subunit levels, differentially decreasing the levels of both β and γ, but not αENaC. Temporal regulation of β and γENaC by PKC differed; γENaC decreased with a time constant of3.7 ± 1.0 h, whereas βENaC decreased in 13.9 ±3.0h. Activation of PKC also resulted in a decrease in trans-epithelial Na+ reabsorption for up to 48h. PMA activation of PKC resulted in negative feedback inhibition of PKC protein levels beginning within 4h. Both β and γENaC levels, as well as transport tended toward pretreatment values after 48 h of PMA treatment. PKC inhibitors ...
RESULTS: Pterostilbene possessed comparable antioxidant properties as resveratrol in cell free system. Computational methods were used to establish the molecular characteristics of stilbene derivatives. The values of electronic parameters suggest a slight enhancement of electron donor properties of pterostilbene compared to resveratrol. Phosphorylation and thus activation of protein kinase C alpha/beta II in activated neutrophils was not decreased by pterostilbene. Pterostilbene in concentrations of 10-100 μM was found to inhibit the activity of human caspase-3 purified enzyme and did not influence cell viability significantly ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Regulation of fibronectin gene expression by cyclic AMP and phorbol myristate acetate in HT-1080 human fibrosarcoma cells. AU - Lee, Byung Heon. AU - Park, Rang Woon. AU - Kim, In San. PY - 1998/12/31. Y1 - 1998/12/31. N2 - We studied the regulation of fibronectin (FN) gene expression by cAMP and phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) in HT-1080 human fibrosarcoma cells. Dibutyryl cAMP increased FN synthesis and mRNA levels, while PMA inhibited the cAMP-induced FN synthesis. In transient transfection assays, cAMP increased FN promoter activity, while PMA paradoxically enhanced the cAMP-induced promoter activity. Stable transfection experiments, however, showed that neither cAMP or PMA alone nor together affected FN promoter activity. These results suggest that PMA antagonizes the cAMP-induced FN gene expression and that both the action of cAMP and the inhibition of its action by PMA may occur at the posttranscriptional level in HT-1080 cells.. AB - We studied the regulation of ...
FIG. 3. Expression of PKC-α, -βI, and -βII isoforms in membrane and cytosolic fractions of DRG in experimental animals. Western blot analysis showed a single band of each isoform in all groups (A). Compared with nondiabetic littermate control mice (Lm) and transgenic mice (Tg), densitometric analysis disclosed reduced expression of membrane α isoform in both diabetic littermate mice (LmDM) and diabetic transgenic mice (TgDM), and the change in diabetic transgenic mice was more severe than in diabetic littermate mice (B). By contrast, cytosolic fraction of α isoform was contrariwise increased to a similar extent in both diabetic transgenic mice and diabetic littermate mice. Treatment with an ARI (fidarestat) corrected these changes in both diabetic groups (LmDM+ARI and TgDM+ARI). There was no change in βI expression in either membrane or cytosolic fraction among all groups. On the other hand, membrane βII expression tended to be elevated in diabetic littermate mice, and the increase was ...
B lymphocytes are necessary cells in defense replies. B lymphocytes HVCN1S appearance is normally higher in B-cell lines and in B cells from sufferers with chronic lymphocytic leukemia where it could donate to disease pathogenesis. and and relationship did not differ significantly. HVCN1S Responds More Strongly Avasimibe Avasimibe to PKC-Dependent Phosphorylation. Proton currents in phagocytes and other cells are greatly augmented by phosphorylation of the channel by PKC (8). The enhanced gating response is usually stimulated effectively by the PKC activator PMA (phorbol myristate acetate) and is best analyzed using the perforated-patch configuration that preserves intracellular signaling pathways (9). Fig. 2 illustrates families of proton currents in cells expressing HVCN1L and HVCN1S before and after PMA activation. In response to PMA the currents turn on more rapidly and at more unfavorable voltages and turn off more slowly and the current amplitude is usually increased. Although HVCN1L ...
Quercetin (QUE; 3,5,7,3′,4′-tetrahydroxyflavone) has been shown to possess several beneficial biological activities including antitumor, anti-inflammation and antioxidant properties; however, the effects of QUE in preventing invasion by breast carcinoma cells are still undefined. Increases in the protein, messenger RNA and enzyme activity levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 were observed in 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-treated MCF-7 cells, and these were blocked by QUE, but not by quercitrin or rutin. A translocation of protein kinase C (PKC)δ from the cytosol to the membrane followed by activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun/activator protein-1 (AP-1) by TPA was demonstrated, and TPA-induced MMP-9 activation and migration were inhibited by the pan PKC inhibitor, GF109203X, the specific PKCδ inhibitor, rottlerin, an ERK inhibitor (PD98059) and an AP-1 inhibitor (curcumin). Application of QUE significantly suppressed TPA-induced activation ...
Author: Rauscher, Andreas et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2000-09-07; Keywords: Vimentin; Gene expression; Electroporation; Stress; 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate; Plasmacytoma; MPC-11 cell; Title: Similar effects of electroporational stress and treatment with the phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate on vimentin expression in mouse plasmacytoma cells
Although Fc receptors (FcRs) for switched immunoglobulin (Ig) isotypes have been extensively characterized, FcR for IgM (FcµR) has defied identification. By retroviral expression and functional cloning, we have identified a complementary DNA (cDNA) encoding a bona fide FcµR in human B-lineage cDNA libraries. FcµR is defined as a transmembrane sialoglycoprotein of ~60 kD, which contains an extracellular Ig-like domain homologous to two other IgM-binding receptors (polymeric Ig receptor and Fc/µR) but exhibits an exclusive Fcµ-binding specificity. The cytoplasmic tail of FcµR contains conserved Ser and Tyr residues, but none of the Tyr residues match the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation, inhibitory, or switch motifs. Unlike other FcRs, the major cell types expressing FcµR are adaptive immune cells, including B and T lymphocytes. After antigen-receptor ligation or phorbol myristate acetate stimulation, FcµR expression was up-regulated on B cells but was down-modulated on T cells, ...
Spirulina, a water blue-green microalga, is considered a complex natural product that is widely used in treatment of chronic diseases including cancer, hypercholesterolemia, arterial hypertension, obesity and diabetes. Phycocyanin from spirulina is considered to be a strong radical scavenger (hydroxyl, peroxyl and alkoxyl radicals) providing significant antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of this study consists in the evaluation of the anti-inflammatory effect of SP in 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced ear inflammation in hairless SKH1 mice. The ears of mice treated with a higher concentration of SP (1000 μg/mL) showed a significant reduction of the inflammatory process than those treated with a smaller concentration of SP (200 μg/mL). Consequently, spirulina has proved dose-dependent anti-inflammatory effects in controlling and, also, in improving the acute inflammation process in mice, being a future alternative therapy for treating inflammation diseases ...
Spirulina, a water blue-green microalga, is considered a complex natural product that is widely used in treatment of chronic diseases including cancer, hypercholesterolemia, arterial hypertension, obesity and diabetes. Phycocyanin from spirulina is considered to be a strong radical scavenger (hydroxyl, peroxyl and alkoxyl radicals) providing significant antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of this study consists in the evaluation of the anti-inflammatory effect of SP in 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced ear inflammation in hairless SKH1 mice. The ears of mice treated with a higher concentration of SP (1000 μg/mL) showed a significant reduction of the inflammatory process than those treated with a smaller concentration of SP (200 μg/mL). Consequently, spirulina has proved dose-dependent anti-inflammatory effects in controlling and, also, in improving the acute inflammation process in mice, being a future alternative therapy for treating inflammation diseases ...
The expression of proteases such as MMP-9 is regulated by diverse growth factors, cytokines, and xenobiotics such as PMA. Studies have shown that the mechanism responsible for PMA-mediated responses may involve direct alteration of transcription factors, but these mechanisms are not completely understood. Small molecular weight inhibitors that target the pathways that regulate MMP-9 expression could improve our understanding of these pathways and potentially be of clinical utility for the treatment of cancer. Using a cervical cancer cell line, our study demonstrates the ability of dykellic acid to reduce the expression of MMP-9.. We also investigated the molecular mechanism by which dykellic acid inhibits PMA-mediated expression of MMP-9 using AP-1 and NFκB reporter constructs and found that NFκB activity, but not AP-1 activity, is significantly reduced by treatment with dykellic acid. Thus, dykellic acid suppresses expression of MMP-9 via inhibition of NFκB transactivation. To our knowledge, ...
In this study, short-term phorbol ester exposure was found to prevent acute AA + Fe (also AA alone or iron alone) oxidative stress and toxicity in the CYP2E1-expressing E47 cells. 4-α-TPA, a TPA-derived biologically inactive molecule unable to activate PKC, was not protective. Accordingly, the mechanism by which TPA exerts its protection seems to be related to its ability to activate certain PKC isoform(s) (Nishizuka, 1984) rather than via a direct effect as an antioxidant molecule. The protective effect of TPA on CYP2E1-mediated AA + Fe toxicity in E47 cells was dose- and time-dependent and occurred simultaneously with an increased translocation of phosphorylated PKC to membranes.. Inhibitors of PKC can interact with the ATP/substrate-binding sites or with regulatory sites of the enzyme. TPA-stimulated PKC isoform(s) involved in the protective action of this phorbol ester on CYP2E1-dependent AA + Fe toxicity in E47 cells were sensitive to the PKC inhibitors Ro 31-8425 and staurosporine, which ...
adducin: membrane-skeleton associated calmodulin-binding protein of erythrocytes; major substrate for Ca+- & phospholipid-dependent protein kinase C; alpha-beta heterodimer with subunits of MW 103kDa (alpha) & 97kDa (beta); human erythrocyte GenBank X58199; alternatively spliced human transcript GenBank U43959
Effects of PKC activators on ACh-induced increases in [Ca2+]i. Fura-2 loaded endothelial cells were treated with ACh (3 μmol/L) followed by washing. Cells were
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The key difference between methyl acetate and ethyl acetate is that methyl acetate has a methyl group attached to an acetate group whereas ethyl acetate ha
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I cut an 8 1/2 x 11 to 4.25 x 11. Scored at 5.5, 7.25 and 9. The second and third score lines are were you are going to cut out your center panel. Save your bottom piece when you cut , you will reattach to the acetate panel. For the acetate panel I cut a 2.5 x 4.25. attach to inside of card bring in 1/2 to adhere to card. Take your bottom panel and reattach bringing in 1/2 to attache. Whala, you now have an acetate panel card ...
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... (TPA), also commonly known as tetradecanoylphorbol acetate, tetradecanoyl phorbol acetate ... Tetradecanoylphorbol+Acetate at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) "NCI Dictionary Entry". ... O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate for patients with relapsed/refractory malignancies". Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology. 57 ... and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) is a diester of phorbol. It is a potent tumor promoter often employed in biomedical ...
TPA (12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate), a potent PKC activator, induces mS100a7a15 expression. TPA induces mS100a7a15 ...
TPA (12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate) is a tumour promoter used in biomedical research. EBV-EA is Epstein-Barr virus early ...
Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate is also known as 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). TASK channels are additionally ... and strongly inhibited by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. ...
... a gene induced in Swiss 3T3 cells by the tumor promoter tetradecanoyl phorbol acetate". Oncogene. 4 (10): 1263-5. PMID 2797820 ...
JDP2 regulates 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) response element (TRE)- and cAMP-responsive element (CRE)-dependent ...
... activation by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate". The Journal of Investigative Dermatology. 100 (1): 10-5. doi:10.1111/1523- ...
12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (PMA or TPA) is a diacylglycerol mimic that can activate the classical PKCs. It is often ...
Kim YJ, Pan H, Verma AK (July 1994). "Non-AP-1 tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-responsive sequences in the ...
In particular, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) is used as a biomedical research tool in models of carcinogenesis. ... "Tumour promoter phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate induces chromosomal damage via indirect action". Nature. 293 (5828): 144-6. ...
"Ultrastructural Analysis of Epidermal Hyperplasia Induced by Multiple 12-0-Tetradecanoyl-Phorbol-13-Acetate (TPA) Treatment of ...
As an activator of protein kinase C, it is a weak tumor promoter compared to 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate. PDBu is ...
"Identification and characterization of human PEIG-1/GPRC5A as a 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and PKC-induced ... "Identification by differential display of a mRNA specifically induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) in T84 ... "Identification by differential display of a mRNA specifically induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) in T84 ...
Tumor promotion can be induced with treatments of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) in some models of two-stage ...
Expression of miR-22 can be induced by adding 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) to HL-60 cells (leukaemia cell line). ...
... of nuclear factor kappaB in up-regulation of aldose reductase gene expression by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate in HeLa ...
"Inhibitory effects of sterols isolated from Chlorella vulgaris on 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced inflammation and ...
"A variant CD30 protein lacking extracellular and transmembrane domains is induced in HL-60 by tetradecanoylphorbol acetate and ...
... such as 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate. In the Amazon, the red latex from the species C. lechleri, known as sangre de ...
April 1996). "Inhibitory effects of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) on 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced tumor ... and ferulic acid on tumor promotion in mouse skin by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate". Cancer Res. 48 (21): 5941-6. PMID ...
"Synergistic stimulatory effect of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate and capsaicin on macrophage differentiation in HL-60 and ...
... significantly inhibited tumor promotion caused by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA, 1.6 nmol). This article ...
The most common and potent phorbol ester is 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), also called phorbol-12-myristate-13- ... Tseng SS, van Duuren BL, Solomon JJ (1977). "Synthesis of 4aα-Phorbol 9-Myristate 9a-Acetate and Related Esters". J. Org. Chem ... pentacyclic triterpene α-amyrin in the mouse skin inflammation induced by phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate". ... acetate (PMA), which is used as a biomedical research tool in contexts such as models of carcinogenesis. Phorbol is a natural ...
"Comparison of the effects of bilobol and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate on skin, and test of tumor promoting potential of ...
"Comparison of the effects of bilobol and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate on skin, and test of tumor promoting potential of ...
... complete amino acid sequence of a protein produced by the 12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-treated human breast ...
The AP-1 binding site was identified as the 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) response element (TRE) with the ...
... tetradecanoyl phorbol acetate-inducible sequence 21) protein in mouse. Tis21 had been originally isolated as a sequence induced ...
Other compounds like 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and GM-CSF can induce HL-60 to ...
12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (Phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate) GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000141682 - Ensembl, ... Phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate-induced protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PMAIP1 gene, and is also known ... "Entrez Gene: PMAIP1 phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate-induced protein 1". Oda E, Ohki R, Murasawa H, Nemoto J, Shibue T, ... "Molecular cloning and characterization of a cDNA for a novel phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate-responsive gene that is highly ...
... the phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), cAMP, vitamin D3, estrogen and tamoxifen, angiotensin II, hypoxia ...
... that allixin exerts an anti-promoting activity against skin tumors induced by the chemical 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate ...
12-o-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA), and was shown to cause cell death via apoptosis. Torreyanic acid also promoted G1 ...
... tetradecanoylphorbol acetate MeSH D02.455.849.291.515 - phytanic acid MeSH D02.455.849.291.523 - phytol MeSH D02.455.849.291. ... sodium acetate MeSH D02.241.081.038.208.025.900 - thioglycolates MeSH D02.241.081.038.208.025.966 - zinc acetate MeSH D02.241. ... methadyl acetate MeSH D02.522.818.110 - bupropion MeSH D02.522.818.222 - chalcones MeSH D02.522.818.222.500 - chalcone MeSH ... phenylmercuric acetate MeSH D02.691.800.338 - carboplatin MeSH D02.691.825.375 - technetium tc 99m aggregated albumin MeSH ...
... and the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). In addition, taraxerol can inhibit acetylcholinesterase ( ... In this case, linear ascending development is performed (e.g. using hexane and ethyl acetate (8:2 v/v) as mobile phase) in a ...
... an aromatic acid and monomer for Aramid Tetradecanoyl phorbol acetate (12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate), a tumor promoter ...
12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate). Examples of voltage-gated channel blockers ...
12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate - 13-cis retinoic acid - 17-N-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin - 18F-EF5 - 1H-nuclear ... caspofungin acetate - Castleman's disease - CAT scan - catechol - cauterization - cauterize - cBR96-doxorubicin immunoconjugate ... cyproterone acetate - cyst - cystectomy - cystosarcoma phyllodes - cystoscope - cystoscopy - cytarabine - cytochlor - ... carbon-11 acetate - carboplatin - carboxyamidotriazole - carboxypeptidase-G2 - carcinoembryonic antigen - carcinoembryonic ...
12-o-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA)-induced decrease in ataxia-telengiectasia mutated (ATM) protein levels is mediated ... with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA), a known activator of both "classical" (calcium-dependent) and "novel" (calcium ... 12-o-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA)-induced decrease in ataxia-telengiectasia mutated (ATM) protein levels is mediated ...
Effect of 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate on beta-adrenergic receptors of newborn mouse skin. Indian Journal of ... Effect of 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate on beta-adrenergic receptors of newborn mouse skin. ...
O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (PMA) in vitro. In addition to MMP-9, a membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) ...
Dive into the research topics of Phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase is necessary for 12-O- tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced ... Phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase is necessary for 12-O- tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced cell transformation and activated ... Phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase is necessary for 12-O- tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced cell transformation and activated ... Phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase is necessary for 12-O- tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced cell transformation and activated ...
... and 12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) in mice [83]. Pomegranate seed oil has ability to inhibit TPA induced skin ... S. J. Deeb, Enhancement of Cell Death by Linalyl Acetate and α-terpineol through Targeting the Nuclear factor-κb Activation ... Linalyl acetate and α-terpineol monoterpenes act synergistically and inhibit the expression of NF-κB leading to cell death of ... Major compounds of Salvia libanotica EO like linalyl acetate, terpineol, and camphor have been reported to be very effective ...
16561-29-8 - Transgenic LECM (Tetradecanoyl phorbol acetate (TPA)). Long-Term Carcinogenicity. *1 year (Topical Application) ( ...
The present study was designed to determine the effectiveness of Cum-OOH compared to 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA ... 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate; oxidative stress; tumor promotion; skin ...
... by either inducing its expression in endometrial cancer cells with the tumor promotor 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (4β ... 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (4β − TPA) increased CAV1 mRNA and protein levels in Ishikawa and Hec-1A cells. ... The following reagents and antibodies were purchased from the sources indicated: 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (4β-TPA ... by either inducing its expression in endometrial cancer cells with the tumor promotor 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (4β ...
The active ingredient in the oil is 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, a compound generally known as TPA. ... The active ingredient in the oil is 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, a compound generally known as TPA. ...
... lactone bryostatin 1 activates protein kinase C as effectively as the phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA ... lactone bryostatin 1 activates protein kinase C as effectively as the phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA ... lactone bryostatin 1 activates protein kinase C as effectively as the phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA ... lactone bryostatin 1 activates protein kinase C as effectively as the phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA ...
Effects of 2.45-GHz microwave radiation and phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate on dimethylhydrazine-induced ...
Inhibitory effect of stevioside on tumor promotion by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate in two-stage carcinogenesis in mouse ...
O-tetradecanoylphorbol-3-acetate (TPA) concomitantly with PGE2 production.[18] In this study, a topical application of this ...
... of dorsal skin tumors resulting from initiation with UVB radiation and promotion with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA ... of dorsal skin tumors resulting from initiation with UVB radiation and promotion with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA ... of dorsal skin tumors resulting from initiation with UVB radiation and promotion with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA ... of dorsal skin tumors resulting from initiation with UVB radiation and promotion with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA ...
Confocal immunofluorescent analysis of THP-1 cells differentiated with TPA (12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-Acetate) #4174 (80 nM ... Confocal immunofluorescent analysis of THP-1 cells differentiated with TPA (12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-Acetate) #4174 (80 nM ...
2013). Geraniol attenuates12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced oxidative stress and inflammation in mouse skin: ... The samples were extracted twice with 1 ml of water-saturated ethyl acetate. After centrifugation (10 min at 13,000 × g), the ... 2017). Role of geraniol against lead acetate-mediated hepatic damage and their interaction with liver carboxylesterase activity ... Geraniol (98%) (PubChem CID: 637566), Carbazole (PubChem CID: 6854), HPLC-grade methanol, acetonitrile, ethyl acetate and water ...
O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) treatment, a potent tumor promoter that activates LRCs to give numerous progeny (Flores ...
200 nM 12-0-tetradecanoyl phorbol acetate, 200 pM cholera toxin, 10 ng/mL human stem cell factor and 10 nM endothelin 1. The ...
Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate 89% * THP-1 Cells 100% * Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha 58% ... and is necessary for production of tumor necrosis factor alpha in monocytic THP-1 cells stimulated by phorbol myristate acetate ... and is necessary for production of tumor necrosis factor alpha in monocytic THP-1 cells stimulated by phorbol myristate acetate ...
12-O-TETRADECANOYLPHORBOL-13-ACETATE-INDUCED APOPTOSIS, SENESCENCE, ACTIVATION, EXPRESSION, PATHWAY, DOMAIN, INHIBITION, ...
12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13 acetate (TPA) or various acylglycerols were applied topically to CD-1 mice, and biochemical ... sn-1,2-Diacylglycerols mimic the effects of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate in vivo by inducing biochemical changes ...
These cells differentiate into macrophages in the presence of phorbol ester (tetradecanoyl phorbol acetate [TPA]) but are ...
... tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate. Molecular and Cellular Biology 4:563-566 ...
  • The results demonstrate that mTORC2 is dispensable for both normal epidermal proliferation and the hyperproliferative response to treatment with tetradecanoyl phorbol acetate (TPA). (elsevier.com)
  • Currently, little is known about whether phosphatidylinositol-3 (PI-3) kinase plays any role in phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced signal transduction. (umn.edu)
  • The present study was designed to determine the effectiveness of Cum-OOH compared to 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) in the induction of tumor promotion in the mouse skin , to identify the involvement of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in oxidative metabolism of Cum-OOH in keratinocytes, and to evaluate morphological changes and outcomes of oxidative stress in skin of SENCAR mice throughout a two-stage carcinogenesis protocol. (cdc.gov)
  • sn-1,2-Diacylglycerols mimic the effects of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate in vivo by inducing biochemical changes associated with tumor promotion in mouse epidermis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • To explore further the genetics of susceptibility to skin tumor promotion in inbred mice, several aspects of responsiveness to 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) were examined in C3H/He mice and segregating crosses between this mouse strain and C57BL/6 mice as well as BXD and BXH recombinant inbred (RI) strains. (tamu.edu)
  • The role of CAV1 expression in ECC malignancy was further studied by either inducing its expression in endometrial cancer cells with the tumor promotor 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (4β-TPA) or decreasing expression using short-hairpin RNA constructs, and then evaluating the effects of these changes on ECC proliferation, transmigration, matrigel invasion, and colony formation in soft agar. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Within the proposed protocol, HepG2 cells spheroids were first exposed to an initiator (3-methylcholanthrene, 3-MC) followed by the exposure to promotor (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13- acetate, TPA) to create a tumor environment and characterize a new hepatocellular carcinoma in vitro model. (mcu.es)
  • Accelerated onset of viral transcription in adenovirus-infected HeLa cells treated with the tumor promoter 12- O - tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Furthermore, it was observed that incubation of cells with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) not only resulted in NFAT activation by itself, but also enhanced asbestos -induced NFAT induction. (cdc.gov)
  • We have previously shown that treatment of human androgen-responsive prostate cancer cell lines (LNCaP and CWR22-Rv1) with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA), a known activator of both "classical" (calcium-dependent) and "novel" (calcium-independent) protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms, decreases ATM protein levels and induces apoptosis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The macrocyclic lactone bryostatin 1 activates protein kinase C as effectively as the phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA). (elsevier.com)
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Effect of 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate on beta-adrenergic receptors of newborn mouse skin. (who.int)
  • The effect of this systemic alteration, induced by ventral UVB irradiation of mice, was tested on the induction of dorsal skin tumors resulting from initiation with UVB radiation and promotion with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA). (elsevier.com)
  • Topical application of phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) elicits intense local inflammation that facilitates outgrowth of premalignant lesions in skin after carcinogen exposure. (elsevier.com)