Effects of tetracaine on sarcoplasmic calcium release in mammalian skeletal muscle fibres. (1/340)1. Single muscle fibres were dissociated enzymatically from the extensor digitorum communis muscle of rats. The fibres were mounted into a double Vaseline gap experimental chamber and the events in excitation-contraction coupling were studied under voltage clamp conditions in the presence and absence of the local anaesthetic tetracaine. 2. Changes in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) were monitored using the calcium sensitive dyes antipyrylazo III and fura-2 and the rate of calcium release (Rrel) from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) was calculated. Tetracaine decreased the maximal attained [Ca2+]i and suppressed, in a dose-dependent manner, both the early peak and the steady level of Rrel in the voltage range examined. 3. The concentration dependence of the effects on the two kinetic components of Rrel were almost identical with a half-effective concentration (K50) of 70 and 71 microM and a Hill coefficient (nH) of 2.7 and 2.3 for the peak and the steady level, respectively. Furthermore, the drug did not alter the peak to steady level ratio up to a concentration (50 microM) that caused a 35 +/- 5 % reduction in calcium release. Higher concentrations did suppress the ratio but the degree of suppression was voltage independent. 4. Tetracaine (50 microM) neither influenced the total available intramembrane charge nor altered its membrane potential dependence. It shifted the transfer function, the normalized SR permeability versus normalized charge to the right, indicating that similar charge transfer caused a smaller increase in SR permeability. 5. To explore the site of action of tetracaine further the ryanodine receptor (RyR) calcium release channel of the SR was purified and reconstituted into planar lipid bilayers. The reconstituted channel had a conductance of 511 +/- 14 pS (n = 8) in symmetric 250 mM KCl that was not affected by tetracaine. Tetracaine decreased the open probability of the channel in a concentration-dependent manner with K50 = 68 microM and nH = 1.5. 6. These experiments show that tetracaine suppresses SR calcium release in enzymatic isolated mammalian skeletal muscle fibres. This effect is due, presumably, to the decreased open probability of the RyR in the presence of the drug. Since both the inactivating peak and the steady level of Rrel were equally affected by tetracaine, our observations suggest that there is a tight coupling between these kinetic components of SR calcium release in mammalian skeletal muscle. (+info)
Interaction of bupivacaine and tetracaine with the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release channel of skeletal and cardiac muscles. (2/340)BACKGROUND: Although various local anesthetics can cause histologic damage to skeletal muscle when injected intramuscularly, bupivacaine appears to have an exceptionally high rate of myotoxicity. Research has suggested that an effect of bupivacaine on sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release is involved in its myotoxicity, but direct evidence is lacking. Furthermore, it is not known whether the toxicity depends on the unique chemical characteristics of bupivacaine and whether the toxicity is found only in skeletal muscle. METHODS: The authors studied the effects of bupivacaine and the similarly lipid-soluble local anesthetic, tetracaine, on the Ca2+ release channel-ryanodine receptor of sarcoplasmic reticulum in swine skeletal and cardiac muscle. [3H]Ryanodine binding was used to measure the activity of the Ca2+ release channel-ryanodine receptors in microsomes of both muscles. RESULTS: Bupivacaine enhanced (by two times at 5 mM) and inhibited (66% inhibition at 10 mM) [3H]ryanodine binding to skeletal muscle microsomes. In contrast, only inhibitory effects were observed with cardiac microsomes (about 3 mM for half-maximal inhibition). Tetracaine, which inhibits [3H]ryanodine binding to skeletal muscle microsomes, also inhibited [3H]ryanodine binding to cardiac muscle microsomes (half-maximal inhibition at 99 microM). CONCLUSIONS: Bupivacaine's ability to enhance Ca2+ release channel-ryanodine receptor activity of skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum most likely contributes to the myotoxicity of this local anesthetic. Thus, the pronounced myotoxicity of bupivacaine may be the result of this specific effect on Ca2+ release channel-ryanodine receptor superimposed on a nonspecific action on lipid bilayers to increase the Ca2+ permeability of sarcoplasmic reticulum membranes, an effect shared by all local anesthetics. The specific action of tetracaine to inhibit Ca2+ release channel-ryanodine receptor activity may in part counterbalance the nonspecific action, resulting in moderate myotoxicity. (+info)
Topical anaesthesia of intact skin: liposome-encapsulated tetracaine vs EMLA. (3/340)In this randomized, double-blind study, we have compared the ability of 5% liposome-encapsulated tetracaine (amethocaine) (LET) vs 5% eutectic mixture of local anaesthetics (EMLA) to produce local anaesthesia of intact skin in 40 healthy volunteers. Volunteers had both preparations applied to their forearms under an occlusive dressing for 1 h. Superficial anaesthesia was measured by a total of nine 1-mm pinpricks on each arm. Deeper anaesthesia was assessed by single insertion of a sterile 22-gauge needle to a depth of 3 mm and pain was reported on a visual analogue scale (VAS). If the volunteer perceived greater than four of the 1-mm pinpricks, the 3-mm insertion was not performed. Results showed that the number of pinpricks perceived was significantly less (P < 0.01) for LET (median 1.0; range 0-9) vs EMLA (1.5; 0-9). In volunteers who had deeper anaesthesia assessed, there was no significant difference (P = 0.065) in VAS scores for LET (mean 1.5 (SD 1.4); n = 34) vs EMLA (2.4 (2.1); n = 28). Overall anaesthetic effect, as ranked by all of the subjects, was significantly better for LET compared with EMLA (P = 0.024). We have demonstrated that when applied in equal volumes, 5% LET produced better superficial local anaesthesia than EMLA. (+info)
Isolation and characterization of the yeast las21 mutants, which are sensitive to a local anestheticum, tetracaine. (4/340)We isolated and characterized yeast mutants whose growth is sensitive to a local anestheticum tetracaine and, at the same time, temperature sensitive. These mutants were collectively called las mutants (local anestheticum sensitive). The las21 mutants were analyzed in this study. The wild type LAS21 gene was cloned by exploiting temperature sensitivity of the las21 mutants and we found that LAS21 encodes ORF YJL062w which has not been analyzed before. Las21p is putative membrane protein belonging to the major facilitator super family containing plural membrane spanning domains. Complete elimination of the LAS21 ORF did not kill the cells but made their growth temperature sensitive. Interestingly, the complete loss of the LAS21 gene canceled the sensitivity to tetracaine. The ability of the las21 mutants to grow at a higher temperature was recovered in the various media containing an osmotic stabilizer or salts. Furthermore, temperature sensitivity of the las21 mutants was partially suppressed by introduction of PKC1, encoding protein kinase C, on a high copy vector. We found some genetic interactions between LAS21 and Ras/cAMP cascade genes. These results suggest that LAS21 defines unknown pathway regulating the stress response of yeast. (+info)
Photoaffinity labeling the torpedo nicotinic acetylcholine receptor with [(3)H]tetracaine, a nondesensitizing noncompetitive antagonist. (5/340)Tetracaine (N,N-dimethylaminoethyl-4-butylaminobenzoate) and related N,N-dialkylaminoethyl substituted benzoic acid esters have been used to characterize the high-affinity binding site for aromatic amine noncompetitive antagonists in the Torpedo nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR). [(3)H]Tetracaine binds at equilibrium to a single site with a K(eq) value of 0.5 microM in the absence of agonist or presence of alpha-bungarotoxin and with a K(eq) value of 30 microM in the presence of agonist (i.e., for nAChR in the desensitized state). Preferential binding to nAChR in the absence of agonist is also seen for N,N-DEAE and N,N-diethylaminopropyl esters, both binding with 10-fold higher affinity in the absence of agonist than in the presence, and for the 4-ethoxybenzoic acid ester of N, N-diethylaminoethanol, but not for the 4-amino benzoate ester (procaine). Irradiation at 302 nm of nAChR-rich membranes equilibrated with [(3)H]tetracaine resulted in covalent incorporation with similar efficiency into nAChR alpha, beta, gamma, and delta subunits. The pharmacological specificity of nAChR subunit photolabeling as well as its dependence on [(3)H]tetracaine concentration establish that the observed photolabeling is at the high-affinity [(3)H]tetracaine-binding site. Within alpha subunit, >/=95% of specific photolabeling was contained within a 20-kilodalton proteolytic fragment beginning at Ser(173) that contains the M1 to M3 hydrophobic segments. With all four subunits contributing to [(3)H]tetracaine site, the site in the closed channel state of the nAChR is most likely within the central ion channel domain. (+info)
Identification of amino acids of the torpedo nicotinic acetylcholine receptor contributing to the binding site for the noncompetitive antagonist [(3)H]tetracaine. (6/340)[(3)H]Tetracaine is a noncompetitive antagonist of the Torpedo nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) that binds with high affinity in the absence of cholinergic agonist (K(eq) = 0.5 microM) and weakly (K(eq) = 30 microM) in the presence of agonist (i.e., to nAChR in the desensitized state). In the absence of agonist, irradiation at 302 nm of nAChR-rich membranes equilibrated with [(3)H]tetracaine results in specific photoincorporation of [(3)H]tetracaine into each nAChR subunit. In this report, we identify the amino acids of each nAChR subunit specifically photolabeled by [(3)H]tetracaine that contribute to the high-affinity binding site. Subunits isolated from nAChR-rich membranes photolabeled with [(3)H]tetracaine were subjected to enzymatic digestion, and peptides containing (3)H were purified by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by reversed phase HPLC. N-terminal sequence analysis of the isolated peptides demonstrated that [(3)H]tetracaine specifically labeled two sets of homologous hydrophobic residues (alphaLeu(251), betaLeu(257), gammaLeu(260), and deltaLeu(265); alphaVal(255) and deltaVal(269)) as well as alphaIle(247) and deltaAla(268) within the M2 hydrophobic segments of each subunit. The labeling of these residues establishes that the high-affinity [(3)H]tetracaine-binding site is located within the lumen of the closed ion channel and provides a definition of the surface of the M2 helices facing the channel lumen. (+info)
Tetracaine can inhibit contractions initiated by a voltage-sensitive release mechanism in guinea-pig ventricular myocytes. (7/340)1. Effects of tetracaine on membrane currents and cell shortening were measured with high resistance electrodes, single-electrode voltage clamp (switch clamp) and a video edge detector at 37 C in cardiac ventricular myocytes. 2. Sequential voltage steps from -65 mV to -40 and 0 mV were used to activate two mechanisms of excitation-contraction (EC) coupling separately. The step to -40 mV activated the voltage-sensitive release mechanism (VSRM); the step to 0 mV1 activated Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release (CICR) coupled to inward Ca2+ current (IL). 3. Exposure to 100-300 microM tetracaine inhibited VSRM contractions but not CICR contractions. Inhibition of VSRM contractions was independent of INa blockade. In contrast, 100 microM Cd2+ blocked IL and CICR contractions, but not VSRM contractions. Simultaneous application of both agents blocked both mechanisms of EC coupling. 4. Contraction-voltage relationships were sigmoidal when the VSRM was available. However, when the VSRM was inhibited with 100-300 microM tetracaine, contraction-voltage relationships became bell-shaped. The tetracaine-insensitive contractions were abolished by 0.1 microM ryanodine, indicating that they were dependent on release of SR Ca2+. 5. At a higher concentration (1 mM) tetracaine also inhibited IL and contractions triggered by IL; however, the time course of effects on IL and associated contractions were different than for VSRM contractions. 6. With continuous application of tetracaine, the VSRM remained inhibited although SR Ca2+ stores increased 4-fold as assessed with caffeine. CICR contractions were not inhibited and maximum amplitude of contraction was not reduced. 7. Rapid application of tetracaine just before and during test steps also inhibited VSRM contractions, but without significantly affecting sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ stores or CICR contractions. Maximum amplitude of contraction was reduced. 8. Rapid application of tetracaine (100-300 microM) allows preferential inhibition of the VSRM and provides a pharmacological method to assess the contribution of the VSRM to EC coupling. (+info)
Tetracaine gel vs EMLA cream for percutaneous anaesthesia in children. (8/340)We have evaluated the anaesthetic effect of tetracaine gel 1 g, applied for 45 min, compared with EMLA cream 2 g, applied for 60 min, in a randomized, double-blind study in 60 children aged 3-15 yr. Venous cannulation was performed 15 min after removal of the EMLA cream (n = 20) and tetracaine gel (n = 20). Cannulation was performed up to 215 min after removal of the tetracaine gel in another 20 patients. Significantly lower pain scores were recorded by the children treated with tetracaine gel compared with EMLA cream (P < 0.02). Forty to 45% of children in the tetracaine groups reported no pain compared with only 10% in the EMLA group. Only minor adverse effects were observed. We conclude that tetracaine gel provided effective, rapid, long-lasting and safe local anaesthesia, and was significantly better than EMLA cream in reducing pain during venous cannulation in children using the recommended application periods for both formulations. (+info)
Tetracaine is a local anesthetic medication that is used to numb a specific area of the body during medical procedures or surgeries. It is a member of the amide class of local anesthetics and is commonly used in ophthalmology, dentistry, and dermatology to numb the skin, mucous membranes, and cornea. Tetracaine works by blocking the transmission of nerve impulses to the affected area, which reduces pain and discomfort. It is usually administered topically as a cream, ointment, or gel, or as a solution for injection. Tetracaine is a potent local anesthetic, but it can also cause side effects such as skin irritation, redness, and swelling at the site of application. In rare cases, it can cause more serious side effects such as allergic reactions, seizures, and cardiac arrest. Therefore, it is important to use tetracaine under the supervision of a healthcare professional and to follow the instructions for use carefully.
Dibucaine is a local anesthetic medication that is used to numb a specific area of the body during medical procedures. It is a long-acting anesthetic, meaning that it provides pain relief for a longer period of time than other types of local anesthetics. Dibucaine is typically used to numb the skin and underlying tissues during procedures such as surgery, dental work, and childbirth. It is also sometimes used to numb the throat and mouth before procedures that involve the use of a breathing tube. Dibucaine is available in a variety of forms, including creams, ointments, and solutions, and is typically administered by a healthcare professional.
Anesthetics, Local are medications that are used to numb a specific area of the body, such as a tooth or a surgical site, to reduce pain and discomfort during a procedure. These medications work by blocking the transmission of pain signals from the nerves in the affected area to the brain. Local anesthetics are typically administered by injection, cream, or spray, and their effects can last for several hours. There are several types of local anesthetics, including lidocaine, benzocaine, and novocaine, each with its own specific properties and uses. Local anesthetics are commonly used in dentistry, surgery, and other medical procedures where a patient needs to be numbed for a specific area of the body.
Prilocaine is a local anesthetic medication that is commonly used to numb the skin and nerves during medical procedures such as dental work, minor surgeries, and dermatological procedures. It is a member of the amide class of local anesthetics and is available in both injectable and topical forms. Prilocaine works by blocking the transmission of pain signals from nerve endings to the brain. It is usually administered in combination with epinephrine, which helps to constrict blood vessels and reduce bleeding during procedures. Prilocaine is generally considered safe when used as directed, but like all medications, it can cause side effects. Common side effects of prilocaine include itching, redness, and swelling at the site of injection. More serious side effects are rare but can include allergic reactions, seizures, and changes in heart rate or blood pressure. Overall, prilocaine is a useful medication for numbing the skin and nerves during medical procedures, but it should only be used under the supervision of a qualified healthcare professional.
Procaine is a local anesthetic medication that is commonly used to numb a specific area of the body during medical procedures. It works by blocking the transmission of pain signals from nerve endings to the brain. Procaine is usually administered as a solution that is injected into the skin or a mucous membrane, such as the mouth or throat. It is also sometimes used as a topical cream or ointment to numb the skin. Procaine is a type of amide local anesthetic, which means that it is derived from an amino acid and has a similar structure to other local anesthetics such as lidocaine and benzocaine. It is generally considered to be safe and effective when used as directed, but like all medications, it can cause side effects in some people.
Lidocaine is a local anesthetic medication that is commonly used to numb a specific area of the body during medical procedures or surgeries. It works by blocking the transmission of pain signals from the nerves to the brain. Lidocaine is available in various forms, including topical creams, gels, ointments, and injections. It is also used to treat certain types of abnormal heart rhythms, such as atrial fibrillation, and to relieve symptoms of neuropathy, a condition in which the nerves are damaged or diseased. Lidocaine is generally considered safe when used as directed, but it can cause side effects such as dizziness, nausea, and allergic reactions in some people.
Levallorphan is a synthetic opioid analgesic that is a metabolite of the drug levorphanol. It is a Schedule II controlled substance in the United States and is used in the treatment of moderate to severe pain. Levallorphan is also used as an antitussive (cough suppressant) and is sometimes used in combination with other drugs to treat opioid dependence. It is a potent opioid agonist that binds to the mu-opioid receptor in the brain and spinal cord, producing analgesic and sedative effects. However, levallorphan can also produce respiratory depression, constipation, and other side effects at high doses. It is important to note that levallorphan is not currently approved for use in the United States and is only available through special channels for research purposes.
Para-aminobenzoates are a group of organic compounds that contain a para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) moiety. PABA is an aromatic compound that is found naturally in plants and is also synthesized in the human body. Para-aminobenzoates are used in the medical field as antifungal agents, particularly for the treatment of dermatophyte infections such as athlete's foot, ringworm, and jock itch. They work by inhibiting the growth of fungi by interfering with their ability to synthesize folic acid, which is essential for their growth and reproduction. Some examples of para-aminobenzoates used in medicine include miconazole, clotrimazole, and terbinafine.
4-Aminobenzoic acid, also known as p-aminobenzoic acid or PABA, is a naturally occurring aromatic compound that is commonly used in the medical field as a sunscreen ingredient. It works by absorbing ultraviolet (UV) radiation and preventing it from penetrating the skin and causing damage to the DNA in skin cells. In addition to its use as a sunscreen ingredient, 4-aminobenzoic acid has also been used in the treatment of certain skin conditions, such as psoriasis and eczema. It is thought to work by reducing inflammation and slowing the growth of skin cells. 4-aminobenzoic acid is available over-the-counter as a cream or ointment and is typically applied to the skin once or twice a day. It is generally considered safe for use, but like all medications, it can cause side effects in some people. These may include skin irritation, redness, or itching.
Anesthesia, spinal, also known as spinal anesthesia, is a type of regional anesthesia that numbs the lower half of the body, including the legs and lower abdomen. It is commonly used for surgeries on the lower half of the body, such as cesarean sections, hip replacements, and knee replacements. During spinal anesthesia, a small amount of anesthetic medication is injected into the spinal fluid, which surrounds the spinal cord. The medication numbs the nerves in the lower half of the body, causing a loss of sensation and pain relief. The patient is awake and able to communicate during the procedure, but they will not feel any pain or discomfort in their lower body. Spinal anesthesia is typically performed by an anesthesiologist or a trained nurse anesthetist. The procedure is usually done in a hospital setting and takes about 10-15 minutes to perform. The patient will need to lie on their back with their legs bent and feet flat on the table. The anesthetic medication is injected into the lower back, and the patient may feel a brief prick or pressure as the medication is injected. After spinal anesthesia, the patient may experience some side effects, such as headache, nausea, and low blood pressure. However, these side effects are usually temporary and can be managed with medication. Spinal anesthesia is a safe and effective method of anesthesia for many types of surgeries on the lower half of the body.
Amphibian venoms are toxic substances produced by certain species of amphibians, such as frogs, toads, and salamanders. These venoms are typically secreted from specialized glands in the skin or from the salivary glands of the amphibian, and they can be used for a variety of purposes, including defense against predators, capturing prey, and as a means of communication with other members of the same species. Amphibian venoms can contain a wide range of toxic compounds, including peptides, proteins, and other molecules. These toxins can have a variety of effects on the body, including pain, paralysis, and even death in some cases. In the medical field, amphibian venoms are being studied for their potential therapeutic applications, such as the development of new pain medications or as a source of compounds with anti-inflammatory or anti-cancer properties. However, it is important to note that many amphibian venoms are also highly toxic and can be dangerous to humans, so they must be handled with caution and under the supervision of a trained professional.
Anesthesia, Local is a type of anesthesia that numbs a specific area of the body, such as a hand, arm, leg, or foot, without causing general anesthesia. Local anesthesia is commonly used during minor surgical procedures, dental procedures, and other medical procedures that require only a small area of the body to be numbed. Local anesthesia is typically administered by injecting a numbing medication, such as lidocaine or bupivacaine, into the affected area. The medication blocks the transmission of pain signals to the brain, resulting in numbness and a loss of sensation in the treated area. Local anesthesia can be administered in different ways, including topical anesthesia, infiltration anesthesia, and nerve block anesthesia. Topical anesthesia involves applying a numbing cream or gel to the skin, while infiltration anesthesia involves injecting the numbing medication directly into the tissue. Nerve block anesthesia involves injecting the numbing medication into a nerve, which can result in numbness in a larger area of the body. Overall, local anesthesia is a safe and effective way to provide pain relief during minor medical procedures, and it has a lower risk of complications compared to general anesthesia.
Iophendylate is a radiopaque contrast medium used in medical imaging procedures such as computed tomography (CT) scans and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). It is a non-ionic, water-soluble contrast agent that is injected into the bloodstream to enhance the visibility of blood vessels and organs on imaging scans. Iophendylate is also known by its brand name, Iopamidol. It is commonly used to diagnose a variety of medical conditions, including cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, and tumors.
Calcium is a chemical element with the symbol Ca and atomic number 20. It is a vital mineral for the human body and is essential for many bodily functions, including bone health, muscle function, nerve transmission, and blood clotting. In the medical field, calcium is often used to diagnose and treat conditions related to calcium deficiency or excess. For example, low levels of calcium in the blood (hypocalcemia) can cause muscle cramps, numbness, and tingling, while high levels (hypercalcemia) can lead to kidney stones, bone loss, and other complications. Calcium supplements are often prescribed to people who are at risk of developing calcium deficiency, such as older adults, vegetarians, and people with certain medical conditions. However, it is important to note that excessive calcium intake can also be harmful, and it is important to follow recommended dosages and consult with a healthcare provider before taking any supplements.
Caffeine is a naturally occurring stimulant that is found in many plants, including coffee beans, tea leaves, and cocoa beans. It is also added to many foods and beverages, such as coffee, tea, soda, and energy drinks, to enhance their flavor and provide a boost of energy. In the medical field, caffeine is used as a medication to treat a variety of conditions, including: 1. Sleep disorders: Caffeine is a stimulant that can help people stay awake and alert, making it useful for treating conditions such as insomnia and sleep apnea. 2. Headaches: Caffeine is a common ingredient in over-the-counter pain relievers, such as aspirin and ibuprofen, and is also used to treat migraines and tension headaches. 3. Fatigue: Caffeine can help to reduce fatigue and increase alertness, making it useful for people who work long hours or have trouble staying awake. 4. Parkinson's disease: Caffeine has been shown to improve symptoms of Parkinson's disease, including tremors and stiffness. 5. Asthma: Caffeine can help to relax the muscles in the airways, making it useful for people with asthma. It is important to note that caffeine can have side effects, including jitters, anxiety, and insomnia, and can interact with other medications. As with any medication, it is important to talk to a healthcare provider before using caffeine to treat a medical condition.
Fear of needles
Muscle-type nicotinic receptor
Arterial blood gas test
Anterior chamber paracentesis
Anesthesia for eye surgery
Interventional pain management
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- Lidocaine/tetracaine patch (Rapydan) for topical anaesthesia before arterial access: a double-blind, randomized trial. (medscape.com)
- Topical anesthetics are most commonly used for cosmetic procedures and to relieve burning and itching and they contain anesthetic drugs such as lidocaine, tetracaine, benzocaine, and prilocaine in a cream, ointment, or gel form. (news-medical.net)
- In both these cases the skin-numbing creams used were made in pharmacies and contained high amounts of the anesthetic drugs lidocaine and tetracaine. (news-medical.net)
Patented in 19301
- Tetracaine was patented in 1930 and came into medical use in 1941. (wikipedia.org)
- Spinal anesthesia e.g. tetracaine (pontocaine). (pharmacology2000.com)
- Tetracaine is the T in TAC, a mixture of 5 to 12% tetracaine, 0.05% adrenaline, and 4 or 10% cocaine hydrochloride used in ear, nose, and throat surgery and in the emergency department where numbing of the surface is needed rapidly, especially when children have been injured in the eye, ear, or other sensitive locations. (wikipedia.org)
- Tetracaine, also known as amethocaine, is an ester local anesthetic used to numb the eyes, nose, or throat. (wikipedia.org)
- High-pressure Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was used to study the barotropic behaviour of phosphatidylserine bilayers and their interactions with the local anesthetic tetracaine. (canada.ca)
- Furthermore, scale up of the reaction, demonstrated through the synthesis of tetracaine, is easily achieved, delivering the C-N cross-coupled products in consistently high yield of 84% on up to a 10 mmol scale. (vapourtec.com)
- Rapydan should not be used for a longer duration than recommended, and is contraindicated in patients with a known history of sensitivity to lidocaine, tetracaine or local anesthetics of the amide or ester type. (salesandmarketingnetwork.com)
- Tetracaine, also known as amethocaine, is an ester local anesthetic used to numb the eyes, nose, or throat. (wikipedia.org)
- Topical application of tetracaine to the mother is unlikely to affect her breastfed infant if it is applied away from the breast. (nih.gov)
- In biomedical research, tetracaine is used to alter the function of calcium release channels (ryanodine receptors) that control the release of calcium from intracellular stores. (wikipedia.org)
- At low concentrations, tetracaine causes an initial inhibition of spontaneous calcium release events, while at high concentrations, tetracaine blocks release completely. (wikipedia.org)