Tetanus toxoid is a purified and chemically inactivated form of the tetanus toxin, used as a vaccine to induce active immunity against tetanus disease by stimulating the production of antibodies.
A disease caused by tetanospasmin, a powerful protein toxin produced by CLOSTRIDIUM TETANI. Tetanus usually occurs after an acute injury, such as a puncture wound or laceration. Generalized tetanus, the most common form, is characterized by tetanic muscular contractions and hyperreflexia. Localized tetanus presents itself as a mild condition with manifestations restricted to muscles near the wound. It may progress to the generalized form.
Preparations of pathogenic organisms or their derivatives made nontoxic and intended for active immunologic prophylaxis. They include deactivated toxins. Anatoxin toxoids are distinct from anatoxins that are TROPANES found in CYANOBACTERIA.
Protein synthesized by CLOSTRIDIUM TETANI as a single chain of ~150 kDa with 35% sequence identity to BOTULINUM TOXIN that is cleaved to a light and a heavy chain that are linked by a single disulfide bond. Tetanolysin is the hemolytic and tetanospasmin is the neurotoxic principle. The toxin causes disruption of the inhibitory mechanisms of the CNS, thus permitting uncontrolled nervous activity, leading to fatal CONVULSIONS.
An antitoxin used for the treatment of TETANUS.
The formaldehyde-inactivated toxin of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. It is generally used in mixtures with TETANUS TOXOID and PERTUSSIS VACCINE; (DTP); or with tetanus toxoid alone (DT for pediatric use and Td, which contains 5- to 10-fold less diphtheria toxoid, for other use). Diphtheria toxoid is used for the prevention of diphtheria; DIPHTHERIA ANTITOXIN is for treatment.
The cause of TETANUS in humans and domestic animals. It is a common inhabitant of human and horse intestines as well as soil. Two components make up its potent exotoxin activity, a neurotoxin and a hemolytic toxin.
Combined vaccines consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and an acellular form of PERTUSSIS VACCINE. At least five different purified antigens of B. pertussis have been used in various combinations in these vaccines.
A vaccine consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and whole-cell PERTUSSIS VACCINE. The vaccine protects against diphtheria, tetanus, and whooping cough.
A localized infection of mucous membranes or skin caused by toxigenic strains of CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIAE. It is characterized by the presence of a pseudomembrane at the site of infection. DIPHTHERIA TOXIN, produced by C. diphtheriae, can cause myocarditis, polyneuritis, and other systemic toxic effects.
A combined vaccine used to prevent infection with diphtheria and tetanus toxoid. This is used in place of DTP vaccine (DIPHTHERIA-TETANUS-PERTUSSIS VACCINE) when PERTUSSIS VACCINE is contraindicated.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Semisynthetic vaccines consisting of polysaccharide antigens from microorganisms attached to protein carrier molecules. The carrier protein is recognized by macrophages and T-cells thus enhancing immunity. Conjugate vaccines induce antibody formation in people not responsive to polysaccharide alone, induce higher levels of antibody, and show a booster response on repeated injection.
An antitoxin produced against the toxin of CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIAE that is used for the treatment of DIPHTHERIA.
Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.
Schedule giving optimum times usually for primary and/or secondary immunization.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
A respiratory infection caused by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS and characterized by paroxysmal coughing ending in a prolonged crowing intake of breath.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
A suspension of killed Bordetella pertussis organisms, used for immunization against pertussis (WHOOPING COUGH). It is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (DTP). There is an acellular pertussis vaccine prepared from the purified antigenic components of Bordetella pertussis, which causes fewer adverse reactions than whole-cell vaccine and, like the whole-cell vaccine, is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A suspension of formalin-inactivated poliovirus grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture and used to prevent POLIOMYELITIS.
Two or more vaccines in a single dosage form.
Staphylococcal toxoid refers to a bacterial toxin produced by Staphylococcus aureus that has been chemically modified to lose its toxicity, while retaining its antigenicity, used in the production of vaccines to induce immunity against Staphylococcus aureus infections.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing antigenic polysaccharides from Haemophilus influenzae and designed to prevent infection. The vaccine can contain the polysaccharides alone or more frequently polysaccharides conjugated to carrier molecules. It is also seen as a combined vaccine with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.
Antisera from immunized animals that is purified and used as a passive immunizing agent against specific BACTERIAL TOXINS.
Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.
Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
A barbiturate that is effective as a hypnotic and sedative.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Diseases of newborn infants present at birth (congenital) or developing within the first month of birth. It does not include hereditary diseases not manifesting at birth or within the first 30 days of life nor does it include inborn errors of metabolism. Both HEREDITARY DISEASES and METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS are available as general concepts.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
A type of H. influenzae isolated most frequently from biotype I. Prior to vaccine availability, it was a leading cause of childhood meningitis.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated hepatitis B or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent hepatitis B. Some vaccines may be recombinantly produced.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
An envelope of loose gel surrounding a bacterial cell which is associated with the virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Some capsules have a well-defined border, whereas others form a slime layer that trails off into the medium. Most capsules consist of relatively simple polysaccharides but there are some bacteria whose capsules are made of polypeptides.
The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.
Originally an island of the Malay Archipelago, the second largest island in the world. It divided, West New Guinea becoming part of Indonesia and East New Guinea becoming Papua New Guinea.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is the causative agent of WHOOPING COUGH. Its cells are minute coccobacilli that are surrounded by a slime sheath.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
A species of gram-negative, aerobic BACTERIA. It is a commensal and pathogen only of humans, and can be carried asymptomatically in the NASOPHARYNX. When found in cerebrospinal fluid it is the causative agent of cerebrospinal meningitis (MENINGITIS, MENINGOCOCCAL). It is also found in venereal discharges and blood. There are at least 13 serogroups based on antigenic differences in the capsular polysaccharides; the ones causing most meningitis infections being A, B, C, Y, and W-135. Each serogroup can be further classified by serotype, serosubtype, and immunotype.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infections with STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.
A protein extracted from boiled culture of tubercle bacilli (MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS). It is used in the tuberculin skin test (TUBERCULIN TEST) for the diagnosis of tuberculosis infection in asymptomatic persons.
Organized services to administer immunization procedures in the prevention of various diseases. The programs are made available over a wide range of sites: schools, hospitals, public health agencies, voluntary health agencies, etc. They are administered to an equally wide range of population groups or on various administrative levels: community, municipal, state, national, international.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Hemocyanin is a copper-containing, oxygen-carrying protein found primarily in the blood of mollusks and arthropods, functioning to reversibly bind and transport oxygen in a manner analogous to hemoglobin in vertebrates.
Inbred BALB/c mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been selectively bred to be genetically identical to each other, making them useful for scientific research and experiments due to their consistent genetic background and predictable responses to various stimuli or treatments.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
An ENTEROTOXIN from VIBRIO CHOLERAE. It consists of two major protomers, the heavy (H) or A subunit and the B protomer which consists of 5 light (L) or B subunits. The catalytic A subunit is proteolytically cleaved into fragments A1 and A2. The A1 fragment is a MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE. The B protomer binds cholera toxin to intestinal epithelial cells, and facilitates the uptake of the A1 fragment. The A1 catalyzed transfer of ADP-RIBOSE to the alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G PROTEINS activates the production of CYCLIC AMP. Increased levels of cyclic AMP are thought to modulate release of fluid and electrolytes from intestinal crypt cells.
Strains of Neisseria meningitidis responsible for most sporadic cases in teenagers and almost all outbreaks of disease in this age group. These strains are less common in infants.

Potent immunoregulatory effects of Salmonella typhi flagella on antigenic stimulation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. (1/988)

A key function of monocytes/macrophages (Mphi) is to present antigens to T cells. However, upon interaction with bacteria, Mphi lose their ability to effectively present soluble antigens. This functional loss was associated with alterations in the expression of adhesion molecules and CD14 and a reduction in the uptake of soluble antigen. Recently, we have demonstrated that Salmonella typhi flagella (STF) markedly decrease CD14 expression and are potent inducers of proinflammatory cytokine production by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMC). In order to determine whether S. typhi and soluble STF also alter the ability of Mphi to activate T cells to proliferate to antigens and mitogens, hPBMC were cultured in the presence of tetanus toxoid (TT) or phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and either killed whole-cell S. typhi or purified STF protein. Both whole-cell S. typhi and STF suppressed proliferation to PHA and TT. This decreased proliferation was not a result of increased Mphi production of nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2, or oxygen radicals or the release of interleukin-1beta, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-6, or interleukin-10 following exposure to STF. However, the ability to take up soluble antigen, as determined by fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled dextran uptake, was reduced in cells cultured with STF. Moreover, there was a dramatic reduction in the expression of CD54 on Mphi after exposure to STF. These results indicate that whole-cell S. typhi and STF have the ability to alter in vitro proliferation to soluble antigens and mitogens by affecting Mphi function.  (+info)

Use of SoloShot autodestruct syringes compared with disposable syringes, in a national immunization campaign in Indonesia. (2/988)

Autodestruct syringes can reduce the improper reuse of syringes, which present a significant risk in the transmission of bloodborne pathogens in developing countries, especially during immunization campaigns owing to the high number of injections given per session. SoloShot is an autodestruct syringe, distributed by UNICEF, which has been shown to be safer and easier to use than standard syringes. This study analyses the accuracy and dose-efficiency of SoloShot, compared with disposable syringes, during a national tetanus toxoid immunization campaign on the Indonesian island of Lombok. Observation and dose measurements revealed that SoloShot syringes delivered more precise and consistent doses and 15% more doses per vial than disposable syringes. Vaccine savings may partially be offset by the higher price of SoloShot. Vaccinators preferred SoloShot, describing it as easier to use, faster, and more accurate than the disposable syringe. The study indicates that SoloShot is highly appropriate for use in immunization campaigns by reducing vaccine wastage and improving injection safety.  (+info)

Home delivery of heat-stable vaccines in Indonesia: outreach immunization with a prefilled, single-use injection device. (3/988)

Extending immunization coverage to underserved populations will require innovative immunization strategies. This study evaluated one such strategy: the use of a prefilled, single-use injection device for outreach immunization by village midwives. The device, UniJect, is designed to prevent refilling or reuse. Stored at ambient temperatures for up to 1 month in midwives' homes, vaccine-filled UniJect devices were immediately available for outreach. Between July 1995 and April 1996, 110 midwives on the Indonesia islands of Lombok and Bali visited the homes of newborn infants to deliver hepatitis B vaccine to the infants and tetanus toxoid to their mothers. Observations and interviews showed that the midwives used the device properly and safely to administer approximately 10,000 sterile injections in home settings. There were no problems with excessive heat exposure during the storage or delivery of vaccine. Injection recipients and midwives expressed a strong preference for the UniJect device over a standard syringe. Use of the prefilled device outside the cold chain simplified the logistics and facilitated the speed and efficiency of home visits, while the single-dose format minimized vaccine wastage.  (+info)

Detection of intracellular antigen-specific cytokines in human T cell populations. (4/988)

Determination of antigen-specific cytokine responses of T lymphocytes after vaccination is made difficult by the low frequency of responder cells. In order to detect these responses, the profile of intracellular cytokines was analyzed using flow cytometry after antigenic expansion. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were stimulated with antigens for 5 days, further expanded with interleukin (IL)-2, and then restimulated on day 10. Cytokine production was detected by intracellular staining with monoclonal antibodies after saponin-based permeabilization. Influenza expansion resulted in specific interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) production of 6%-20%, with less IL-4 production (0%-2%). Tetanus toxoid resulted in even greater production. IL-4 and IFN-gamma were produced mainly by memory cells of the CD45RO+ phenotype. IFN-gamma production was contributed by both CD4 and CD8 populations. These methods were then applied to a clinical trial of a candidate human immunodeficiency virus type 1 vaccine. Antigen-specific increases in IFN-gamma were measured, which corresponded to antibody production, lymphoproliferation, and skin testing.  (+info)

Serum IgG antibody responses to pertussis toxin and filamentous hemagglutinin in nonvaccinated and vaccinated children and adults with pertussis. (5/988)

Levels of IgG antibody to pertussis toxin (PT) and filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) were measured in paired serum samples from 781 patients fulfilling at least one laboratory criterion for pertussis that was suggested by an ad hoc committee sponsored by the World Health Organization. The patients were participants or family members of participants in a double-blind efficacy trial of a monocomponent pertussis toxoid vaccine. Of 596 nonvaccinated children, 90% had significant (two-fold or more) rises in PT IgG and FHA IgG levels. Only 17 (32%) of 53 children previously vaccinated with three doses of pertussis toxoid had rises in PT IgG levels because they already had elevated PT IgG levels in their acute-phase serum samples. PT IgG and FHA IgG levels were significantly higher in acute-phase serum samples from 29 adults than in acute-phase serum samples from the nonvaccinated children. Nevertheless, significant rises in levels of PT IgG (79% of samples) and FHA IgG (90%) were demonstrated in adults. In conclusion, assay of PT IgG and FHA IgG in paired serum samples is highly sensitive for diagnosing pertussis in nonvaccinated individuals. Assay of PT IgG levels in paired sera is significantly less sensitive for diagnosis of pertussis for children vaccinated with pertussis toxoid.  (+info)

Evidence of efficacy of the Lederle/Takeda acellular pertussis component diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis vaccine but not the Lederle whole-cell component diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis vaccine against Bordetella parapertussis infection. (6/988)

A subanalysis of a recent cohort efficacy trial of a pertussis vaccine was performed to determine its efficacy against cough illnesses due to Bordetella parapertussis infections. Infants received four doses of either the Lederle/Takeda acellular pertussis component diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis (DTaP) vaccine or the Lederle whole-cell component diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis (DTP) vaccine at 3, 4.5, 6, and 15-18 months of age; controls received three doses of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (DT) vaccine only. All subjects were prospectively followed for cough illnesses of > or = 7 days' duration; cases of B. parapertussis infection were confirmed by positive culture, household contact, or serology. Seventy-six cough illnesses due to B. parapertussis were identified; 24 occurred in 929 DTaP recipients, 37 in 937 DTP recipients, and 15 in 321 DT recipients, resulting in an efficacy of 50% for DTaP vaccine (95% CI [confidence interval], 5% to 74%) and 21% for DTP vaccine (95% CI, -45% to 56%). The data in the present analysis suggest that the Lederle/Takeda DTaP vaccine but not the Lederle whole-cell component DTP vaccine has efficacy against B. parapertussis infection.  (+info)

Type 1 CD4(+) T-cell help is required for induction of antipeptide multispecific cytotoxic T lymphocytes by a lipopeptidic vaccine in rhesus macaques. (7/988)

We have optimized the induction of antiviral cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) in rhesus macaques by a lipopeptide vaccine containing seven peptides from simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) Nef and Gag proteins and a strong T-helper peptide from tetanus toxoid (TT) that is promiscuous in humans (peptide TT 830-846). Two of the eight immunized macaques showed T-helper (Th) cell proliferation and a specific synthesis of gamma interferon in response to TT 830-846 peptide. They also showed multispecific cytotoxic activity against three to five of the immunizing SIV peptides. These results show the importance of a strong specific type 1 Th response for inducing a multispecific CTL response in vivo, which is essential for the development of an anti-human immunodeficiency virus vaccine.  (+info)

Immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclass distribution and IgG1 avidity of antibodies in human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals after revaccination with tetanus toxoid. (8/988)

In human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals the amount of antibodies formed after vaccination with T-cell-dependent recall antigens such as tetanus toxoid is proportional to the peripheral blood CD4(+) T-lymphocyte counts. To investigate whether the immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclass distribution and avidity of the antibodies produced after vaccination are affected as well, we gave 13 HIV-infected adults with low CD4(+) T-lymphocyte counts (<200 x 10(6)/liter; group I), 11 HIV-infected adults with intermediate CD4(+) T-lymphocyte counts (>/=200 x 10(6)/liter; group II), and 5 healthy controls booster immunizations with tetanus toxoid. The prevaccination antibody concentrations against tetanus toxoid were similar in the HIV-infected and healthy adults. After vaccination the total IgG and the IgG1 anti-tetanus toxoid antibody concentrations were significantly lower in group I than in group II and the controls. The avidity of the IgG1 anti-tetanus toxoid antibodies formed by HIV-infected adults was within the range for healthy controls, irrespective of their CD4(+) T-lymphocyte counts.  (+info)

Tetanus toxoid is a purified and inactivated form of the tetanus toxin, which is derived from the bacterium Clostridium tetani. It is used as a vaccine to induce active immunity against tetanus, a potentially fatal disease caused by this toxin. The toxoid is produced through a series of chemical treatments that modify the toxic properties of the tetanus toxin while preserving its antigenic qualities. This allows the immune system to recognize and develop protective antibodies against the toxin without causing illness. Tetanus toxoid is often combined with diphtheria and/or pertussis toxoids in vaccines such as DTaP, Tdap, and Td.

Tetanus is a serious bacterial infection caused by the bacterium Clostridium tetani. The bacteria are found in soil, dust and manure and can enter the body through wounds, cuts or abrasions, particularly if they're not cleaned properly. The bacterium produces a toxin that affects the nervous system, causing muscle stiffness and spasms, often beginning in the jaw and face (lockjaw) and then spreading to the rest of the body.

Tetanus can be prevented through vaccination, and it's important to get vaccinated if you haven't already or if your immunization status is not up-to-date. If tetanus is suspected, medical attention should be sought immediately, as it can be a life-threatening condition if left untreated. Treatment typically involves administering tetanus immune globulin (TIG) to neutralize the toxin and antibiotics to kill the bacteria, as well as supportive care such as wound cleaning and management, and in some cases, mechanical ventilation may be necessary to assist with breathing.

Toxoids are inactivated bacterial toxins that have lost their toxicity but retain their antigenicity. They are often used in vaccines to stimulate an immune response and provide protection against certain diseases without causing the harmful effects associated with the active toxin. The process of converting a toxin into a toxoid is called detoxication, which is typically achieved through chemical or heat treatment.

One example of a toxoid-based vaccine is the diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (DT) or diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis toxoids (DTaP or TdaP) vaccines. These vaccines contain inactivated forms of the diphtheria and tetanus toxins, as well as inactivated pertussis toxin in the case of DTaP or TdaP vaccines. By exposing the immune system to these toxoids, the body learns to recognize and mount a response against the actual toxins produced by the bacteria, thereby providing immunity and protection against the diseases they cause.

Tetanus toxin, also known as tetanospasmin, is a potent neurotoxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium tetani. This toxin binds to nerve endings and is transported to the nervous system's inhibitory neurons, where it blocks the release of inhibitory neurotransmitters, particularly glycine and GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid). As a result, it causes uncontrolled muscle contractions or spasms, which are the hallmark symptoms of tetanus disease.

The toxin has two main components: an N-terminal portion called the light chain, which is the enzymatically active part that inhibits neurotransmitter release, and a C-terminal portion called the heavy chain, which facilitates the toxin's entry into neurons. The heavy chain also contains a binding domain that allows the toxin to recognize specific receptors on nerve cells.

Tetanus toxin is one of the most potent toxins known, with an estimated human lethal dose of just 2.5-3 nanograms per kilogram of body weight when introduced into the bloodstream. Fortunately, tetanus can be prevented through vaccination with the tetanus toxoid, which is part of the standard diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTaP or Tdap) immunization series for children and adolescents and the tetanus-diphtheria (Td) booster for adults.

Tetanus antitoxin is a medical preparation containing antibodies that neutralize tetanus toxin, a harmful substance produced by the bacterium Clostridium tetani. This antitoxin is used to provide immediate protection against tetanus infection in cases of wound management or as a post-exposure prophylaxis when tetanus vaccination history is incomplete or uncertain.

Tetanus, also known as lockjaw, is a severe and potentially fatal disease characterized by muscle stiffness and spasms, primarily affecting the jaw and neck muscles. The antitoxin works by binding to the tetanus toxin, preventing it from causing damage to the nervous system. It's important to note that tetanus antitoxin does not provide immunity against future tetanus infections; therefore, vaccination with a tetanus-containing vaccine is still necessary for long-term protection.

Diphtheria toxoid is a modified form of the diphtheria toxin that has been made harmless but still stimulates an immune response. It is used in vaccines to provide immunity against diphtheria, a serious bacterial infection that can cause breathing difficulties, heart failure, and paralysis. The toxoid is typically combined with other components in a vaccine, such as tetanus toxoid and pertussis vaccine, to form a combination vaccine that protects against multiple diseases.

The diphtheria toxoid is made by treating the diphtheria toxin with formaldehyde, which modifies the toxin's structure and makes it nontoxic while still retaining its ability to stimulate an immune response. When the toxoid is introduced into the body through vaccination, the immune system recognizes it as a foreign substance and produces antibodies against it. These antibodies then provide protection against future infections with the diphtheria bacteria.

The diphtheria toxoid vaccine is usually given as part of a routine childhood immunization schedule, starting at 2 months of age. Booster shots are recommended throughout childhood and adolescence, and adults may also need booster shots if they have not received them previously or if their immune status has changed.

'Clostridium tetani' is a gram-positive, spore-forming, anaerobic bacterium that is the causative agent of tetanus. The bacteria are commonly found in soil, dust, and manure, and can contaminate wounds, leading to the production of a potent neurotoxin called tetanospasmin. This toxin causes muscle spasms and stiffness, particularly in the jaw and neck muscles, as well as autonomic nervous system dysfunction, which can be life-threatening. Tetanus is preventable through vaccination with the tetanus toxoid vaccine.

Diphtheria-Tetanus-acellular Pertussis (DTaP) vaccines are a type of combination vaccine that protect against three serious diseases caused by bacteria: diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis (also known as whooping cough).

Diphtheria is a highly contagious respiratory infection that can cause breathing difficulties, heart failure, paralysis, and even death. Tetanus, also known as lockjaw, is a bacterial infection that affects the nervous system and causes muscle stiffness and spasms, which can be severe enough to cause broken bones or suffocation. Pertussis is a highly contagious respiratory infection that causes severe coughing fits, making it difficult to breathe, eat, or drink.

The "a" in DTaP stands for "acellular," which means that the pertussis component of the vaccine contains only parts of the bacteria, rather than the whole cells used in older vaccines. This reduces the risk of side effects associated with the whole-cell pertussis vaccine while still providing effective protection against the disease.

DTaP vaccines are typically given as a series of five shots, starting at 2 months of age and ending at 4-6 years of age. Booster doses may be recommended later in life to maintain immunity. DTaP vaccines are an essential part of routine childhood immunization schedules and have significantly reduced the incidence of these diseases worldwide.

The Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis (DTaP) vaccine is a combination immunization that protects against three bacterial diseases: diphtheria, tetanus (lockjaw), and pertussis (whooping cough).

Diphtheria is an upper respiratory infection that can lead to breathing difficulties, heart failure, paralysis, or even death. Tetanus is a bacterial infection that affects the nervous system and causes muscle stiffness and spasms, leading to "lockjaw." Pertussis is a highly contagious respiratory infection characterized by severe coughing fits, which can make it difficult to breathe and may lead to pneumonia, seizures, or brain damage.

The DTaP vaccine contains inactivated toxins (toxoids) from the bacteria that cause these diseases. It is typically given as a series of five shots, with doses administered at 2 months, 4 months, 6 months, 15-18 months, and 4-6 years of age. The vaccine helps the immune system develop protection against the diseases without causing the actual illness.

It is important to note that there are other combination vaccines available that protect against these same diseases, such as DT (diphtheria and tetanus toxoids) and Tdap (tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis), which contain higher doses of the diphtheria and pertussis components. These vaccines are recommended for different age groups and may be used as booster shots to maintain immunity throughout adulthood.

Diphtheria is a serious bacterial infection caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae. It typically affects the respiratory system, including the nose, throat, and windpipe (trachea), causing a thick gray or white membrane to form over the lining of these areas. This can lead to breathing difficulties, heart complications, and neurological problems if left untreated.

The bacteria can also produce a powerful toxin that can cause damage to other organs in the body. Diphtheria is usually spread through respiratory droplets from an infected person's cough or sneeze, or by contact with contaminated objects or surfaces. The disease is preventable through vaccination.

The Diphtheria-Tetanus vaccine, also known as the DT vaccine or Td vaccine (if diphtheria toxoid is not included), is a combination vaccine that protects against two potentially serious bacterial infections: diphtheria and tetanus.

Diphtheria is a respiratory infection that can cause breathing difficulties, heart problems, and nerve damage. Tetanus, also known as lockjaw, is a bacterial infection that affects the nervous system and causes muscle stiffness and spasms, particularly in the jaw and neck.

The vaccine contains small amounts of inactivated toxins (toxoids) from the bacteria that cause diphtheria and tetanus. When the vaccine is administered, it stimulates the immune system to produce antibodies that provide protection against these diseases.

In addition to protecting against diphtheria and tetanus, some formulations of the vaccine may also include protection against pertussis (whooping cough), polio, or hepatitis B. The DTaP vaccine is a similar combination vaccine that includes protection against diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis, but uses acellular pertussis components instead of the whole-cell pertussis component used in the DT vaccine.

The Diphtheria-Tetanus vaccine is typically given as a series of shots in childhood, with booster shots recommended every 10 years to maintain immunity. It is an important part of routine childhood vaccination and is also recommended for adults who have not received the full series of shots or whose protection has waned over time.

Bacterial antibodies are a type of antibodies produced by the immune system in response to an infection caused by bacteria. These antibodies are proteins that recognize and bind to specific antigens on the surface of the bacterial cells, marking them for destruction by other immune cells. Bacterial antibodies can be classified into several types based on their structure and function, including IgG, IgM, IgA, and IgE. They play a crucial role in the body's defense against bacterial infections and provide immunity to future infections with the same bacteria.

Conjugate vaccines are a type of vaccine that combines a part of a bacterium with a protein or other substance to boost the body's immune response to the bacteria. The bacterial component is usually a polysaccharide, which is a long chain of sugars that makes up part of the bacterial cell wall.

By itself, a polysaccharide is not very immunogenic, meaning it does not stimulate a strong immune response. However, when it is conjugated or linked to a protein or other carrier molecule, it becomes much more immunogenic and can elicit a stronger and longer-lasting immune response.

Conjugate vaccines are particularly effective in protecting against bacterial infections that affect young children, such as Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and pneumococcal disease. These vaccines have been instrumental in reducing the incidence of these diseases and their associated complications, such as meningitis and pneumonia.

Overall, conjugate vaccines work by mimicking a natural infection and stimulating the immune system to produce antibodies that can protect against future infections with the same bacterium. By combining a weakly immunogenic polysaccharide with a protein carrier, these vaccines can elicit a stronger and more effective immune response, providing long-lasting protection against bacterial infections.

Diphtheria Antitoxin is a medication used to treat diphtheria, a serious bacterial infection that can affect the nose, throat, and skin. It is made from the serum of animals (such as horses) that have been immunized against diphtheria. The antitoxin works by neutralizing the harmful effects of the diphtheria toxin produced by the bacteria, which can cause tissue damage and other complications.

Diphtheria Antitoxin is usually given as an injection into a muscle or vein, and it should be administered as soon as possible after a diagnosis of diphtheria has been made. It is important to note that while the antitoxin can help prevent further damage caused by the toxin, it does not treat the underlying infection itself, which requires antibiotics for proper treatment.

Like any medication, Diphtheria Antitoxin can have side effects, including allergic reactions, serum sickness, and anaphylaxis. It should only be administered under the supervision of a healthcare professional who is experienced in its use and can monitor the patient for any adverse reactions.

Secondary immunization, also known as "anamnestic response" or "booster," refers to the enhanced immune response that occurs upon re-exposure to an antigen, having previously been immunized or infected with the same pathogen. This response is characterized by a more rapid and robust production of antibodies and memory cells compared to the primary immune response. The secondary immunization aims to maintain long-term immunity against infectious diseases and improve vaccine effectiveness. It usually involves administering additional doses of a vaccine or booster shots after the initial series of immunizations, which helps reinforce the immune system's ability to recognize and combat specific pathogens.

An immunization schedule is a series of planned dates when a person, usually a child, should receive specific vaccines in order to be fully protected against certain preventable diseases. The schedule is developed based on scientific research and recommendations from health organizations such as the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

The immunization schedule outlines which vaccines are recommended, the number of doses required, the age at which each dose should be given, and the minimum amount of time that must pass between doses. The schedule may vary depending on factors such as the individual's age, health status, and travel plans.

Immunization schedules are important for ensuring that individuals receive timely protection against vaccine-preventable diseases, and for maintaining high levels of immunity in populations, which helps to prevent the spread of disease. It is important to follow the recommended immunization schedule as closely as possible to ensure optimal protection.

Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is a type of antibody, which is a protective protein produced by the immune system in response to foreign substances like bacteria or viruses. IgG is the most abundant type of antibody in human blood, making up about 75-80% of all antibodies. It is found in all body fluids and plays a crucial role in fighting infections caused by bacteria, viruses, and toxins.

IgG has several important functions:

1. Neutralization: IgG can bind to the surface of bacteria or viruses, preventing them from attaching to and infecting human cells.
2. Opsonization: IgG coats the surface of pathogens, making them more recognizable and easier for immune cells like neutrophils and macrophages to phagocytose (engulf and destroy) them.
3. Complement activation: IgG can activate the complement system, a group of proteins that work together to help eliminate pathogens from the body. Activation of the complement system leads to the formation of the membrane attack complex, which creates holes in the cell membranes of bacteria, leading to their lysis (destruction).
4. Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC): IgG can bind to immune cells like natural killer (NK) cells and trigger them to release substances that cause target cells (such as virus-infected or cancerous cells) to undergo apoptosis (programmed cell death).
5. Immune complex formation: IgG can form immune complexes with antigens, which can then be removed from the body through various mechanisms, such as phagocytosis by immune cells or excretion in urine.

IgG is a critical component of adaptive immunity and provides long-lasting protection against reinfection with many pathogens. It has four subclasses (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4) that differ in their structure, function, and distribution in the body.

Immunization is defined medically as the process where an individual is made immune or resistant to an infectious disease, typically through the administration of a vaccine. The vaccine stimulates the body's own immune system to recognize and fight off the specific disease-causing organism, thereby preventing or reducing the severity of future infections with that organism.

Immunization can be achieved actively, where the person is given a vaccine to trigger an immune response, or passively, where antibodies are transferred to the person through immunoglobulin therapy. Immunizations are an important part of preventive healthcare and have been successful in controlling and eliminating many infectious diseases worldwide.

Whoopering Cough, also known as Pertussis, is a highly contagious respiratory infection caused by the bacterium Bordetella pertussis. It is characterized by severe coughing fits followed by a high-pitched "whoop" sound during inspiration. The disease can affect people of all ages, but it is most dangerous for babies and young children. Symptoms typically develop within 5 to 10 days after exposure and include runny nose, low-grade fever, and a mild cough. After a week or two, the cough becomes more severe and is often followed by vomiting and exhaustion. Complications can be serious, especially in infants, and may include pneumonia, seizures, brain damage, or death. Treatment usually involves antibiotics to kill the bacteria and reduce the severity of symptoms. Vaccination is available and recommended for the prevention of whooping cough.

Vaccination is a simple, safe, and effective way to protect people against harmful diseases, before they come into contact with them. It uses your body's natural defenses to build protection to specific infections and makes your immune system stronger.

A vaccination usually contains a small, harmless piece of a virus or bacteria (or toxins produced by these germs) that has been made inactive or weakened so it won't cause the disease itself. This piece of the germ is known as an antigen. When the vaccine is introduced into the body, the immune system recognizes the antigen as foreign and produces antibodies to fight it.

If a person then comes into contact with the actual disease-causing germ, their immune system will recognize it and immediately produce antibodies to destroy it. The person is therefore protected against that disease. This is known as active immunity.

Vaccinations are important for both individual and public health. They prevent the spread of contagious diseases and protect vulnerable members of the population, such as young children, the elderly, and people with weakened immune systems who cannot be vaccinated or for whom vaccination is not effective.

A Pertussis vaccine is a type of immunization used to protect against pertussis, also known as whooping cough. It contains components that stimulate the immune system to produce antibodies against the bacteria that cause pertussis, Bordetella pertussis. There are two main types of pertussis vaccines: whole-cell pertussis (wP) vaccines and acellular pertussis (aP) vaccines. wP vaccines contain killed whole cells of B. pertussis, while aP vaccines contain specific components of the bacteria, such as pertussis toxin and other antigens. Pertussis vaccines are often combined with diphtheria and tetanus to form combination vaccines, such as DTaP (diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis) and TdaP (tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis). These vaccines are typically given to young children as part of their routine immunization schedule.

Poliovirus Vaccine, Inactivated (IPV) is a vaccine used to prevent poliomyelitis (polio), a highly infectious disease caused by the poliovirus. IPV contains inactivated (killed) polioviruses of all three poliovirus types. It works by stimulating an immune response in the body, but because the viruses are inactivated, they cannot cause polio. After vaccination, the immune system recognizes and responds to the inactivated viruses, producing antibodies that protect against future infection with wild, or naturally occurring, polioviruses. IPV is typically given as an injection in the leg or arm, and a series of doses are required for full protection. It is a safe and effective way to prevent polio and its complications.

Combined vaccines are defined in medical terms as vaccines that contain two or more antigens from different diseases, which are given to provide protection against multiple diseases at the same time. This approach reduces the number of injections required and simplifies the immunization schedule, especially during early childhood. Examples of combined vaccines include:

1. DTaP-Hib-IPV (e.g., Pentacel): A vaccine that combines diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis (whooping cough), Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) disease, and poliovirus components in one injection to protect against these five diseases.
2. MMRV (e.g., ProQuad): A vaccine that combines measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella (chickenpox) antigens in a single injection to provide immunity against all four diseases.
3. HepA-HepB (e.g., Twinrix): A vaccine that combines hepatitis A and hepatitis B antigens in one injection, providing protection against both types of hepatitis.
4. MenACWY-TT (e.g., MenQuadfi): A vaccine that combines four serogroups of meningococcal bacteria (A, C, W, Y) with tetanus toxoid as a carrier protein in one injection for the prevention of invasive meningococcal disease caused by these serogroups.
5. PCV13-PPSV23 (e.g., Vaxneuvance): A vaccine that combines 13 pneumococcal serotypes with PPSV23, providing protection against a broader range of pneumococcal diseases in adults aged 18 years and older.

Combined vaccines have been thoroughly tested for safety and efficacy to ensure they provide a strong immune response and an acceptable safety profile. They are essential tools in preventing various infectious diseases and improving overall public health.

Staphylococcal toxoid is a modified form of a toxin produced by the Staphylococcus aureus bacterium, which has been made less toxic through chemical treatment or irradiation. It is used in vaccines to stimulate an immune response and provide protection against staphylococcal infections. The toxoid induces the production of antibodies that recognize and neutralize the harmful effects of the original toxin, without causing the adverse reactions associated with the live toxin. This type of vaccine is used to prevent diseases such as staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome and toxic shock syndrome.

Bacterial vaccines are types of vaccines that are created using bacteria or parts of bacteria as the immunogen, which is the substance that triggers an immune response in the body. The purpose of a bacterial vaccine is to stimulate the immune system to develop protection against specific bacterial infections.

There are several types of bacterial vaccines, including:

1. Inactivated or killed whole-cell vaccines: These vaccines contain entire bacteria that have been killed or inactivated through various methods, such as heat or chemicals. The bacteria can no longer cause disease, but they still retain the ability to stimulate an immune response.
2. Subunit, protein, or polysaccharide vaccines: These vaccines use specific components of the bacterium, such as proteins or polysaccharides, that are known to trigger an immune response. By using only these components, the vaccine can avoid using the entire bacterium, which may reduce the risk of adverse reactions.
3. Live attenuated vaccines: These vaccines contain live bacteria that have been weakened or attenuated so that they cannot cause disease but still retain the ability to stimulate an immune response. This type of vaccine can provide long-lasting immunity, but it may not be suitable for people with weakened immune systems.

Bacterial vaccines are essential tools in preventing and controlling bacterial infections, reducing the burden of diseases such as tuberculosis, pneumococcal disease, meningococcal disease, and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) disease. They work by exposing the immune system to a harmless form of the bacteria or its components, which triggers the production of antibodies and memory cells that can recognize and fight off future infections with that same bacterium.

It's important to note that while vaccines are generally safe and effective, they may cause mild side effects such as pain, redness, or swelling at the injection site, fever, or fatigue. Serious side effects are rare but can occur, so it's essential to consult with a healthcare provider before receiving any vaccine.

Haemophilus vaccines are vaccines that are designed to protect against Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), a bacterium that can cause serious infections such as meningitis, pneumonia, and epiglottitis. There are two main types of Hib vaccines:

1. Polysaccharide vaccine: This type of vaccine is made from the sugar coating (polysaccharide) of the bacterial cells. It is not effective in children under 2 years of age because their immune systems are not yet mature enough to respond effectively to this type of vaccine.
2. Conjugate vaccine: This type of vaccine combines the polysaccharide with a protein carrier, which helps to stimulate a stronger and more sustained immune response. It is effective in infants as young as 6 weeks old.

Hib vaccines are usually given as part of routine childhood immunizations starting at 2 months of age. They are administered through an injection into the muscle. The vaccine is safe and effective, with few side effects. Vaccination against Hib has led to a significant reduction in the incidence of Hib infections worldwide.

Antibody formation, also known as humoral immune response, is the process by which the immune system produces proteins called antibodies in response to the presence of a foreign substance (antigen) in the body. This process involves several steps:

1. Recognition: The antigen is recognized and bound by a type of white blood cell called a B lymphocyte or B cell, which then becomes activated.
2. Differentiation: The activated B cell undergoes differentiation to become a plasma cell, which is a type of cell that produces and secretes large amounts of antibodies.
3. Antibody production: The plasma cells produce and release antibodies, which are proteins made up of four polypeptide chains (two heavy chains and two light chains) arranged in a Y-shape. Each antibody has two binding sites that can recognize and bind to specific regions on the antigen called epitopes.
4. Neutralization or elimination: The antibodies bind to the antigens, neutralizing them or marking them for destruction by other immune cells. This helps to prevent the spread of infection and protect the body from harmful substances.

Antibody formation is an important part of the adaptive immune response, which allows the body to specifically recognize and respond to a wide variety of pathogens and foreign substances.

Bacterial polysaccharides are complex carbohydrates that consist of long chains of sugar molecules (monosaccharides) linked together by glycosidic bonds. They are produced and used by bacteria for various purposes such as:

1. Structural components: Bacterial polysaccharides, such as peptidoglycan and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), play a crucial role in maintaining the structural integrity of bacterial cells. Peptidoglycan is a major component of the bacterial cell wall, while LPS forms the outer layer of the outer membrane in gram-negative bacteria.
2. Nutrient storage: Some bacteria synthesize and store polysaccharides as an energy reserve, similar to how plants store starch. These polysaccharides can be broken down and utilized by the bacterium when needed.
3. Virulence factors: Bacterial polysaccharides can also function as virulence factors, contributing to the pathogenesis of bacterial infections. For example, certain bacteria produce capsular polysaccharides (CPS) that surround and protect the bacterial cells from host immune defenses, allowing them to evade phagocytosis and persist within the host.
4. Adhesins: Some polysaccharides act as adhesins, facilitating the attachment of bacteria to surfaces or host cells. This is important for biofilm formation, which helps bacteria resist environmental stresses and antibiotic treatments.
5. Antigenic properties: Bacterial polysaccharides can be highly antigenic, eliciting an immune response in the host. The antigenicity of these molecules can vary between different bacterial species or even strains within a species, making them useful as targets for vaccines and diagnostic tests.

In summary, bacterial polysaccharides are complex carbohydrates that serve various functions in bacteria, including structural support, nutrient storage, virulence factor production, adhesion, and antigenicity.

Meningococcal vaccines are vaccines that protect against Neisseria meningitidis, a type of bacteria that can cause serious infections such as meningitis (inflammation of the lining of the brain and spinal cord) and septicemia (bloodstream infection). There are several types of meningococcal vaccines available, including conjugate vaccines and polysaccharide vaccines. These vaccines work by stimulating the immune system to produce antibodies that can protect against the different serogroups of N. meningitidis, including A, B, C, Y, and W-135. The specific type of vaccine used and the number of doses required may depend on a person's age, health status, and other factors. Meningococcal vaccines are recommended for certain high-risk populations, such as infants, young children, adolescents, and people with certain medical conditions, as well as for travelers to areas where meningococcal disease is common.

Antitoxins are substances, typically antibodies, that neutralize toxins produced by bacteria or other harmful organisms. They work by binding to the toxin molecules and rendering them inactive, preventing them from causing harm to the body. Antitoxins can be produced naturally by the immune system during an infection, or they can be administered artificially through immunization or passive immunotherapy. In a medical context, antitoxins are often used as a treatment for certain types of bacterial infections, such as diphtheria and botulism, to help counteract the effects of the toxins produced by the bacteria.

A vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular infectious disease. It typically contains an agent that resembles the disease-causing microorganism and is often made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe, its toxins, or one of its surface proteins. The agent stimulates the body's immune system to recognize the agent as a threat, destroy it, and "remember" it, so that the immune system can more easily recognize and destroy any of these microorganisms that it encounters in the future.

Vaccines can be prophylactic (to prevent or ameliorate the effects of a future infection by a natural or "wild" pathogen), or therapeutic (to fight disease that is already present). The administration of vaccines is called vaccination. Vaccinations are generally administered through needle injections, but can also be administered by mouth or sprayed into the nose.

The term "vaccine" comes from Edward Jenner's 1796 use of cowpox to create immunity to smallpox. The first successful vaccine was developed in 1796 by Edward Jenner, who showed that milkmaids who had contracted cowpox did not get smallpox. He reasoned that exposure to cowpox protected against smallpox and tested his theory by injecting a boy with pus from a cowpox sore and then exposing him to smallpox, which the boy did not contract. The word "vaccine" is derived from Variolae vaccinae (smallpox of the cow), the term devised by Jenner to denote cowpox. He used it in 1798 during a conversation with a fellow physician and later in the title of his 1801 Inquiry.

Maternally-acquired immunity (MAI) refers to the passive immunity that is transferred from a mother to her offspring, typically through the placenta during pregnancy or through breast milk after birth. This immunity is temporary and provides protection to the newborn or young infant against infectious agents, such as bacteria and viruses, based on the mother's own immune experiences and responses.

In humans, maternally-acquired immunity is primarily mediated by the transfer of antibodies called immunoglobulins (IgG) across the placenta to the fetus during pregnancy. This process begins around the 20th week of gestation and continues until birth, providing the newborn with a range of protective antibodies against various pathogens. After birth, additional protection is provided through breast milk, which contains secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA) that helps to prevent infections in the infant's gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts.

Maternally-acquired immunity is an essential mechanism for protecting newborns and young infants, who have not yet developed their own active immune responses. However, it is important to note that maternally-acquired antibodies can also interfere with the infant's response to certain vaccines, as they may neutralize the vaccine antigens before the infant's immune system has a chance to mount its own response. This is one reason why some vaccines are not recommended for young infants and why the timing of vaccinations may be adjusted in cases where maternally-acquired immunity is present.

Immunologic adjuvants are substances that are added to a vaccine to enhance the body's immune response to the antigens contained in the vaccine. They work by stimulating the immune system and promoting the production of antibodies and activating immune cells, such as T-cells and macrophages, which help to provide a stronger and more sustained immune response to the vaccine.

Immunologic adjuvants can be derived from various sources, including bacteria, viruses, and chemicals. Some common examples include aluminum salts (alum), oil-in-water emulsions (such as MF59), and bacterial components (such as lipopolysaccharide or LPS).

The use of immunologic adjuvants in vaccines can help to improve the efficacy of the vaccine, particularly for vaccines that contain weak or poorly immunogenic antigens. They can also help to reduce the amount of antigen needed in a vaccine, which can be beneficial for vaccines that are difficult or expensive to produce.

It's important to note that while adjuvants can enhance the immune response to a vaccine, they can also increase the risk of adverse reactions, such as inflammation and pain at the injection site. Therefore, the use of immunologic adjuvants must be carefully balanced against their potential benefits and risks.

Hexobarbital is a medication that belongs to the class of drugs called barbiturates. It is primarily used as a short-acting sedative and hypnotic agent, which means it can help induce sleep and reduce anxiety. Hexobarbital works by depressing the central nervous system, slowing down brain activity and causing relaxation and drowsiness.

It's important to note that hexobarbital is not commonly used in modern medical practice due to the availability of safer and more effective alternatives. Additionally, barbiturates like hexobarbital have a high potential for abuse and dependence, and their use is associated with several risks, including respiratory depression, overdose, and death, particularly when taken in combination with other central nervous system depressants such as alcohol or opioids.

Hemagglutination tests are laboratory procedures used to detect the presence of antibodies or antigens in a sample, typically in blood serum. These tests rely on the ability of certain substances, such as viruses or bacteria, to agglutinate (clump together) red blood cells.

In a hemagglutination test, a small amount of the patient's serum is mixed with a known quantity of red blood cells that have been treated with a specific antigen. If the patient has antibodies against that antigen in their serum, they will bind to the antigens on the red blood cells and cause them to agglutinate. This clumping can be observed visually, indicating a positive test result.

Hemagglutination tests are commonly used to diagnose infectious diseases caused by viruses or bacteria that have hemagglutinating properties, such as influenza, parainfluenza, and HIV. They can also be used in blood typing and cross-matching before transfusions.

An Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) is a type of analytical biochemistry assay used to detect and quantify the presence of a substance, typically a protein or peptide, in a liquid sample. It takes its name from the enzyme-linked antibodies used in the assay.

In an ELISA, the sample is added to a well containing a surface that has been treated to capture the target substance. If the target substance is present in the sample, it will bind to the surface. Next, an enzyme-linked antibody specific to the target substance is added. This antibody will bind to the captured target substance if it is present. After washing away any unbound material, a substrate for the enzyme is added. If the enzyme is present due to its linkage to the antibody, it will catalyze a reaction that produces a detectable signal, such as a color change or fluorescence. The intensity of this signal is proportional to the amount of target substance present in the sample, allowing for quantification.

ELISAs are widely used in research and clinical settings to detect and measure various substances, including hormones, viruses, and bacteria. They offer high sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility, making them a reliable choice for many applications.

Lymphocyte activation is the process by which B-cells and T-cells (types of lymphocytes) become activated to perform effector functions in an immune response. This process involves the recognition of specific antigens presented on the surface of antigen-presenting cells, such as dendritic cells or macrophages.

The activation of B-cells leads to their differentiation into plasma cells that produce antibodies, while the activation of T-cells results in the production of cytotoxic T-cells (CD8+ T-cells) that can directly kill infected cells or helper T-cells (CD4+ T-cells) that assist other immune cells.

Lymphocyte activation involves a series of intracellular signaling events, including the binding of co-stimulatory molecules and the release of cytokines, which ultimately result in the expression of genes involved in cell proliferation, differentiation, and effector functions. The activation process is tightly regulated to prevent excessive or inappropriate immune responses that can lead to autoimmunity or chronic inflammation.

A "newborn infant" refers to a baby in the first 28 days of life outside of the womb. This period is crucial for growth and development, but also poses unique challenges as the infant's immune system is not fully developed, making them more susceptible to various diseases.

"Newborn diseases" are health conditions that specifically affect newborn infants. These can be categorized into three main types:

1. Congenital disorders: These are conditions that are present at birth and may be inherited or caused by factors such as infection, exposure to harmful substances during pregnancy, or chromosomal abnormalities. Examples include Down syndrome, congenital heart defects, and spina bifida.

2. Infectious diseases: Newborn infants are particularly vulnerable to infections due to their immature immune systems. Common infectious diseases in newborns include sepsis (bloodstream infection), pneumonia, and meningitis. These can be acquired from the mother during pregnancy or childbirth, or from the environment after birth.

3. Developmental disorders: These are conditions that affect the normal growth and development of the newborn infant. Examples include cerebral palsy, intellectual disabilities, and vision or hearing impairments.

It is important to note that many newborn diseases can be prevented or treated with appropriate medical care, including prenatal care, proper hygiene practices, and timely vaccinations. Regular check-ups and monitoring of the newborn's health by a healthcare provider are essential for early detection and management of any potential health issues.

Immunoglobulin M (IgM) is a type of antibody that is primarily found in the blood and lymph fluid. It is the first antibody to be produced in response to an initial exposure to an antigen, making it an important part of the body's primary immune response. IgM antibodies are large molecules that are composed of five basic units, giving them a pentameric structure. They are primarily found on the surface of B cells as membrane-bound immunoglobulins (mlgM), where they function as receptors for antigens. Once an mlgM receptor binds to an antigen, it triggers the activation and differentiation of the B cell into a plasma cell that produces and secretes large amounts of soluble IgM antibodies.

IgM antibodies are particularly effective at agglutination (clumping) and complement activation, which makes them important in the early stages of an immune response to help clear pathogens from the bloodstream. However, they are not as stable or long-lived as other types of antibodies, such as IgG, and their levels tend to decline after the initial immune response has occurred.

In summary, Immunoglobulin M (IgM) is a type of antibody that plays a crucial role in the primary immune response to antigens by agglutination and complement activation. It is primarily found in the blood and lymph fluid, and it is produced by B cells after they are activated by an antigen.

Antibody affinity refers to the strength and specificity of the interaction between an antibody and its corresponding antigen at a molecular level. It is a measure of how strongly and selectively an antibody binds to its target antigen. A higher affinity indicates a more stable and specific binding, while a lower affinity suggests weaker and less specific interactions. Affinity is typically measured in terms of the dissociation constant (Kd), which describes the concentration of antigen needed to achieve half-maximal binding to an antibody. Generally, a smaller Kd value corresponds to a higher affinity, indicating a tighter and more selective bond. This parameter is crucial in the development of diagnostic and therapeutic applications, such as immunoassays and targeted therapies, where high-affinity antibodies are preferred for improved sensitivity and specificity.

T-lymphocytes, also known as T-cells, are a type of white blood cell that plays a key role in the adaptive immune system's response to infection. They are produced in the bone marrow and mature in the thymus gland. There are several different types of T-cells, including CD4+ helper T-cells, CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells, and regulatory T-cells (Tregs).

CD4+ helper T-cells assist in activating other immune cells, such as B-lymphocytes and macrophages. They also produce cytokines, which are signaling molecules that help coordinate the immune response. CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells directly kill infected cells by releasing toxic substances. Regulatory T-cells help maintain immune tolerance and prevent autoimmune diseases by suppressing the activity of other immune cells.

T-lymphocytes are important in the immune response to viral infections, cancer, and other diseases. Dysfunction or depletion of T-cells can lead to immunodeficiency and increased susceptibility to infections. On the other hand, an overactive T-cell response can contribute to autoimmune diseases and chronic inflammation.

Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) is a bacterial subtype that can cause serious infections, particularly in children under 5 years of age. Although its name may be confusing, Hib is not the cause of influenza (the flu). It is defined medically as a gram-negative, coccobacillary bacterium that is a member of the family Pasteurellaceae.

Hib is responsible for several severe and potentially life-threatening infections such as meningitis (inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord), epiglottitis (swelling of the tissue located at the base of the tongue that can block the windpipe), pneumonia, and bacteremia (bloodstream infection).

Before the introduction of the Hib vaccine in the 1980s and 1990s, Haemophilus influenzae type b was a leading cause of bacterial meningitis in children under 5 years old. Since then, the incidence of invasive Hib disease has decreased dramatically in vaccinated populations.

Antibody specificity refers to the ability of an antibody to bind to a specific epitope or antigenic determinant on an antigen. Each antibody has a unique structure that allows it to recognize and bind to a specific region of an antigen, typically a small portion of the antigen's surface made up of amino acids or sugar residues. This highly specific binding is mediated by the variable regions of the antibody's heavy and light chains, which form a pocket that recognizes and binds to the epitope.

The specificity of an antibody is determined by its unique complementarity-determining regions (CDRs), which are loops of amino acids located in the variable domains of both the heavy and light chains. The CDRs form a binding site that recognizes and interacts with the epitope on the antigen. The precise fit between the antibody's binding site and the epitope is critical for specificity, as even small changes in the structure of either can prevent binding.

Antibody specificity is important in immune responses because it allows the immune system to distinguish between self and non-self antigens. This helps to prevent autoimmune reactions where the immune system attacks the body's own cells and tissues. Antibody specificity also plays a crucial role in diagnostic tests, such as ELISA assays, where antibodies are used to detect the presence of specific antigens in biological samples.

"Hepatitis B vaccines are vaccines that prevent infection caused by the hepatitis B virus. They work by introducing a small and harmless piece of the virus to your body, which triggers your immune system to produce antibodies to fight off the infection. These antibodies remain in your body and provide protection if you are exposed to the real hepatitis B virus in the future.

The hepatitis B vaccine is typically given as a series of three shots over a six-month period. It is recommended for all infants, children and adolescents who have not previously been vaccinated, as well as for adults who are at increased risk of infection, such as healthcare workers, people who inject drugs, and those with certain medical conditions.

It's important to note that hepatitis B vaccine does not provide protection against other types of viral hepatitis, such as hepatitis A or C."

An antigen is a substance (usually a protein) that is recognized as foreign by the immune system and stimulates an immune response, leading to the production of antibodies or activation of T-cells. Antigens can be derived from various sources, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, and tumor cells. They can also come from non-living substances such as pollen, dust mites, or chemicals.

Antigens contain epitopes, which are specific regions on the antigen molecule that are recognized by the immune system. The immune system's response to an antigen depends on several factors, including the type of antigen, its size, and its location in the body.

In general, antigens can be classified into two main categories:

1. T-dependent antigens: These require the help of T-cells to stimulate an immune response. They are typically larger, more complex molecules that contain multiple epitopes capable of binding to both MHC class II molecules on antigen-presenting cells and T-cell receptors on CD4+ T-cells.
2. T-independent antigens: These do not require the help of T-cells to stimulate an immune response. They are usually smaller, simpler molecules that contain repetitive epitopes capable of cross-linking B-cell receptors and activating them directly.

Understanding antigens and their properties is crucial for developing vaccines, diagnostic tests, and immunotherapies.

Bacterial antigens are substances found on the surface or produced by bacteria that can stimulate an immune response in a host organism. These antigens can be proteins, polysaccharides, teichoic acids, lipopolysaccharides, or other molecules that are recognized as foreign by the host's immune system.

When a bacterial antigen is encountered by the host's immune system, it triggers a series of responses aimed at eliminating the bacteria and preventing infection. The host's immune system recognizes the antigen as foreign through the use of specialized receptors called pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which are found on various immune cells such as macrophages, dendritic cells, and neutrophils.

Once a bacterial antigen is recognized by the host's immune system, it can stimulate both the innate and adaptive immune responses. The innate immune response involves the activation of inflammatory pathways, the recruitment of immune cells to the site of infection, and the production of antimicrobial peptides.

The adaptive immune response, on the other hand, involves the activation of T cells and B cells, which are specific to the bacterial antigen. These cells can recognize and remember the antigen, allowing for a more rapid and effective response upon subsequent exposures.

Bacterial antigens are important in the development of vaccines, as they can be used to stimulate an immune response without causing disease. By identifying specific bacterial antigens that are associated with virulence or pathogenicity, researchers can develop vaccines that target these antigens and provide protection against infection.

Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is a type of antibody that plays a crucial role in the immune function of the human body. It is primarily found in external secretions, such as saliva, tears, breast milk, and sweat, as well as in mucous membranes lining the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. IgA exists in two forms: a monomeric form found in serum and a polymeric form found in secretions.

The primary function of IgA is to provide immune protection at mucosal surfaces, which are exposed to various environmental antigens, such as bacteria, viruses, parasites, and allergens. By doing so, it helps prevent the entry and colonization of pathogens into the body, reducing the risk of infections and inflammation.

IgA functions by binding to antigens present on the surface of pathogens or allergens, forming immune complexes that can neutralize their activity. These complexes are then transported across the epithelial cells lining mucosal surfaces and released into the lumen, where they prevent the adherence and invasion of pathogens.

In summary, Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is a vital antibody that provides immune defense at mucosal surfaces by neutralizing and preventing the entry of harmful antigens into the body.

Bacterial capsules are slimy, gel-like layers that surround many types of bacteria. They are made up of polysaccharides, proteins, or lipopolysaccharides and are synthesized by the bacterial cell. These capsules play a crucial role in the virulence and pathogenicity of bacteria as they help the bacteria to evade the host's immune system and promote their survival and colonization within the host. The presence of a capsule can also contribute to the bacteria's resistance to desiccation, phagocytosis, and antibiotics.

The chemical composition and structure of bacterial capsules vary among different species of bacteria, which is one factor that contributes to their serological specificity and allows for their identification and classification using methods such as the Quellung reaction or immunofluorescence microscopy.

Immunologic memory, also known as adaptive immunity, refers to the ability of the immune system to recognize and mount a more rapid and effective response upon subsequent exposure to a pathogen or antigen that it has encountered before. This is a key feature of the vertebrate immune system and allows for long-term protection against infectious diseases.

Immunologic memory is mediated by specialized cells called memory T cells and B cells, which are produced during the initial response to an infection or immunization. These cells persist in the body after the pathogen has been cleared and can quickly respond to future encounters with the same or similar antigens. This rapid response leads to a more effective and efficient elimination of the pathogen, resulting in fewer symptoms and reduced severity of disease.

Immunologic memory is the basis for vaccines, which work by exposing the immune system to a harmless form of a pathogen or its components, inducing an initial response and generating memory cells that provide long-term protection against future infections.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "New Guinea" is not a medical term. It is the second largest island in the world, located in the southwest Pacific Ocean, northeast of Australia. The island is divided politically between the independent nation of Papua New Guinea to the east and the Indonesian provinces of Papua and West Papua to the west.

If you have any medical questions or terms that you would like defined, I'd be happy to help!

'Bordetella pertussis' is a gram-negative, coccobacillus bacterium that is the primary cause of whooping cough (pertussis) in humans. This highly infectious disease affects the respiratory system, resulting in severe coughing fits and other symptoms. The bacteria's ability to evade the immune system and attach to ciliated epithelial cells in the respiratory tract contributes to its pathogenicity.

The bacterium produces several virulence factors, including pertussis toxin, filamentous hemagglutinin, fimbriae, and tracheal cytotoxin, which contribute to the colonization and damage of respiratory tissues. The pertussis toxin, in particular, is responsible for many of the clinical manifestations of the disease, such as the characteristic whooping cough and inhibition of immune responses.

Prevention and control measures primarily rely on vaccination using acellular pertussis vaccines (aP) or whole-cell pertussis vaccines (wP), which are included in combination with other antigens in pediatric vaccines. Continuous efforts to improve vaccine efficacy, safety, and coverage are essential for controlling the global burden of whooping cough caused by Bordetella pertussis.

A newborn infant is a baby who is within the first 28 days of life. This period is also referred to as the neonatal period. Newborns require specialized care and attention due to their immature bodily systems and increased vulnerability to various health issues. They are closely monitored for signs of well-being, growth, and development during this critical time.

Antibodies are proteins produced by the immune system in response to the presence of a foreign substance, such as a bacterium or virus. They are capable of identifying and binding to specific antigens (foreign substances) on the surface of these invaders, marking them for destruction by other immune cells. Antibodies are also known as immunoglobulins and come in several different types, including IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM, each with a unique function in the immune response. They are composed of four polypeptide chains, two heavy chains and two light chains, that are held together by disulfide bonds. The variable regions of the heavy and light chains form the antigen-binding site, which is specific to a particular antigen.

Neisseria meningitidis is a Gram-negative, aerobic, bean-shaped diplococcus bacterium. It is one of the leading causes of bacterial meningitis and sepsis (known as meningococcal disease) worldwide. The bacteria can be found in the back of the nose and throat of approximately 10-25% of the general population, particularly in children, teenagers, and young adults, without causing any symptoms or illness. However, when the bacterium invades the bloodstream and spreads to the brain or spinal cord, it can lead to life-threatening infections such as meningitis (inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord) and septicemia (blood poisoning).

Neisseria meningitidis is classified into 12 serogroups based on the chemical structure of their capsular polysaccharides. The six major serogroups that cause most meningococcal disease worldwide are A, B, C, W, X, and Y. Vaccines are available to protect against some or all of these serogroups.

Meningococcal disease can progress rapidly, leading to severe symptoms such as high fever, headache, stiff neck, confusion, nausea, vomiting, and a rash consisting of purple or red spots. Immediate medical attention is required if someone experiences these symptoms, as meningococcal disease can cause permanent disabilities or death within hours if left untreated.

Pneumococcal vaccines are immunizing agents that protect against infections caused by the bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae, also known as pneumococcus. These vaccines help to prevent several types of diseases, including pneumonia, meningitis, and bacteremia (bloodstream infection).

There are two main types of pneumococcal vaccines available:

1. Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PCV): This vaccine is recommended for children under 2 years old, adults aged 65 and older, and people with certain medical conditions that increase their risk of pneumococcal infections. PCV protects against 13 or 20 serotypes (strains) of Streptococcus pneumoniae, depending on the formulation (PCV13 or PCV20).
2. Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine (PPSV): This vaccine is recommended for adults aged 65 and older, children and adults with specific medical conditions, and smokers. PPSV protects against 23 serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae.

These vaccines work by stimulating the immune system to produce antibodies that recognize and fight off the bacteria if an individual comes into contact with it in the future. Both types of pneumococcal vaccines have been proven to be safe and effective in preventing severe pneumococcal diseases.

Tuberculin is not a medical condition but a diagnostic tool used in the form of a purified protein derivative (PPD) to detect tuberculosis infection. It is prepared from the culture filtrate of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the bacterium that causes TB. The PPD tuberculin is injected intradermally, and the resulting skin reaction is measured after 48-72 hours to determine if a person has developed an immune response to the bacteria, indicating a past or present infection with TB. It's important to note that a positive tuberculin test does not necessarily mean that active disease is present, but it does indicate that further evaluation is needed.

Immunization programs, also known as vaccination programs, are organized efforts to administer vaccines to populations or communities in order to protect individuals from vaccine-preventable diseases. These programs are typically implemented by public health agencies and involve the planning, coordination, and delivery of immunizations to ensure that a high percentage of people are protected against specific infectious diseases.

Immunization programs may target specific age groups, such as infants and young children, or populations at higher risk of certain diseases, such as travelers, healthcare workers, or individuals with weakened immune systems. The goals of immunization programs include controlling and eliminating vaccine-preventable diseases, reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with these diseases, and protecting vulnerable populations from outbreaks and epidemics.

Immunization programs may be delivered through a variety of settings, including healthcare facilities, schools, community centers, and mobile clinics. They often involve partnerships between government agencies, healthcare providers, non-governmental organizations, and communities to ensure that vaccines are accessible, affordable, and acceptable to the populations they serve. Effective immunization programs require strong leadership, adequate funding, robust data systems, and ongoing monitoring and evaluation to assess their impact and identify areas for improvement.

Synthetic vaccines are artificially produced, designed to stimulate an immune response and provide protection against specific diseases. Unlike traditional vaccines that are derived from weakened or killed pathogens, synthetic vaccines are created using synthetic components, such as synthesized viral proteins, DNA, or RNA. These components mimic the disease-causing agent and trigger an immune response without causing the actual disease. The use of synthetic vaccines offers advantages in terms of safety, consistency, and scalability in production, making them valuable tools for preventing infectious diseases.

B-lymphocytes, also known as B-cells, are a type of white blood cell that plays a key role in the immune system's response to infection. They are responsible for producing antibodies, which are proteins that help to neutralize or destroy pathogens such as bacteria and viruses.

When a B-lymphocyte encounters a pathogen, it becomes activated and begins to divide and differentiate into plasma cells, which produce and secrete large amounts of antibodies specific to the antigens on the surface of the pathogen. These antibodies bind to the pathogen, marking it for destruction by other immune cells such as neutrophils and macrophages.

B-lymphocytes also have a role in presenting antigens to T-lymphocytes, another type of white blood cell involved in the immune response. This helps to stimulate the activation and proliferation of T-lymphocytes, which can then go on to destroy infected cells or help to coordinate the overall immune response.

Overall, B-lymphocytes are an essential part of the adaptive immune system, providing long-lasting immunity to previously encountered pathogens and helping to protect against future infections.

Hemocyanin is a copper-containing protein found in the blood of some mollusks and arthropods, responsible for oxygen transport. Unlike hemoglobin in vertebrates, which uses iron to bind oxygen, hemocyanins have copper ions that reversibly bind to oxygen, turning the blood blue when oxygenated. When deoxygenated, the color of the blood is pale blue-gray. Hemocyanins are typically found in a multi-subunit form and are released into the hemolymph (the equivalent of blood in vertebrates) upon exposure to air or oxygen. They play a crucial role in supplying oxygen to various tissues and organs within these invertebrate organisms.

BALB/c is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The strain was developed at the Institute of Cancer Research in London by Henry Baldwin and his colleagues in the 1920s, and it has since become one of the most commonly used inbred strains in the world.

BALB/c mice are characterized by their black coat color, which is determined by a recessive allele at the tyrosinase locus. They are also known for their docile and friendly temperament, making them easy to handle and work with in the laboratory.

One of the key features of BALB/c mice that makes them useful for research is their susceptibility to certain types of tumors and immune responses. For example, they are highly susceptible to developing mammary tumors, which can be induced by chemical carcinogens or viral infection. They also have a strong Th2-biased immune response, which makes them useful models for studying allergic diseases and asthma.

BALB/c mice are also commonly used in studies of genetics, neuroscience, behavior, and infectious diseases. Because they are an inbred strain, they have a uniform genetic background, which makes it easier to control for genetic factors in experiments. Additionally, because they have been bred in the laboratory for many generations, they are highly standardized and reproducible, making them ideal subjects for scientific research.

An epitope is a specific region on the surface of an antigen (a molecule that can trigger an immune response) that is recognized by an antibody, B-cell receptor, or T-cell receptor. It is also commonly referred to as an antigenic determinant. Epitopes are typically composed of linear amino acid sequences or conformational structures made up of discontinuous amino acids in the antigen. They play a crucial role in the immune system's ability to differentiate between self and non-self molecules, leading to the targeted destruction of foreign substances like viruses and bacteria. Understanding epitopes is essential for developing vaccines, diagnostic tests, and immunotherapies.

Cholera toxin is a protein toxin produced by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae, which causes the infectious disease cholera. The toxin is composed of two subunits, A and B, and its primary mechanism of action is to alter the normal function of cells in the small intestine.

The B subunit of the toxin binds to ganglioside receptors on the surface of intestinal epithelial cells, allowing the A subunit to enter the cell. Once inside, the A subunit activates a signaling pathway that results in the excessive secretion of chloride ions and water into the intestinal lumen, leading to profuse, watery diarrhea, dehydration, and other symptoms associated with cholera.

Cholera toxin is also used as a research tool in molecular biology and immunology due to its ability to modulate cell signaling pathways. It has been used to study the mechanisms of signal transduction, protein trafficking, and immune responses.

Neisseria meningitidis, Serogroup C is a type of bacteria that can cause serious infections in humans. It is also known as meningococcus and is part of a group of bacteria called meningococci. These bacteria can be divided into several serogroups based on the chemical structure of their outer coat. Serogroup C is one of these groups and is responsible for causing a significant number of invasive meningococcal diseases worldwide.

The bacterium Neisseria meningitidis, Serogroup C can cause serious infections such as meningitis (inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord) and septicemia (blood poisoning). These infections can be life-threatening and require prompt medical attention.

The bacteria are spread through close contact with an infected person, such as coughing or kissing. It can also be transmitted through respiratory droplets or saliva. The bacteria can colonize the nasopharynx (the upper part of the throat behind the nose) without causing any symptoms, but in some cases, they can invade the bloodstream and cause serious infections.

Vaccination is available to protect against Neisseria meningitidis, Serogroup C infection. The vaccine is recommended for people at increased risk of infection, such as those traveling to areas where the disease is common or those with certain medical conditions that weaken the immune system.

Roper MH, Wassilak SG, Tiwari TS, Orenstein WA (2013). "Tetanus toxoid". Vaccines (6th ed.). pp. 746-772. doi:10.1016/B978-1- ... The other C. tetani toxin, tetanospasmin, is more definitively linked to tetanus. It is sensitive to oxygen. Tetanolysin ... Tetanolysin is a toxin produced by Clostridium tetani bacteria. Its function is unknown, but it is believed to contribute to ... v t e (Protein pages needing a picture, Bacterial toxins, Tetanus, All stub articles, Biochemistry stubs). ...
... called tetanus toxoid. This is made commercially by growing large quantities of C. tetani in fermenters, then purifying the ... Clostridium tetani is a common soil bacterium and the causative agent of tetanus. Vegetative cells of Clostridium tetani are ... causing tetanus. The toxin's action can be prevented with tetanus toxoid vaccines, which are often administered to children ... this led to the development of the tetanus toxoid vaccine by P. Descombey in 1924, which was widely used to prevent tetanus ...
Tetanus boosters (Td) should be given every ten years. TT = tetanus toxoid; TIG: tetanus immune globulin Antihistamines are ... Tetanus toxoid treatment is recommended in those whose vaccinations are not up to date and have a bite that punctures the skin ... Tetanus immune globulin is indicated in people with more than 10 years since prior vaccination. ...
Roper MH, Wassilak SG, Tiwari TS, Orenstein WA (2013). "33 - Tetanus toxoid". Vaccines (6 ed.). Elsevier. pp. 746-772. doi: ... and is used to cultivate Clostridium tetani. "Casein hydrolysate broth, modified" (PDF). Himedia. Retrieved 29 August 2019. " ...
Moloney, P. J.; Hennessy, J. N. (1942). "Purification of tetanus toxoid". The Biochemical Journal. 36 (7-9): 544-547. doi: ... Fitzgerald, J. G.; Defries, R. D.; Fraser, D. T.; Moloney, P. J.; McKinnon, N. E. (1932). "Experiences with Diphtheria Toxoid ... With Charles Beecher Weld (1899-1991), he developed the first diphtheria toxoid in North America. Moloney helped to develop a ... He is known for his work on developing vaccines against diphtheria and tetanus, purifying insulin preparations for clinical use ...
For example, the tetanus toxoid is derived from the tetanospasmin produced by Clostridium tetani. The latter causes tetanus and ... Toxoids are also useful in the production of human antitoxins. Multiple doses of tetanus toxoid are used by many plasma centers ... There are toxoids for prevention of diphtheria, tetanus and botulism. Toxoids are used as vaccines because they induce an ... "Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoids Adsorbed" (PDF). fda.gov. Retrieved 21 October 2015. "Tetanus Immune Globulin (Human)" (PDF). ...
Mohammad, J; Kefah, AH; Abdel, Aziz H (2008). "Oculomotor neuropathy following tetanus toxoid injection". Neurol India. 56 (2 ...
"Haemophilus b Conjugate Vaccine (Tetanus Toxoid Conjugate)". U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 24 April 2019. "Hiberix ... also called tetanus toxoid); mutant diphtheria protein; and meningococcal group B outer membrane protein. Multiple combinations ... In 1987, the first Hib conjugate vaccine, which used diphtheria toxoid as the carrier protein (PRP-D), was licensed in the U.S ... The Hib vaccine is available by itself, in combination with the diphtheria/tetanus/pertussis vaccine, and in combination with ...
... and Tetanus Toxoids. National Academies Press (US). "Immunization, Vaccines and Biologicals". World Health ... The horse from which the antitoxin was derived died of tetanus. This incident, coupled with a tetanus outbreak in Camden, New ... Vaccination with toxoid was not widely used until the early 1930s. In 1939, Dr. Nora Wattie, who was the Principal Medical ... "The Tetanus Cases in Camden, N.J". JAMA. XXXVII (23): 1539-1540. 7 December 1901. doi:10.1001/jama.1901.02470490037010. ...
Fraser, D. T.; MacLean, D. L.; Plummer, H. C.; Wishart, F. O. (September 1943). "Tetanus Toxoid and Its Use for Active ... Connaught had been producing tetanus toxoid since 1927 and, though their product was effective, it also produced unwanted side ... One of her first projects at Connaught involved major contributions to the culturing process of diphtheria toxoid, a non-toxic ... Taylor lead a research team dedicated to streamlining and improving the production of the toxoid. Taylor's cultures were grown ...
... toxoid can be given in case of suspected exposure to tetanus. In such cases, it can be given with or without tetanus ... Tetanus is caused by the tetanus bacterium, Clostridium tetani. The disease is an international health problem, as C. tetani ... Mild cases of tetanus can be treated with: Tetanus immunoglobulin (TIG), also called tetanus antibodies or tetanus antitoxin. ... Tetanus toxoid vaccine was developed by P. Descombey in 1924, and was widely used to prevent tetanus induced by battle wounds ...
"Tetanus toxoid immunization to reduce mortality from neonatal tetanus". International Journal of Epidemiology. 39 (Suppl 1): ... Tetanus - Immunization, Vaccines and Biologicals: WHO Neonatal Tetanus D7341 Insert: UNICEF Maternal/Neonatal Tetanus (MNT): ... The WHO recommend that unimmunized pregnant women receive tetanus toxoid in the pregnancy to prevent the disease in their baby ... Three properly spaced doses of tetanus toxoid vaccine are recommended for women of childbearing age, either before or during ...
The tetanus toxoid vaccine was first licensed for use in 1938 and, during the 1960s, it was noted that tetanus vaccination in ... "Tetanus toxoid immunization to reduce mortality from neonatal tetanus". International Journal of Epidemiology. 39 (Suppl 1): ... Although neonatal tetanus has not yet been eliminated, by 2017 there were an estimated 31,000 annual infant deaths from tetanus ... Tetanus is a bacterial infection caused by Clostridium tetani. Newborns can be infected via their unhealed umbilical stump, ...
Tetanus toxoid vaccine should also be administered, if indicated. Surviving victims often suffer localized tissue necrosis and ...
Examples of toxoid-based vaccines include tetanus and diphtheria. Subunit, recombinant, polysaccharide, and conjugate vaccines ... Toxoids are inactivated toxic compounds from micro-organisms in cases where these (rather than the micro-organism itself) cause ... recommended using a method similar to modern toxoid serum therapy, by drinking the blood of animals which fed on venomous ... and following the 1890 discovery by Behring and Kitasato of antitoxin based immunity to diphtheria and tetanus, the antitoxin ...
Reasons such as an allergic reaction, tetanus toxoid vaccination, or an alteration of immune regulation are suspected. Other ... Akosa AB, Ali MH, Khoo CT, Evans DM (June 1990). "Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia associated with tetanus toxoid ...
Committee to Review Adverse Effects of Medicine) (2011-08-25). Diphtheria Toxoid-, Tetanus Toxoid-, and Acellular Pertussis- ... Most people receive a 3-in-1 vaccine that consist of protection against diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis, which is commonly ... The invention of the toxoid vaccine, which provides protection against Corynebacterium diphtheriae, caused a dramatic shift on ...
Vaccinations: Tetanus toxoid, smallpox, and diphtheria/pertussis/tetanus vaccinations. The DRESS syndrome (Drug Reaction with ...
Tetanus toxoid should be administered based on local guidelines. Using tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) within 24 hours of ...
For example, for vaccines containing tetanus toxoid (e.g., DTaP, DTP, DT, Td, or TT), anaphylaxis within four hours or brachial ... The 'disability threshold' before payments are granted is 60%. The scheme covers vaccinations for illnesses such as tetanus, ...
... for diphtheria and tetanus toxoids, and "Td" for tetanus and diphtheria toxoids. At its page on tetanus vaccination, the CDC ... Examples of toxoid-based vaccines include tetanus and diphtheria. Not all toxoids are for micro-organisms; for example, ... Tetanus toxoid, for instance, is usually adsorbed onto alum. This presents the antigen in such a way as to produce a greater ... action than the simple aqueous tetanus toxoid. People who have an adverse reaction to adsorbed tetanus toxoid may be given the ...
Tetanus toxoid should be given if not up to date. In 2015, fire and heat resulted in 67 million injuries. This resulted in ...
... , also known as tetanus toxoid (TT), is a toxoid vaccine used to prevent tetanus. During childhood, five doses ... Tetanus Toxoid at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Diphtheria-Tetanus Vaccine at the U.S. ... Tetanus antiserum was developed in 1890, with its protective effects lasting a few weeks. The tetanus toxoid vaccine was ... Havers FP, Moro PL, Hunter P, Hariri S, Bernstein H (January 2020). "Use of Tetanus Toxoid, Reduced Diphtheria Toxoid, and ...
He gained international success for his scientific works on tetanus toxoid. He established biochemistry labs and contributed to ...
Rangnekar, Kishori N.; Joshi, Usha M.; Rao, Shanta S. (January 1972). "Diminution in humoral antibodies to tetanus toxoid after ...
Treat open wounds as surgically appropriate, with debridement, antibiotics and tetanus toxoid; apply ice to injured areas. ...
However, the effect of tetanus toxoid was well preserved in clinical trials. CD4+ cell counts should be obtained before ...
These toxoid vaccines are used against tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis (whooping cough). If the bacteria polysaccharide ... The quantity remaining in diphtheria or tetanus toxoid vaccines licensed in the US is required to be less than 0.1 milligrams ( ... However, phenol reduces the potency of diphtheria and tetanus toxoid-containing vaccines. Similarly, thiomersal weakens the ... Such conjugate vaccines, may make use of a toxoid as the carrier protein. For all these, the quantity of immunogen is given by ...
December 2006). "Preventing tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis among adults: use of tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid ... March 2006). "Preventing tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis among adolescents: use of tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid ... Havers FP, Moro PL, Hunter P, Hariri S, Bernstein H (January 2020). "Use of Tetanus Toxoid, Reduced Diphtheria Toxoid, and ... Havers FP, Moro PL, Hunter P, Hariri S, Bernstein H (January 2020). "Use of Tetanus Toxoid, Reduced Diphtheria Toxoid, and ...
Her 1980 dissertation was titled Characterization of Anti-Tetanus Toxoid Producing Human Pheripheral Blood Lymphocytes. She ... Thiele, Carol Jeanne (1980). Characterization of Anti-Tetanus Toxoid Producing Human Pheripheral Blood Lymphocytes (Ph.D. ...
Tetanus toxoid. Class Summary. This is used to induce active immunity against tetanus. ... The immunizing agent of choice for most adults and children older than 7 years is tetanus and diphtheria toxoids. It is ... Pregnant patients should receive only tetanus toxoid, not a diphtheria antigen-containing product. In children and adults, it ... Tetanus immune globulin is used for passive immunization if the wound might be contaminated with tetanus spores when the ...
Preventing tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis among adults: use of tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid and acellular ... Preventing tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis among adolescents: use of tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid and acellular ... Summary of updated recommendations for use of tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine ... Updated Recommendations for Use of Tetanus Toxoid, Reduced Diphtheria Toxoid and Acellular Pertussis (Tdap) Vaccine from the ...
The MSDS of Mouse for Anti-Tetanus is available from Karlan upon request. ... Mouse Anti-Tetanus Toxin/Toxoid IgG ELISA kit, 96 tests, Quantitative - 1 kit is backordered and will ship as soon as it is ... The MSDS of Mouse for Anti-Tetanus is available from Karlan upon request. ... The MSDS of Mouse for Anti-Tetanus is available from Karlan upon request. ...
... tetanus toxoids), frequency-based adverse effects, comprehensive interactions, contraindications, pregnancy & lactation ... 2010infanrix-daptacel-diphtheria-tetanus-toxoids-acellular-pertussis-vaccine-343172Drugs. Drugs diphtheria & tetanus toxoids/ ... encoded search term (diphtheria & tetanus toxoids (Tenivac%2C TDVAX)) and diphtheria & tetanus toxoids (Tenivac, TDVAX) What to ... a preparation containing tetanus and diphtheria toxoids (Td) is preferred instead of single-antigen tetanus toxoid to enhance ...
"Antibody response to booster dose of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids" 78, no. 2 (1963). Volk, V. K. et al. "Antibody response to ... Title : Antibody response to booster dose of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids Personal Author(s) : Volk, V. K.;Gottshall, R. Y.; ... 1963). Antibody response to booster dose of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids. 78(2). Volk, V. K. et al. " ... booster dose of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids" vol. 78, no. 2, 1963. Export RIS Citation Information.. ...
CLIA Tetanus Toxoid IgG. The chemiluminescence assay is intended for the monitoring of Tetanus Toxoid IgG antibodies in human ... Protection starts at an anti-tetanus toxoid concentration of 0.1 IU/ml. While the vaccine does not usually cause side effects, ... Tetanus is a disease caused by the toxin produced by Clostridium tetani. The incidence of the disease has been reduced ... Therefore, normal immunoglobulin concentrations do not rule out a deficiency of anti-tetanus antibodies and the response to ...
The Tetanus toxoid vaccine market is projected to reach USD 7,236.2 Million by 2030 at 5.9% CAGR during the forecast period ... The tetanus toxoid vaccine market is divided into several forms, including monovalent tetanus toxoid (TT), tetanus, diphtheria ... Tetanus Toxoid Vaccine Market Trends:. Tetanus is a disease that causes muscle spasms that can result in significant bone ... The global tetanus toxoid vaccine market outlook report highlights that the industry is increasing, and the sector is expected ...
Vaccination coverage of Diphtheria Tetanus Toxoid and Pertussis vaccines over time ... Diphtheria tetanus toxoid and pertussis (DTP) vaccination coverage. These data represent administrative and official Diphtheria ... Tetanus Toxoid and Pertussis (DTP) vaccination coverage reported annually through the WHO/UNICEF Joint Reporting Form on ...
Tetanus-Diphtheria (Td) Toxoid Boosters. Tetanus toxoid and diphtheria toxoid are excellent immunogens. The primary vaccination ... 50 years of age lack protective levels of antibodies to either tetanus toxoid, diphtheria toxoid, or both (32). Despite this ... Tetanus-Diphtheria (Td) Toxoid Boosters Vaccines for Travelers > 50 Years of Age Future Developments Conclusion Cite This ... Issues related to the decennial tetanus-diphtheria toxoid booster recommendations in adults. In: Infectious disease clinics of ...
Factors related to acceptance of tetanus toxoid immunization among pregnant women in a maternal-child health programme in rural ... Report on the EMR/SEAR Meeting on the Prevention of Neonatal Tetanus, Lahore, 22-25 February 1982. by EMR/SEAR Meeting on the ... Mortality reductions from measles and tetanus immunization : a review of the evidence / Michael Koenig. by Koenig, Michael , ... by Resources for Child Health (John Snow), Inc , MotherCare , Meeting on Neonatal Tetanus Elimination: Issues and Future ...
Roper MH, Wassilak SG, Tiwari TS, Orenstein WA (2013). "Tetanus toxoid". Vaccines (6th ed.). pp. 746-772. doi:10.1016/B978-1- ... The other C. tetani toxin, tetanospasmin, is more definitively linked to tetanus. It is sensitive to oxygen. Tetanolysin ... Tetanolysin is a toxin produced by Clostridium tetani bacteria. Its function is unknown, but it is believed to contribute to ... v t e (Protein pages needing a picture, Bacterial toxins, Tetanus, All stub articles, Biochemistry stubs). ...
Combinations With Diphtheria Toxoid - Get up-to-date information on Tetanus Toxoid, Combinations With Diphtheria Toxoid side ... Learn more about Tetanus Toxoid, Combinations With Diphtheria Toxoid ... How was your experience with Tetanus Toxoid, Combinations With Diphtheria Toxoid?. First, a little about yourself. Male Female ... What tips would you provide a friend before taking Tetanus Toxoid, Combinations With Diphtheria Toxoid?. / ...
... conjugates formed by covalent linkage of polysaccharides to components such as mutated or inactivated proteins and/or toxoids ...
Tetanus vaccines. For more information about Tripedia see its generics Diphtheria Toxoid, Tetanus Toxoid ... Tetanus Toxoid. For more information on this medication choose from the list of selections below. ... Diphtheria Toxoid. For more information on this medication choose from the list of selections below. ... Tripedia is a brand name medication included in the following groups of medications: diphtheria toxoid, ...
C.04.160 - Diphtheria Toxoid *C.04.180 - Tetanus Toxoid *C.04.210 - Antitoxins, Antisera ... C.04.140 - Toxins, Toxoids * C.04.140 - Schick Test Reagents * ...
Efficacy and immunogenicity of a Vi-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine in the prevention of typhoid fever using a controlled ... Efficacy and immunogenicity of a Vi-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine in the prevention of typhoid fever using a controlled ...
... reduced diptheria toxoids/acellular pertussis vaccine), frequency-based adverse effects, comprehensive interactions, ... encoded search term (tetanus & reduced diphtheria toxoids/ acellular pertussis vaccine (Adacel%2C Boostrix)) and tetanus & ... 5 yr after the last dose of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis (DTaP) series or after a dose of tetanus and ... 5 yr after the last dose of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis (DTaP) series or after a dose of tetanus and ...
Cost of Delivering Tetanus Toxoid and Tetanus-Diphtheria Vaccination in Vietnam and the Budget Impact of Proposed Changes to ... Cost of Delivering Tetanus Toxoid and Tetanus-Diphtheria Vaccination in Vietnam and the Bu ... This study aimed to provide evidence on the costs and budgetary impact of the potential replacement of the tetanus-toxoid (TT) ... In 2017, aligned with global World Health Organization tetanus guidelines, Vietnam prepared evidence to support a ...
C.04.160 - Diphtheria Toxoid *C.04.180 - Tetanus Toxoid *C.04.210 - Antitoxins, Antisera ... C.04.140 - Toxins, Toxoids * C.04.140 - Schick Test Reagents * ...
Td Adult: Tetanus-Diphtheria Toxoids, Dt Pediatric: Diphtheria-Tetan Toxoids. Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine. POINT OF ... Td Adult: Tetanus-Diphtheria Toxoids, Dt Pediatric: Diphtheria-Tetan Toxoids. Shipping Requirements. Should be shipped in ... Diphtheria Toxoid, Tetanus Toxoid, Pertussis Vaccine. Shipping Requirements. Should be shipped in insulated container. Maintain ...
Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision: Device Methods, Tetanus-Toxoid Containing Vaccination. Julia Samuelson of the World Health ... Client Brochure: Tetanus and Medical Male Circumcision. This brochure is designed to help clients of voluntary medical male ... Of the 12 tetanus cases reported by voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) programmes in in eastern Africa from 2013 to mid ... Client-Information-Tetanus-and-VMMC-18-May-2017-FINAL.pdf. Preview (140.64 KB) ...
Diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis vaccine, combined. Publication no. 451. Washington, DC: Pan American Health ... 2. Ipsen J. Immunization of adults against diphtheria and tetanus. N Engl J Med 1954;251:459-66. 3. Orenstein WA, Weisfeld JS, ...
Tetanus, Diphtheria, Pertussis (Tdap) Vaccine: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... Tetanus Toxoids, Acellular Pertussis Vaccine). *Boostrix® (containing Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids, Acellular Pertussis Vaccine) ... Tetanus enters the body through cuts or wounds.. TETANUS (T) causes painful stiffening of the muscles. Tetanus can lead to ... Also, adults should receive a booster dose of either Tdap or Td (a different vaccine that protects against tetanus and ...
Adsorbed tetanus vaccine): Learn about TT Vaccine Bio Farmas Dosage, Side Effects and indications ... Adsorbed tetanus vaccine MIMS Class Vaccines, Antisera & Immunologicals ATC Classification J07AM01 - tetanus toxoid ; Belongs ...
Categories: Tetanus Toxoid Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted 12 ...
C.04.160 - Diphtheria Toxoid *C.04.180 - Tetanus Toxoid *C.04.210 - Antitoxins, Antisera ... C.04.140 - Toxins, Toxoids * C.04.140 - Schick Test Reagents * ...
  • On October 27, 2010, ACIP approved the following additional recommendations: 1) use of Tdap regardless of interval since the last tetanus- or diphtheria-toxoid containing vaccine, 2) use of Tdap in certain adults aged 65 years and older, and 3) use of Tdap in undervaccinated children aged 7 through 10 years. (cdc.gov)
  • thus, a tetanus toxoid vaccine is the best way to protect yourself. (tbusinessweek.com)
  • The global tetanus toxoid vaccine market outlook report highlights that the industry is increasing, and the sector is expected to develop at a 5.9% CAGR from 2022 to 2030, reaching a value of USD 7,236.2 million. (tbusinessweek.com)
  • North America, Europe, Asia Pacific (APAC), and the Middle East & Africa (MEA) are the four regions that have been included in the region-specific analysis of the global tetanus toxoid vaccine market. (tbusinessweek.com)
  • MRFR divided the global tetanus toxoid vaccine market analysis report by types, forms, and end-users. (tbusinessweek.com)
  • The tetanus toxoid vaccine market is divided into quadrivalent, pentavalent, and hexavalent versions. (tbusinessweek.com)
  • Bharat Biotech, Shenzhen Kangtai Biological Products, Valeant Pharmaceuticals, Emergent Biosolutions Inc., Astellas Pharma Inc., Panacea Biotec, and others are among the global key players mentioned in the tetanus toxoid vaccine market insights report. (tbusinessweek.com)
  • In 2017, aligned with global World Health Organization tetanus guidelines, Vietnam prepared evidence to support a recommendation to introduce the tetanus - diphtheria (Td) vaccine into routine immunization . (bvsalud.org)
  • This study aimed to provide evidence on the costs and budgetary impact of the potential replacement of the tetanus - toxoid (TT) vaccine with the Td vaccine , considering different possible delivery strategies . (bvsalud.org)
  • Tdap vaccine can prevent tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Also, adults should receive a booster dose of either Tdap or Td (a different vaccine that protects against tetanus and diphtheria but not pertussis) every 10 years, or after 5 years in the case of a severe or dirty wound or burn. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In the United States, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends that children aged 11-12 years receive tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap), meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenACWY), and human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine (HPV vaccine can be started at age 9 years). (medscape.com)
  • Tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis vaccine coverage represents coverage with ≥1 Tdap dose at age ≥10 years. (medscape.com)
  • Within 48 hours of leukapheresis, subjects will receive vaccine site pre-conditioning as a single dose of Td toxoid (in a total volume of 0.4 mLs salt water/saline) given in the intradermal space (just under the surface of the skin) to the right groin area. (mycancergenome.org)
  • In the present study of infants immunized with tetanus toxoid and pertussis vaccines between 6 and 14 weeks of age, maternal anti-tetanus antibody titers interfered with the infants anti-tetanus vaccine response at 15 weeks of age and, to a less significant degree, at one year of age. (usda.gov)
  • Technical advancement in the region is also allowing faster intake of tetanus toxoid vaccines and simplified structure allows access of the medicine by all. (tbusinessweek.com)
  • Proceedings of an Informal Consultation on the World Health Organization Requirements for Diphtheria, Tetanus, Pertussis and Combined Vaccines, May 30 - June 1, 1988 / Charles R. Manclark, editor. (who.int)
  • Belongs to the class of tetanus bacterial vaccines. (mims.com)
  • Infants received tetanus and pertussis vaccines at 6, 10 and 14 wk of age. (usda.gov)
  • After informed consent has been signed, subjects will undergo standard of care vaccination with 0.5 mL of Td ( tetanus and diphtheria toxoids adsorbed ) intramuscularly into the deltoid muscle to ensure adequate immunity to the tetanus antigen. (mycancergenome.org)
  • Mouse Anti-Tetanus Toxin/Toxoid IgG ELISA kit, 96 tests, Quantitative - 1 kit is backordered and will ship as soon as it is back in stock. (dnamethsoc.com)
  • Tetanus is a disease caused by the toxin produced by Clostridium tetani. (biovendor.group)
  • Tetanolysin is a toxin produced by Clostridium tetani bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • The other C. tetani toxin, tetanospasmin, is more definitively linked to tetanus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tetanus is caused by a potent toxin produced by Clostridium tetani, a spore-forming, anaerobic, gram-positive bacillus. (iowa.gov)
  • The typical clinical manifestations of tetanus are caused when tetanus toxin interferes with release of neurotransmitters, which block inhibitor impulses, resulting in sustained spasms. (iowa.gov)
  • ACIP recommends a single Tdap dose for persons aged 11 through18 years who have completed the recommended childhood diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis/diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis (DTP/DTaP) vaccination series and for adults aged 19 through 64 years ( 4 , 5 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Vaccination-mediated protection decreases with age since tetanus antitoxin levels drop as an individual ages. (biovendor.group)
  • These data represent administrative and official Diphtheria Tetanus Toxoid and Pertussis (DTP) vaccination coverage reported annually through the WHO/UNICEF Joint Reporting Form on Immunization (JRF). (who.int)
  • Cost of Delivering Tetanus Toxoid and Tetanus-Diphtheria Vaccination in Vietnam and the Budget Impact of Proposed Changes to the Schedule. (bvsalud.org)
  • These data suggest that vaccination schedules might need to be reevaluated when maternal anti-tetanus antibody titers are high, though all of the infants in the present study did have adequate, protective titers at 1 year of age. (usda.gov)
  • The goal of this study was to explore the effects of trans-placental tetanus toxoid (TT) and pertussis (PT) antibodies on an infant's response to vaccination in the context of antenatal immunization with tetanus but not with pertussis. (usda.gov)
  • The MSDS of Mouse for Anti-Tetanus is available from Karlan upon request. (dnamethsoc.com)
  • Protection starts at an anti-tetanus toxoid concentration of 0.1 IU/ml. (biovendor.group)
  • Therefore, normal immunoglobulin concentrations do not rule out a deficiency of anti-tetanus antibodies and the response to antigenic stimulation should be tested. (biovendor.group)
  • Both Tdap products are licensed for use at an interval of at least 5 years between the tetanus and diphtheria toxoids (Td) and Tdap dose. (cdc.gov)
  • Title : Antibody response to booster dose of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids Personal Author(s) : Volk, V. K.;Gottshall, R. Y.;Anderson, H. D.;Top, Franklin H.;Bunney, W. E.;Gilbert, Maud G. (cdc.gov)
  • Tetanus enters the body through cuts or wounds. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Tetanus occurs worldwide and is more frequent in warmer climates and months, partly because of the frequency of contaminated wounds. (iowa.gov)
  • Mortality reductions from measles and tetanus immunization : a review of the evidence / Michael Koenig. (who.int)
  • Report on the EMR/SEAR Meeting on the Prevention of Neonatal Tetanus, Lahore, 22-25 February 1982. (who.int)
  • Prevention of neonatal tetanus. (who.int)
  • Neonatal tetanus, which arises from infection of the umbilical stump, is a form of generalized tetanus. (iowa.gov)
  • When toxins are generated by bacteria, they are called toxoids. (dadamo.com)
  • The toxins may be produced either in the living body during infection (for instance, by tetanus) or by bacteria in dead biological material. (dadamo.com)
  • The chemiluminescence assay is intended for the monitoring of Tetanus Toxoid IgG antibodies in human serum or plasma in the general population. (biovendor.group)
  • Localized tetanus is manifested by local muscle spasms in areas contiguous to a wound, although history of an injury or an apparent portal of entry may be lacking. (iowa.gov)
  • Immunization during early infancy is an important measure for protecting infants against the development of infectious diseases, including pertussis and tetanus. (usda.gov)
  • Tetanus disease does not confer immunity. (iowa.gov)
  • Safety of tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis and influenza vaccinations in pregnancy. (cdc.gov)
  • C. tetani usually enters the body through a penetrating or puncture wound. (iowa.gov)
  • Project IQ created these three resources to help clients, providers, and assistants reduce the risk of infection, including infection causing tetanus, after voluntary medical male. (malecircumcision.org)
  • Both Fragment C of Tetanus toxoid and the coat protein of a plant virus have been used as immunogenic carriers. (southampton.ac.uk)
  • This is not a complete list of Tetanus Toxoid, Combinations With Diphtheria Toxoiddrug interactions. (rxwiki.com)
  • Results of search for 'su:{Tetanus toxoid. (who.int)
  • There is no person-to-person transmission of tetanus. (iowa.gov)
  • There is no infectious period because tetanus in not transmitted person-to-person. (iowa.gov)
  • Generalized tetanus is an acute, often fatal neurologic disease characterized by painful skeletal muscular contractions. (iowa.gov)
  • Cephalic tetanus is a rare form of the disease and involves the cranial nerves, especially the facial area. (iowa.gov)
  • This brochure is designed to help clients of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) services reduce their risk of tetanus. (malecircumcision.org)
  • Cases of tetanus have followed injuries considered too trivial for medical consultation. (iowa.gov)
  • Tetanus can lead to serious health problems, including being unable to open the mouth, having trouble swallowing and breathing, or death. (medlineplus.gov)
  • How was your experience with Tetanus Toxoid, Combinations With Diphtheria Toxoid? (rxwiki.com)
  • As with any form of bite, tetanus status should be updated as necessary. (medscape.com)

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