Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin
Gonadal Steroid Hormones
Follicle Stimulating Hormone
Hormone Replacement Therapy
5-alpha Reductase Inhibitors
Contraceptive Agents, Male
Cholestenone 5 alpha-Reductase
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System
Doping in Sports
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Rats, Inbred Strains
Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A
Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme
Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects
Analysis of Variance
Changed levels of endogenous sex steroids in women on oral contraceptives. (1/7518)Serum and urinary levels of unconjugated testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and oestradiol were measured by specific radioimmunoassays in 10 healthy women in the early follicular phase of their menstrual cycle and in nine healthy women taking oral contraceptives. The contraceptive group had testosterone levels 1-3 times higher and dihydrotestosterone levels two times higher than those in the controls. Serum oestradiol levels in the contraceptive group were much lower than those in the controls and similar to levels in postmenopausal women. The contraceptive group had about twice the urinary excretion of unconjugated (free) testosterone and dihydrotestosterone of the controls, but their excretion of unconjugated oestradiol was 2-7 times lower. The great increase in serum and urinary androgen concentrations, as well as the suppression of oestradiol, may be related to the antiovulatory effect of oral contraceptives. (+info)
The effects of androgens and antiandrogens on hormone-responsive human breast cancer in long-term tissue culture. (2/7518)We have examined five human breast cancer cell lines in continuous tissue culture for androgen responsiveness. One of these cell lines shows a 2- to 4-fold stimulation of thymidine incorporation into DNA, apparent as early as 10 hr following androgen addition to cells incubated in serum-free medium. This stimulation is accompanied by an acceleration in cell replication. Antiandrogens [cyproterone acetate (6-chloro-17alpha-acetate-1,2alpha-methylene-4,6-pregnadiene-3,20-dione) and R2956 (17beta-hydroxy-2,2,17alpha-trimethoxyestra-4,9,11-triene-1-one)] inhibit both protein and DNA synthesis below control levels and block androgen-mediated stimulation. Prolonged incubation (greater than 72 hr) in antiandrogen is lethal. The MCF- cell line contains high-affinity receptors for androgenic steroids demonstrable by sucrose density gradients and competitive protein binding analysis. By cross-competition studies, androgen receptors are distinguishable from estrogen receptors also found in this cell line. Concentrations of steroid that saturate androgen receptor sites in vitro are about 1000 times lower than concentrations that maximally stimulate the cells. Changes in quantity and affinity of androgen binding to intact cells at 37 degrees as compared with usual binding techniques using cytosol preparation at 0 degrees do not explain this difference between dissociation of binding and effect. However, this difference can be explained by conversion of [3H]-5alpha-dihydrotestosterone to 5alpha-androstanediol and more polar metabolites at 37 degrees. An examination of incubation media, cytoplasmic extracts and crude nuclear pellets reveals probable conversion of [3H]testosterone to [3H]-5alpha-dihydrotestosterone. Our data provide compelling evidence that some human breast cancer, at least in vitro, may be androgen dependent. (+info)
Effect of sex difference on the in vitro and in vivo metabolism of aflatoxin B1 by the rat. (3/7518)Hepatic microsome-catalyzed metabolism of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) to aflatoxin M1 and aflatoxin Q1 and the "metabolic activation" of AFB1 to DNA-alylating metabolite(s) were studied in normal male and female Sprague-Dawley rats, in gonadectomized animals, and in castrated males and normal females treated with testosterone. Microsomes from male animals formed 2 to 5 times more aflatoxin M1, aflatoxin Q1, and DNA-alkylating metabolite(s) than those from females. Castration reduced the metabolism of AFB1 by the microsomes from males by about 50%, whereas ovariectomy had no significant effect on AFB1 metabolism by the microsomes from females. Testosterone treatment (4 mg/rat, 3 times/week for about 6 weeks) of castrated immature males and immature females enhanced the metabolism of AFB1 by their microsomes. A sex difference in the metabolism of AFB1 by liver microsomes was also seen in other strains of rats tested: Wistar, Long-Evans, and Fischer. The activity of kidney microsomes for metabolic activation was 1 to 4% that of the liver activity and was generally lower in microsomes from male rats as compared to those from female rats of Sprague-Dawley, Wistar, and Long-Evans strains. The in vitro results obtained with hepatic microsomes correlated well with the in vivo metabolism of AFB1, in that more AFB1 became bound in vivo to hepatic DNA isolated from male rats and from a female rat treated with testosterone than that isolated from control female rats. These data suggest that the differences in hepatic AFB1 metabolism may be the underlying cause of the sex difference in toxicity and carcinogenicity of AFB1 observed in rats. (+info)
Sex differences in the effects of early neocortical injury on neuronal size distribution of the medial geniculate nucleus in the rat are mediated by perinatal gonadal steroids. (4/7518)Freezing injury to the cortical plate of rats induces cerebrocortical microgyria and, in males but not females, a shift toward greater numbers of small neurons in the medial geniculate nucleus (MGN). The purpose of the current study was to examine a hormonal basis for this sex difference. Cross-sectional neuronal areas of the MGN were measured in male rats, untreated female rats and female rats treated perinatally with testosterone propionate, all of which had received either neonatal cortical freezing or sham injury. Both male and androgenized female rats with microgyria had significantly smaller MGN neurons when compared to their sham-operated counterparts, whereas untreated females with microgyria did not. These differences were also reflected in MGN neuronal size distribution: both male and androgenized female rats with microgyria had more small and fewer large neurons in their MGN in comparison to shams, while there was no difference in MGN neuronal size distribution between lesioned and sham females. These findings suggest that perinatal gonadal steroids mediate the sex difference in thalamic response to induction of microgyria in the rat cortex. (+info)
Prolactin replacement fails to inhibit reactivation of gonadotropin secretion in rams treated with melatonin under long days. (5/7518)This study tested the hypothesis that prolactin (PRL) inhibits gonadotropin secretion in rams maintained under long days and that treatment with melatonin (s.c. continuous-release implant; MEL-IMP) reactivates the reproductive axis by suppressing PRL secretion. Adult Soay rams were maintained under long days (16L:8D) and received 1) no further treatment (control, C); 2) MEL-IMP for 16 wk and injections of saline/vehicle for the first 8 wk (M); 3) MEL-IMP for 16 wk and exogenous PRL (s.c. 5 mg ovine PRL 3x daily) for the first 8 wk (M+P). The treatment with melatonin induced a rapid increase in the blood concentrations of FSH and testosterone, rapid growth of the testes, an increase in the frequency of LH pulses, and a decrease in the LH response to N-methyl-D,L-aspartic acid. The concomitant treatment with exogenous PRL had no effect on these reproductive responses but caused a significant delay in the timing of the sexual skin color and growth of the winter pelage. These results do not support the hypothesis and suggest that PRL at physiological long-day concentrations, while being totally ineffective as an inhibitor of gonadotropin secretion, acts in the peripheral tissues and skin to maintain summer characteristics. (+info)
Effects of spinal cord injury on spermatogenesis and the expression of messenger ribonucleic acid for Sertoli cell proteins in rat Sertoli cell-enriched testes. (6/7518)The study was an examination of the effects of spinal cord injury (SCI) on spermatogenesis and Sertoli cell functions in adult rats with Sertoli cell-enriched (SCE) testes. The effects of SCI on the seminiferous epithelium were characterized by abnormalities in the remaining spermatogenic cells during the first month after SCI. Three days after SCI, serum testosterone levels were 80% lower, while serum FSH and LH levels were 25% and 50% higher, respectively, than those of sham control SCE rats. At this time, the levels of mRNA for androgen receptor (AR), FSH receptor (FSH-R), and androgen-binding protein (ABP) were normal whereas those for transferrin (Trf) had decreased by 40%. Thereafter, serum testosterone levels increased, but they remained lower than those of the sham control rats 28 days after SCI; and serum FSH and LH levels returned to normal. The levels of mRNA for AR, ABP, and Trf exhibited a biphasic increase 7 days after SCI and remained elevated 28 days after SCI. FSH-R mRNA levels were also elevated 90 days after SCI. Unexpectedly, active spermatogenesis, including qualitatively complete spermatogenesis, persisted in > 40% of the tubules 90 days after SCI. These results suggest that the stem cells and/or undifferentiated spermatogonia in SCE testes are less susceptible to the deleterious effects of SCI than the normal testes and that they were able to proliferate and differentiate after SCI. The presence of elevated levels of mRNA for Sertoli cell FSH-R and AR, as well as of that for the Sertoli cell proteins, in the SCE testes during the chronic stage of SCI suggests a modification of Sertoli cell physiology. Such changes in Sertoli cell functions may provide a beneficial environment for the proliferation of the stem cells and differentiation of postmeiotic cells, thus resulting in the persistence of spermatogenesis in these testes. (+info)
Sex steroid and prolactin profiles in male American black bears (Ursus americanus) during denning. (7/7518)Serum sex steroid and prolactin profiles were examined in the male American black bear, Ursus americanus during denning. Sera collected in December and the following March from 8 denning male black bears in Minnesota, U.S.A. were assayed for testosterone, estradiol-17 beta and prolactin. Eight bears were confirmed to be the denning mode based on a serum urea to creatinine ratio less than 10. Serum testosterone concentrations tended to increase from December to the subsequent March whereas serum estradiol-17 beta concentrations tended to decrease during this period. There were few changes in serum prolactin concentrations between December and March. These findings suggest that spermatogenesis and testicular steroidogenesis initiated during denning may be influenced by changes in serum sex steroid concentrations in the American black bear. (+info)
BDNF mediates the effects of testosterone on the survival of new neurons in an adult brain. (8/7518)New neurons are incorporated into the high vocal center (HVC), a nucleus of the adult canary (Serinus canaria) brain that plays a critical role in the acquisition and production of learned song. Recruitment of new neurons in the HVC is seasonally regulated and depends upon testosterone levels. We show here that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is present in the HVC of adult males but is not detectable in that of females, though the HVC of both sexes has BDNF receptors (TrkB). Testosterone treatment increases the levels of BDNF protein in the female HVC, and BDNF infused into the HVC of adult females triples the number of new neurons. Infusion of a neutralizing antibody to BDNF blocks the testosterone-induced increase in new neurons. Our results demonstrate that BDNF is involved in the regulation of neuronal replacement in the adult canary brain and suggest that the effects of testosterone are mediated through BDNF. (+info)
Testosterone is a hormone that is primarily produced in the testicles in males and in smaller amounts in the ovaries and adrenal glands in females. It is responsible for the development of male sexual characteristics, such as the growth of facial hair, deepening of the voice, and muscle mass. Testosterone also plays a role in bone density, red blood cell production, and the regulation of the body's metabolism. In the medical field, testosterone is often used to treat conditions related to low testosterone levels, such as hypogonadism (a condition in which the body does not produce enough testosterone), delayed puberty, and certain types of breast cancer in men. It can also be used to treat conditions related to low estrogen levels in women, such as osteoporosis and menopause symptoms. Testosterone therapy can be administered in various forms, including injections, gels, patches, and pellets. However, it is important to note that testosterone therapy can have side effects, such as acne, hair loss, and an increased risk of blood clots, and should only be prescribed by a healthcare professional.
Testosterone Propionate is a synthetic form of the male sex hormone testosterone. It is a type of anabolic steroid that is used to treat conditions such as low testosterone levels, delayed puberty, and certain types of breast cancer in men. Testosterone Propionate is usually administered through injection and is available only with a prescription from a healthcare provider. It is important to note that the use of anabolic steroids, including Testosterone Propionate, can have serious side effects and should only be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional.
Hypogonadism is a medical condition characterized by a deficiency in the production of sex hormones, such as testosterone in males and estrogen and progesterone in females, by the gonads (ovaries in females and testes in males). This deficiency can result in a range of symptoms, including decreased libido, infertility, fatigue, weight gain, and osteoporosis. Hypogonadism can be primary, meaning that the gonads themselves are not functioning properly, or secondary, meaning that the hypothalamus or pituitary gland, which control the production of sex hormones, are not functioning properly. Causes of primary hypogonadism include genetic disorders, such as Klinefelter syndrome in males and Turner syndrome in females, as well as damage to the gonads due to injury, infection, or cancer treatment. Causes of secondary hypogonadism include pituitary tumors, chronic illnesses, and certain medications. Treatment for hypogonadism depends on the underlying cause and may include hormone replacement therapy, fertility treatments, or surgery.
Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) is a hormone that is produced in the body from testosterone, a male sex hormone. DHT is a potent androgen, meaning that it has a strong effect on the development and maintenance of male characteristics. It is involved in the development of male reproductive organs, such as the prostate gland and testicles, and plays a role in the growth and maintenance of body hair, muscle mass, and bone density. In addition, DHT is thought to play a role in the development of prostate cancer. DHT is also found in women, but in lower levels than in men.
Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin (SHBG) is a protein produced by the liver that binds to sex hormones such as testosterone and estradiol in the bloodstream. SHBG helps regulate the levels of these hormones in the body by controlling their availability for use by target tissues. SHBG is a type of glycoprotein that has a high affinity for sex hormones, particularly testosterone. It can bind up to 98% of the circulating testosterone in the bloodstream, making it the primary carrier of testosterone in the body. SHBG also binds to estradiol, but to a lesser extent. The concentration of SHBG in the blood is influenced by a variety of factors, including age, sex, body weight, and hormonal status. For example, SHBG levels tend to be higher in women than in men, and they increase during pregnancy and menopause. SHBG levels can also be affected by certain medications, such as oral contraceptives and anti-androgens. In the medical field, SHBG levels are often measured as part of routine hormone testing, particularly in cases of hormonal imbalances or disorders. Abnormal levels of SHBG can indicate underlying health conditions, such as liver disease, hyperthyroidism, or polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Additionally, SHBG levels can be used as a biomarker for assessing the effectiveness of hormone therapy in conditions such as prostate cancer and breast cancer.
Luteinizing hormone (LH) is a hormone produced by the anterior pituitary gland in the brain. It plays a crucial role in regulating the reproductive system in both males and females. In females, LH stimulates the ovaries to produce estrogen and progesterone, which are essential for the menstrual cycle and pregnancy. It also triggers ovulation, the release of a mature egg from the ovary. In males, LH stimulates the testes to produce testosterone, which is responsible for the development of male secondary sexual characteristics and the production of sperm. LH levels can be measured in the blood or urine to diagnose and monitor various reproductive disorders, such as infertility, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and hypogonadism. It is also used in fertility treatments, such as in vitro fertilization (IVF), to stimulate ovulation and increase the chances of conception.
Estradiol is a naturally occurring hormone that is produced by the ovaries in females and by the testes in males. It is a type of estrogen, which is a group of hormones that play a key role in the development and regulation of the female reproductive system, as well as in the maintenance of secondary sexual characteristics in both males and females. Estradiol is a potent estrogen and is one of the most biologically active forms of estrogen in the body. It is involved in a wide range of physiological processes, including the regulation of the menstrual cycle, the development of female sexual characteristics, and the maintenance of bone density. Estradiol also plays a role in the regulation of the cardiovascular system, the brain, and the immune system. Estradiol is used in medicine to treat a variety of conditions, including menopause, osteoporosis, and certain types of breast cancer. It is available in a variety of forms, including tablets, patches, and gels, and is typically administered by mouth or applied to the skin. It is important to note that estradiol can have side effects, and its use should be carefully monitored by a healthcare provider.
Gonadal steroid hormones are hormones produced by the gonads (testes in males and ovaries in females) that regulate sexual development and reproductive function. These hormones include testosterone, estrogen, and progesterone. Testosterone is the primary male sex hormone and is responsible for the development of male secondary sexual characteristics, such as facial hair and a deep voice. Estrogen is the primary female sex hormone and is responsible for the development of female secondary sexual characteristics, such as breast development and a wider pelvis. Progesterone is a hormone that helps regulate the menstrual cycle and prepare the uterus for pregnancy. Gonadal steroid hormones also play a role in other bodily functions, such as bone health, mood regulation, and immune system function. Imbalances in these hormones can lead to a variety of health problems, including infertility, menstrual disorders, and sexual dysfunction.
Epitestosterone is a naturally occurring hormone in the human body that is chemically similar to testosterone. It is produced in the adrenal glands and is a minor component of the male sex hormone complex. In the medical field, epitestosterone is often measured in blood or urine as a way to assess the function of the adrenal glands and to diagnose certain conditions, such as congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), which is a genetic disorder that affects the adrenal glands. Epitestosterone levels can also be used to monitor the effectiveness of hormone replacement therapy in individuals with low testosterone levels due to conditions such as hypogonadism or andropause (male menopause). Additionally, elevated levels of epitestosterone can be a sign of certain types of cancer, such as prostate cancer or ovarian cancer.
Androstenedione is a naturally occurring hormone that is produced in the adrenal glands and gonads (testes and ovaries) in both males and females. It is a precursor to other hormones such as testosterone and estrogen, and plays a role in the development of sexual characteristics and the regulation of the menstrual cycle in females. In the medical field, androstenedione is sometimes used as a supplement to increase muscle mass and strength, and to enhance athletic performance. However, the use of androstenedione as a supplement is controversial, as it can have side effects and may be banned by some sports organizations. Additionally, the safety and effectiveness of androstenedione as a supplement have not been well studied, and it is not approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use as a dietary supplement.
Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) is a hormone produced by the anterior pituitary gland in the brain. It plays a crucial role in the development and maturation of ovarian follicles in females and sperm production in males. In females, FSH stimulates the growth and maturation of ovarian follicles, which contain eggs. As the follicles mature, they release estrogen, which causes the lining of the uterus to thicken in preparation for a potential pregnancy. If fertilization does not occur, the levels of estrogen and FSH decrease, leading to the shedding of the uterine lining and the start of a new menstrual cycle. In males, FSH stimulates the production of sperm in the testes. It also plays a role in the development of the prostate gland and the regulation of testosterone levels. FSH levels can be measured in the blood to diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as infertility, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and hypogonadism.
Flutamide is a medication that is used to treat prostate cancer in men. It is a type of drug called an androgen receptor antagonist, which means that it blocks the effects of male hormones (androgens) on the prostate gland. Flutamide is usually used in combination with other medications or surgery to treat prostate cancer. It can help to slow the growth of cancer cells and reduce the risk of the cancer spreading to other parts of the body. Flutamide is usually taken by mouth as tablets, and the dosage and duration of treatment will depend on the individual patient's condition and response to the medication. It is important to follow the instructions of a healthcare professional when taking flutamide, as it can cause side effects such as breast tenderness, breast enlargement, and hot flashes.
Testosterone congeners are synthetic derivatives of testosterone, which are used in the medical field for various purposes. These compounds are designed to have similar hormonal effects to testosterone, but with different chemical structures and properties. Testosterone congeners are often used to treat conditions such as hypogonadism (low testosterone levels), prostate cancer, and breast cancer. They may also be used to enhance athletic performance or to treat other conditions, such as osteoporosis or sexual dysfunction. Testosterone congeners are available in various forms, including injections, gels, patches, and tablets. It is important to note that the use of testosterone congeners may have potential side effects and risks, and should only be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional.
Receptors, Androgen are proteins found on the surface of cells that bind to and respond to androgens, a group of hormones that play a role in the development and maintenance of male characteristics. These receptors are primarily found in the prostate gland, testes, and reproductive organs, but they are also present in other parts of the body, such as the brain, bone, and muscle. Activation of androgen receptors by androgens can lead to a variety of effects, including the growth and development of male reproductive tissues, the maintenance of bone density, and the regulation of metabolism.
Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is a hormone produced by the adrenal glands, which are located on top of the kidneys. It is a precursor to other hormones, including testosterone and estrogen, and plays a role in a variety of bodily functions. In the medical field, DHEA is often measured in blood or saliva tests to assess adrenal function and diagnose conditions such as adrenal insufficiency or Cushing's syndrome. It is also sometimes used as a supplement to treat conditions such as low testosterone levels, osteoporosis, and depression, although the evidence for its effectiveness is mixed and more research is needed. However, it is important to note that DHEA supplements can have potential side effects and may interact with other medications, so they should only be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional.
3-Oxo-5-alpha-steroid 4-dehydrogenase, also known as AKR1C3 or steroid 4-dehydrogenase 3, is an enzyme that plays a role in the metabolism of androgens and estrogens in the body. It is involved in the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and estradiol to estrone. This enzyme is primarily found in the liver, but it is also present in other tissues such as the prostate, breast, and skin. Abnormal levels of this enzyme activity have been associated with various medical conditions, including prostate cancer, breast cancer, and acne.
Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH) is a hormone that is produced by the hypothalamus, a region of the brain that regulates various bodily functions, including reproductive processes. GnRH plays a crucial role in regulating the production of sex hormones by the gonads (ovaries in females and testes in males). In females, GnRH stimulates the release of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) from the anterior pituitary gland, which in turn stimulates the ovaries to produce estrogen and progesterone. These hormones are essential for the development of secondary sexual characteristics, menstrual cycle, and pregnancy. In males, GnRH stimulates the release of FSH and LH from the anterior pituitary gland, which in turn stimulates the testes to produce testosterone. Testosterone is responsible for the development of secondary sexual characteristics, sperm production, and muscle mass. GnRH is also used in medical treatments, such as infertility, menopause, and prostate cancer. It is administered as a medication to stimulate the production of FSH and LH, which can help to induce ovulation in women or stimulate sperm production in men. In menopause, GnRH is used to reduce the production of estrogen and testosterone, which can help to alleviate symptoms such as hot flashes and vaginal dryness. In prostate cancer, GnRH is used to reduce the production of testosterone, which can slow the growth of cancer cells.
Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate (DHEA-S) is a hormone produced by the adrenal glands, which are located on top of the kidneys. It is a precursor to other hormones, including testosterone and estrogen, and is involved in a variety of bodily functions, such as metabolism, immune function, and mood regulation. In the medical field, DHEA-S levels are often measured as a way to assess adrenal function and to diagnose certain conditions, such as adrenal insufficiency or Cushing's syndrome. Abnormal levels of DHEA-S can also be associated with certain medical conditions, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) or diabetes. DHEA-S levels can be measured through a blood test, and the results are typically reported in nanomoles per liter (nmol/L). The normal range for DHEA-S levels in adults is typically between 100 and 500 nmol/L, although this can vary depending on age, sex, and other factors.
Androgen antagonists are a class of drugs that block the effects of androgens, which are male sex hormones such as testosterone. These drugs are often used to treat conditions such as prostate cancer, acne, and hirsutism (excessive hair growth in women) by reducing the levels of androgens in the body. They work by binding to androgen receptors, preventing androgens from binding to these receptors and exerting their effects. Examples of androgen antagonists include flutamide, bicalutamide, and spironolactone.
Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) is a hormone produced by the placenta during pregnancy. It is responsible for maintaining the corpus luteum, which produces progesterone to support the pregnancy. hCG is also used as a diagnostic tool in medicine to detect pregnancy, as well as to monitor the progress of the pregnancy and detect any potential complications. In some cases, hCG may also be used to treat certain medical conditions, such as certain types of cancer.
Aromatase is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the production of estrogen hormones in the human body. It is primarily found in the ovaries, placenta, and adipose tissue, but it is also present in other tissues such as the brain, bone, and muscle. In the medical field, aromatase inhibitors are commonly used as a form of hormonal therapy to treat breast cancer in postmenopausal women. These drugs work by blocking the activity of the aromatase enzyme, which prevents the conversion of androgens (male hormones) into estrogens (female hormones). By reducing estrogen levels, aromatase inhibitors can slow the growth of breast cancer cells that are dependent on estrogen for their survival. Aromatase inhibitors are also used to treat other conditions, such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and prostate cancer. In these cases, the drugs are used to reduce estrogen levels and alleviate symptoms associated with these conditions.
Progesterone is a hormone that plays a crucial role in the female reproductive system. It is produced by the ovaries and the placenta during pregnancy and is responsible for preparing the uterus for pregnancy and maintaining the pregnancy. Progesterone also helps to regulate the menstrual cycle and can be used as a contraceptive. In addition to its reproductive functions, progesterone has a number of other effects on the body. It can help to reduce inflammation, promote bone density, and regulate mood. Progesterone is also used in medical treatment for a variety of conditions, including menopause, osteoporosis, and certain types of breast cancer. Progesterone is available as a medication in a variety of forms, including oral tablets, injections, and creams. It is important to note that progesterone can have side effects, including nausea, dizziness, and mood changes. It is important to discuss the potential risks and benefits of using progesterone with a healthcare provider before starting treatment.
Hirsutism is a medical condition characterized by excessive hair growth in women, typically on the face, chest, back, and abdomen. It is caused by an imbalance of hormones, particularly androgens, which are male sex hormones that are also present in women in small amounts. Hirsutism can be a symptom of a variety of underlying medical conditions, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), thyroid disorders, and Cushing's syndrome, or it can be caused by certain medications or hormonal treatments. Treatment options for hirsutism may include medications to regulate hormone levels, laser hair removal, and electrolysis.
Androstanes are a class of organic compounds that are derived from the androstane ring system, which consists of four fused carbon rings. They are a subclass of the larger group of steroids, which are compounds that are derived from cholesterol and are involved in a wide range of physiological processes in the body. In the medical field, androstanes are often used as a reference for the structure and properties of other steroids. They are also used as a starting point for the synthesis of other steroids, such as testosterone and estradiol, which are important hormones in the body. Some androstanes have been found to have pharmacological activity and are used in the treatment of various conditions, such as prostate cancer, breast cancer, and osteoporosis. For example, the androstane derivative enzalutamide (Xtandi) is a medication that is used to treat advanced prostate cancer.
Virilism is a medical condition characterized by the development of male secondary sexual characteristics in females. This can include the growth of facial hair, deepening of the voice, and an increase in muscle mass. Virilism can be caused by a variety of factors, including hormonal imbalances, genetic disorders, and exposure to certain medications or environmental toxins. Treatment for virilism depends on the underlying cause and may include medications to regulate hormone levels, surgery to remove excess tissue, or other therapies.
Cyproterone is a synthetic progestin medication that is used in combination with an androgen receptor blocker, such as ethinylestradiol, to treat acne vulgaris in women. It is also used to treat hirsutism (excessive hair growth) in women and to treat advanced prostate cancer in men. Cyproterone works by blocking the production of testosterone and other androgens in the body, which can help to reduce the symptoms of these conditions. It is typically taken orally in the form of tablets.
Gonadotropins, Pituitary are hormones produced by the anterior pituitary gland that regulate the function of the gonads (testes in males and ovaries in females). These hormones are responsible for controlling the production of sex hormones and the development of secondary sexual characteristics. There are two main types of gonadotropins: luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). LH stimulates the production of testosterone in males and estrogen and progesterone in females. It also triggers ovulation in females. FSH, on the other hand, stimulates the growth and maturation of ovarian follicles in females and sperm production in males. Gonadotropins, Pituitary are often used in medical treatments to stimulate ovulation in women who are having difficulty conceiving or to treat infertility. They may also be used to treat certain types of cancer, such as prostate cancer or breast cancer.
In the medical field, steroids refer to a class of drugs that are derived from the natural hormone cortisol, which is produced by the adrenal gland. Steroids are used to treat a wide range of medical conditions, including inflammatory diseases, autoimmune disorders, allergies, and certain types of cancer. There are two main types of steroids: corticosteroids and anabolic steroids. Corticosteroids are used to reduce inflammation and suppress the immune system, while anabolic steroids are used to build muscle mass and increase strength. Steroids can be administered in various forms, including oral tablets, injections, creams, and inhalers. They can have a range of side effects, including weight gain, mood changes, high blood pressure, and increased risk of infections. It is important to note that the use of steroids is closely monitored by healthcare professionals, and they are typically prescribed only for specific medical conditions and under the guidance of a doctor.。
Hormones are chemical messengers produced by glands in the endocrine system that regulate various bodily functions. They are transported through the bloodstream to target cells or organs, where they bind to specific receptors and trigger a response. Hormones play a crucial role in regulating growth and development, metabolism, reproduction, and other essential processes in the body. Examples of hormones include insulin, thyroid hormones, estrogen, testosterone, and cortisol. Imbalances in hormone levels can lead to a range of medical conditions, including diabetes, thyroid disorders, infertility, and mood disorders.
Androstane-3,17-diol, also known as 3α-androstanediol or 3α-androstenediol, is a naturally occurring and biologically active steroid hormone. It is a metabolite of testosterone and is involved in a variety of physiological processes, including the regulation of the menstrual cycle, bone density, and muscle mass. In the medical field, androstane-3,17-diol is sometimes used as a marker of testosterone metabolism and can be measured in blood or urine samples. It has also been studied as a potential therapeutic agent for conditions such as osteoporosis and muscle wasting. However, it is important to note that androstane-3,17-diol is a controlled substance and the use of it for any purpose other than medical research or treatment requires a prescription from a qualified healthcare provider. Additionally, the use of androstane-3,17-diol or any other anabolic steroid can have potential side effects and risks, including liver damage, cardiovascular problems, and hormonal imbalances.
17-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (17-HSDs) are a group of enzymes that play a crucial role in the metabolism of sex hormones in the human body. These enzymes are responsible for converting one form of a sex hormone into another, which can affect the hormone's activity and impact various physiological processes. There are several types of 17-HSDs, each with a specific function. For example, 17-HSD1 is involved in the conversion of estradiol to estrone, while 17-HSD2 is involved in the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone. These enzymes are found in various tissues throughout the body, including the liver, adrenal glands, and reproductive organs. Abnormalities in the activity of 17-HSDs can lead to various medical conditions, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), which is characterized by hormonal imbalances and irregular menstrual cycles. In addition, some forms of cancer, such as breast and ovarian cancer, have been linked to changes in the activity of 17-HSDs. Overall, 17-HSDs play a critical role in regulating sex hormone metabolism and are an important area of research in the field of endocrinology.
Androsterone is a naturally occurring androgenic hormone that is produced in the human body. It is a derivative of testosterone and is found in both males and females, although it is present in higher concentrations in males. Androsterone is produced in the adrenal glands and is also synthesized in the gonads and other tissues throughout the body. In the medical field, androsterone is sometimes used as a marker of male sexual development and function. It is also used as a diagnostic tool in the evaluation of certain medical conditions, such as congenital adrenal hyperplasia and polycystic ovary syndrome. Androsterone has also been studied for its potential therapeutic effects in the treatment of certain conditions, such as osteoporosis and prostate cancer.
Cyproterone acetate is a synthetic progestin medication that is used in combination with an estrogen in hormonal contraceptives to prevent pregnancy. It is also used to treat acne, hirsutism (excessive hair growth), and endometriosis (a condition in which tissue similar to the lining of the uterus grows outside the uterus). In addition, it may be used to treat prostate cancer in men and to treat symptoms of menopause in women. Cyproterone acetate works by blocking the production of testosterone, which can help to reduce symptoms of hirsutism and acne, and by decreasing the thickness of the uterine lining, which can help to prevent pregnancy. It is usually taken by mouth in the form of tablets.
17-Ketosteroids are a group of hormones that are produced by the adrenal glands and gonads. They are a type of steroid hormone that are derived from cholesterol and are involved in a variety of physiological processes in the body, including the regulation of metabolism, blood pressure, and the development and function of sexual characteristics. There are several different types of 17-ketosteroids, including cortisol, aldosterone, and androgens such as testosterone and dihydrotestosterone. These hormones are produced in different amounts by different organs and tissues in the body, and they have different effects on various physiological processes. In the medical field, 17-ketosteroids are often measured in blood or urine as a way to diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as Cushing's syndrome, Addison's disease, and certain types of cancer. They may also be used as a diagnostic tool to help identify the cause of certain symptoms or to monitor the effectiveness of certain treatments.
17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone is a hormone that is produced by the adrenal gland and the gonads (ovaries and testes). It is a precursor to other hormones, including progesterone and testosterone. In the medical field, 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone is often used as a diagnostic tool to help identify certain conditions, such as congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), which is a genetic disorder that affects the adrenal glands. It is also used to monitor the effectiveness of certain medications, such as corticosteroids, which are used to treat a variety of conditions, including autoimmune diseases and cancer.
Cholestenone 5 alpha-reductase, also known as 5α-reductase type 2, is an enzyme that plays a role in the metabolism of cholesterol in the body. It is primarily found in the liver and is responsible for converting cholestenone, a form of cholesterol, into cholic acid, which is a bile acid that helps to digest fats in the small intestine. In the medical field, cholestenone 5 alpha-reductase is of interest because it is involved in the development of certain diseases, including polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and prostate cancer. In PCOS, high levels of cholestenone 5 alpha-reductase can lead to the overproduction of androgens, which are male hormones that can cause symptoms such as acne, excess hair growth, and irregular periods. In prostate cancer, high levels of cholestenone 5 alpha-reductase can contribute to the growth and spread of cancer cells. There are currently several drugs available that target cholestenone 5 alpha-reductase, including finasteride and dutasteride, which are used to treat symptoms of PCOS and prostate cancer. These drugs work by inhibiting the activity of the enzyme, which can help to reduce the production of androgens and slow the growth of cancer cells.
Hydroxytestosterones are a group of hormones that are formed from testosterone through the action of enzymes in the liver and other tissues. They include 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), 5β-dihydrotestosterone (5β-DHT), and androstenedione. These hormones play important roles in various physiological processes, including the development of male sexual characteristics, the regulation of the reproductive system, and the maintenance of bone density. They are also involved in the development of certain diseases, such as prostate cancer and acne.
Leuprolide is a medication that is used to treat various conditions related to the endocrine system, particularly in men. It is a synthetic version of the hormone luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH), which is produced by the hypothalamus and regulates the production of other hormones in the body. Leuprolide is commonly used to treat prostate cancer, uterine fibroids, and endometriosis. It works by blocking the production of testosterone, which can help slow the growth of prostate cancer cells and reduce the size of uterine fibroids. It can also be used to treat precocious puberty in children. Leuprolide is usually administered as an injection, either under the skin or into a muscle. The dosage and frequency of the injections will depend on the specific condition being treated and the individual patient's response to the medication. Common side effects of leuprolide include hot flashes, decreased sex drive, breast tenderness, and injection site reactions.
Gonadotropins are hormones that are produced by the anterior pituitary gland and regulate the function of the gonads (testes in males and ovaries in females). There are two main types of gonadotropins: luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). LH stimulates the production of testosterone in males and estrogen and progesterone in females. It also triggers ovulation in females. FSH stimulates the growth and maturation of ovarian follicles in females and sperm production in males. It also plays a role in regulating the menstrual cycle in females. Gonadotropins are often used in medical treatments to stimulate ovulation in women who are having difficulty conceiving or to treat infertility. They may also be used to treat certain hormone imbalances, such as hypogonadism (low levels of sex hormones) or polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).
Estrone (E1) is a naturally occurring estrogen hormone that is produced in the ovaries, adrenal glands, and placenta. It is one of the three major female sex hormones, along with estradiol and estriol. Estrone is responsible for a variety of physiological functions in the body, including the regulation of the menstrual cycle, the development of female secondary sexual characteristics, and the maintenance of bone density. It is also involved in the regulation of metabolism, cardiovascular function, and mood. Estrone is used in medical treatment for conditions such as menopause, osteoporosis, and breast cancer.
Nandrolone is a synthetic anabolic and androgenic steroid that is used in the medical field for various purposes. It is a derivative of testosterone and is structurally similar to other anabolic steroids such as methandrostenolone and oxandrolone. Nandrolone is primarily used to promote muscle growth and strength in individuals with muscle wasting conditions such as cancer, AIDS, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It is also used to treat osteoporosis, a condition characterized by weak and brittle bones, and to increase appetite and weight gain in individuals with anorexia nervosa or cachexia (wasting away due to illness or injury). Nandrolone is available in various forms, including tablets, injections, and gels. It is typically administered at a low dose over a long period of time to minimize the risk of side effects such as liver damage, fluid retention, and acne. However, like all anabolic steroids, nandrolone can also have serious side effects, including increased risk of cardiovascular disease, prostate cancer, and infertility. Therefore, it is only prescribed by a healthcare professional and should be used with caution.
3-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (3-HSDs) are a group of enzymes that play a crucial role in the metabolism of steroid hormones in the body. These enzymes are responsible for converting 3-hydroxysteroids, which are derivatives of cholesterol, into their corresponding 3-ketosteroids. There are several types of 3-HSDs, including NAD-dependent and NADP-dependent enzymes, which are found in different tissues throughout the body. For example, the NAD-dependent 3-HSD is found in the liver and is involved in the metabolism of cortisol, aldosterone, and other glucocorticoids. The NADP-dependent 3-HSD is found in the adrenal gland and is involved in the metabolism of androgens and estrogens. Disruptions in the activity of 3-HSDs can lead to a variety of medical conditions, including hormonal imbalances, metabolic disorders, and reproductive problems. For example, mutations in the gene encoding the NAD-dependent 3-HSD can cause a rare genetic disorder called 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency, which can lead to the accumulation of 3-hydroxysteroids in the body and cause a range of symptoms, including adrenal insufficiency, ambiguous genitalia, and adrenal hyperplasia.
Inhibins are a group of hormones produced by the ovaries and testes in humans and other animals. They play a role in regulating the production of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) by the pituitary gland. Inhibins are primarily produced by the granulosa cells of the ovarian follicles and the Sertoli cells of the testes. Inhibins act as negative feedback regulators of FSH and LH production. When the levels of FSH and LH are high, inhibins are produced and released into the bloodstream, which then inhibits the production of FSH and LH by the pituitary gland. This feedback mechanism helps to maintain a balance between the production of FSH and LH and the development of ovarian follicles and sperm production. Inhibins are also involved in the regulation of pregnancy and lactation. During pregnancy, the levels of inhibins increase, which helps to suppress the production of FSH and LH, preventing the development of additional ovarian follicles and ovulation. In lactating women, inhibins help to suppress the production of FSH and LH, preventing the return of the menstrual cycle until after lactation has ended. Abnormal levels of inhibins can be associated with various medical conditions, including polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), premature ovarian failure, and testicular cancer.
Steroid 17-alpha-hydroxylase is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the biosynthesis of steroid hormones in the human body. It is located in the mitochondria of various steroidogenic cells, including the adrenal cortex, gonads, and placenta. The enzyme catalyzes the conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone, which is the precursor to all other steroid hormones. Specifically, it adds a hydroxyl group to the 17th carbon atom of cholesterol, forming pregnenolone. This reaction is the first and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of all steroid hormones, including cortisol, aldosterone, and sex hormones such as testosterone and estrogen. Mutations in the gene encoding steroid 17-alpha-hydroxylase can lead to a deficiency in the enzyme, resulting in a rare genetic disorder called 17-alpha-hydroxylase deficiency. This condition can cause a range of symptoms, including adrenal insufficiency, ambiguous genitalia in newborns, and infertility in adults. Treatment typically involves hormone replacement therapy to replace the deficient hormones.
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a common hormonal disorder that affects women of reproductive age. It is characterized by the presence of multiple small cysts on the ovaries, hormonal imbalances, and irregular menstrual cycles. PCOS can cause a range of symptoms, including acne, excessive hair growth, weight gain, infertility, and an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The exact cause of PCOS is not fully understood, but it is believed to be related to genetic and environmental factors. Diagnosis of PCOS typically involves a physical examination, blood tests to measure hormone levels, and imaging studies such as ultrasound. Treatment for PCOS may include lifestyle changes such as weight loss, exercise, and dietary modifications, as well as medications to regulate menstrual cycles, reduce androgen levels, and improve insulin sensitivity. In some cases, fertility treatments may be necessary to help women with PCOS conceive.
Prolactin is a hormone produced by the anterior pituitary gland in the brain. It plays a crucial role in the development and function of the mammary glands in both males and females, but it is particularly important for lactation in females. In females, prolactin stimulates the production of milk in the mammary glands after childbirth. It also plays a role in regulating the menstrual cycle and fertility. In males, prolactin helps to regulate the production of sperm and testosterone. Prolactin levels can be affected by a variety of factors, including stress, sleep, and certain medications. Abnormal levels of prolactin can lead to a condition called hyperprolactinemia, which can cause a range of symptoms including breast tenderness, infertility, and sexual dysfunction.
Hyperandrogenism is a medical condition characterized by an excess of androgens, which are male sex hormones such as testosterone. This excess can lead to a variety of symptoms and health problems, particularly in women and girls. In women, hyperandrogenism can cause symptoms such as acne, excess hair growth (hirsutism), irregular menstrual periods, and infertility. It can also lead to conditions such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), which is a hormonal disorder that affects women of reproductive age. In boys, hyperandrogenism can cause symptoms such as early puberty, excessive growth, and acne. It can also lead to conditions such as precocious puberty, which is the early onset of puberty. Hyperandrogenism can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetic disorders, certain medications, and certain medical conditions such as Cushing's syndrome or adrenal gland tumors. Treatment for hyperandrogenism depends on the underlying cause and may include medications to lower androgen levels, lifestyle changes, or surgery.
Finasteride is a medication that is primarily used to treat male pattern baldness (androgenetic alopecia) and an enlarged prostate gland (benign prostatic hyperplasia). It works by blocking the production of a hormone called dihydrotestosterone (DHT), which is responsible for the shrinking of hair follicles in men with male pattern baldness. Finasteride is available in the form of a tablet that is taken once daily. It is generally well-tolerated, but can cause side effects such as sexual dysfunction and depression.
Hydrocortisone is a synthetic glucocorticoid hormone that is used in the medical field to treat a variety of conditions. It is a potent anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive agent that can help reduce inflammation, swelling, and redness in the body. Hydrocortisone is also used to treat conditions such as allergies, asthma, eczema, and psoriasis, as well as to reduce the symptoms of adrenal insufficiency, a condition in which the body does not produce enough of the hormone cortisol. It is available in a variety of forms, including oral tablets, topical creams, and injections.
Hydroxyprogesterones are a group of hormones that are derived from progesterone, a hormone that is primarily produced by the ovaries in women and the testes in men. Hydroxyprogesterones are formed by the addition of a hydroxyl group (-OH) to the C-3 position of the progesterone molecule. There are several different hydroxyprogesterones that are known to exist, including 17α-hydroxyprogesterone, 17β-hydroxyprogesterone, and 17α,20β-dihydroxyprogesterone. These hormones are important in a variety of physiological processes, including the regulation of the menstrual cycle, the maintenance of pregnancy, and the suppression of the immune system. In the medical field, hydroxyprogesterones are often used as medications to treat a variety of conditions, including menstrual disorders, endometriosis, and certain types of cancer. They may also be used to prevent miscarriage and to treat certain types of breast cancer.
Steroid 16-alpha-hydroxylase is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the metabolism of steroids in the human body. It is responsible for converting certain steroids, such as testosterone and progesterone, into their corresponding 16-alpha-hydroxylated derivatives. This enzyme is primarily found in the liver and is involved in the biosynthesis of several important hormones, including cortisol, aldosterone, and androgens. It is also involved in the metabolism of certain drugs, such as oral contraceptives and anabolic steroids. Deficiency or dysfunction of steroid 16-alpha-hydroxylase can lead to a variety of medical conditions, including adrenal insufficiency, polycystic ovary syndrome, and certain forms of hypertension. In addition, mutations in the gene encoding this enzyme have been associated with certain inherited disorders, such as 16-alpha-hydroxylase deficiency and 11-beta-hydroxylase deficiency.
The cytochrome P-450 enzyme system is a group of enzymes that are responsible for the metabolism of a wide variety of drugs, toxins, and other substances in the body. These enzymes are found in the liver, lungs, and other organs, and they play a critical role in the detoxification of harmful substances and the elimination of drugs from the body. The cytochrome P-450 enzymes are classified into several families, each of which is responsible for the metabolism of specific types of compounds. For example, the CYP3A family is responsible for the metabolism of a wide variety of drugs, including many commonly prescribed medications. The CYP2D6 family is responsible for the metabolism of some antidepressants, antipsychotics, and other drugs. The activity of the cytochrome P-450 enzyme system can be affected by a variety of factors, including genetic variations, age, sex, and the presence of other medications. In some cases, these factors can lead to differences in the metabolism of drugs, which can affect their effectiveness and the risk of side effects. Overall, the cytochrome P-450 enzyme system plays a critical role in the metabolism of drugs and other substances in the body, and understanding its function is important for the safe and effective use of medications.
Steroid hydroxylases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the hydroxylation of steroids, which are a class of organic compounds that are important in various physiological processes in the body. These enzymes are responsible for modifying the structure of steroids by adding a hydroxyl group to specific positions on the steroid molecule. There are several different types of steroid hydroxylases, each of which is responsible for hydroxylating a specific position on the steroid molecule. For example, the enzyme 11β-hydroxylase is responsible for hydroxylating the 11β position of cortisol, a hormone that is produced by the adrenal gland. This hydroxylation reaction is important for the conversion of cortisol to cortisone, which is a less active form of the hormone. Steroid hydroxylases are important in the regulation of various physiological processes, including the metabolism of cholesterol, the production of sex hormones, and the regulation of the immune system. They are also involved in the synthesis of other important compounds, such as bile acids and vitamin D. In the medical field, steroid hydroxylases are often studied in the context of various diseases and disorders, such as Cushing's syndrome, which is a condition characterized by the overproduction of cortisol. In this condition, the activity of the enzyme 11β-hydroxylase is often increased, leading to an excess of cortisol in the body.
I'm sorry, but I couldn't find any information on "Azasteroids" in the medical field. It's possible that you may have misspelled the term or that it is not commonly used in medical terminology. If you could provide more context or information about where you heard or saw this term, I may be able to provide more assistance.
Cryptorchidism is a medical condition in which one or both testicles fail to descend from the abdomen into the scrotum, the pouch of skin that hangs behind the penis. This can occur in newborns, infants, and children, and is more common in males than females. In some cases, the testicles may descend into the scrotum within the first few months of life, but in others, the testicles may remain in the abdomen or inguinal canal (the canal that connects the abdomen to the scrotum) throughout life. Cryptorchidism can have a number of potential health consequences, including an increased risk of testicular cancer, infertility, and problems with sexual development. Treatment typically involves surgical intervention to move the testicles into the scrotum.
Androgen-Insensitivity Syndrome (AIS) is a genetic disorder that affects the development of male sexual characteristics in individuals with XY chromosomes. It is caused by mutations in the androgen receptor gene, which is responsible for the normal response to androgens, such as testosterone. In individuals with AIS, the body is unable to respond to androgens properly, leading to a range of physical abnormalities. The severity of the condition can vary widely, from mild to severe, and can affect different parts of the body in different ways. The most common form of AIS is Complete Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome (CAIS), which affects individuals with XY chromosomes who are born with female external genitalia but have undescended testes and no uterus or ovaries. They may also have a small penis or no penis at all, and may have a deep voice and a more masculine body shape. In contrast, Partial Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome (PAIS) affects individuals with XY chromosomes who are born with ambiguous genitalia or a mix of male and female characteristics. They may have a micropenis, hypospadias (an abnormal opening of the urethra), or a bifid scrotum. They may also have breast development or a more feminine body shape. AIS can also affect the development of the brain and cognitive function, although the extent of these effects can vary widely. Some individuals with AIS may have learning difficulties or other cognitive impairments, while others may have normal cognitive function. Treatment for AIS typically involves hormone therapy to feminize or masculinize the body, depending on the individual's specific needs and preferences. Surgery may also be necessary to correct physical abnormalities or improve sexual function.
Transsexualism, also known as gender dysphoria, is a medical condition in which a person experiences a strong and persistent discomfort or distress with their assigned gender at birth. This discomfort is often accompanied by a desire to live and be recognized as a member of the opposite sex. In the medical field, transsexualism is typically diagnosed through a combination of clinical interviews, psychological evaluations, and medical assessments. The diagnosis requires that the individual's gender identity is not a result of cultural, social, or psychological factors, but rather a deeply felt sense of being a member of the opposite sex. Treatment for transsexualism typically involves hormone therapy and gender-affirming surgeries, such as breast augmentation or genital reconstruction. Psychological counseling and support groups may also be recommended to help individuals cope with the challenges of transitioning and to address any mental health concerns that may arise.
In the medical field, body weight refers to the total mass of an individual's body, typically measured in kilograms (kg) or pounds (lbs). It is an important indicator of overall health and can be used to assess a person's risk for certain health conditions, such as obesity, diabetes, and heart disease. Body weight is calculated by measuring the amount of mass that a person's body contains, which includes all of the organs, tissues, bones, and fluids. It is typically measured using a scale or other weighing device, and can be influenced by factors such as age, gender, genetics, and lifestyle. Body weight can be further categorized into different types, such as body mass index (BMI), which takes into account both a person's weight and height, and waist circumference, which measures the size of a person's waist. These measures can provide additional information about a person's overall health and risk for certain conditions.
Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a medical condition in which a man is unable to achieve or maintain an erection sufficient for sexual activity. It is also known as impotence. ED can be caused by a variety of factors, including physical, psychological, and lifestyle factors. Physical causes of ED may include conditions such as diabetes, high blood pressure, and heart disease. Psychological causes may include stress, anxiety, and depression. Lifestyle factors such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and a sedentary lifestyle can also contribute to ED. Treatment for ED may include lifestyle changes, medications, and in some cases, surgery.
Diethylstilbestrol (DES) is a synthetic estrogen that was widely used in the past to prevent miscarriages and to promote the growth of the uterus in pregnant women. It was also given to women who had had miscarriages or premature births to help prevent future miscarriages. However, it was later discovered that DES had harmful effects on the reproductive system of both males and females who were exposed to it in the womb. DES can cause a range of health problems, including vaginal cancer, breast cancer, and reproductive problems such as infertility and miscarriages. In addition to its use in pregnant women, DES was also given to postmenopausal women to treat symptoms of menopause, such as hot flashes and vaginal dryness. However, this use of DES has been largely discontinued due to its harmful effects. Today, DES is no longer used in medical practice, and its use is strictly regulated and monitored to prevent its misuse and potential harm to individuals.
Prostatic neoplasms refer to tumors that develop in the prostate gland, which is a small gland located in the male reproductive system. These tumors can be either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign prostatic neoplasms, also known as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), are the most common type of prostatic neoplasm and are typically associated with an increase in the size of the prostate gland. Malignant prostatic neoplasms, on the other hand, are more serious and can spread to other parts of the body if left untreated. The most common type of prostate cancer is adenocarcinoma, which starts in the glandular cells of the prostate. Other types of prostatic neoplasms include sarcomas, which are rare and start in the connective tissue of the prostate, and carcinoid tumors, which are rare and start in the neuroendocrine cells of the prostate.
Klinefelter syndrome is a genetic disorder that affects males, resulting from the presence of an extra X chromosome. This leads to a total of 47 chromosomes instead of the usual 46. The extra X chromosome affects the development of the testes and the production of testosterone, which can lead to a range of physical, developmental, and behavioral symptoms. Some common symptoms of Klinefelter syndrome include small testes, infertility, gynecomastia (enlarged breast tissue), tall stature, and learning difficulties. Affected individuals may also have delayed speech and language development, poor coordination, and an increased risk of developing certain health conditions, such as osteoporosis and type 2 diabetes. Klinefelter syndrome is usually diagnosed through a blood test that detects the presence of an extra X chromosome. Treatment may involve hormone replacement therapy to increase testosterone levels and address physical symptoms, as well as speech and language therapy, educational support, and counseling to address any emotional or behavioral challenges.
Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A is a group of enzymes that are involved in the metabolism of a wide range of drugs and other substances in the body. These enzymes are found in the liver, lungs, and other organs, and they play a critical role in the elimination of drugs from the body. CYP3A enzymes are responsible for the metabolism of many commonly prescribed medications, including antibiotics, anti-inflammatory drugs, and cholesterol-lowering drugs. They also play a role in the metabolism of some recreational drugs, such as marijuana and cocaine. The activity of CYP3A enzymes can be affected by a variety of factors, including genetics, age, sex, and the presence of other medications. In some cases, interactions between different medications can lead to changes in the metabolism of one or both drugs, which can affect their effectiveness and increase the risk of side effects. In the medical field, understanding the role of CYP3A enzymes in drug metabolism is important for optimizing drug therapy and minimizing the risk of adverse effects. This information is often used to guide the selection and dosing of medications, as well as to develop strategies for managing drug interactions.
Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme (CYP11A1) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the biosynthesis of steroid hormones in the human body. It is located in the mitochondria of various tissues, including the adrenal gland, gonads, and brain. The primary function of CYP11A1 is to cleave the side chain of cholesterol, which is the starting material for the synthesis of steroid hormones such as cortisol, aldosterone, and sex hormones like testosterone and estrogen. This cleavage reaction generates two products: pregnenolone and side-chain fission products. Pregnenolone is the precursor for the synthesis of all other steroid hormones in the body. It is converted into other hormones through a series of enzymatic reactions that take place in various tissues. In summary, CYP11A1 is a critical enzyme in the biosynthesis of steroid hormones, and its dysfunction can lead to various medical conditions, including adrenal insufficiency, polycystic ovary syndrome, and congenital adrenal hyperplasia.
Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases (AHHs) are a group of enzymes that are involved in the metabolism of aromatic hydrocarbons, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (HAHs). These enzymes are primarily found in the liver and are responsible for the oxidation of these compounds to their corresponding hydroxylated derivatives. AHHs play an important role in the detoxification of these compounds, as the hydroxylated derivatives are more water-soluble and can be more easily excreted from the body. In addition, the hydroxylation of aromatic hydrocarbons can also lead to the formation of reactive intermediates, such as quinones, which can be further metabolized or detoxified by other enzymes. AHHs are also involved in the metabolism of other compounds, such as certain drugs and hormones. Mutations in the genes encoding AHHs can lead to impaired metabolism of these compounds, which can result in toxicity or other health effects. In the medical field, AHHs are often studied in the context of their role in the metabolism of environmental pollutants and their potential health effects. For example, exposure to PAHs and HAHs has been linked to an increased risk of cancer and other health problems, and AHHs are thought to play a key role in this process.
Ketoconazole is an antifungal medication that is used to treat a variety of fungal infections, including dermatophytosis (ringworm), candidiasis (yeast infection), and aspergillosis (lung infection). It works by inhibiting the growth of fungi and preventing them from multiplying. Ketoconazole is available in various forms, including tablets, creams, ointments, and shampoos. It is usually taken orally or applied topically to the affected area, depending on the type of infection being treated. In addition to its antifungal properties, ketoconazole has also been used to treat certain types of skin conditions, such as acne and seborrheic dermatitis. However, it is important to note that ketoconazole can have side effects, including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and liver damage, and should only be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional.
Receptors, LH (Luteinizing Hormone Receptors) are proteins found on the surface of cells in the body that bind to and respond to the hormone luteinizing hormone (LH). LH is produced by the anterior pituitary gland and plays a key role in regulating the menstrual cycle in women and sperm production in men. In women, LH receptors are found on the cells of the ovaries, where they help to stimulate the growth and maturation of ovarian follicles and the production of estrogen and progesterone. In men, LH receptors are found on the cells of the testes, where they help to stimulate the production of testosterone. LH receptors are also found in other parts of the body, including the placenta, adrenal gland, and brain. In these locations, LH receptors may play a role in regulating a variety of physiological processes, including metabolism, immune function, and mood.
Pregnenolone is a naturally occurring hormone that is produced in the adrenal glands and the brain. It is a precursor to several other hormones, including cortisol, aldosterone, and sex hormones such as testosterone and estrogen. Pregnenolone plays a role in a variety of physiological processes, including the regulation of the stress response, immune function, and mood. It is also used in some alternative medicine practices, although its effectiveness and safety have not been well-established.
Androgen-binding protein (ABP) is a protein that binds to androgens, such as testosterone and dihydrotestosterone, in the bloodstream. It is produced by the liver and is responsible for regulating the levels of free and bound androgens in the body. ABP acts as a carrier protein, transporting androgens to their target cells where they can exert their effects. ABP also plays a role in the metabolism of androgens, as it can facilitate the conversion of androgens to other hormones or their inactive metabolites. Abnormal levels of ABP can be associated with various medical conditions, including liver disease, kidney disease, and certain types of cancer.
Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) is a chemical compound that is commonly used as a plasticizer in the production of plastics and other materials. It is a colorless, odorless liquid that is used in a variety of consumer products, including toys, clothing, and personal care products. In the medical field, DBP is not typically used as a treatment for any medical condition. However, it has been found in some medical devices and may be present in certain medications. DBP has been linked to a number of health effects, including reproductive and developmental problems, as well as potential cancer risks. As a result, the use of DBP in consumer products has been restricted in some countries, and efforts are being made to reduce its use in other products.
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects (PEDs) refer to the long-term health effects that can occur in an individual as a result of exposure to environmental or genetic factors during pregnancy. PEDs can manifest in a variety of ways, including physical, behavioral, and cognitive impairments, and can occur even if the exposure occurred many years before the individual's birth. PEDs can result from exposure to a wide range of substances, including drugs, alcohol, tobacco, pollutants, and infections. These exposures can affect the developing fetus in various ways, including disrupting normal growth and development, altering gene expression, and causing damage to organs and systems. PEDs can also result from genetic factors, such as inherited disorders or mutations. These genetic factors can increase the risk of developing certain health conditions, such as autism, ADHD, and learning disabilities, even if the individual was not exposed to any environmental factors during pregnancy. Overall, PEDs highlight the importance of taking steps to protect pregnant women and their developing fetuses from exposure to harmful substances and environmental factors, as well as the need for ongoing monitoring and support for individuals who may be at risk for PEDs.
Gonadal hormones are hormones produced by the gonads, which are the testes in males and the ovaries in females. These hormones play a crucial role in the development and maintenance of reproductive function in both males and females. In males, the primary gonadal hormone is testosterone, which is responsible for the development of male secondary sexual characteristics such as facial hair, deepening of the voice, and muscle mass. Testosterone also plays a role in sperm production and sexual desire. In females, the primary gonadal hormones are estrogen and progesterone. Estrogen is responsible for the development of female secondary sexual characteristics such as breast development and the menstrual cycle. Progesterone is responsible for preparing the uterus for pregnancy and maintaining pregnancy. Gonadal hormones also play a role in other bodily functions such as bone health, mood regulation, and immune function. Imbalances in gonadal hormones can lead to a variety of medical conditions, including infertility, osteoporosis, and mood disorders.
Androstenediol is a naturally occurring hormone that is a precursor to testosterone in the human body. It is a type of androgen, which are hormones that are responsible for the development and maintenance of male characteristics. Androstenediol is produced in the adrenal glands and in the gonads (ovaries in females and testes in males). It is converted to testosterone by the enzyme 5-alpha-reductase. Androstenediol has been studied for its potential therapeutic effects, including its ability to increase muscle mass and strength, improve athletic performance, and enhance sexual function. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential benefits and risks of androstenediol supplementation.
Ketosteroids are a group of hormones produced by the adrenal glands, which are located on top of the kidneys. They are also known as glucocorticoids because they help regulate glucose metabolism in the body. The most well-known ketosteroid is cortisol, which plays a crucial role in the body's response to stress, regulates metabolism, and helps maintain blood pressure and blood sugar levels. Other ketosteroids include corticosterone, cortisone, and aldosterone. In the medical field, ketosteroids are often prescribed to treat a variety of conditions, including: 1. Inflammation: Corticosteroids are effective at reducing inflammation and swelling in the body, making them useful for treating conditions such as asthma, allergies, and rheumatoid arthritis. 2. Autoimmune disorders: Corticosteroids can help suppress the immune system, making them useful for treating conditions such as lupus and multiple sclerosis. 3. Skin conditions: Corticosteroids are often used to treat skin conditions such as eczema, psoriasis, and acne. 4. Cancer: Corticosteroids can help reduce the side effects of cancer treatments such as chemotherapy and radiation therapy. However, long-term use of corticosteroids can have side effects, including weight gain, high blood pressure, and osteoporosis. Therefore, they are typically prescribed for short-term use only and in carefully monitored doses.
Desogestrel is a progestin, a synthetic hormone that is used in combination with estrogen in birth control pills to prevent pregnancy. It works by thickening the cervical mucus, which makes it difficult for sperm to reach the egg, and by inhibiting ovulation. Desogestrel is also used in emergency contraception, or "morning-after" pills, to prevent pregnancy after unprotected sex. It is also used in some hormonal contraceptive implants and vaginal rings.
Testosterone: MedlinePlus Drug Information
NIMH » Testosterone
Testosterone Replacement Benefits Men With Type 2 Diabetes
Do certain foods lower testosterone?
Republican Losers Have Lower Testosterone | ScienceBlogs
What Does Testosterone Replacement Therapy Do?
Hack Your Testosterone - AskMen
Anabolic Steroid Use and Abuse: Practice Essentials, Biopharmacology of Testosterone, Biochemistry and Pharmacology
Total Testosterone - Health Encyclopedia - University of Rochester Medical Center
Testosterone (IARC Summary & Evaluation, Volume 6, 1974)
HHS Asks DEA to Reclassify Cannabis as Equivalent to Testosterone, Codeine Tylenol
Male Testosterone Can Be Bad for the Economy | Mental Floss
Androderm (Testosterone Transdermal System): Uses, Dosage, Side Effects, Interactions, Warning
testosterone - ZRT Laboratory
TESTOSTERONE TOTAL SERUM
Are Higher Testosterone Levels Associated with Greater Heart Risk? | UC San Francisco
Where can you buy Testosterone Cypionate online - Legal Steroids UK
Buy Testosterone Enanthate online | Order Steroids for Bodybuilding
increasing testosterone levels Archives | BrinkZone.com
PDF) Music and testosterone - A new hypothesis for the origin and function of music
Buy Iforce Nutrition Intimidate SRT | Testosterone Booster
Titan Healthcare Testosterone Enanthate - Legit Steroid Suppliers
John Edwards: Is there a testosterone gap? | Independent Women's Forum
Some Tips for Men Penile Growth - Lift up Testosterone - Careyourauto
Testosterone - Page 4 of 6 - Male Health & Testosterone Advice
Top 40 Ways to Boost Testosterone Naturally (Men Testo Tips) | Seattle Weekly
Buy Testosterone Enanthate online - Anabolic Steroids Shop
Almonds' Role in Boosting Testosterone - SECEC.org
The Testicle Testosterone Connection!
Reduced testosterone levels1
- Researchers noted that spearmint essential oil reduced testosterone levels in these rats. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Testosterone is used to treat symptoms of low testosterone in men who have hypogonadism (a condition in which the body does not produce enough natural testosterone). (medlineplus.gov)
- Testosterone is used only for men with low testosterone levels caused by certain medical conditions, including disorders of the testicles, pituitary gland, (a small gland in the brain), or hypothalamus (a part of the brain) that cause hypogonadism. (medlineplus.gov)
- The indication for treatment approved by the US Food and Drug Administration is a condition known as hypogonadism - low testosterone accompanied by at least two other symptoms, such as low libido, fatigue, depression, bone thinning, erectile dysfunction, or dwindling muscle strength. (ucsf.edu)
- Testosterone is determined in men when reduced testosterone production is suspected, e.g. in hypogonadism, estrogen therapy, chromosome aberrations (as in the Klinefelter's syndrome) and liver cirrhosis. (cdc.gov)
- Harmonized reference normal ranges for testosterone levels in healthy, nonobese men have been generated in a landmark study that should aid in accurately diagnosing hypogonadism , say US investigators. (medscape.com)
- The diagnosis of hypogonadism, which is characterized by low testosterone levels and can lead to sexual dysfunction, decreased bone and muscle strength, and lower fertility, relies on accurate hormonal measurements. (medscape.com)
- Another recent study has suggested that measuring free testosterone alongside total testosterone may offer a more accurate picture when diagnosing hypogonadism. (medscape.com)
- As reported by Medscape Medical News , analysis of 3000 men in eight European countries indicated that men with normal total testosterone but low free testosterone levels had more signs and symptoms of hypogonadism than those with low total-testosterone levels only. (medscape.com)
- All this manufacturers are buy Testosterone Enanthate online available by the best price with fast US shipping. (thedollpalace.com)
- Buy Testosterone Enanthate online, buy Oxandrolone in UK, buy HGH online no prescription. (thedollpalace.com)
- At the time, backup units were apparently either unavailable, or buy Testosterone Enanthate online located 30 minutes away in Morris. (thedollpalace.com)
- T3 contains three atoms hours, the patient alone or with other been shortening the Titan Healthcare Testosterone Enanthate meeting in Montreal, Canada. (theroxor.com)
- However, Titan Healthcare Testosterone Enanthate some cYP450 patient stop using and promotes vascular dysfunction. (theroxor.com)
- Several testosterone salts (eg, enanthate, cypionate) are available in long-acting oil-based preparations. (medscape.com)
- Asked to comment, endocrinologist Bradley D. Anawalt, MD, chief of medicine at the University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle, told Medscape Medical News , "This 'worldwide survey' confirms many studies from around the world over the past 20 years… [T]he association is due to 'reverse causation,' in that diabetes type 2 and obesity lower testosterone concentrations. (medscape.com)
- Weight loss of 5%-10% may raise testosterone concentrations in men with high body mass indices, large waist circumferences, and low blood testosterone concentrations. (medscape.com)
- Working with a young adult choir (n = 71), we measured changes salivary concentrations of oxytocin, cortisol, and testosterone from before and after four experimental conditions crossing two factors: vocal production mode (singing vs. speaking) and social context (together vs. alone). (researchgate.net)
- To address this, concentrations of testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin, androstanediol glucuronide (a metabolite of dihydrotestosterone) and estradiol were measured in stored serum specimens from men selected for the 1/3 subsample where organochlorine pesticide levels were determined. (cdc.gov)
- Albumin, which exists in far higher concentrations than SHBG, also binds sexual steroids - although with a clearly lower binding affinity (e.g. about 100 times lower for testosterone). (cdc.gov)
- Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentrations in hypogonadal men during 6 years of transdermal testosterone treatment. (medscape.com)
- RÉSUMÉ Afin de déterminer les effets du jeûne du ramadan sur la sécrétion d'hormones sexuelles chez des hommes célibataires en bonne santé, nous avons mesuré les concentrations sanguines de testostérone et d'hormones lutéinisante (LH) et folliculostimulante (FSH) chez 52 étudiants célibataires âgés de 18 à 24 ans qui jeûnaient pendant 12 heures ou plus pendant le ramadan. (who.int)
Serum testosterone levels2
- Food powers the cells and may affect some of the body's other components, including hormones, such as testosterone. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Testosterone is one of the major sex hormones in the body. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Typically, the body does an effective job regulating the hormones and keeping levels of testosterone where they need to be. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- By eating a diet high in cholesterol, you're giving your body the raw materials to synthesize testosterone, along with a number of other crucial hormones. (askmen.com)
- An international team of economists and neuroscientists write in Nature that the hormones cortisol and testosterone can affect men's optimism and preferences for risky investments, and might play a role in destabilizing financial markets. (mentalfloss.com)
- In the trials with administered cortisol and testosterone, both hormones increased men's investment in higher risk stocks. (mentalfloss.com)
- Delivery of the bioidentical hormones estradiol (E2), progesterone (Pg), and testosterone (T) through the skin as a cream or gel (topically) has become a mainstay of bioidentical hormone replacement therapy (BHRT) for women and men. (zrtlab.com)
- ABSTRACT To determine the effects of Ramadan fasting on the secretion of sex hormones in single healthy males, we measured blood hormone levels of testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) in 52 single male students aged 18-24 years who were fasting for 12 hours during Ramadan. (who.int)
- And if they fulfill criteria for testosterone deficiency and have had their [prostate-specific antigen] checked, consider a trial of treatment and follow them," study lead author T. Hugh Jones, MD, consultant physician and endocrinologist at Barnsley Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Barnsley, United Kingdom advised, speaking with Medscape Medical News . (medscape.com)
- Testosterone deficiency is also associated with adverse effects on cardiovascular risk factors, bone health, muscle strength, sexual function, and psychological well-being, yet it is often overlooked, Jones noted. (medscape.com)
- In the meantime, he said, giving testosterone replacement to men with deficiency can be very rewarding for many reasons. (medscape.com)
- ANDRODERM is an androgen indicated for replacement therapy in adult males for conditions associated with a deficiency or absence of endogenous testosterone. (rxlist.com)
- Testosterone Deficiency in Younger Men - Is It Real? (zrtlab.com)
- Testosterone therapy in men with androgen deficiency syndromes: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. (medscape.com)
Polycystic ovary sy2
- Females with high levels of testosterone may have polycystic ovary syndrome. (rochester.edu)
- While it's true that abnormal lab findings can contribute to symptoms - high thyroid-stimulating hormone reflects hypothyroidism, high testosterone reflects polycystic ovary syndrome, and hyperandrogenism or low cortisol may contribute to fatigue. (zrtlab.com)
- This testosterone is called free testosterone. (rochester.edu)
- Free testosterone and albumin-bound testosterone are also referred to as bioavailable testosterone. (rochester.edu)
- The free testosterone can help give more information when total testosterone is low. (rochester.edu)
- Specifically, higher total and free testosterone and insulin-like growth factor were reported in younger men than in older men. (seattleweekly.com)
- Androderm ( testosterone transdermal system) topical (for the skin) is a naturally occurring male hormone used to treat conditions in men that result from a lack of natural testosterone. (rxlist.com)
- Based around an ingredient called NDMA, Intimidate SRT boosts your natural testosterone levels providing you with gains in strength, size and libido. (predatornutrition.com)
- Although the term steroid includes all agents derived from this ringed structure, this discussion includes only testosterone and the anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs). (medscape.com)
- Testosterone is the principle hormone in humans that produces male secondary sex characteristics ( androgenic ) and is an important hormone in maintaining adequate nitrogen balance, thus aiding in tissue healing and the maintenance of muscle mass (anabolic). (medscape.com)
- Testosterone has a dual action and can be described in terms of its androgenic and anabolic capacities. (medscape.com)
- Well over a thousand different compounds have been synthesized and studied since the 1950s in the hope of producing compounds that have an anabolic or androgenic effect superior to that of testosterone. (medscape.com)
- Almost since their inception, testosterone and anabolic-androgenic analogues have been used and abused by individuals seeking to augment their anabolic and androgenic potential. (medscape.com)
- Hypercalcemia) inform your doctor before taking from testosterone cypionate within stacks very well with all types of anabolic steroids. (mevio.com)
- Anabolic steroids add extra testosterone to the body. (thedollpalace.com)
- Testosterone Propionate is not an expensive as other steroids but is considered an extremely effective anabolic steroid. (thedollpalace.com)
- Steroids shop where you buy anabolic steroids like testosterone online Fast Muscle Co Steroids. (theroxor.com)
- In fact, several skilled rivals assure that caffeine has aided these with improving their athletic exhibitions on the whole through the anabolic effects of broadening their testosterone focus. (careyourauto.com)
- All testosterone preparations are regulated as Schedule III controlled substances according to the Anabolic Steroids Control Act. (medscape.com)
- Androgenic anabolic steroid indicated for testosterone replacement. (medscape.com)
Benefits of testosterone replacement1
- What are the benefits of testosterone replacement therapy? (medicinenet.com)
- Endogenous testosterone released from the sample by ANS (8-anilino-1-naphthalene sulfonic acid) and norgestrel competes with the added testosterone derivative labeled with ruthenium complex for the binding sites on the biotinylated antibody. (cdc.gov)
- Our Androderm (testosterone transdermal system) Side Effects Drug Center provides a comprehensive view of available drug information on the potential side effects when taking this medication. (rxlist.com)
- Androderm ( testosterone transdermal system) is designed to deliver testosterone continuously for 24 hours following application to intact, non-scrotal skin (e.g., back, abdomen, thighs, upper arms). (rxlist.com)
- Boggs W. Transdermal Testosterone Doesn't Boost PSA Levels or Prostate Cancer Risk. (medscape.com)
Increase Testosterone Levels4
- A person can also increase testosterone levels naturally, by exercising regularly and maintaining a healthy weight. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Do B Vitamins Increase Testosterone Levels? (smartglobalhealth.org)
- Continue Reading about Do B Vitamins Increase Testosterone Levels? (smartglobalhealth.org)
- Earlier, we mentioned that weight loss could help increase testosterone levels. (seattleweekly.com)
- Here are 5 hacks to boost your testosterone naturally. (askmen.com)
- If naturally high or low testosterone levels prove to be significantly associated with heart disease risk, it might then make sense to weigh testosterone levels along with other risk factors in making decisions about screening and preventive strategies. (ucsf.edu)
- Several studies in recent years have reported that older men with naturally higher testosterone levels tend to have less heart disease. (ucsf.edu)
- If your testosterone runs low and you want to boost it naturally, Testogen is here to help. (thedollpalace.com)
- This product should be used when you are looking to boost testosterone levels, be that because of naturally low levels brought on by old age, as part of PCT, or just when you are looking for short term increases to boost strength and muscle mass. (predatornutrition.com)
- Androgenic hormone or testosterone presumes an immense aspect in men propagation and sexuality, as well, in this manner taking part in a factor in masculine improve and erotic ability in general. (careyourauto.com)
- Typically, androgenic hormone or testosterone is supplied within a man's gonads. (careyourauto.com)
- To succeed androgenic hormone or testosterone creation and assistance with Viasil men enhancement, it would be appropriate to eat a lot of fresh vegetables and nut products, such as lentils, soybeans, walnuts, shrimp, salmon, ovum and hamburger. (careyourauto.com)
- Caffeinated drinks is one thing in addition that will increase androgenic hormone or testosterone concentrates in the body. (careyourauto.com)
- Normally, it would be essential to stress on vitamins and nutrients, at the same time, especially on nutrient D, which is associated to higher androgenic hormone or testosterone amounts. (careyourauto.com)
- The determination of testosterone in women is helpful in the diagnosis of androgenic syndrome (AGS), polycystic ovaries (Stein-Leventhal syndrome) and when an ovarian tumor, adrenal tumor, adrenal hyperplasia or ovarian insufficiency is suspected. (cdc.gov)
- You may notice an increase in your libido soon after starting testosterone replacement therapy. (medicinenet.com)
- Packed with 8 strong libido and T boosting ingredients, Test Boost from Sculpt Nation claims to be the easiest and fasted way for men to increase their testosterone levels. (smartglobalhealth.org)
Higher testosterone levels2
- Are Higher Testosterone Levels Associated with Greater Heart Risk? (ucsf.edu)
- According to researchers at the Medical University of Graz in Austria, subjects with sufficient vitamin D levels had significantly higher testosterone levels than those with lower levels of the vitamin. (muscleandfitness.com)
Attenuated testosterone production1
- A more recent but smaller study with a similar goal conducted over a span of 12 months found that "aging manifested in attenuated testosterone production capacity. (seattleweekly.com)
- As a study posted in Current Drug Abuse Review notes, heavy drinking or regular drinking over long periods causes a decrease in testosterone in males. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Previous research has shown that testosterone levels in males will decline significantly if the sports team they have identified with fails to achieve victory. (scienceblogs.com)
- Republican males had reduced testosterone after losing election. (scienceblogs.com)
- The researchers suggest that perhaps female testosterone is more difficult to record in women and doesn't have the same rapid release that males experience, which may have influenced the results. (scienceblogs.com)
- Since losing voters reported greater submissiveness, we speculate that losing males, who also experienced testosterone decrements, might have been less motivated to engage in dominance behavior after the election. (scienceblogs.com)
- Moreover, since the dominance hierarchy shift following a presidential election is stable for 4 years, the stress of having one's political party lose control of executive policy decisions could plausibly lead to continued testosterone suppression in males. (scienceblogs.com)
- In such cases it may be that males show a similar reduced testosterone level while women do not. (scienceblogs.com)
- Testosterone is made in the testes in males, the ovaries in females, and in the adrenal glands. (rochester.edu)
- Males continue to make testosterone. (rochester.edu)
- Both males and females can have health problems because of low or high levels of testosterone. (rochester.edu)
- Testosterone levels in males drop as they age. (rochester.edu)
- The FDA currently advises against treating males with low testosterone caused only by aging. (rochester.edu)
- No significant effects were found in a low-powered exploratory evaluation of testosterone (tested only in males). (researchgate.net)
- Your doctor may order certain tests to check your body's response to testosterone. (medlineplus.gov)
- One of the researchers behind this study, Frances Hayes, MD, stressed that "losing weight not only reduces the risk of prediabetic men progressing to diabetes but also appears to increase their body's production of testosterone. (seattleweekly.com)
- While this study examined men's behavior in the lab, which might not translate exactly to real-life trading preferences, several previous studies have linked testosterone to financial risk-taking and profits, and a 2008 study of actual traders in London similarly linked testosterone and cortisol to changes in investment behavior. (mentalfloss.com)
- Fukui and Toyoshima, 2013;Fukui and Yamashita, 2003), which, if extended to music making, may indicate that group singing can act on testosterone alongside oxytocin and cortisol to further modulate affiliation and social bonding. (researchgate.net)
- Two strengths of Androderm are available that deliver approximately 2 mg or 4 mg of testosterone per day. (rxlist.com)
- The Androderm 2 mg/day system has a total contact surface area of 32 cm² with a 6.0 cm² central drug delivery reservoir containing 9.7 mg testosterone USP, dissolved in an alcohol-based gel. (rxlist.com)
- Similarly, testosterone affects fat metabolism, the immune system and other endocrine systems in ways that might significantly increase or decrease a man's risk for heart disease - no one knows for certain. (ucsf.edu)
- Honestly, a zinc inadequacy could result in decrease testosterone amounts in most cases. (careyourauto.com)
- Concentrates on reveal that consumes much less calorie consumption that make up of less than 40Per cent of vitality as extra fat can prompt decrease testosterone amounts. (careyourauto.com)
- The group that was subjected to lifestyle modification (i.e., exercising 150 minutes a week, eating less fat and fewer calories) ended up with a decrease in the prevalence of low testosterone levels from 20% to 11% after one year. (seattleweekly.com)
Amount of testosterone2
- A pregnant woman should avoid coming into contact with testosterone topical gel, or with a man's skin areas where a testosterone topical patch has been worn or the gel has been applied. (rxlist.com)
- Testosterone, so meaningful to a man's behavior, is the evolutionary force behind everything intrinsically "male. (zrtlab.com)
- In fact, one 2021 review concludes that neither soy nor phytoestrogens have any impact on testosterone levels. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- If your healthcare provider thinks that you have low or high testosterone, they will first test total testosterone levels. (rochester.edu)
- Your doctor will order certain lab tests to check your testosterone levels to see if they are low before you begin to take testosterone. (medlineplus.gov)
- Take testosterone at around the same times every day. (medlineplus.gov)
- Take testosterone exactly as directed. (medlineplus.gov)
- Your doctor will probably tell you that you should not take testosterone. (medlineplus.gov)
- Some men believe they feel younger and more energetic if they take testosterone medication. (medicinenet.com)
- Some people notice changes in their sexual preferences, attraction, or orientation when they take testosterone. (medicinenet.com)
- Testosterone gets its name because it's produced in the testes, and testes like to stay cool - they function best in chillier environments, and they do very poorly in hot ones. (askmen.com)
- Testosterone, the primary male sex hormone, is manufactured in the testes under the influence of luteinizing hormone (LH) in amounts of 2.5-11 mg/day. (medscape.com)
- In men, testosterone is synthesized almost exclusively by the Leydig cells of the testes. (cdc.gov)
- Your doctor or pharmacist will give you the manufacturer's patient information sheet (Medication Guide) when you begin treatment with testosterone and each time you refill your prescription. (medlineplus.gov)
- Criminal Investigations Unit in Halifax led the investigation that throughout life for adult men testosterone is essential decade, other. (theroxor.com)
- According to the organizational-activational hypothesis, the organizational effects of testosterone during (prenatal) brain development moderate the activational effects of adult testosterone on behavior . (bvsalud.org)
- Our results showed that the cumulative exposure to testosterone during adolescence moderated the relation between adult testosterone and both the mean fMRI response and functional connectivity (i.e., node strength). (bvsalud.org)
- With a sample of young men from a longitudinal birth cohort , we showed that the cumulative exposure to testosterone during adolescence moderated the relation between adult testosterone and both the mean BOLD signal change and functional connectivity. (bvsalud.org)
- In vitro metabolism study of carbofuran and its metabolic interaction with testosterone. (cdc.gov)
- This reaction is probably associated with the evolved trait seen in many primates where testosterone will decline after losing a fight with another male. (scienceblogs.com)
- Nevertheless, previous research with women hasn't demonstrated the same decline in testosterone levels after competitive activities. (scienceblogs.com)
- The low-fat dieting fad swept America in the late '70s, and the nationwide decline in male testosterone began in the mid-'80s. (askmen.com)
- Testosterone levels in men generally decline slowly from middle age onward. (ucsf.edu)
- As testosterone levels decline with age, the researchers initially generated reference ranges in healthy, nonobese men aged 19 to 39 years, followed by ranges stratified by decade of age. (medscape.com)
- No adequate epidemiological data on testosterone alone were available to the Working Group. (inchem.org)
- Exert agonist effects are on a cycle, most produce, both men and women, and essentially so with Testosterone and Dihydrotestosterone being primary. (mevio.com)
- While past studies have shown that men's testosterone levels differentially change in response to winning or losing an interpersonal dominance contest, the present study provides novel evidence showing that vicarious victory and defeat via democratic elections has similar physiological consequences for male voters as do interpersonal dominance contests. (scienceblogs.com)
- In recent times, the supplement industry has witnessed a hike in testosterone boosters . (seattleweekly.com)
- He was banned from development, and fusion of genital folds to form even with their General European Pharmaceuticals Testosterone huge advantages, when endurance as well steroids are. (theroxor.com)
- Future studies examining testosterone in the context of group singing or other musical behaviors should consider incorporating further factors or measurements potentially relevant to testosterone, such as the existence of interpersonal friendships, individual social status, singing skill, and competitive/cooperative group dynamics (Casto and Edwards, 2016;Edwards et al. (researchgate.net)
- Where can you buy Testosterone Cypionate online, Anavar for sale in USA, Anastrozole 1mg price. (mevio.com)
- The secretion of testosterone is regulated by luteinizing hormone (LH), and is subject to negative feedback via the pituitary and hypothalamus. (cdc.gov)
- This is because testosterone levels tend to be highest at that time. (rochester.edu)
- HAMBURG - Testosterone replacement therapy was associated with significant reductions in A1c at 1 and 2 years among men with type 2 diabetes, a multinational audit shows. (medscape.com)
- What the researchers determined was that Republican men showed significant reductions in testosterone after they learned that their candidate had lost the election. (scienceblogs.com)
- If your testosterone levels are higher or lower than normal, you may have a condition that affects your testosterone production. (rochester.edu)
- The reason that a sex hormone such as testosterone is closely related to music is still unknown despite the many reports that music affects the human endocrine system. (researchgate.net)
- The current study investigates whether listening to music affects the testosterone level in females and whether any sex differences exist in the effect of listening to music on testosterone level. (researchgate.net)
- The paper notes that many studies have not found a connection between eating soy products and altered serum testosterone or estrogen levels. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- AASs are drugs derived from the modification of the testosterone molecule in order to augment or limit certain characteristics of testosterone. (medscape.com)
- Biochemists quickly noted that additions or subtractions to the testosterone molecule at specific locations would have a somewhat predictable effect on the inherent qualities of said compound. (medscape.com)
- Harmonizing testosterone levels from four major cohort studies, Shalender Bhasin, MD, from Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School in Boston, Massachusetts, and colleagues were able to identify a reference range for testosterone that could help clinicians in decision making and improve patient care - this was in the region of 250 to 900 ng/dL for 19- to 39-year-old men. (medscape.com)
- Testosterone causes the changes that occur in boys during puberty. (rochester.edu)
- The authors further speculate that a similar reduction in testosterone may also apply in the case of business or union negotiation failures, changes in international power relations (such as losing a war), or economic strength. (scienceblogs.com)
- We speculate that pubertal testosterone modulates the relationship between current testosterone and brain response to social cues carried by the eyes and signaling a potential threat.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Accumulating evidence supports the organizational effects of pubertal testosterone , but the body of literature examining these effects on social cognition in humans is in its infancy. (bvsalud.org)
- Testosterone is a hormone produced by the body that contributes to the growth, development, and functioning of the male sexual organs and typical male characteristics. (medlineplus.gov)
- Testosterone is a male sex hormone (androgen) that helps male features develop. (rochester.edu)
- I reported findings that music suppressed testosterone in the male. (researchgate.net)
- Testosterone is an androgen sex hormone fundamental for male health. (seattleweekly.com)
- We conclude that biomedical knowledge and power associates testosterone with the masculine nature, producing, as truth effect, male subjectivation modes. (bvsalud.org)
- In follow-up trials, 30 young men received either a tablet of hydrocortisone or a placebo before they began a stock investment task, and 36 young men received either a dose of testosterone or a placebo. (mentalfloss.com)
- Do certain foods lower testosterone? (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Can Foods Lower Testosterone? (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Some foods, including soy, dairy, and specific fats, have been claimed to lower testosterone levels in the body. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- However, it is important to note that the research regarding food's ability to lower testosterone levels is limited. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Haha, I'd love to see the reactions of a few teabaggers being told that they probably have much lower testosterone levels than the liberals they so revile. (scienceblogs.com)
- One thing you may not know about testosterone is that daily stress from work, personal life, and even workouts can actually lead to lower testosterone levels. (muscleandfitness.com)
- Testosterone was tested by subcutaneous injection and/or implantation in mice, rats and hamsters. (inchem.org)
- Just like any compound that allegedly impacts testosterone, workout enthusiasts are wondering whether or not this will be the golden key that unlocks infinite gains without any side effects. (thedollpalace.com)
- For and testosterone therapy has helps in weaning off not acutely stimulate school of Medicine at the University of Glasgow. (theroxor.com)
- Concerning what science and/or experts have to say, Piedmont urologist Richard Jadick, D.O., was referenced in a piece where the expert noted that exercise could stimulate testosterone levels in two ways. (seattleweekly.com)