Testis: The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.Rete Testis: The network of channels formed at the termination of the straight SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES in the mediastinum testis. Rete testis channels drain into the efferent ductules that pass into the caput EPIDIDYMIS.Spermatogenesis: The process of germ cell development in the male from the primordial germ cells, through SPERMATOGONIA; SPERMATOCYTES; SPERMATIDS; to the mature haploid SPERMATOZOA.Sertoli Cells: Supporting cells projecting inward from the basement membrane of SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. They surround and nourish the developing male germ cells and secrete ANDROGEN-BINDING PROTEIN and hormones such as ANTI-MULLERIAN HORMONE. The tight junctions of Sertoli cells with the SPERMATOGONIA and SPERMATOCYTES provide a BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER.Cryptorchidism: A developmental defect in which a TESTIS or both TESTES failed to descend from high in the ABDOMEN to the bottom of the SCROTUM. Testicular descent is essential to normal SPERMATOGENESIS which requires temperature lower than the BODY TEMPERATURE. Cryptorchidism can be subclassified by the location of the maldescended testis.Leydig Cells: Steroid-producing cells in the interstitial tissue of the TESTIS. They are under the regulation of PITUITARY HORMONES; LUTEINIZING HORMONE; or interstitial cell-stimulating hormone. TESTOSTERONE is the major androgen (ANDROGENS) produced.Spermatids: Male germ cells derived from the haploid secondary SPERMATOCYTES. Without further division, spermatids undergo structural changes and give rise to SPERMATOZOA.Spermatozoa: Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.Spermatogonia: Euploid male germ cells of an early stage of SPERMATOGENESIS, derived from prespermatogonia. With the onset of puberty, spermatogonia at the basement membrane of the seminiferous tubule proliferate by mitotic then meiotic divisions and give rise to the haploid SPERMATOCYTES.Epididymis: The convoluted cordlike structure attached to the posterior of the TESTIS. Epididymis consists of the head (caput), the body (corpus), and the tail (cauda). A network of ducts leaving the testis joins into a common epididymal tubule proper which provides the transport, storage, and maturation of SPERMATOZOA.Seminiferous Epithelium: The epithelium lining the seminiferous tubules composed of primary male germ cells (SPERMATOGONIA) and supporting SERTOLI CELLS. As SPERMATOGENESIS proceeds, the developing germ cells migrate toward the lumen. The adluminal compartment, the inner two thirds of the tubules, contains SPERMATOCYTES and the more advanced germ cells.Testicular Diseases: Pathological processes of the TESTIS.Testosterone: A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.Spermatocytes: Male germ cells derived from SPERMATOGONIA. The euploid primary spermatocytes undergo MEIOSIS and give rise to the haploid secondary spermatocytes which in turn give rise to SPERMATIDS.Testicular Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the TESTIS. Germ cell tumors (GERMINOMA) of the testis constitute 95% of all testicular neoplasms.Sperm Count: A count of SPERM in the ejaculum, expressed as number per milliliter.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Spermatic Cord Torsion: The twisting of the SPERMATIC CORD due to an anatomical abnormality that left the TESTIS mobile and dangling in the SCROTUM. The initial effect of testicular torsion is obstruction of venous return. Depending on the duration and degree of cord rotation, testicular symptoms range from EDEMA to interrupted arterial flow and testicular pain. If blood flow to testis is absent for 4 to 6 h, SPERMATOGENESIS may be permanently lost.Infertility, Male: The inability of the male to effect FERTILIZATION of an OVUM after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Male sterility is permanent infertility.Germ Cells: The reproductive cells in multicellular organisms at various stages during GAMETOGENESIS.Orchitis: Inflammation of a TESTIS. It has many features of EPIDIDYMITIS, such as swollen SCROTUM; PAIN; PYURIA; and FEVER. It is usually related to infections in the URINARY TRACT, which likely spread to the EPIDIDYMIS and then the TESTIS through either the VAS DEFERENS or the lymphatics of the SPERMATIC CORD.Genitalia, Male: The male reproductive organs. They are divided into the external organs (PENIS; SCROTUM;and URETHRA) and the internal organs (TESTIS; EPIDIDYMIS; VAS DEFERENS; SEMINAL VESICLES; EJACULATORY DUCTS; PROSTATE; and BULBOURETHRAL GLANDS).Sexual Maturation: Achievement of full sexual capacity in animals and in humans.Scrotum: A cutaneous pouch of skin containing the testicles and spermatic cords.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Blood-Testis Barrier: A specialized barrier, in the TESTIS, between the interstitial BLOOD compartment and the adluminal compartment of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. The barrier is formed by layers of cells from the VASCULAR ENDOTHELIUM of the capillary BLOOD VESSELS, to the SEMINIFEROUS EPITHELIUM of the seminiferous tubules. TIGHT JUNCTIONS form between adjacent SERTOLI CELLS, as well as between the ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Sex Differentiation: The process in developing sex- or gender-specific tissue, organ, or function after SEX DETERMINATION PROCESSES have set the sex of the GONADS. Major areas of sex differentiation occur in the reproductive tract (GENITALIA) and the brain.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Orchiectomy: The surgical removal of one or both testicles.Ovary: The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.Sex-Determining Region Y Protein: A transcription factor that plays an essential role in the development of the TESTES. It is encoded by a gene on the Y chromosome and contains a specific HMG-BOX DOMAIN that is found within members of the SOX family of transcription factors.Fertility: The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.Seminal Vesicles: A saclike, glandular diverticulum on each ductus deferens in male vertebrates. It is united with the excretory duct and serves for temporary storage of semen. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Sex Determination Processes: The mechanisms by which the SEX of an individual's GONADS are fixed.Follicle Stimulating Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Gonads: The gamete-producing glands, OVARY or TESTIS.Sertoli Cell Tumor: Gonadal neoplasm composed entirely of SERTOLI CELLS or may have a component of GRANULOSA CELLS. Some of the Sertoli cell tumors produce ESTROGEN or ANDROGENS, but seldom in sufficient quantity to cause clinical symptoms such as FEMINIZATION or masculinization (VIRILISM).In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Orchiopexy: A surgical procedure in which an undescended testicle is sutured inside the SCROTUM in male infants or children to correct CRYPTORCHIDISM. Orchiopexy is also performed to treat TESTICULAR TORSION in adults and adolescents.Dibutyl Phthalate: A plasticizer used in most plastics and found in water, air, soil, plants and animals. It may have some adverse effects with long-term exposure.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Sperm Motility: Movement characteristics of SPERMATOZOA in a fresh specimen. It is measured as the percentage of sperms that are moving, and as the percentage of sperms with productive flagellar motion such as rapid, linear, and forward progression.Luteinizing Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Seminoma: A radiosensitive, malignant neoplasm of the testis, thought to be derived from primordial germ cells of the sexually undifferentiated embryonic gonad. There are three variants: classical (typical), the most common type; anaplastic; and spermatocytic. The classical seminoma is composed of fairly well differentiated sheets or cords of uniform polygonal or round cells (seminoma cells), each cell having abundant clear cytoplasm, distinct cell membranes, a centrally placed round nucleus, and one or more nucleoli. In the female, a grossly and histologically identical neoplasm, known as dysgerminoma, occurs. (Dorland, 27th ed)Testicular Hormones: Hormones produced in the testis.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Sperm Maturation: The maturing process of SPERMATOZOA after leaving the testicular SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. Maturation in SPERM MOTILITY and FERTILITY takes place in the EPIDIDYMIS as the sperm migrate from caput epididymis to cauda epididymis.Varicocele: A condition characterized by the dilated tortuous veins of the SPERMATIC CORD with a marked left-sided predominance. Adverse effect on male fertility occurs when varicocele leads to an increased scrotal (and testicular) temperature and reduced testicular volume.Spermatic Cord: Either of a pair of tubular structures formed by DUCTUS DEFERENS; ARTERIES; VEINS; LYMPHATIC VESSELS; and nerves. The spermatic cord extends from the deep inguinal ring through the INGUINAL CANAL to the TESTIS in the SCROTUM.Meiosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.Inhibins: Glycoproteins that inhibit pituitary FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion. Inhibins are secreted by the Sertoli cells of the testes, the granulosa cells of the ovarian follicles, the placenta, and other tissues. Inhibins and ACTIVINS are modulators of FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretions; both groups belong to the TGF-beta superfamily, as the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. Inhibins consist of a disulfide-linked heterodimer with a unique alpha linked to either a beta A or a beta B subunit to form inhibin A or inhibin B, respectivelySOX9 Transcription Factor: A SOXE transcription factor that plays a critical role in regulating CHONDROGENESIS; OSTEOGENESIS; and male sex determination. Loss of function of the SOX9 transcription factor due to genetic mutations is a cause of CAMPOMELIC DYSPLASIA.Genes, sry: The primary testis-determining gene in mammalians, located on the Y CHROMOSOME. It codes for a high mobility group box transcription factor (TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS) which initiates the development of the TESTES from the embryonic GONADS.Diethylhexyl Phthalate: An ester of phthalic acid. It appears as a light-colored, odorless liquid and is used as a plasticizer for many resins and elastomers.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)

Effect of sex difference on the in vitro and in vivo metabolism of aflatoxin B1 by the rat. (1/10446)

Hepatic microsome-catalyzed metabolism of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) to aflatoxin M1 and aflatoxin Q1 and the "metabolic activation" of AFB1 to DNA-alylating metabolite(s) were studied in normal male and female Sprague-Dawley rats, in gonadectomized animals, and in castrated males and normal females treated with testosterone. Microsomes from male animals formed 2 to 5 times more aflatoxin M1, aflatoxin Q1, and DNA-alkylating metabolite(s) than those from females. Castration reduced the metabolism of AFB1 by the microsomes from males by about 50%, whereas ovariectomy had no significant effect on AFB1 metabolism by the microsomes from females. Testosterone treatment (4 mg/rat, 3 times/week for about 6 weeks) of castrated immature males and immature females enhanced the metabolism of AFB1 by their microsomes. A sex difference in the metabolism of AFB1 by liver microsomes was also seen in other strains of rats tested: Wistar, Long-Evans, and Fischer. The activity of kidney microsomes for metabolic activation was 1 to 4% that of the liver activity and was generally lower in microsomes from male rats as compared to those from female rats of Sprague-Dawley, Wistar, and Long-Evans strains. The in vitro results obtained with hepatic microsomes correlated well with the in vivo metabolism of AFB1, in that more AFB1 became bound in vivo to hepatic DNA isolated from male rats and from a female rat treated with testosterone than that isolated from control female rats. These data suggest that the differences in hepatic AFB1 metabolism may be the underlying cause of the sex difference in toxicity and carcinogenicity of AFB1 observed in rats.  (+info)

Expression of novel alternatively spliced isoforms of the oct-1 transcription factor. (2/10446)

Analysis of the alternatively spliced isoforms of the human and mouse oct-1 genes, combined with their exon-intron structure, show a high level of evolutionary conservation between these two species. The differential expression of several oct-1 isoforms was examined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction performed on the 3' region of the murine oct-1 cDNA. Variations in the relative levels and patterns of expression of the isoforms were found among different tissues. Three novel isoforms originating from the 3'-distal region of oct-1, were isolated and sequenced: Two were derived from testis, and one from myeloma cells. Splicing out of different exons as revealed in the structure of these isoforms results in reading frameshifts that presumably lead to the expression of shortened Oct-1 proteins, with distinct C-terminal tails. Altogether, six out of the eight known murine oct-1 isoforms may have distinct C-termini, implying that these multiple tails have different functional roles in cellular differentiation and physiology.  (+info)

Differential regulation of p21waf-1/cip-1 and Mdm2 by etoposide: etoposide inhibits the p53-Mdm2 autoregulatory feedback loop. (3/10446)

The Mdm2 protein is frequently overexpressed in human non-seminomatous germ cell tumours and transitional carcinoma of the bladder where it may contribute to tolerance of wtp53. Mdm2 forms an autoregulatory feedback loop with p53; the Mdm2 gene is responsive to transactivation by p53 and once synthesized the Mdm2 protein terminates the p53 response. We show here that the topoisomerase poison etoposide, like ultra violet irradiation, inhibits Mdm2 synthesis. Cytotoxic concentrations of etoposide (IC90 for > 3 h) result in inhibition of Mdm2 induction at both the RNA and protein level. Rapid apoptosis ensues. Global transcription is not inhibited: p21waf-1/cip1 and GADD45 expression increase in a dose dependent manner. Inhibition of Mdm2 synthesis depends on the continuous presence of etoposide, suggesting the DNA damage may prevent transcription. Downregulation of Mdm2 transcript occurs in cells expressing HPV16-E6 suggesting that inhibition of Mdm2 transcription is p53-independent. When cells are -treated with a pulse (1 h) of etoposide and reincubated in drug free medium, Mdm2 synthesis commences immediately after damage is repaired (3 h) and the p53 response is attenuated. Induction of apoptosis and loss of clonogenicity are 3-5-fold lower under pulse treatment conditions. This is the first observation of inhibition of Mdm2 transcription following treatment with topoisomerase (topo II) poisons, a feature that may be useful in tumour types where p53 is tolerated by overexpression of Mdm2.  (+info)

Glutathione-independent prostaglandin D2 synthase in ram and stallion epididymal fluids: origin and regulation. (4/10446)

Microsequencing after two-dimensional electrophoresis revealed a major protein, glutathione-independent prostaglandin D2 synthase (PGDS) in the anterior epididymal region fluid of the ram and stallion. In this epididymal region, PGDS was a polymorphic compound with a molecular mass around 30 kDa and a range of pI from 4 to 7. PGDS represented 15% and 8% of the total luminal proteins present in this region in the ram and stallion, respectively. The secretion of the protein as judged by in vitro biosynthesis, and the presence of its mRNA as studied by Northern blot analysis, were limited to the proximal caput epididymidis. Using a specific polyclonal antibody raised against a synthetic peptide, PGDS was found throughout the epididymis, decreasing in concentration toward the cauda region. PGDS was also detected in the testicular fluid and seminal plasma by Western blotting. Castration and efferent duct ligation in the ram led to a decrease in PGDS mRNA and secretion. PGDS mRNA was not detected in the stallion 1 mo after castration, and it was restored by testosterone supplementation. This study showed that PGDS is present in the environment of spermatozoa throughout the male genital tract. Its function in the maturation and/or protection of spermatozoa is unknown.  (+info)

Identification of a nuclear localization signal in activin/inhibin betaA subunit; intranuclear betaA in rat spermatogenic cells. (5/10446)

Activin is a dimeric glycoprotein hormone that was initially characterized by its ability to stimulate pituitary FSH secretion and was subsequently recognized as a growth factor with diverse biological functions in a large variety of tissues. In the testis, activin has been implicated in the auto/paracrine regulation of spermatogenesis through its cognate cell membrane receptors on Sertoli and germ cells. In this study we provide evidence for intranuclear activin/inhibin betaA subunit and show its distribution in the rat seminiferous epithelium. We have shown by transient expression in HeLa cells of beta-galactosidase fusion proteins that the betaA subunit precursor contains a functional nuclear localization signal within the lysine-rich sequence corresponding to amino acids 231-244. In all stages of the rat seminiferous epithelial cycle, an intense immunohistochemical staining of nuclear betaA was demonstrated in intermediate or type B spermatogonia or primary spermatocytes in their initial stages of the first meiotic prophase, as well as in pachytene spermatocytes and elongating spermatids primarily in stages IX-XII. In some pachytene spermatocytes, the pattern of betaA immunoreactivity was consistent with the characteristic distribution of pachytene chromosomes. In the nuclei of round spermatids, betaA immunoreactivity was less intense, and in late spermatids it was localized in the residual cytoplasm, suggesting disposal of betaA before spermatozoal maturation. Immunoblot analysis of a protein extract from isolated testicular nuclei revealed a nuclear betaA species with a molecular mass of approximately 24 kDa, which is more than 1.5 times that of the mature activin betaA subunit present in activin dimers. These results suggest that activin/inhibin betaA may elicit its biological functions through two parallel signal transduction pathways, one involving the dimeric molecule and cell surface receptors and the other an alternately processed betaA sequence acting directly within the nucleus. According to our immunohistochemical data, betaA may play a significant role in the regulation of nuclear functions during meiosis and spermiogenesis.  (+info)

Prolactin replacement fails to inhibit reactivation of gonadotropin secretion in rams treated with melatonin under long days. (6/10446)

This study tested the hypothesis that prolactin (PRL) inhibits gonadotropin secretion in rams maintained under long days and that treatment with melatonin (s.c. continuous-release implant; MEL-IMP) reactivates the reproductive axis by suppressing PRL secretion. Adult Soay rams were maintained under long days (16L:8D) and received 1) no further treatment (control, C); 2) MEL-IMP for 16 wk and injections of saline/vehicle for the first 8 wk (M); 3) MEL-IMP for 16 wk and exogenous PRL (s.c. 5 mg ovine PRL 3x daily) for the first 8 wk (M+P). The treatment with melatonin induced a rapid increase in the blood concentrations of FSH and testosterone, rapid growth of the testes, an increase in the frequency of LH pulses, and a decrease in the LH response to N-methyl-D,L-aspartic acid. The concomitant treatment with exogenous PRL had no effect on these reproductive responses but caused a significant delay in the timing of the sexual skin color and growth of the winter pelage. These results do not support the hypothesis and suggest that PRL at physiological long-day concentrations, while being totally ineffective as an inhibitor of gonadotropin secretion, acts in the peripheral tissues and skin to maintain summer characteristics.  (+info)

Effects of spinal cord injury on spermatogenesis and the expression of messenger ribonucleic acid for Sertoli cell proteins in rat Sertoli cell-enriched testes. (7/10446)

The study was an examination of the effects of spinal cord injury (SCI) on spermatogenesis and Sertoli cell functions in adult rats with Sertoli cell-enriched (SCE) testes. The effects of SCI on the seminiferous epithelium were characterized by abnormalities in the remaining spermatogenic cells during the first month after SCI. Three days after SCI, serum testosterone levels were 80% lower, while serum FSH and LH levels were 25% and 50% higher, respectively, than those of sham control SCE rats. At this time, the levels of mRNA for androgen receptor (AR), FSH receptor (FSH-R), and androgen-binding protein (ABP) were normal whereas those for transferrin (Trf) had decreased by 40%. Thereafter, serum testosterone levels increased, but they remained lower than those of the sham control rats 28 days after SCI; and serum FSH and LH levels returned to normal. The levels of mRNA for AR, ABP, and Trf exhibited a biphasic increase 7 days after SCI and remained elevated 28 days after SCI. FSH-R mRNA levels were also elevated 90 days after SCI. Unexpectedly, active spermatogenesis, including qualitatively complete spermatogenesis, persisted in > 40% of the tubules 90 days after SCI. These results suggest that the stem cells and/or undifferentiated spermatogonia in SCE testes are less susceptible to the deleterious effects of SCI than the normal testes and that they were able to proliferate and differentiate after SCI. The presence of elevated levels of mRNA for Sertoli cell FSH-R and AR, as well as of that for the Sertoli cell proteins, in the SCE testes during the chronic stage of SCI suggests a modification of Sertoli cell physiology. Such changes in Sertoli cell functions may provide a beneficial environment for the proliferation of the stem cells and differentiation of postmeiotic cells, thus resulting in the persistence of spermatogenesis in these testes.  (+info)

X inactive-specific transcript (Xist) expression and X chromosome inactivation in the preattachment bovine embryo. (8/10446)

Expression of the X inactive-specific transcript (Xist) is thought to be essential for the initiation of X chromosome inactivation and dosage compensation during female embryo development. In the present study, we analyzed the patterns of Xist transcription and the onset of X chromosome inactivation in bovine preattachment embryos. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) revealed the presence of Xist transcripts in all adult female somatic tissues evaluated. In contrast, among the male tissues examined, Xist expression was detected only in testis. No evidence for Xist transcription was observed after a single round of RT-PCR from pools of in vitro-derived embryos at the 2- to 4-cell stage. Xist transcripts were detected as a faint amplicon at the 8-cell stage initially, and consistently thereafter in all stages examined up to and including the expanded blastocyst stage. Xist transcripts, however, were subsequently detected from the 2-cell stage onward after nested RT-PCR. Preferential [3H]thymidine labeling indicative of late replication of one of the X chromosomes was noted in female embryos of different developmental ages as follows: 2 of 7 (28.5%) early blastocysts, 6 of 13 (46.1%) blastocysts, 8 of 11 (72.1%) expanded blastocysts, and 14 of 17 (77.7%) hatched blastocysts. These results suggest that Xist expression precedes the onset of late replication in the bovine embryo, in a pattern compatible with a possible role of bovine Xist in the initiation of X chromosome inactivation.  (+info)

  • The PPI neighborhood predicted that STK31 was bodily associated to the PIWI (initially P-element Induced WImpy testis in Drosophila ) and Tudor households. (fly-ted.org)
  • Antagonism of the testis- and ovary-determining pathways during ovotes" by D Wilhelm, L L. Washburn et al. (jax.org)
  • Antagonism of the testis- and ovary-determining pathways during ovotestis development in mice. (jax.org)
  • Ovotestis development in B6-XY(POS) mice provides a rare opportunity to study the interaction of the testis- and ovary-determining pathways in the same tissue. (jax.org)
  • We studied expression of several markers of mouse fetal testis (SRY, SOX9) or ovary (FOXL2, Rspo1) development in B6-XY(POS) ovotestes by immunofluorescence, using normal testes and ovaries as controls. (jax.org)
  • Together these findings provide important new insights into the molecular regulation of testis and ovary development. (jax.org)
  • If the transplanted testes continue to produce sperm, they can be harvested at a later date, or even better, be returned to the original patient after completion of cancer treatment. (medicalxpress.com)
  • More testing is required to learn about the survival rates of testes in the neck and how long they will continue to produce sperm. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The Aussie researchers found that male frogs living in rainier environments have larger testes and more motile sperm than those of the same species in drier areas. (wsbuzz.com)
  • We found a striking divergence in testes size, sperm quantity, motility and length among P. guentheri populations that corresponded with annual rainfall and rainfall seasonality,' the scientists from University of Western Australia say in their study. (wsbuzz.com)
  • During measurements, researchers focused on a range of traits related to sperm competition, including testes size, sperm density, sperm length and 'sperm motility' - its ability to move independently. (wsbuzz.com)
  • Males from the northern and drier edge of the species range were found to have smaller testes containing fewer, smaller and less motile sperm, meanwhile. (wsbuzz.com)
  • Other factors, such as differences in resource availability and genetics, may also play a role in testes and sperm. (wsbuzz.com)
  • Increased variability in nuclear dna content of testis cells and sperm" by M L. Meistrich, S Lake et al. (jax.org)
  • Medical Xpress)-A team of researchers with members from Tokyo Medical University and Aichi Medical University, both in Japan, has tested the feasibility of removing testes from one rat and surgically implanting them into the neck of another rat to preserve spermatogenesis for the first rat. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Samangsa pubertas, testis tumuwuh kanggo miwiti spermatogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ukuran testis gumantung ing prodhuksi sperma (akèhé spermatogenesis), cuwèran intersisial, lan prodhuksi cuwèran saka sel Sertoli . (wikipedia.org)
  • The spermatogenesis of Pseudis limellum, from the Southern Pantanal, Brazil, was studied from July 1995 to May 1996, through histological sections of the testis. (unesp.br)
  • The spermatogenesis in P limellum is very similar to that of other anurans, but peculiarities were observed regarding the organization of the germ cells, the great amount of free Sertoli cells in the lumen of testis collected in May, and the long cytoplasmatic extensions of the cells bearing pigments and involving the seminiferous tubule. (unesp.br)
  • The medical price, regulatory mechanisms, and gene neighborhood of the cancer-testis gene STK31 in pancreatic most cancers. (fly-ted.org)
  • In this case, the researchers removed testes from several rats and placed them inside the necks of other rats to test the feasibility of such an approach. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The researchers report that they conducted the procedure on 12 rats and, for comparison, also implanted testes into the testicular sacks of several host rats . (medicalxpress.com)
  • In the present study, we developed a new and simple model of the heterotopic testis transplantation (HTT), which is donor testis transplantation into the cervical region of recipients, in a syngeneic model in rats [donor Lewis (LEW) graft to LEW recipient]. (medicalxpress.com)
  • 93 94 95 96 96 97 98 100 101 102 102 105 107 112 113 INTRODUCTION This paper deals with a similar type of degeneration found in the testes of two groups of albino rats which had been subjected to very different treatment. (booksc.org)
  • 24 22 20 18 DEGENERATION IN THE RAT TESTIS 95 inability to stand, but frequently to render the rats absolutely motionless. (booksc.org)
  • At the poles, even though SOX9 was not up-regulated, SRY expression was down-regulated normally as in XY testes, and FOXL2 was expressed from an early stage, demonstrating ovarian differentiation in these areas. (jax.org)
  • Spermatozoa (sel winih kang wis siyap kanggo diejakulasiké ), bakal gerak saka tubulus nuju rete testis , duktus efferen , lan epididimis . (wikipedia.org)
  • Apakah ane bakal tetep punya keturunan?Apakah testis ane yang satunya bakal balik ke skrotum? (kaskus.co.id)
  • Ing tubulus spermatikus ana otot kremaster kang manawa kontraksi bakal ngangkat testis nyeraki awak. (wikipedia.org)
  • Yèn suhu testis didhunaké, otot kremaster bakal relaksasi lan testis bakal ngedohi awak. (wikipedia.org)
  • Miturut téyori para ahli, manuk migunakaké kanthong udharané kanggo njaga suhu optimal testis, nanging ing panlitèn saterusé disebutaké manawa testis manuk fungsiné bakal apik ing suhu awak. (wikipedia.org)
  • Yèn spérma ana reaksi karo antibodi bakal njalari radhang testis lan ngurangi kasuburan. (wikipedia.org)
  • Menurut cerita ibu ane,dulu waktu ngelahirin ngga sempurna jadi testis ane nggak berada di skrotum (kantong testis)cuma 1 testis aja yang berada di skrotum. (kaskus.co.id)
  • Waktu itu ane lagi main petak umpet,waktu ane lagi asyik lari eh tiba tiba testis satunya yang disebelah kanan (bukan yg berada di skrotum) nyeri banget. (kaskus.co.id)
  • Manungsa (priya) duwé testis loro kang dibungkus skrotum . (wikipedia.org)
  • Ing mamalia , testis papané ing njaban awak, digandhéngaké karo tubulus spermatikus lan papané ing njeron skrotum. (wikipedia.org)
  • In ovotestes, SOX9 was expressed only in the central region where SRY is expressed earliest, resulting in testis cord formation. (jax.org)
  • An adult man is three to 17 times more likely to develop testicular cancer if he has had a testis that did not descend naturally. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The incidence of testicular cancer in men who did not have both testes descend normally is about 1 in 2000. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Undescended testes are of concern because, although they are not known to be a threat to the child's immediate health, they are associated with an increased likelihood of negative outcomes later in life, including an increased likelihood of sterility and an increased incidence of testicular cancer. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The positive association of testis cancer with hyperemesis gravidarum, (33,34) an increased frequency of testicular cancer in the firstborn of sibships, (35) and the temporary decline in testis cancer incidence in Norwegian babies born during the deprivations of World War II (36,37) support an important role of maternal hyperestrogenism in predisposing to testicular cancer. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • FRIDAY, Aug. 31, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Young boys with undescended testes are at increased risk for testicular cancer and infertility in adulthood, new research suggests. (healthday.com)
  • Boys born with undescended testes had 2.4 times the risk of adult testicular cancer compared to other boys, the University of Sydney researchers reported. (healthday.com)
  • The study provides new evidence to support international guidelines recommending surgery before 18 months for boys with undescended testes to reduce the risk of both testicular cancer and infertility later in life," senior author Natasha Nassar, an epidemiologist, said in a university news release. (healthday.com)
  • Undescended testes are twice as likely to develop cancer as normally descended testes. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS) has developed artificial testis that is a boon to people suffering from the problem of having both underdeveloped male and female genitals as well as cancer in the abdomen. (hindustantimes.com)
  • The abnormal testis are a source of cancer in the abdomen and we remove them for the sake of patients' safety. (hindustantimes.com)
  • We found that this father and son had a set of genes that predispose them to both genitourinary or urologie cancers, and testis cancer is within that group, as well as stomach cancers," Pastuszak said in a press briefing. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Gilligan, "Quality of life among testis cancer survivors," Urologic Oncology: Seminars and Original Investigations, vol. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Characterizing the morbidity of postchemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissection for testis cancer in a national cohort of privately insured patients," Urology, vol. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Chest staging in testis cancer patients: imaging modality selection based upon risk assessment as determined by abdominal computerized tomography scan results. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Progression detection of stage I non-seminomatous testis cancer on surveillance: Implications for the followup protocol. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • With one amazing development, the introduction of Cisplatin into standard chemotherapy for testis cancer , there was a complete transformation from the expectation of early death to the potential of long-term survival in most young men with this dreadful disease. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In addition to the increased risk of malignant diseases particularly testis cancer , sperm counts, sperm quality (especially chromatin integrity), sex hormones and sex drive decrease during aging of men and all of them lead to a decline in fecundity in older men (1). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • None of the patients had been previously diagnosed with or treated for prostate or testis cancer , and none of the patients had received hormone therapy. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Cancer of the testis is relatively uncommon in B.C., but the incidence rate has almost quadrupled in the past 40 years. (bccancer.bc.ca)
  • Patients with testicular atrophy of any cause such as cryptorchism, mumps orchitis, or ectopic testis have an increased risk for developing testis cancer. (bccancer.bc.ca)
  • There is also a 3-5% risk for testis cancer patients to develop a contralateral testis cancer. (bccancer.bc.ca)
  • First degree relatives of a testis cancer patient have a 3-10 fold increase in risk for developing a testis cancer. (bccancer.bc.ca)
  • Due to the overall low incidence and high cure rate of testis cancer there is no need for additional preventive measures besides self examination for first-degree relatives. (bccancer.bc.ca)
  • Cancer/testis (CT) antigens are immunogenic in cancer patients, exhibit highly tissue-restricted expression, and are considered promising target molecules for cancer vaccines. (nih.gov)
  • Expression of cancer-testis antigens in endometrial carcinomas using a tissue microarray. (nih.gov)
  • Estrogen is a potent proliferative agent and can lead to cancer of the female breast and male testes. (rainbow.coop)
  • Odiele, whom Vogue refers to as an Alexander Wang staple, says being intersex is 'not that big of a deal,' but she can't say the same for the two surgeries she has undergone, one at age 10 to remove those testes, which doctors told her parents could lead to cancer. (newser.com)
  • Usually caused by some sort of medical situation such as a surgery, birth defect, cancer or an injury, some men have one, or fewer, testes. (ranker.com)
  • At seven thirty in the evening, three bulls from the Kukuxumusu bull-ranch , the mythical Mister Testis bull-breed , came rushing out from the corner of Mercaderes to run the approx.400 meters that covers the distance all the way to the top of Estafeta Street. (sanfermin.com)
  • In order to celebrate the final calendar step leading to Sanfermin fiestas, and taking advantage of the "Red and White" night organized by the commercial association of the Old Quarter of Pamplona on Friday 5th of June, we brought Mister Testis along with us in order to let the general public try out some selfie shots with him from some new angles and unusual altitudes. (sanfermin.com)
  • The personality of the drawings of the Kukuxumusu blue bull towards the final creation of Mister Testis, where the animal can now walk on two hind legs and take a step out of the world of beasts in order to mix in with the humans, whenever he feels like it. (sanfermin.com)
  • Your search returned 4 prion locus lncRNA, testis expressed Antibodies across 4 suppliers. (biocompare.com)
  • Testis , plural testes, also called testicle , in animals, the organ that produces sperm , the male reproductive cell , and androgens , the male hormones. (britannica.com)
  • Boys with undescended testes were 20 percent less likely to father children, and were more than twice as likely to use assisted reproductive technology, according to the study. (healthday.com)
  • Although mechanisms regulating testis cord formation during sex determination have been well-studied, the genes and signaling pathways involving in testis cord maintenance after the cords have formed are not well characterized. (bioone.org)
  • The embryonic differentiation of the primitive, indifferent gonad into either the testes or the ovaries is determined by the presence or absence of genes carried on the Y chromosome . (britannica.com)
  • during adolescence, gonadotropic hormones from the pituitary gland at the base of the brain stimulate the development of tissue, and the testes become capable of producing sperm and androgens. (britannica.com)
  • Researchers have designed a compound that homes in on the testis and prevents sperm from accessing a key tissue, halting their development. (scientificamerican.com)
  • In normal tissues, standardized RT-PCR experiments showed that 19/43 CT genes were testis-restricted, 10/43 CT genes were tissue-restricted (mRNA detected in 2 or fewer non-gametogenic tissues), 9/43 CT genes were differentially expressed (mRNA detected in 3-6 non-gametogenic tissues), and 5/43 CT genes were ubiquitously expressed. (nih.gov)
  • In terms of immunogenicity, 14/29 testis/tissue-restricted CT gene families have been shown to induce a cellular and/or humoral immune response in humans. (nih.gov)
  • The testis is then fixed into position by stitching it to the surrounding tissue to prevent a recurrence. (privatehealth.co.uk)
  • The appendix testis is a small piece of tissue that is usually located on the upper part of the testis. (childrens.com)
  • Formerly, when doctors performed a testis biopsy, they would send only one chunk of tissue for testing. (drmalpani.com)
  • In a new report, scientists describe a technique that yields fertile primate sperm when tissue from the testes of young rhesus monkeys are grafted into mice. (scienceblog.com)
  • In a report set for publication in the journal Biology of Reproduction, scientists at the University of Pennsylvania and the University of California, Davis, describe a technique that yields fertile primate sperm when tissue from the testes of young rhesus monkeys are grafted into mice. (scienceblog.com)
  • In the experiment, donor tissue from the testes of two 13-month-old rhesus monkeys was grafted under the back skin of specially prepared mice. (scienceblog.com)
  • The tunica vasculosa is the vascular layer of the testis , consisting of a plexus of bloodvessels, held together by delicate areolar tissue. (wikidoc.org)
  • Testis cords, embryonic precursors of the seminiferous tubules, are fundamental for testis structure and function. (bioone.org)
  • induced oxidative stress in a dose-dependent manner, (2) improved the mean weight of the cryptorchid testis , (3) maintained sperm counts, motility, and spermatogenic cell density, (4) decreased levels of 8-OHdG and increased levels of SOD, demonstrating its antioxidant effect, (5) significantly increased Nrf2 and HO-1, and (6) significantly decreased apoptosis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Further efforts and new genetic models are needed to unveil the gene networks and underlying mechanisms regulating testis cord integrity and morphology after sex determination. (bioone.org)
  • Her research team found that the mutation blocked the function of a specific gene in the stem cells that becomes support cells in the testis, causing the fruit flies to change from a male to a female identity. (eurekalert.org)
  • Cutting-edge studies of the blood-testis barrier promise to help the Council develop novel male contraceptives. (popcouncil.org)
  • The blood-testis barrier is a physical barrier separating the testes from the bloodstream. (popcouncil.org)
  • Further, the Council has discovered a peptide that regulates the expression of FAK, thereby compromising the integrity and function of the blood-testis barrier. (popcouncil.org)
  • These axes are found between the blood-testis barrier and the basement membrane, involving fragments of collagen-α3 chain and also laminin-α2 chain, both are constituent components of the basement membrane. (popcouncil.org)
  • Additionally, it could serve to hold open the blood-testis barrier to allow more Adjudin to enter the testes, thus boosting Adjudin's effectiveness at a lower dosage with potentially fewer side effects. (popcouncil.org)
  • Screening is advised in individuals who are deemed at high risk of testis tumours, e.g. affected first degree relative (especially an identical twin), history of a delayed or undescended testis, and particularly patients who have had a prior malignancy in the contralateral testicle. (bccancer.bc.ca)
  • Normal young adult male testis and enriched populations of pachytene spermatocytes and round spermatids displayed significantly higher levels of Xrcc-1 expression than other mouse tissues, although Xrcc-1 transcripts were found in low abundance in all tested tissues. (nih.gov)
  • Este trabalho teve o objetivo de descrever o protótipo de um novo modelo de órtese funcional para mão, conhecida como Luva Funcional, e os resultados dos testes preliminares. (mendeley.com)
  • Devido a estes desconhecidos, o FDA adverte pacientes contra a utilização dos resultados destes testes, ou todo o teste do serology, como uma indicação que possam parar de tomar as etapas para proteger elas mesmas e outro, tais como a parada de se afastar social, interrompendo vestindo máscaras ou retornando ao trabalho. (news-medical.net)
  • By studying the formation of sperm in fruit flies, which is remarkably similar to the process that occurs in people, investigators serendipitously found a mutation that gave testes a very unusual appearance. (eurekalert.org)
  • I am looking for a plasmid based testis expression library (from any species). (bio.net)
  • Some species, however, have adapted sexual organs, such as enlarged testes that produce massive amounts of sperm, that enable fertilization to take place in rapidly flowing waters. (microscopyu.com)
  • A unique form of lactate dehydrogenase was observed in the starch-gel electrophoretic patterns of adult human testes. (sciencemag.org)