Spermatic Cord Torsion
Molecular Sequence Data
Amino Acid Sequence
Sex-Determining Region Y Protein
Follicle Stimulating Hormone
Sertoli Cell Tumor
In Situ Hybridization
Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental
SOX9 Transcription Factor
Effect of sex difference on the in vitro and in vivo metabolism of aflatoxin B1 by the rat. (1/10446)Hepatic microsome-catalyzed metabolism of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) to aflatoxin M1 and aflatoxin Q1 and the "metabolic activation" of AFB1 to DNA-alylating metabolite(s) were studied in normal male and female Sprague-Dawley rats, in gonadectomized animals, and in castrated males and normal females treated with testosterone. Microsomes from male animals formed 2 to 5 times more aflatoxin M1, aflatoxin Q1, and DNA-alkylating metabolite(s) than those from females. Castration reduced the metabolism of AFB1 by the microsomes from males by about 50%, whereas ovariectomy had no significant effect on AFB1 metabolism by the microsomes from females. Testosterone treatment (4 mg/rat, 3 times/week for about 6 weeks) of castrated immature males and immature females enhanced the metabolism of AFB1 by their microsomes. A sex difference in the metabolism of AFB1 by liver microsomes was also seen in other strains of rats tested: Wistar, Long-Evans, and Fischer. The activity of kidney microsomes for metabolic activation was 1 to 4% that of the liver activity and was generally lower in microsomes from male rats as compared to those from female rats of Sprague-Dawley, Wistar, and Long-Evans strains. The in vitro results obtained with hepatic microsomes correlated well with the in vivo metabolism of AFB1, in that more AFB1 became bound in vivo to hepatic DNA isolated from male rats and from a female rat treated with testosterone than that isolated from control female rats. These data suggest that the differences in hepatic AFB1 metabolism may be the underlying cause of the sex difference in toxicity and carcinogenicity of AFB1 observed in rats. (+info)
Expression of novel alternatively spliced isoforms of the oct-1 transcription factor. (2/10446)Analysis of the alternatively spliced isoforms of the human and mouse oct-1 genes, combined with their exon-intron structure, show a high level of evolutionary conservation between these two species. The differential expression of several oct-1 isoforms was examined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction performed on the 3' region of the murine oct-1 cDNA. Variations in the relative levels and patterns of expression of the isoforms were found among different tissues. Three novel isoforms originating from the 3'-distal region of oct-1, were isolated and sequenced: Two were derived from testis, and one from myeloma cells. Splicing out of different exons as revealed in the structure of these isoforms results in reading frameshifts that presumably lead to the expression of shortened Oct-1 proteins, with distinct C-terminal tails. Altogether, six out of the eight known murine oct-1 isoforms may have distinct C-termini, implying that these multiple tails have different functional roles in cellular differentiation and physiology. (+info)
Differential regulation of p21waf-1/cip-1 and Mdm2 by etoposide: etoposide inhibits the p53-Mdm2 autoregulatory feedback loop. (3/10446)The Mdm2 protein is frequently overexpressed in human non-seminomatous germ cell tumours and transitional carcinoma of the bladder where it may contribute to tolerance of wtp53. Mdm2 forms an autoregulatory feedback loop with p53; the Mdm2 gene is responsive to transactivation by p53 and once synthesized the Mdm2 protein terminates the p53 response. We show here that the topoisomerase poison etoposide, like ultra violet irradiation, inhibits Mdm2 synthesis. Cytotoxic concentrations of etoposide (IC90 for > 3 h) result in inhibition of Mdm2 induction at both the RNA and protein level. Rapid apoptosis ensues. Global transcription is not inhibited: p21waf-1/cip1 and GADD45 expression increase in a dose dependent manner. Inhibition of Mdm2 synthesis depends on the continuous presence of etoposide, suggesting the DNA damage may prevent transcription. Downregulation of Mdm2 transcript occurs in cells expressing HPV16-E6 suggesting that inhibition of Mdm2 transcription is p53-independent. When cells are -treated with a pulse (1 h) of etoposide and reincubated in drug free medium, Mdm2 synthesis commences immediately after damage is repaired (3 h) and the p53 response is attenuated. Induction of apoptosis and loss of clonogenicity are 3-5-fold lower under pulse treatment conditions. This is the first observation of inhibition of Mdm2 transcription following treatment with topoisomerase (topo II) poisons, a feature that may be useful in tumour types where p53 is tolerated by overexpression of Mdm2. (+info)
Glutathione-independent prostaglandin D2 synthase in ram and stallion epididymal fluids: origin and regulation. (4/10446)Microsequencing after two-dimensional electrophoresis revealed a major protein, glutathione-independent prostaglandin D2 synthase (PGDS) in the anterior epididymal region fluid of the ram and stallion. In this epididymal region, PGDS was a polymorphic compound with a molecular mass around 30 kDa and a range of pI from 4 to 7. PGDS represented 15% and 8% of the total luminal proteins present in this region in the ram and stallion, respectively. The secretion of the protein as judged by in vitro biosynthesis, and the presence of its mRNA as studied by Northern blot analysis, were limited to the proximal caput epididymidis. Using a specific polyclonal antibody raised against a synthetic peptide, PGDS was found throughout the epididymis, decreasing in concentration toward the cauda region. PGDS was also detected in the testicular fluid and seminal plasma by Western blotting. Castration and efferent duct ligation in the ram led to a decrease in PGDS mRNA and secretion. PGDS mRNA was not detected in the stallion 1 mo after castration, and it was restored by testosterone supplementation. This study showed that PGDS is present in the environment of spermatozoa throughout the male genital tract. Its function in the maturation and/or protection of spermatozoa is unknown. (+info)
Identification of a nuclear localization signal in activin/inhibin betaA subunit; intranuclear betaA in rat spermatogenic cells. (5/10446)Activin is a dimeric glycoprotein hormone that was initially characterized by its ability to stimulate pituitary FSH secretion and was subsequently recognized as a growth factor with diverse biological functions in a large variety of tissues. In the testis, activin has been implicated in the auto/paracrine regulation of spermatogenesis through its cognate cell membrane receptors on Sertoli and germ cells. In this study we provide evidence for intranuclear activin/inhibin betaA subunit and show its distribution in the rat seminiferous epithelium. We have shown by transient expression in HeLa cells of beta-galactosidase fusion proteins that the betaA subunit precursor contains a functional nuclear localization signal within the lysine-rich sequence corresponding to amino acids 231-244. In all stages of the rat seminiferous epithelial cycle, an intense immunohistochemical staining of nuclear betaA was demonstrated in intermediate or type B spermatogonia or primary spermatocytes in their initial stages of the first meiotic prophase, as well as in pachytene spermatocytes and elongating spermatids primarily in stages IX-XII. In some pachytene spermatocytes, the pattern of betaA immunoreactivity was consistent with the characteristic distribution of pachytene chromosomes. In the nuclei of round spermatids, betaA immunoreactivity was less intense, and in late spermatids it was localized in the residual cytoplasm, suggesting disposal of betaA before spermatozoal maturation. Immunoblot analysis of a protein extract from isolated testicular nuclei revealed a nuclear betaA species with a molecular mass of approximately 24 kDa, which is more than 1.5 times that of the mature activin betaA subunit present in activin dimers. These results suggest that activin/inhibin betaA may elicit its biological functions through two parallel signal transduction pathways, one involving the dimeric molecule and cell surface receptors and the other an alternately processed betaA sequence acting directly within the nucleus. According to our immunohistochemical data, betaA may play a significant role in the regulation of nuclear functions during meiosis and spermiogenesis. (+info)
Prolactin replacement fails to inhibit reactivation of gonadotropin secretion in rams treated with melatonin under long days. (6/10446)This study tested the hypothesis that prolactin (PRL) inhibits gonadotropin secretion in rams maintained under long days and that treatment with melatonin (s.c. continuous-release implant; MEL-IMP) reactivates the reproductive axis by suppressing PRL secretion. Adult Soay rams were maintained under long days (16L:8D) and received 1) no further treatment (control, C); 2) MEL-IMP for 16 wk and injections of saline/vehicle for the first 8 wk (M); 3) MEL-IMP for 16 wk and exogenous PRL (s.c. 5 mg ovine PRL 3x daily) for the first 8 wk (M+P). The treatment with melatonin induced a rapid increase in the blood concentrations of FSH and testosterone, rapid growth of the testes, an increase in the frequency of LH pulses, and a decrease in the LH response to N-methyl-D,L-aspartic acid. The concomitant treatment with exogenous PRL had no effect on these reproductive responses but caused a significant delay in the timing of the sexual skin color and growth of the winter pelage. These results do not support the hypothesis and suggest that PRL at physiological long-day concentrations, while being totally ineffective as an inhibitor of gonadotropin secretion, acts in the peripheral tissues and skin to maintain summer characteristics. (+info)
Effects of spinal cord injury on spermatogenesis and the expression of messenger ribonucleic acid for Sertoli cell proteins in rat Sertoli cell-enriched testes. (7/10446)The study was an examination of the effects of spinal cord injury (SCI) on spermatogenesis and Sertoli cell functions in adult rats with Sertoli cell-enriched (SCE) testes. The effects of SCI on the seminiferous epithelium were characterized by abnormalities in the remaining spermatogenic cells during the first month after SCI. Three days after SCI, serum testosterone levels were 80% lower, while serum FSH and LH levels were 25% and 50% higher, respectively, than those of sham control SCE rats. At this time, the levels of mRNA for androgen receptor (AR), FSH receptor (FSH-R), and androgen-binding protein (ABP) were normal whereas those for transferrin (Trf) had decreased by 40%. Thereafter, serum testosterone levels increased, but they remained lower than those of the sham control rats 28 days after SCI; and serum FSH and LH levels returned to normal. The levels of mRNA for AR, ABP, and Trf exhibited a biphasic increase 7 days after SCI and remained elevated 28 days after SCI. FSH-R mRNA levels were also elevated 90 days after SCI. Unexpectedly, active spermatogenesis, including qualitatively complete spermatogenesis, persisted in > 40% of the tubules 90 days after SCI. These results suggest that the stem cells and/or undifferentiated spermatogonia in SCE testes are less susceptible to the deleterious effects of SCI than the normal testes and that they were able to proliferate and differentiate after SCI. The presence of elevated levels of mRNA for Sertoli cell FSH-R and AR, as well as of that for the Sertoli cell proteins, in the SCE testes during the chronic stage of SCI suggests a modification of Sertoli cell physiology. Such changes in Sertoli cell functions may provide a beneficial environment for the proliferation of the stem cells and differentiation of postmeiotic cells, thus resulting in the persistence of spermatogenesis in these testes. (+info)
X inactive-specific transcript (Xist) expression and X chromosome inactivation in the preattachment bovine embryo. (8/10446)Expression of the X inactive-specific transcript (Xist) is thought to be essential for the initiation of X chromosome inactivation and dosage compensation during female embryo development. In the present study, we analyzed the patterns of Xist transcription and the onset of X chromosome inactivation in bovine preattachment embryos. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) revealed the presence of Xist transcripts in all adult female somatic tissues evaluated. In contrast, among the male tissues examined, Xist expression was detected only in testis. No evidence for Xist transcription was observed after a single round of RT-PCR from pools of in vitro-derived embryos at the 2- to 4-cell stage. Xist transcripts were detected as a faint amplicon at the 8-cell stage initially, and consistently thereafter in all stages examined up to and including the expanded blastocyst stage. Xist transcripts, however, were subsequently detected from the 2-cell stage onward after nested RT-PCR. Preferential [3H]thymidine labeling indicative of late replication of one of the X chromosomes was noted in female embryos of different developmental ages as follows: 2 of 7 (28.5%) early blastocysts, 6 of 13 (46.1%) blastocysts, 8 of 11 (72.1%) expanded blastocysts, and 14 of 17 (77.7%) hatched blastocysts. These results suggest that Xist expression precedes the onset of late replication in the bovine embryo, in a pattern compatible with a possible role of bovine Xist in the initiation of X chromosome inactivation. (+info)
Cryptorchidism is a medical condition in which one or both testicles fail to descend from the abdomen into the scrotum, the pouch of skin that hangs behind the penis. This can occur in newborns, infants, and children, and is more common in males than females. In some cases, the testicles may descend into the scrotum within the first few months of life, but in others, the testicles may remain in the abdomen or inguinal canal (the canal that connects the abdomen to the scrotum) throughout life. Cryptorchidism can have a number of potential health consequences, including an increased risk of testicular cancer, infertility, and problems with sexual development. Treatment typically involves surgical intervention to move the testicles into the scrotum.
Testicular diseases refer to any medical conditions that affect the testicles, which are the male reproductive organs responsible for producing sperm and testosterone. These diseases can affect one or both testicles and can range from minor to severe. Some common testicular diseases include: 1. Testicular cancer: This is a type of cancer that starts in the testicles and can spread to other parts of the body if left untreated. 2. Varicocele: This is a swelling of the veins in the scrotum that can cause pain and discomfort. 3. Epididymitis: This is an inflammation of the epididymis, a tube that carries sperm from the testicles to the vas deferens. 4. Orchitis: This is an inflammation of one or both testicles that can be caused by a viral or bacterial infection. 5. Hydrocele: This is a swelling of the scrotum that occurs when fluid builds up in the sac surrounding the testicles. 6. Testicular torsion: This is a condition in which the testicle twists on its spermatic cord, cutting off blood flow and causing severe pain. Testicular diseases can have a significant impact on a person's fertility and overall health. It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any symptoms or concerns related to your testicles.
Testosterone is a hormone that is primarily produced in the testicles in males and in smaller amounts in the ovaries and adrenal glands in females. It is responsible for the development of male sexual characteristics, such as the growth of facial hair, deepening of the voice, and muscle mass. Testosterone also plays a role in bone density, red blood cell production, and the regulation of the body's metabolism. In the medical field, testosterone is often used to treat conditions related to low testosterone levels, such as hypogonadism (a condition in which the body does not produce enough testosterone), delayed puberty, and certain types of breast cancer in men. It can also be used to treat conditions related to low estrogen levels in women, such as osteoporosis and menopause symptoms. Testosterone therapy can be administered in various forms, including injections, gels, patches, and pellets. However, it is important to note that testosterone therapy can have side effects, such as acne, hair loss, and an increased risk of blood clots, and should only be prescribed by a healthcare professional.
Testicular neoplasms refer to tumors or abnormal growths that develop in the testicles, which are the male reproductive organs responsible for producing sperm and testosterone. These neoplasms can be either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous), and they can occur in either one or both testicles. Testicular neoplasms are relatively rare, but they are one of the most common types of cancer in young men between the ages of 15 and 35. The most common type of testicular cancer is germ cell tumors, which account for about 95% of all testicular cancers. Other types of testicular neoplasms include Leydig cell tumors, Sertoli cell tumors, and teratomas. Symptoms of testicular neoplasms may include a painless lump or swelling in the testicle, a feeling of heaviness or discomfort in the scrotum, or a change in the size or shape of the testicle. If left untreated, testicular cancer can spread to other parts of the body, including the lymph nodes, lungs, and liver. Diagnosis of testicular neoplasms typically involves a physical examination of the testicles, as well as imaging tests such as ultrasound or CT scans. A biopsy may also be performed to confirm the presence of cancer cells. Treatment for testicular neoplasms depends on the type and stage of the cancer. Options may include surgery to remove the affected testicle or part of the testicle, chemotherapy to kill cancer cells, or radiation therapy to shrink tumors. In some cases, watchful waiting may be recommended for small, slow-growing tumors that are not likely to cause harm.
Spermatic cord torsion is a medical condition that occurs when the spermatic cord, which contains blood vessels and nerves that supply the testicle, twists around itself. This twisting can cut off the blood supply to the testicle, leading to pain, swelling, and potentially permanent damage to the testicle if not treated promptly. Spermatic cord torsion is a surgical emergency and requires prompt medical attention. Diagnosis is typically made through physical examination and imaging studies such as an ultrasound or MRI. Treatment involves surgical detorsion, which involves untwisting the spermatic cord to restore blood flow to the testicle. In some cases, if the testicle is severely damaged, it may need to be removed (orchiectomy). Spermatic cord torsion is more common in boys and young men, and is often associated with a history of undescended testicles or a previous episode of torsion. It is important to seek medical attention immediately if you or someone you know experiences sudden, severe pain in the scrotum, as this could be a sign of spermatic cord torsion.
Infertility, male refers to the inability of a man to produce viable sperm or to deliver them to his partner in a way that can result in pregnancy. This can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetic abnormalities, hormonal imbalances, infections, injuries to the reproductive organs, or certain medications or environmental factors. Male infertility can be diagnosed through a series of tests, including semen analysis, hormone testing, and imaging studies. Treatment options for male infertility may include medications, surgery, or assisted reproductive technologies such as in vitro fertilization (IVF).
Orchitis is an inflammation of one or both testicles. It is usually caused by a bacterial or viral infection, but can also be caused by other factors such as injury, certain medications, or an allergic reaction. Symptoms of orchitis may include pain or swelling in the affected testicle, fever, chills, and tenderness in the groin area. Orchitis can be a serious condition if left untreated, as it can lead to complications such as infertility or the formation of a testicular cyst or abscess. Treatment typically involves antibiotics or antiviral medication, depending on the cause of the inflammation.
In the medical field, RNA, Messenger (mRNA) refers to a type of RNA molecule that carries genetic information from DNA in the nucleus of a cell to the ribosomes, where proteins are synthesized. During the process of transcription, the DNA sequence of a gene is copied into a complementary RNA sequence called messenger RNA (mRNA). This mRNA molecule then leaves the nucleus and travels to the cytoplasm of the cell, where it binds to ribosomes and serves as a template for the synthesis of a specific protein. The sequence of nucleotides in the mRNA molecule determines the sequence of amino acids in the protein that is synthesized. Therefore, changes in the sequence of nucleotides in the mRNA molecule can result in changes in the amino acid sequence of the protein, which can affect the function of the protein and potentially lead to disease. mRNA molecules are often used in medical research and therapy as a way to introduce new genetic information into cells. For example, mRNA vaccines work by introducing a small piece of mRNA that encodes for a specific protein, which triggers an immune response in the body.
The Blood-Testis Barrier (BTB) is a specialized structure that separates the blood vessels in the testis from the seminiferous tubules, where sperm production occurs. This barrier is essential for maintaining the unique environment necessary for spermatogenesis, which involves the production of sperm cells. The BTB is composed of tightly packed layers of Sertoli cells, which are specialized cells that support and nourish developing sperm cells. These cells form a barrier that restricts the passage of molecules between the blood vessels and the seminiferous tubules. This barrier is crucial for preventing the entry of potentially harmful substances, such as toxins and pathogens, into the seminiferous tubules, while allowing the passage of essential nutrients and hormones. The BTB is dynamic and can be regulated to allow the passage of specific molecules, such as hormones and growth factors, that are necessary for spermatogenesis. Disruption of the BTB can lead to a range of reproductive disorders, including infertility, testicular cancer, and male hormonal imbalances.
In the medical field, an amino acid sequence refers to the linear order of amino acids in a protein molecule. Proteins are made up of chains of amino acids, and the specific sequence of these amino acids determines the protein's structure and function. The amino acid sequence is determined by the genetic code, which is a set of rules that specifies how the sequence of nucleotides in DNA is translated into the sequence of amino acids in a protein. Each amino acid is represented by a three-letter code, and the sequence of these codes is the amino acid sequence of the protein. The amino acid sequence is important because it determines the protein's three-dimensional structure, which in turn determines its function. Small changes in the amino acid sequence can have significant effects on the protein's structure and function, and this can lead to diseases or disorders. For example, mutations in the amino acid sequence of a protein involved in blood clotting can lead to bleeding disorders.
In the medical field, a base sequence refers to the specific order of nucleotides (adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine) that make up the genetic material (DNA or RNA) of an organism. The base sequence determines the genetic information encoded within the DNA molecule and ultimately determines the traits and characteristics of an individual. The base sequence can be analyzed using various techniques, such as DNA sequencing, to identify genetic variations or mutations that may be associated with certain diseases or conditions.
Sex-Determining Region Y Protein (SRY) is a transcription factor protein that plays a crucial role in the development of male sex characteristics in mammals. It is located on the Y chromosome, which is present only in males, and is responsible for initiating the process of testis development during embryonic development. SRY acts as a master regulator gene that triggers the expression of other genes involved in male sexual differentiation. It binds to specific DNA sequences in the promoter region of target genes, leading to their activation and ultimately resulting in the development of male reproductive organs. In the absence of SRY, the development of male sex characteristics is prevented, and the embryo will develop female reproductive organs. Mutations in the SRY gene can lead to disorders of sexual development, such as XY gonadal dysgenesis, which is characterized by the underdevelopment or absence of testes in individuals with a typical Y chromosome.
In the medical field, "DNA, Complementary" refers to the property of DNA molecules to pair up with each other in a specific way. Each strand of DNA has a unique sequence of nucleotides (adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine), and the nucleotides on one strand can only pair up with specific nucleotides on the other strand in a complementary manner. For example, adenine (A) always pairs up with thymine (T), and guanine (G) always pairs up with cytosine (C). This complementary pairing is essential for DNA replication and transcription, as it ensures that the genetic information encoded in one strand of DNA can be accurately copied onto a new strand. The complementary nature of DNA also plays a crucial role in genetic engineering and biotechnology, as scientists can use complementary DNA strands to create specific genetic sequences or modify existing ones.
Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) is a hormone produced by the anterior pituitary gland in the brain. It plays a crucial role in the development and maturation of ovarian follicles in females and sperm production in males. In females, FSH stimulates the growth and maturation of ovarian follicles, which contain eggs. As the follicles mature, they release estrogen, which causes the lining of the uterus to thicken in preparation for a potential pregnancy. If fertilization does not occur, the levels of estrogen and FSH decrease, leading to the shedding of the uterine lining and the start of a new menstrual cycle. In males, FSH stimulates the production of sperm in the testes. It also plays a role in the development of the prostate gland and the regulation of testosterone levels. FSH levels can be measured in the blood to diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as infertility, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and hypogonadism.
Sertoli cell tumor is a rare type of germ cell tumor that affects the testicles. It is named after the Sertoli cells, which are specialized cells in the testicles that help to support and nourish developing sperm cells. Sertoli cell tumors can be either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign Sertoli cell tumors are usually small and do not spread to other parts of the body. Malignant Sertoli cell tumors, on the other hand, can grow larger and spread to other parts of the body, including the lymph nodes and other organs. Symptoms of Sertoli cell tumor may include a painless lump in the testicle, swelling of the testicle, and a feeling of heaviness in the scrotum. Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, imaging tests such as ultrasound or MRI, and biopsy. Treatment for Sertoli cell tumor depends on the type and stage of the tumor. Benign tumors may be monitored with regular imaging tests, while malignant tumors may require surgery, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy.
Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) is a chemical compound that is commonly used as a plasticizer in the production of plastics and other materials. It is a colorless, odorless liquid that is used in a variety of consumer products, including toys, clothing, and personal care products. In the medical field, DBP is not typically used as a treatment for any medical condition. However, it has been found in some medical devices and may be present in certain medications. DBP has been linked to a number of health effects, including reproductive and developmental problems, as well as potential cancer risks. As a result, the use of DBP in consumer products has been restricted in some countries, and efforts are being made to reduce its use in other products.
Blotting, Northern is a laboratory technique used to detect and quantify specific RNA molecules in a sample. It involves transferring RNA from a gel onto a membrane, which is then hybridized with a labeled complementary DNA probe. The probe binds to the specific RNA molecules on the membrane, allowing their detection and quantification through autoradiography or other imaging methods. Northern blotting is commonly used to study gene expression patterns in cells or tissues, and to compare the expression levels of different RNA molecules in different samples.
Cloning, molecular, in the medical field refers to the process of creating identical copies of a specific DNA sequence or gene. This is achieved through a technique called polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which amplifies a specific DNA sequence to produce multiple copies of it. Molecular cloning is commonly used in medical research to study the function of specific genes, to create genetically modified organisms for therapeutic purposes, and to develop new drugs and treatments. It is also used in forensic science to identify individuals based on their DNA. In the context of human cloning, molecular cloning is used to create identical copies of a specific gene or DNA sequence from one individual and insert it into the genome of another individual. This technique has been used to create transgenic animals, but human cloning is currently illegal in many countries due to ethical concerns.
Luteinizing hormone (LH) is a hormone produced by the anterior pituitary gland in the brain. It plays a crucial role in regulating the reproductive system in both males and females. In females, LH stimulates the ovaries to produce estrogen and progesterone, which are essential for the menstrual cycle and pregnancy. It also triggers ovulation, the release of a mature egg from the ovary. In males, LH stimulates the testes to produce testosterone, which is responsible for the development of male secondary sexual characteristics and the production of sperm. LH levels can be measured in the blood or urine to diagnose and monitor various reproductive disorders, such as infertility, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and hypogonadism. It is also used in fertility treatments, such as in vitro fertilization (IVF), to stimulate ovulation and increase the chances of conception.
Seminoma is a type of cancer that originates in the testicles and is caused by the abnormal growth of cells in the seminiferous tubules, which are responsible for producing sperm. Seminoma is the most common type of testicular cancer, accounting for about 40-50% of all cases. Seminoma typically presents as a painless lump in the testicle, which may be noticed by the patient or discovered during a routine physical examination. Other symptoms may include swelling in the scrotum, a feeling of heaviness in the testicle, or a dull ache in the lower abdomen or back. Seminoma is usually diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, blood tests, and imaging studies such as ultrasound or CT scans. Treatment options for seminoma include surgery to remove the affected testicle, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. The prognosis for seminoma is generally very good, with a five-year survival rate of over 95% for patients with localized disease.
Testicular hormones are hormones produced by the testes in males. The primary hormones produced by the testes are testosterone and luteinizing hormone (LH). Testosterone is responsible for the development of male secondary sexual characteristics, such as facial hair, deepening of the voice, and muscle mass. LH stimulates the production of testosterone by the testes. Testicular hormones also play a role in sperm production and sexual function.
Varicocele is a medical condition in which the veins in the scrotum become enlarged and twisted, usually due to a blockage or weakness in the valves that control blood flow. This can lead to a buildup of blood in the veins, causing them to become engorged and twisted. Varicocele is most commonly seen in men, and it is often associated with infertility. It is typically diagnosed through a physical examination and imaging tests such as ultrasound. Treatment options for varicocele may include medication, surgery, or other procedures to improve blood flow and reduce swelling.
Inhibins are a group of hormones produced by the ovaries and testes in humans and other animals. They play a role in regulating the production of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) by the pituitary gland. Inhibins are primarily produced by the granulosa cells of the ovarian follicles and the Sertoli cells of the testes. Inhibins act as negative feedback regulators of FSH and LH production. When the levels of FSH and LH are high, inhibins are produced and released into the bloodstream, which then inhibits the production of FSH and LH by the pituitary gland. This feedback mechanism helps to maintain a balance between the production of FSH and LH and the development of ovarian follicles and sperm production. Inhibins are also involved in the regulation of pregnancy and lactation. During pregnancy, the levels of inhibins increase, which helps to suppress the production of FSH and LH, preventing the development of additional ovarian follicles and ovulation. In lactating women, inhibins help to suppress the production of FSH and LH, preventing the return of the menstrual cycle until after lactation has ended. Abnormal levels of inhibins can be associated with various medical conditions, including polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), premature ovarian failure, and testicular cancer.
SOX9 (SRY-related HMG-box 9) is a transcription factor that plays a critical role in the development of several organs and tissues in the human body, including the testes, ovaries, and cartilage. In the medical field, SOX9 is often studied in the context of various diseases and conditions, including: 1. Testicular development: SOX9 is a key regulator of testicular development, and mutations in the SOX9 gene can lead to disorders such as campomelic dysplasia, a severe skeletal disorder that affects the development of the limbs and other body parts. 2. Ovarian development: SOX9 is also involved in the development of the ovaries, and its expression is necessary for the proper differentiation of ovarian granulosa cells. 3. Cartilage development: SOX9 plays a critical role in the development of cartilage, and mutations in the SOX9 gene can lead to disorders such as achondroplasia, a form of dwarfism characterized by short stature and abnormal bone growth. 4. Cancer: SOX9 has been implicated in the development and progression of several types of cancer, including prostate cancer, breast cancer, and ovarian cancer. In these contexts, SOX9 may act as a tumor suppressor or as a driver of cancer growth, depending on the specific context and the type of cancer being studied. Overall, SOX9 is a highly conserved transcription factor that plays a critical role in the development and function of several organs and tissues in the human body, and its dysregulation has been implicated in a variety of diseases and conditions.
Diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) is a chemical compound that is commonly used as a plasticizer in the production of various medical devices and products. It is a colorless, odorless liquid that is used to make plastics more flexible and durable. In the medical field, DEHP is used in a variety of products, including intravenous (IV) bags, blood bags, tubing, catheters, and medical equipment. It is also used in the production of some medications, such as oral contraceptives and hormone replacement therapy drugs. However, there is growing concern about the potential health effects of DEHP exposure, particularly in children. Some studies have suggested that DEHP may have endocrine-disrupting effects, which can interfere with the normal functioning of hormones in the body. This can lead to a range of health problems, including reproductive issues, developmental delays, and an increased risk of certain cancers. As a result, many medical device manufacturers are now using alternative plasticizers that are less harmful to human health. However, DEHP is still widely used in some medical products, and healthcare providers should be aware of the potential risks associated with its use.
Septa of testis
Tunica vasculosa testis
Appendix of testis
Testis specific 10
Testis expressed 15
Lobules of testis
Unus testis, nullus testis
Tunica albuginea of testis
Nuclear protein in testis gene
Testis specific serine kinase 1b
Testis-enhanced gene transfer family
Evolution of descended testes in mammals
Sudden infant death with dysgenesis of the testes syndrome
Testicular sperm extraction
Gubernaculum testis - Wikipedia
Testes de Integração | PPT
Testes: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia
The evolution of testes | Max-Planck-Gesellschaft
CT47A8 cancer/testis antigen family 47 member A8 [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBI
Manual Detorsion of the Testes: Overview, Indications, Contraindications
The Starbucks Via Taste Test -- Is it really better than your mother's instant coffee?
63.52 ICD-9 Vol 3 Code - Reduction of torsion of testis
Undescended Testes (Cryptorchidism) - Children's Hospital of Orange County
PRKRA Localizes to Nuage Structures and the Ectoplasmic Specialization and Tubulobulbar Complexes in Rat and Mouse Testis
Experimentação e testes para o desenvolvimento de novos produtos financeiros.
What is the definition of Testis? | Dictionary.net
Tissue expression of MISP - Staining in testis - The Human Protein Atlas
In silico analysis indicates a similar gene expression pattern between human brain and testis | Cytogenetic and Genome Research...
Evolutionary Reduction in Testes Size and Competitive Fertilization Success in Response to the Experimental Removal of Sexual...
Edusex Forum • Pogledaj temu - TESTis kvrzia
Pacote de formação sobre os Testes de Diagnóstico Rápido de Antigénio para o SARS-CoV-2 | HSLP
Flashcards - Inguinal Canal, Scrotum, & Testis
Sexual ornaments but not weapons trade off against testes size in primates - Zurich Open Repository and Archive
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Erratum: Male-specific region of the bovine Y chromosome is gene rich with a high transcriptomic activity in testis development...
Flutamide induces alterations in the cell-cell junction ultrastructure and reduces the expression of Cx43 at the blood-testis...
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Testis | TNM Data SEER*RSA
- This is at first a slender band, extending from that part of the skin of the groin which afterward forms the scrotum through the inguinal canal to the body and epididymis of the testis. (wikipedia.org)
- The testes are 2 egg-shaped male reproductive organs located in the scrotum . (medlineplus.gov)
- In almost all adult mammals, testes are located either in a scrotum or in the lower abdomen. (mpg.de)
- Bell clapper deformity (right), a congenital condition in which the testis hangs within the scrotum (red arrows) and can swing like a bell clapper in a bell, allowing for easy torsion. (medscape.com)
- While prematurity is a leading cause, other causes may include hormonal disorders, retractile testes (a muscle reflex that causes a testicle to move back and forth from the scrotum to the groin), testicular absence or the cause may be unknown. (choc.org)
- Other children may require a surgery to bring the testes down into the scrotum. (choc.org)
- Over the last 3 months of gestation, the testis must course its way down from its original retroperitoneal position to its final destination in the scrotum. (medscape.com)
- The testis is a paired, ovoid male reproductive organ that sits in the scrotum, separated from its mate by a scrotal septum. (medscape.com)
- Inferiorly, the testis is anchored to the scrotum by the scrotal ligament, a remnant of the gubernaculum. (medscape.com)
- Undescended testes (cryptorchidism) are testes that remain in the abdomen or the groin instead of descending into the scrotum. (msdmanuals.com)
- Retractile testes (hypermobile testes) have descended into the scrotum but can move back (retract) into the inguinal canal easily as a reflex response to stimulation. (msdmanuals.com)
- After the testes develop, but typically before birth (usually in the last third of pregnancy-the third trimester), they descend through a tunnel from the abdomen into the groin (the inguinal canal) and then down into the scrotum. (msdmanuals.com)
- Sometimes, fluid from the abdomen accumulates around the testes and is trapped in the scrotum after the tunnel closes. (msdmanuals.com)
- Scrotal Swelling Swelling of the scrotum (the sac that surrounds and protects the testes) on one or both sides may be a symptom of a urinary tract disorder. (msdmanuals.com)
- As the fetus matures, the testes descend into the scrotum. (medscape.com)
- Superiorly, it is suspended by the spermatic cord, with the left testis often sitting lower than the right testis. (medscape.com)
- The tunica vaginalis testis (a remnant of the processus vaginalis) envelopes the testis in a double layer, except at the superior and posterior borders where the spermatic cord and epididymis adhere to the testes. (medscape.com)
- Testicular Torsion Testicular torsion is the twisting of a testis on its spermatic cord so that the blood supply to the testis is blocked. (msdmanuals.com)
- Present study was designed to establish a causal connection between changes in the cell-cell junction protein expression at the blood-testis barrier and alterations in the adult rat testis histology following an anti-androgen flutamide exposure. (biomedcentral.com)
- Cryptorchidism is more commonly seen in premature males because the testes do not descend from the abdomen to the scrotal sac until the seventh month of fetal development. (choc.org)
- Some children may be examined periodically for a length of time to allow the testes to naturally descend. (choc.org)
- How do testes descend in relation to it? (freezingblue.com)
- After the testes descend, the tunnel usually closes. (msdmanuals.com)
- Usually only one testis fails to descend, but in about 10% both testes are affected. (msdmanuals.com)
- About two thirds of undescended testes descend on their own by 4 months of age in full-term infants or, for premature infants, by 4 months after the date they would have been born if they were not premature. (msdmanuals.com)
- Testes that remain in the abdomen at birth are much less likely to descend on their own. (msdmanuals.com)
Evolution of testes2
- A team of researchers from the Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics, the Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems, the Senckenberg Natural History Collections Dresden and the Natural History Museum Frankfurt now provide a new approach to resolve the evolution of soft-tissue structures, focusing on the evolution of testes in mammals. (mpg.de)
- Our data show that sperm competition does drive the evolution of testes size in onthophagine beetles, and provide general support for sperm competition theory. (bioone.org)
- Undescended testes are a condition seen most commonly in newborns when one or both of the male testes have not passed down into the scrotal sac. (choc.org)
- This locus represents a member of the cancer/testis gene family 47. (nih.gov)
- Identification of a new cancer/testis gene family, CT47, among expressed multicopy genes on the human X chromosome. (nih.gov)
- Previous data has reported similarity between human brain and testis gene expression patterns. (karger.com)
- Hence, it means that human testis could also play a crucial role in human speciation if these two tissues exhibit similar gene expression patterns. (karger.com)
- Among the 17 tissues, the highest similarity in gene expression patterns was between human brain and testis, based on DDD and clustering analysis. (karger.com)
- Present results provide evidence to support the proposal that human testis and brain share the highest similarity of gene expression patterns. (karger.com)
- Transcription of the SRY gene (testis-determining factor region) on the Y chromosome ultimately leads to sex differentiation. (medscape.com)
- Testis-specific serine kinase 3 (Tssk3) is a conserved gene, but TSSK3 kinase functions and phosphorylation substrates of TSSK3 are not known. (cdc.gov)
- Described by some as being shaped and sized like a large olive or small plum, the average volume of the adult testis is approximately 25 mL. (medscape.com)
- As the fetus develops, the functioning testis produces the male hormone testosterone to allow development of male genitalia. (medscape.com)
- Theory suggests that sperm competition should favor traits such as testes size and sperm production that increase a male's competitive fertilization success. (bioone.org)
- Torsion of the testes is a surgical emergency, because it causes strangulation of gonadal blood supply with subsequent testicular necrosis and atrophy. (medscape.com)
- The visceral layer of the tunica vaginalis testis is closely applied to the testis, epididymis, and ductus deferens. (medscape.com)
- An image depicting the testes and epididymis can be seen below. (medscape.com)
- On the posterolateral surface of the testis, this layer invests a slit-like recess between the body of the epididymis and the testis that is called the sinus of epididymis. (medscape.com)
- The epididymal head overhangs the upper pole of the testis, receives the seminal fluid from the ducts of the testis (which pierce the upper portion of the mediastinum), then allows the passage of the sperm into the distal portion of the epididymis. (medscape.com)
- Leigh W. Simmons and Francisco García-González "Evolutionary Reduction in Testes Size and Competitive Fertilization Success in Response to the Experimental Removal of Sexual Selection in Dung Beetles," Evolution 62(10), 2580-2591, (1 October 2008). (bioone.org)
- Males must partition their limited reproductive investments between traits that promote access to females (sexual ornaments and weapons) and traits that enhance fertilization success, such as testes and ejaculates. (uzh.ch)
- Most newborns who have an undescended testis also have an inguinal hernia. (msdmanuals.com)
- Up to one-third of premature male infants have an undescended testis. (choc.org)
- Em audiência pública, secretário de Vigilância em Saúde, Arnaldo Medeiros, deu transparência aos dados de 7 milhões testes armazenados com validade próxima de acabar. (bvsalud.org)
- 75% of undescended testes resolve by 3 months of age. (choc.org)
- While the nonpalpable testis represents a small portion of all cryptorchid testes , it remains a clinical challenge for pediatric urologists . (bvsalud.org)
- Smooth to palpation, the testis sits obliquely with its long axis mostly vertical with a slight anterior and lateral slant to the superior pole. (medscape.com)
- Undescended testes can be unilateral (involving only one testicle) or bilateral (involving one testicle). (choc.org)
- Undescended testes occur in approximately 3 to 5 percent of male infants. (choc.org)
- Here we removed sexual selection by enforcing monogamy on replicate lines of a naturally polygamous horned beetle, Onthophagus taurus , and monitoring male investment in their testes for 21 generations. (bioone.org)
- In a comparative study across primates, which exhibit considerable diversification in sexual ornamentation, male weaponry and testes size, we found relative testes size to decrease with sexual ornaments but increase with canine size. (uzh.ch)
- Importantly, however, our results indicate that the theory of relative investments between weapons and testes in the context of monopolizing females can extend to male ornaments. (uzh.ch)
- The testis (from the Greek word orchis ) is the male gland important for both reproductive (exocrine) and endocrine functions. (medscape.com)
- Males whose fathers had undescended testes have a higher rate of undescended testes themselves. (choc.org)
- In this review we update what is known about the nonpalpable testis , including the etiology , preoperative evaluation and best surgical management as well as novel techniques and ongoing controversies. (bvsalud.org)
- Boys whose family members had undescended testes also are more likely to have the condition. (msdmanuals.com)
- The most common symptom of undescended testes is the inability to feel the testis during a physical exam. (choc.org)
- Diagnosis of undescended testes is made based on a complete medical history and physical examination by a specialist. (choc.org)
- The nonpalpable testis should be evaluated by physical examination only. (bvsalud.org)
- Several lines of evidence indicate that not only TJ but also GJ are required for adequate functioning of the testis. (biomedcentral.com)
- They create a specialized microenvironment to support the germ cell development especially through the formation of the blood-testis barrier (BTB). (biomedcentral.com)
- About 3 of every 100 boys who are born at full term (9 months) have an undescended testis at birth. (msdmanuals.com)
- In the present study, we investigated the localization of PRKRA in the mammalian testis by immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopic techniques. (hindawi.com)
- The mediastinum testis extends from the superior to near the inferior portion of the gland. (medscape.com)