The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.
The network of channels formed at the termination of the straight SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES in the mediastinum testis. Rete testis channels drain into the efferent ductules that pass into the caput EPIDIDYMIS.
The process of germ cell development in the male from the primordial germ cells, through SPERMATOGONIA; SPERMATOCYTES; SPERMATIDS; to the mature haploid SPERMATOZOA.
Supporting cells projecting inward from the basement membrane of SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. They surround and nourish the developing male germ cells and secrete ANDROGEN-BINDING PROTEIN and hormones such as ANTI-MULLERIAN HORMONE. The tight junctions of Sertoli cells with the SPERMATOGONIA and SPERMATOCYTES provide a BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER.
A developmental defect in which a TESTIS or both TESTES failed to descend from high in the ABDOMEN to the bottom of the SCROTUM. Testicular descent is essential to normal SPERMATOGENESIS which requires temperature lower than the BODY TEMPERATURE. Cryptorchidism can be subclassified by the location of the maldescended testis.
Steroid-producing cells in the interstitial tissue of the TESTIS. They are under the regulation of PITUITARY HORMONES; LUTEINIZING HORMONE; or interstitial cell-stimulating hormone. TESTOSTERONE is the major androgen (ANDROGENS) produced.
Male germ cells derived from the haploid secondary SPERMATOCYTES. Without further division, spermatids undergo structural changes and give rise to SPERMATOZOA.
Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.
Euploid male germ cells of an early stage of SPERMATOGENESIS, derived from prespermatogonia. With the onset of puberty, spermatogonia at the basement membrane of the seminiferous tubule proliferate by mitotic then meiotic divisions and give rise to the haploid SPERMATOCYTES.
The convoluted cordlike structure attached to the posterior of the TESTIS. Epididymis consists of the head (caput), the body (corpus), and the tail (cauda). A network of ducts leaving the testis joins into a common epididymal tubule proper which provides the transport, storage, and maturation of SPERMATOZOA.
The epithelium lining the seminiferous tubules composed of primary male germ cells (SPERMATOGONIA) and supporting SERTOLI CELLS. As SPERMATOGENESIS proceeds, the developing germ cells migrate toward the lumen. The adluminal compartment, the inner two thirds of the tubules, contains SPERMATOCYTES and the more advanced germ cells.
Pathological processes of the TESTIS.
A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.
Male germ cells derived from SPERMATOGONIA. The euploid primary spermatocytes undergo MEIOSIS and give rise to the haploid secondary spermatocytes which in turn give rise to SPERMATIDS.
Tumors or cancer of the TESTIS. Germ cell tumors (GERMINOMA) of the testis constitute 95% of all testicular neoplasms.
A count of SPERM in the ejaculum, expressed as number per milliliter.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
The twisting of the SPERMATIC CORD due to an anatomical abnormality that left the TESTIS mobile and dangling in the SCROTUM. The initial effect of testicular torsion is obstruction of venous return. Depending on the duration and degree of cord rotation, testicular symptoms range from EDEMA to interrupted arterial flow and testicular pain. If blood flow to testis is absent for 4 to 6 h, SPERMATOGENESIS may be permanently lost.
The inability of the male to effect FERTILIZATION of an OVUM after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Male sterility is permanent infertility.
The reproductive cells in multicellular organisms at various stages during GAMETOGENESIS.
Inflammation of a TESTIS. It has many features of EPIDIDYMITIS, such as swollen SCROTUM; PAIN; PYURIA; and FEVER. It is usually related to infections in the URINARY TRACT, which likely spread to the EPIDIDYMIS and then the TESTIS through either the VAS DEFERENS or the lymphatics of the SPERMATIC CORD.
The male reproductive organs. They are divided into the external organs (PENIS; SCROTUM;and URETHRA) and the internal organs (TESTIS; EPIDIDYMIS; VAS DEFERENS; SEMINAL VESICLES; EJACULATORY DUCTS; PROSTATE; and BULBOURETHRAL GLANDS).
Achievement of full sexual capacity in animals and in humans.
A cutaneous pouch of skin containing the testicles and spermatic cords.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A specialized barrier, in the TESTIS, between the interstitial BLOOD compartment and the adluminal compartment of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. The barrier is formed by layers of cells from the VASCULAR ENDOTHELIUM of the capillary BLOOD VESSELS, to the SEMINIFEROUS EPITHELIUM of the seminiferous tubules. TIGHT JUNCTIONS form between adjacent SERTOLI CELLS, as well as between the ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
The process in developing sex- or gender-specific tissue, organ, or function after SEX DETERMINATION PROCESSES have set the sex of the GONADS. Major areas of sex differentiation occur in the reproductive tract (GENITALIA) and the brain.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The surgical removal of one or both testicles.
The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.
A transcription factor that plays an essential role in the development of the TESTES. It is encoded by a gene on the Y chromosome and contains a specific HMG-BOX DOMAIN that is found within members of the SOX family of transcription factors.
The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.
A saclike, glandular diverticulum on each ductus deferens in male vertebrates. It is united with the excretory duct and serves for temporary storage of semen. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The mechanisms by which the SEX of an individual's GONADS are fixed.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
The gamete-producing glands, OVARY or TESTIS.
Gonadal neoplasm composed entirely of SERTOLI CELLS or may have a component of GRANULOSA CELLS. Some of the Sertoli cell tumors produce ESTROGEN or ANDROGENS, but seldom in sufficient quantity to cause clinical symptoms such as FEMINIZATION or masculinization (VIRILISM).
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
A surgical procedure in which an undescended testicle is sutured inside the SCROTUM in male infants or children to correct CRYPTORCHIDISM. Orchiopexy is also performed to treat TESTICULAR TORSION in adults and adolescents.
A plasticizer used in most plastics and found in water, air, soil, plants and animals. It may have some adverse effects with long-term exposure.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Movement characteristics of SPERMATOZOA in a fresh specimen. It is measured as the percentage of sperms that are moving, and as the percentage of sperms with productive flagellar motion such as rapid, linear, and forward progression.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
A radiosensitive, malignant neoplasm of the testis, thought to be derived from primordial germ cells of the sexually undifferentiated embryonic gonad. There are three variants: classical (typical), the most common type; anaplastic; and spermatocytic. The classical seminoma is composed of fairly well differentiated sheets or cords of uniform polygonal or round cells (seminoma cells), each cell having abundant clear cytoplasm, distinct cell membranes, a centrally placed round nucleus, and one or more nucleoli. In the female, a grossly and histologically identical neoplasm, known as dysgerminoma, occurs. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Hormones produced in the testis.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The maturing process of SPERMATOZOA after leaving the testicular SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. Maturation in SPERM MOTILITY and FERTILITY takes place in the EPIDIDYMIS as the sperm migrate from caput epididymis to cauda epididymis.
A condition characterized by the dilated tortuous veins of the SPERMATIC CORD with a marked left-sided predominance. Adverse effect on male fertility occurs when varicocele leads to an increased scrotal (and testicular) temperature and reduced testicular volume.
Either of a pair of tubular structures formed by DUCTUS DEFERENS; ARTERIES; VEINS; LYMPHATIC VESSELS; and nerves. The spermatic cord extends from the deep inguinal ring through the INGUINAL CANAL to the TESTIS in the SCROTUM.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.
Glycoproteins that inhibit pituitary FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion. Inhibins are secreted by the Sertoli cells of the testes, the granulosa cells of the ovarian follicles, the placenta, and other tissues. Inhibins and ACTIVINS are modulators of FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretions; both groups belong to the TGF-beta superfamily, as the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. Inhibins consist of a disulfide-linked heterodimer with a unique alpha linked to either a beta A or a beta B subunit to form inhibin A or inhibin B, respectively
A SOXE transcription factor that plays a critical role in regulating CHONDROGENESIS; OSTEOGENESIS; and male sex determination. Loss of function of the SOX9 transcription factor due to genetic mutations is a cause of CAMPOMELIC DYSPLASIA.
The primary testis-determining gene in mammalians, located on the Y CHROMOSOME. It codes for a high mobility group box transcription factor (TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS) which initiates the development of the TESTES from the embryonic GONADS.
An ester of phthalic acid. It appears as a light-colored, odorless liquid and is used as a plasticizer for many resins and elastomers.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)

Effect of sex difference on the in vitro and in vivo metabolism of aflatoxin B1 by the rat. (1/10446)

Hepatic microsome-catalyzed metabolism of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) to aflatoxin M1 and aflatoxin Q1 and the "metabolic activation" of AFB1 to DNA-alylating metabolite(s) were studied in normal male and female Sprague-Dawley rats, in gonadectomized animals, and in castrated males and normal females treated with testosterone. Microsomes from male animals formed 2 to 5 times more aflatoxin M1, aflatoxin Q1, and DNA-alkylating metabolite(s) than those from females. Castration reduced the metabolism of AFB1 by the microsomes from males by about 50%, whereas ovariectomy had no significant effect on AFB1 metabolism by the microsomes from females. Testosterone treatment (4 mg/rat, 3 times/week for about 6 weeks) of castrated immature males and immature females enhanced the metabolism of AFB1 by their microsomes. A sex difference in the metabolism of AFB1 by liver microsomes was also seen in other strains of rats tested: Wistar, Long-Evans, and Fischer. The activity of kidney microsomes for metabolic activation was 1 to 4% that of the liver activity and was generally lower in microsomes from male rats as compared to those from female rats of Sprague-Dawley, Wistar, and Long-Evans strains. The in vitro results obtained with hepatic microsomes correlated well with the in vivo metabolism of AFB1, in that more AFB1 became bound in vivo to hepatic DNA isolated from male rats and from a female rat treated with testosterone than that isolated from control female rats. These data suggest that the differences in hepatic AFB1 metabolism may be the underlying cause of the sex difference in toxicity and carcinogenicity of AFB1 observed in rats.  (+info)

Expression of novel alternatively spliced isoforms of the oct-1 transcription factor. (2/10446)

Analysis of the alternatively spliced isoforms of the human and mouse oct-1 genes, combined with their exon-intron structure, show a high level of evolutionary conservation between these two species. The differential expression of several oct-1 isoforms was examined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction performed on the 3' region of the murine oct-1 cDNA. Variations in the relative levels and patterns of expression of the isoforms were found among different tissues. Three novel isoforms originating from the 3'-distal region of oct-1, were isolated and sequenced: Two were derived from testis, and one from myeloma cells. Splicing out of different exons as revealed in the structure of these isoforms results in reading frameshifts that presumably lead to the expression of shortened Oct-1 proteins, with distinct C-terminal tails. Altogether, six out of the eight known murine oct-1 isoforms may have distinct C-termini, implying that these multiple tails have different functional roles in cellular differentiation and physiology.  (+info)

Differential regulation of p21waf-1/cip-1 and Mdm2 by etoposide: etoposide inhibits the p53-Mdm2 autoregulatory feedback loop. (3/10446)

The Mdm2 protein is frequently overexpressed in human non-seminomatous germ cell tumours and transitional carcinoma of the bladder where it may contribute to tolerance of wtp53. Mdm2 forms an autoregulatory feedback loop with p53; the Mdm2 gene is responsive to transactivation by p53 and once synthesized the Mdm2 protein terminates the p53 response. We show here that the topoisomerase poison etoposide, like ultra violet irradiation, inhibits Mdm2 synthesis. Cytotoxic concentrations of etoposide (IC90 for > 3 h) result in inhibition of Mdm2 induction at both the RNA and protein level. Rapid apoptosis ensues. Global transcription is not inhibited: p21waf-1/cip1 and GADD45 expression increase in a dose dependent manner. Inhibition of Mdm2 synthesis depends on the continuous presence of etoposide, suggesting the DNA damage may prevent transcription. Downregulation of Mdm2 transcript occurs in cells expressing HPV16-E6 suggesting that inhibition of Mdm2 transcription is p53-independent. When cells are -treated with a pulse (1 h) of etoposide and reincubated in drug free medium, Mdm2 synthesis commences immediately after damage is repaired (3 h) and the p53 response is attenuated. Induction of apoptosis and loss of clonogenicity are 3-5-fold lower under pulse treatment conditions. This is the first observation of inhibition of Mdm2 transcription following treatment with topoisomerase (topo II) poisons, a feature that may be useful in tumour types where p53 is tolerated by overexpression of Mdm2.  (+info)

Glutathione-independent prostaglandin D2 synthase in ram and stallion epididymal fluids: origin and regulation. (4/10446)

Microsequencing after two-dimensional electrophoresis revealed a major protein, glutathione-independent prostaglandin D2 synthase (PGDS) in the anterior epididymal region fluid of the ram and stallion. In this epididymal region, PGDS was a polymorphic compound with a molecular mass around 30 kDa and a range of pI from 4 to 7. PGDS represented 15% and 8% of the total luminal proteins present in this region in the ram and stallion, respectively. The secretion of the protein as judged by in vitro biosynthesis, and the presence of its mRNA as studied by Northern blot analysis, were limited to the proximal caput epididymidis. Using a specific polyclonal antibody raised against a synthetic peptide, PGDS was found throughout the epididymis, decreasing in concentration toward the cauda region. PGDS was also detected in the testicular fluid and seminal plasma by Western blotting. Castration and efferent duct ligation in the ram led to a decrease in PGDS mRNA and secretion. PGDS mRNA was not detected in the stallion 1 mo after castration, and it was restored by testosterone supplementation. This study showed that PGDS is present in the environment of spermatozoa throughout the male genital tract. Its function in the maturation and/or protection of spermatozoa is unknown.  (+info)

Identification of a nuclear localization signal in activin/inhibin betaA subunit; intranuclear betaA in rat spermatogenic cells. (5/10446)

Activin is a dimeric glycoprotein hormone that was initially characterized by its ability to stimulate pituitary FSH secretion and was subsequently recognized as a growth factor with diverse biological functions in a large variety of tissues. In the testis, activin has been implicated in the auto/paracrine regulation of spermatogenesis through its cognate cell membrane receptors on Sertoli and germ cells. In this study we provide evidence for intranuclear activin/inhibin betaA subunit and show its distribution in the rat seminiferous epithelium. We have shown by transient expression in HeLa cells of beta-galactosidase fusion proteins that the betaA subunit precursor contains a functional nuclear localization signal within the lysine-rich sequence corresponding to amino acids 231-244. In all stages of the rat seminiferous epithelial cycle, an intense immunohistochemical staining of nuclear betaA was demonstrated in intermediate or type B spermatogonia or primary spermatocytes in their initial stages of the first meiotic prophase, as well as in pachytene spermatocytes and elongating spermatids primarily in stages IX-XII. In some pachytene spermatocytes, the pattern of betaA immunoreactivity was consistent with the characteristic distribution of pachytene chromosomes. In the nuclei of round spermatids, betaA immunoreactivity was less intense, and in late spermatids it was localized in the residual cytoplasm, suggesting disposal of betaA before spermatozoal maturation. Immunoblot analysis of a protein extract from isolated testicular nuclei revealed a nuclear betaA species with a molecular mass of approximately 24 kDa, which is more than 1.5 times that of the mature activin betaA subunit present in activin dimers. These results suggest that activin/inhibin betaA may elicit its biological functions through two parallel signal transduction pathways, one involving the dimeric molecule and cell surface receptors and the other an alternately processed betaA sequence acting directly within the nucleus. According to our immunohistochemical data, betaA may play a significant role in the regulation of nuclear functions during meiosis and spermiogenesis.  (+info)

Prolactin replacement fails to inhibit reactivation of gonadotropin secretion in rams treated with melatonin under long days. (6/10446)

This study tested the hypothesis that prolactin (PRL) inhibits gonadotropin secretion in rams maintained under long days and that treatment with melatonin (s.c. continuous-release implant; MEL-IMP) reactivates the reproductive axis by suppressing PRL secretion. Adult Soay rams were maintained under long days (16L:8D) and received 1) no further treatment (control, C); 2) MEL-IMP for 16 wk and injections of saline/vehicle for the first 8 wk (M); 3) MEL-IMP for 16 wk and exogenous PRL (s.c. 5 mg ovine PRL 3x daily) for the first 8 wk (M+P). The treatment with melatonin induced a rapid increase in the blood concentrations of FSH and testosterone, rapid growth of the testes, an increase in the frequency of LH pulses, and a decrease in the LH response to N-methyl-D,L-aspartic acid. The concomitant treatment with exogenous PRL had no effect on these reproductive responses but caused a significant delay in the timing of the sexual skin color and growth of the winter pelage. These results do not support the hypothesis and suggest that PRL at physiological long-day concentrations, while being totally ineffective as an inhibitor of gonadotropin secretion, acts in the peripheral tissues and skin to maintain summer characteristics.  (+info)

Effects of spinal cord injury on spermatogenesis and the expression of messenger ribonucleic acid for Sertoli cell proteins in rat Sertoli cell-enriched testes. (7/10446)

The study was an examination of the effects of spinal cord injury (SCI) on spermatogenesis and Sertoli cell functions in adult rats with Sertoli cell-enriched (SCE) testes. The effects of SCI on the seminiferous epithelium were characterized by abnormalities in the remaining spermatogenic cells during the first month after SCI. Three days after SCI, serum testosterone levels were 80% lower, while serum FSH and LH levels were 25% and 50% higher, respectively, than those of sham control SCE rats. At this time, the levels of mRNA for androgen receptor (AR), FSH receptor (FSH-R), and androgen-binding protein (ABP) were normal whereas those for transferrin (Trf) had decreased by 40%. Thereafter, serum testosterone levels increased, but they remained lower than those of the sham control rats 28 days after SCI; and serum FSH and LH levels returned to normal. The levels of mRNA for AR, ABP, and Trf exhibited a biphasic increase 7 days after SCI and remained elevated 28 days after SCI. FSH-R mRNA levels were also elevated 90 days after SCI. Unexpectedly, active spermatogenesis, including qualitatively complete spermatogenesis, persisted in > 40% of the tubules 90 days after SCI. These results suggest that the stem cells and/or undifferentiated spermatogonia in SCE testes are less susceptible to the deleterious effects of SCI than the normal testes and that they were able to proliferate and differentiate after SCI. The presence of elevated levels of mRNA for Sertoli cell FSH-R and AR, as well as of that for the Sertoli cell proteins, in the SCE testes during the chronic stage of SCI suggests a modification of Sertoli cell physiology. Such changes in Sertoli cell functions may provide a beneficial environment for the proliferation of the stem cells and differentiation of postmeiotic cells, thus resulting in the persistence of spermatogenesis in these testes.  (+info)

X inactive-specific transcript (Xist) expression and X chromosome inactivation in the preattachment bovine embryo. (8/10446)

Expression of the X inactive-specific transcript (Xist) is thought to be essential for the initiation of X chromosome inactivation and dosage compensation during female embryo development. In the present study, we analyzed the patterns of Xist transcription and the onset of X chromosome inactivation in bovine preattachment embryos. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) revealed the presence of Xist transcripts in all adult female somatic tissues evaluated. In contrast, among the male tissues examined, Xist expression was detected only in testis. No evidence for Xist transcription was observed after a single round of RT-PCR from pools of in vitro-derived embryos at the 2- to 4-cell stage. Xist transcripts were detected as a faint amplicon at the 8-cell stage initially, and consistently thereafter in all stages examined up to and including the expanded blastocyst stage. Xist transcripts, however, were subsequently detected from the 2-cell stage onward after nested RT-PCR. Preferential [3H]thymidine labeling indicative of late replication of one of the X chromosomes was noted in female embryos of different developmental ages as follows: 2 of 7 (28.5%) early blastocysts, 6 of 13 (46.1%) blastocysts, 8 of 11 (72.1%) expanded blastocysts, and 14 of 17 (77.7%) hatched blastocysts. These results suggest that Xist expression precedes the onset of late replication in the bovine embryo, in a pattern compatible with a possible role of bovine Xist in the initiation of X chromosome inactivation.  (+info)

Comparative studies of the relative testes size in animals show that promiscuous species have relatively larger testes than monogamous species. Sperm competition favours the evolution of larger ejaculates in many animals - they give bigger testes. In the view, we presented data on relative testis mass for 17 Chinese species including 3 polyandrous species. We analyzed relative testis mass within the Chinese data set and combining those data with published data sets on Japanese and African frogs. We found that polyandrous foam nesting species have relatively large testes, suggesting that sperm competition was an important factor affecting the evolution of relative testes size. For 4 polyandrous species testes mass is positively correlated with intensity (males/mating) but not with risk (frequency of polyandrous matings) of sperm competition.
Testes from 11.5-day-old mouse embryos, with and without attached mesonephroi, were cultured for 7 days. Isolated testes failed to develop well-differentiated testis cords: however, when cultured attached to a mesonephros from either a male or a female donor embryo, testes developed cords that were normal in appearance. Testes cultured next to a mesonephric region but separated from it by a permeable filter, did not develop normal cords, nor did testes grafted to fragments of embryonic limb or heart. When testes were grafted to mesonephric regions from mice carrying a transgenic marker, the marker was found in some of the peritubular myoid cells and other interstitial cells of the testis, but not in the Sertoli cells or the germ cells. We conclude that after 11.5 days post coitum, cells can migrate from the mesonephric region into the differentiating testis and can contribute to the interstitial cell population, and that this contribution is necessary for the establishment of normal cord ...
Very rarely, there may be an absent testis which has not developed at all.. Can the testis still descend after birth?. In some cases, the testis that is undescended will still descend after birth. However, this is less likely the older the baby becomes. Both testes should be in the scrotum by the time your child is 1 year old.. How do you diagnose undescended testis?. This is usually found when the baby is examined, either shortly after birth or during the six- or eight-week baby check. This is found by examining the babys scrotum gently to feel for the presence (or absence) of the testes.. In some children, the testes may have descended to the scrotum but are not always able to be felt there. This is because the testes can sometimes rise back into the body, especially when the baby is cold. If you can feel both testes in the scrotum at other times - for example, when your baby is having a bath - then your baby does not have undescended testes and does not need any treatment.. How does ...
Testis iku klanjer kelamin lanang ing kéwan lan manungsa. Manungsa (priya) duwé testis loro kang dibungkus skrotum. Ing mamalia, testis papané ing njaban awak, digandhéngaké karo tubulus spermatikus lan papané ing njeron skrotum. Iki cocog karo kasunyatan manawa prosès spermatogenesis mamalia bakal luwih efisien kanthi suhu luwih asor saka suhu badan (, 37 °C). Ing tubulus spermatikus ana otot kremaster kang manawa kontraksi bakal ngangkat testis nyeraki awak. Yèn suhu testis didhunaké, otot kremaster bakal relaksasi lan testis bakal ngedohi awak. Fenomena iki dikenal kanthi sebutan refleks kremaster. Kéwan saliyané mamalia ora duwé testis ing njaba. Manuk, kang suhu awaké dhuwur, duwé testis ing njeron awak. Miturut téyori para ahli, manuk migunakaké kanthong udharané kanggo njaga suhu optimal testis, nanging ing panlitèn saterusé disebutaké manawa testis manuk fungsiné bakal apik ing suhu awak. [1] Samangsa pubertas, testis tumuwuh kanggo miwiti spermatogenesis. Ukuran ...
Protein phosphorylation is a critical regulatory mechanism in cellular signalling. To this end, PP1 is a major eukaryotic serine/threonine-specific phosphatase whose cellular functions, in turn, depend on complexes it forms with PP1 interacting proteins - PIPs. The importance of the testis/sperm-enriched variant, PP1?2, in sperm motility and spermatogenesis has previously been shown. Given the key role of PIPs, it is imperative to identify the physiologically relevant PIPs in testis and sperm. Hence, we performed Yeast Two-Hybrid screens of a human testis cDNA library using as baits the different PP1 isoforms and also a proteomic approach aimed at identifying PP1?2 binding proteins. To the best of our knowledge this is the largest data set of the human testis PP1 interactome. We report the identification of 77 proteins in human testis and 7 proteins in human sperm that bind PP1. The data obtained increased the known PP1 interactome by reporting 72 novel interactions. Confirmation of the ...
Purified Bovine Testis Membrane Lysate, Total Protein from Creative Biomart. Bovine Testis Membrane Lysate, Total Protein can be used for research.
The expression and localisation of downstream signalling molecules of transforming growth factor beta superfamily, Smad2 and Smad4 proteins, was investigated in immature and mature dog testis. Cellular localisation of Smad2 and Smad4 proteins was examined using immunohistochemistry. Quantitative analysis of immunostaining was determined by the image analysis system. The specificity of the antibodies was examined using Western blotting assay. Smad2 and Smad4 were widely expressed in the testes, mainly immunolocalised in the cytoplasm of gonocytes, Leydig cells and Sertoli cells of immature testes, and Leydig cells and Sertoli cells of mature testes. At the same time, the expression levels for both proteins were different between immature and mature age groups: the expression of Smad2 and Smad4 proteins in the Sertoli cells of mature testis was higher than in the immature group (P | 0.05), but the expression of these two proteins in Leydig cells of mature testis was weaker than that seen in immature stage
Testicular receptor 4 also known as NR2C2 (nuclear receptor subfamily 2, group C, member 2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NR2C2 gene. The testicular receptor 4 is a member of the nuclear receptor family of transcription factors. Testicular receptor 4 has been shown to interact with Androgen receptor, Estrogen receptor alpha, and Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha. Testicular receptor GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000177463 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000005893 - Ensembl, May 2017 Human PubMed Reference:. Mouse PubMed Reference:. Entrez Gene: NR2C2. Chang C, Da Silva SL, Ideta R, Lee Y, Yeh S, Burbach JP (Jun 1994). Human and rat TR4 orphan receptors specify a subclass of the steroid receptor superfamily. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 91 (13): 6040-4. doi:10.1073/pnas.91.13.6040. PMC 44133 . PMID 8016112. Yoshikawa T, DuPont BR, Leach RJ, Detera-Wadleigh SD (Jul 1996). New variants of the ...
Many stem cells divide asymmetrically to balance self-renewal and differentiation. In Drosophila testes, two stem cell populations, germline stem cells (GSCs) and somatic cyst stem cells (CySCs), cohere and regulate one another. Here, we report that CySCs divide asymmetrically through repositioning the mitotic spindle around anaphase. CySC spindle repositioning requires functional centrosomes, Dynein and the actin-membrane linker Moesin. Anaphase spindle repositioning is required to achieve high-fidelity asymmetric divisions in CySCs, thus maintaining both GSC and CySC numbers. We propose that dynamic spindle repositioning allows CySCs to divide asymmetrically while accommodating the structure of the GSCs they encapsulate.. ...
Vitamin K is essential for the posttranslational modification of various Gla proteins. Although it is widespread in several organs, including the testis, the function of vitamin K in these organs is not well characterized. In this study, we investigated the function of vitamin K in the testis and analyzed its role in steroidogenesis. Eight-week-old male Wistar rats were fed a diet supplemented with menaquinone-4 (MK-4, 75 mg/kg diet), one of the predominant K2 vitamins present in the testis, for 5 weeks. In vivo testosterone levels of the rats plasma and testes were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and in vitro testosterone levels of testis-derived tumor cells (I-10 cells) maintained in Hams F-10 medium with 10% fetal bovine serum were measured following treatment with MK-4 (0 to 100 μM) at several time points. Testosterone and cellular protein levels were analyzed with respect to their effects on steroidogenesis. Testosterone levels in the plasma and testes of MK-4-fed rats were
Purified Guinea Pig Testis Lysate, Total Protein from Creative Biomart. Guinea Pig Testis Lysate, Total Protein can be used for research.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Molecular Cloning and Primary Structure of Rat Testes Metalloendopeptidase EC AU - Pierotti, Adrian. AU - Glucksman, Marc J.. AU - Roberts, James L.. AU - Dong, Ke Wen. AU - Pierotti, Adrian. AU - Orlowski, Marian. PY - 1990/11/1. Y1 - 1990/11/1. N2 - The complete amino acid sequence of rat testes metalloendopeptidase (EC was deduced from the nucleotide sequence of a cDNA clone isolated by screening a rat testes library with a polyclonal antibody raised against a homogeneous preparation of the rat testes enzyme. The correctness of the sequence was verified by N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis of the isolated enzyme and by partial amino acid sequence analysis of three tryptic peptides located near the N-terminus, the middle, and C-terminus of the native protein. The enzyme is composed of 645 amino acids with a molecular weight of 72 985. This value is close to that of the purified rat testes and brain enzyme as determined by polyacrylamide gel ...
The requirement for at least two consistent statements in the Roman cognito extra ordinem was introduced by Constantine the Great in 334. The Constitution provided that for a valid conviction of an accused person, at least to consistent statements of witnesses were necessary. Later, in the Middle Ages, the adoption of that evidence requirement was referred to as the rule testis unus testis nullus. The rule was of fundamental importance in the law of evidence to strengthen the protection of the accused and the guarantee of their rights in the trial. It is worth noting that a few centuries before the Emperor Constantine the Great announced the above mentioned Constitution, the rule testis unus testis nullus in its essence, although not literally in the same wording, was already well-known in the Old and New Testament. This work aims to present the origins of the testis unus testis nullus rule as well as to trace its evolution in the Biblical sources and the sources of classical ad post- classical ...
Maes, Marc ; Wolter, R. ; Malvaux, Paul ; Vanderschueren, M.. Effects of Human Growth-hormone (hgh) and Gonadotropins (gn) On the Testicular Response To Human Chorionic-gonadotropin (hcg) in Prepubertal Gh-deficient Children.In: Pediatric Research : international journal of human developmental biology, Vol. 18, no. 11, p. 1218-1218 (1984 ...
Na área médica testes diagnósticos são usados para classi9car um paciente como positivo ou negativo com relação a uma determinada condição ou moléstia. Existem testes mais simples e outros mais elaborados, cada um fornecendo diferentes chances de erro de classi9cação dos pacientes. Para quanti9car a precisão dos testes diagnósticos, podemos compará-los com testes Padrão Ouro , termo utilizado para testes com satisfatória exatidão, como biopsias, inspeções cirúrgicas e outros. Existem algumas condições que não possuem testes considerados Padrão Ouro, outras até possuem, mas não é ético aplicá-los em indivíduos sem a evidência da moléstia, ou ainda o seu uso pode ser inviável devido a seu alto custo ou por oferecer risco ao paciente. Joseph et al. (1999) [16] propõem a abordagem Bayesiana que supera o problema de pacientes não veri9cados pelo teste Padrão Ouro introduzindo variáveis latentes. Apresentamos também esta metodologia considerando a presença de ...
Nine blood samples were taken at 30-min intervals from 36 Landrace x Large White boars at each of eight ages (42, 56, 70, 84, 98, 112, 126 and 140 d). Serum concentrations of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), testosterone (T) and estradiol- 17β (E-2) were quantified by radioimmunoassay procedures. The maximum concentration of LH and the age at maximum concentration were predicted for each boar. Variability of LH samples was described for each boar by the pooled within age variance among LH samples and by the number of LH peaks. Measurements of testicular development taken at 140 d of age included: in situ testis width and length, excised testis weights and histological traits of excised testes (seminiferous tubule diameter, percentage of tubules with a lumen and percentage of tubules with active spermatogenesis). Pooled within line correlations were calculated with data from boars selected for either high or low testis weight. Correlations among the testicular traits ranged
Empty right scrotal sac noted. Right testis is superficial to rectus muscle. It is located near lateral margin of right rectus muscle. Cord entering the testis is noted. Right testis is upside down. Right testis is smaller than left. No fo...
O Somos UFMG faz parte de uma plataforma desenvolvida para facilitar o mapeamento das competências da UFMG, com o objetivo de incrementar a interação da Universidade em áreas de pesquisa científica e tecnológica com instituições públicas e privadas. A Plataforma Somos está em constante desenvolvimento pela Coordenadoria de Transferência e Inovação Tecnológica (CTIT) da UFMG.
Ovotestis development in B6-XY(POS) mice provides a rare opportunity to study the interaction of the testis- and ovary-determining pathways in the same tissue. We studied expression of several markers of mouse fetal testis (SRY, SOX9) or ovary (FOXL2, Rspo1) development in B6-XY(POS) ovotestes by immunofluorescence, using normal testes and ovaries as controls. In ovotestes, SOX9 was expressed only in the central region where SRY is expressed earliest, resulting in testis cord formation. Surprisingly, FOXL2-expressing cells also were found in this region, but individual cells expressed either FOXL2 or SOX9, not both. At the poles, even though SOX9 was not up-regulated, SRY expression was down-regulated normally as in XY testes, and FOXL2 was expressed from an early stage, demonstrating ovarian differentiation in these areas. Our data (1) show that SRY must act within a specific developmental window to activate Sox9; (2) challenge the established view that SOX9 is responsible for down
Shop Testis-expressed sequence 12 protein ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Testis-expressed sequence 12 protein Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
The research was conducted in the department of Anatomy Government Medical College Srinagar. The aim of our study was to elucidate the effects of estrogen treatment on the microanatomy of Testis in male Albino rats with reference to the treatment regimen received. For this research we selected sixty male albino rats with an average weight of100gms. The animals were kept in the animal house of Government Medical College Srinagar and divided randomly into three groups. Group A served as control, while Group B and C received daily low and high doses of estrogen benzoate diluted in coconut oil respectively. From each group animals were sacrificed at intervals of one, three, six and twelve weeks. 5-6 micrometer thick histological sections of testis were cut, fixed on glass slides and stained with Haematoxyline & Eosin. Microscopic changes in the testis were recorded. It was observed that estrogen benzoate produces dose and duration dependent histopathological changes in the testis of male albino ...
Synonyms for femoral testis in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for femoral testis. 7 synonyms for testis: ballock, bollock, testicle, orchis, egg, ball, nut. What are synonyms for femoral testis?
Esta ye ua páigina de testes de Páigina de testes de outelizador, ua subpáigina de la percipal. Sirbe cumo un lhocal de testes i spácio de zambolbimiento desta feita, nun ye un artigo anciclopédico. Pa ua páigina de testes sue, crie ua eiqui.. Cumo eiditar: FAQ • Tutorial • Páigina percipal • Páigina de testes • Cumo puodo dar ua upa • Cinco pedamiegos. ...
Definition of Testis de visu praeponderat aliis in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is Testis de visu praeponderat aliis? Meaning of Testis de visu praeponderat aliis as a legal term. What does Testis de visu praeponderat aliis mean in law?
Definition of Testes in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is Testes? Meaning of Testes as a legal term. What does Testes mean in law?
Autor: Barrionuevo, Francisco et al.; Genre: Zeitschriftenartikel; Im Druck veröffentlicht: 2009-03-15; Keywords: Sox9; Sox8; Testis cords; Amh; Mouse testis differentiation; Titel: Testis cord differentiation after the sex determination stage is independent of Sox9 but fails in the combined absence of Sox9 and Sox8
Hao, ZL; Jha, KN; Kim, YH; Vemuganti, S; Westbrook, VA; Chertihin, O; Markgraf, K; Flickinger, CJ; Coppola, M; Herr, JC; and Visconti, PE, Expression analysis of the human testis-specific serine/threonine kinase (TSSK) homologues. A TSSK member is present in the equatorial segment of human sperm (2004). MOLECULAR HUMAN REPRODUCTION. 134 ...
Histology of seminiferous tubules. Histological analyses of testicular sections of wild-type (+/+), Hsf1tm1Miv/Hsf1tm1Miv (hsf1-/-), Hsf2tm1Miv/Hsf2tm1Miv (hsf2-/-), or Hsf1tm1Miv/Hsf1tm1Miv Hsf2tm1Miv/Hsf2tm1Miv (hsf1-/- hsf2-/-) adult (12 weeks) mice. A: Paraffin-embedded sections were stained with H&E. Testes from Hsf2tm1Miv/Hsf2tm1Miv mice show seminiferous tubules with disruption of spermatogenesis (marked by arrow) such as reduction of spermatocytes and spermatids. Note the severe testicular tissue degeneration such as reduced number of spermatogonia, complete absence of developing spermatocytes and spermatids, tubular vacuolization, and formation of multinuclear giant cells (right panel, marked by arrow) in testes of double homozygous mice. Note the Sertoli cells visible at the basal layer in testes of double homozygous mice (right panel); no visible abnormalities were observed in testes of Hsf1tm1Miv/Hsf1tm1Miv or wild-type mice. Testicular sections were viewed at relatively low x200 ...
Deciphering the functions of Y chromosome in mammals has been slow owing to the presence of repeats. Some of these repeats transcribe coding RNAs, the roles of which have been studied. Functions of the noncoding transcripts from Y chromosomal repeats however, remain unclear. While a majority of the genes expressed during spermatogenesis are autosomal, mice with different deletions of the long arm of the Y chromosome (Yq) were previously also shown to be characterized by subfertility, sterility and sperm abnormalities, suggesting the presence of effectors of spermatogenesis at this location. Here we report a set of novel noncoding RNAs from mouse Yq and explore their connection to some of the autosomal genes expressed in testis. We describe a set of novel mouse male-specific Y long arm (MSYq)-derived long noncoding (lnc) transcripts, named Pirmy and Pirmy-like RNAs. Pirmy shows a large number of splice variants in testis. We also identified Pirmy-like RNAs present in multiple copies at different loci on
A significant aspermatogenic activity, ascertained by microscopic studies of seminiferous tubules and interstitial tissue, and by the observation of the entrance of immunity and fibrocytic cells in mice injected with polyspermine (PS) or polyspermine conjugated to monomeric or dimeric RNase A (PS-RNase A or PS-dimeric RNase A, respectively), was found either in mice injected or in non-injected testes. Polyspermine and its complexes with RNase A destroyed all spermatogenic and intertestitial tissue, including Leydic cells, as well as their ability to secrete testosterone. The total loss of spermatogenic activity in injected testes is irreversible because spermatogonia cells also were destroyed. The injection of PS into both mice testes determined the total degeneration of testicle tissue in 50% of injected testes. The second half of testes was also partly degenerated, and if they were re-injected, almost all testes were fully destroyed. PS-dimeric RNase A injected once into both testicles ...
Newest genomic analyses in Drosophila and mammals of inter-chromosomal retroposition have revealed that in evolution the retroposed genes that current male-biased expression generally tend to go away the X chromosome and go for autosomal positions.. Such a phenomenon may be a technique of fundamental, genomic and evolutionary relevance. It contributed to the sudden overrepresentation of male-biased genes on the autosomes currently observed in microarray expression experiments. On this paper, we report our genomic analysis of within-chromosomal retroposition in Drosophila melanogaster, and consider it with the beforehand acknowledged pattern of the between-chromosomal retroposition.. We uncover {{that a}} surfeit of autosomal retroposed genes originated from parental genes positioned on the similar chromosome, in distinction to the X chromosome by which solely few genes retroposed in cis. Such an autosomal proximity influence implicates a job of the mutation course of for retroposition in ...
NY-ESO-1, official name CTAG1B, is an antigen that is expressed in normal testis and ovary and overexpressed in a wide variety of cancers. The CTAG1B gene is found in a duplicated region of the X-chromosome and therefore has a neighboring gene of identical sequence. CTAG1B is expressed from 18 weeks until birth in human fetal testis. In the adult testis, is strongly expressed in spermatogonia and in primary spermatocytes, but not in post-meiotic cells or in testicular somatic cells (at protein level).
Carnaval é tempo de diversão e brincadeira, mas também de ficar ligado na saúde. Desde a ultima quinta-feira (8), a Secretaria da Saúde do Estado (Sesab) tem reforçado o cuidado com quem curte o Carnaval em Salvador e Porto Seguro, disponibilizando testes gratuitos para detecção de HIV/Aids, sífilis e hepatites virais. Na capital, os pontos de atendimento funcionam no circuito Dodô: na Avenida Ademar de Barros, em Ondina, e na Avenida Centenário, na Barra. Até esta segunda-feira (12), mais de 4,6 mil testes já foram realizados em Salvador, identificando 22 foliões infectados com HIV e outros 112 reagentes para hepatite B (4), C (9) e sífilis (99). É importante o diagnóstico precoce para que o tratamento possa ser iniciado o quanto antes. Os testes são feitos de maneira bem simples e rápida. O sangue é colhido da ponta dos dedos e posteriormente avaliado, explica a coordenadora do Programa Estadual de IST/Aids da Sesab, Aparecida Rodrigues. Os testes rápidos para sífilis e ...
Nos testes de usabilidade, um teste é aplicado em um usuário que faz uma tarefa em protótipo dentro de um laboratório objetivando levantar medidas quantitativas e erros. Esses testes podem ser realizados por meio de observação, por meio de questionários dados aos usuários ou por meio de testes controlados em um laboratório. Nos estudos de…
Background Post-meiotically expressed genes within the testis are crucial for the correct progression of spermatogenesis, yet, apart from the structure of individual transgenic mice using specific promoters to operate a vehicle reporter plasmids, there are just not a lot of possibilities for quantitative and relevant analysis of gene promoters. seminiferous tubules for 48 h without apparent cell loss and death of post-meiotic cellular material. Transfection of unchanged seminiferous tubules by PA-824 manufacture electroporation and microinjection was optimized to attain high appearance efficiencies of control plasmids, using either fluorescent luciferase or proteins as reporters, enabling both morphological aswell as quantitative assessment thereby. Results Effective transfection was attained into all cellular types aside from mature spermatozoa. Nevertheless, there were just limited cell-type specificity for the promoters utilized, despite the fact that these had were specific when found in ...
Testicles, or testes are part of the male reproductive system. They are two oval organs located inside the scrotum, the loose sack of skin that hangs behind the penis. The testicles make the male hormones, including testosterone, and produce sperm, the male reproductive cells.. Disorders of the testes or trauma to the testes can lead to serious complications, including hormonal imbalances, sexual dysfunction and infertility. Loss of the testes can have a negative psychological effect and may impact your self esteem and/or self confidence (1).. ...
Patient: Hi !!! This is Abdul….My age is 21 It took me 20 years to find out that i have Bilateral undescended unpalpable testesso i went to a doctor ther ran some tests to find out its position and sizein result they found that testes are normal in size so they proposed laproscopy to move testes downwardthey did orcheopexy and placed testes just above scortum under the skin above penis on the sidesNow its passed almost 1 year donot have any painthere isnt any problm in errection…What do you propose for me in future ..Can i have Marriage life and what are chances of fertility ???Will be looking forward to your reply ...
Retroposed copies of new genes (also known as retrogenes) are copies of genes that are produced from an mRNA intermediate. It has been observed that retrogenes often acquire testis-specific expression in a variety of lineages including mammals and dipterans, possibly as a consequence of new genes being inserted close to testis-expressed genes. In addition, in Drosophila, it has been shown that testis-expressed retrogenes often evolve under positive selection, show pattern of recurrent duplication in different lineages and exhibit an overrepresentation of particular gene ontologies, including nuclear-encoded mitochondria genes, nuclear transport and proteasome functions. We have proposed a model that postulates the existence of intralocus sexually antagonistic variation (i.e., allelic variation conferring opposite fitness effects for males and females due to the effects in male germline) in the parental gene, followed by gene duplication that resolves this antagonism. While DNA-mediated ...
Principal Investigator:SAWADA Hajime, Project Period (FY):1998 - 1999, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), Section:一般, Research Field:General anatomy (including Histology/Embryology)
Testes and ovaries are the primary sex organs in the males and females respectively. Each testes bear large number of seminiferous tubules, which are the spermatogenic tissue of the testis. Similarly, ovaries bear the Gr…
The long-term goal of this project is to understand the cellular and molecular signals instigated in the testis that lead to germ cell apoptosis as a result of...
A key question raised by the study findings is the direction of casualty. Were assuming that testes size drives how involved the fathers are, Rilling says, but it could also be that when men become more involved as caregivers, their testes shrink. Environmental influences can change biology. We know, for instance, that testosterone levels go down when men become involved fathers ...
Notini AJ, McClive PJ, Meachem SJ, van den Bergen JA, Western PS, Gustin SE, Harley VR, Koopman P, Sinclair AH. Redd1 Is a Novel Marker of Testis Development but Is Not Required for Normal Male Reproduction. SEXUAL DEVELOPMENT 6 (5) : 223 - 230(2012) PubMed ...
A section of the left testis shows a well circumscribed but unencapsulated nodule just outside the tunica albuginea composed of medium-sized oval to polygonal cells with abundant dense granular eosinophilic cytoplasm, round to oval nuclei, stippled chromatin and no mitoses. The cells are arranged in nests and cords. There are numerous congested capillaries within the nodule (some containing fibrin) and several compressed ducts around the periphery. The testis is atrophic with markedly decreased spermatogenesis, multifocal tubular and peritubular fibrosis, moderate interstitial edema, and very few interstitial Leydig cells. The right testis contains no lesions. An immunostain for vimentin was lightly and diffusely positive.. ...
Daily administration of 1,3-DNB resulted in decreased testis weight only on day 5 and only at the high dose (6 mg/kg/day). There was a time-dependent increase in incidence and severity of testicular findings characterized by degeneration of the germinal epithelium with loss of pachytene spermatocytes and vacuolization of the Sertoli cells in the seminiferous tubules at the high dose. Inhibin B levels in 1,3-DNB-treated animals were decreased with treatment only on day 5 at the high dose; there were no associated changes in follicle stimulating hormone. ...
Background. Members of the Runx gene family encode transcription factors that bind to DNA in a sequence-specific manner. Among the three Runx proteins, Runx2 comprises 607 amino acid (aa) residues, is expressed in bone, and plays crucial roles in osteoblast differentiation and bone development. We examined whether the Runx2 gene is also expressed in testes. Methods. Murine testes from 1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, and 10-week-old male mice of the C57BL/6J strain and W∕Wv strain were used throughout the study. Northern Blot Analyses were performed using extracts form the murine testes. Sequencing of cDNA clones and 5′-rapid amplification of cDNA ends were performed to determine the full length of the transcripts, which revealed that the testicular Runx2 comprises 106 aa residues coding novel protein. Generating an antiserum using the amino-terminal 15 aa of Runx2 (Met1 to Gly15) as an antigen, immunoblot analyses were performed to detect the predicted polypeptide of 106 aa residues with the initiating Met1. With
TY - JOUR. T1 - Rat MDC family of proteins: Sequence analysis, tissue distribution and expression in prepubertal and adult rat testis. AU - Frayne, J. AU - Jury, JA. AU - Barker, HL. AU - Hall, L. PY - 1997. Y1 - 1997. M3 - Article (Academic Journal). VL - 48. SP - 159. EP - 167. JO - Molecular Reproduction and Development. JF - Molecular Reproduction and Development. SN - 1040-452X. ER - ...
The spermatogenesis of Pseudis limellum, from the Southern Pantanal, Brazil, was studied from July 1995 to May 1996, through histological sections of the testis. The cells could be differentiated as: primary spermatogonia, large cells, generally with bilobed nucleus; secondary spermatogonia, smaller cells, with darker cytoplasm, chromatin of radial form; primary and secondary spermatocytes, differentiated according to the different stages of the nucleus during the successive cells divisions. Furthermore, we observed cells in process of morphologic differentiation: rounded spermatids much smaller, with nucleus containing chromatin in compacting process and cytoplasm reduction; elongated spermatids, generally parallel organized in well defined bundles, with the anterior region directed toward the periphery of the seminiferous tubule and the tail directed toward the lumen. Spermatozoa are free in the lumen of the seminiferous tubule. All the cells are organized as cysts, which are supported by a ...
When the testes contain some leukaemia cells, radiation treatment (radiotherapy) to the testes is recommended. The total radiation dose has to be spread out over quite a long time to make the individual treatments safe. We usually give 12 treatments, one every day (usually excluding weekends and bank holidays). At each session, the patient spends about ten minutes in the treatment room but most of this time is spent getting him/her into exactly the right position.. Radiotherapy does not hurt; it is rather like having an ordinary X-ray. So that we can treat both testes the patient must lie very still on their back. Lying still can be very difficult for some children, especially very young ones. Occasionally we have to use a general anaesthetic.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - CDH1 is a specific marker for undifferentiated spermatogonia in mouse testes. AU - Tokuda, Masutaka. AU - Kadokawa, Yuzo. AU - Kurahashi, Hiroki. AU - Marunouchi, Tohru. PY - 2007/1/1. Y1 - 2007/1/1. N2 - In the mammalian testis, spermatogenesis is initiated from a subset of stem cells belonging to undifferentiated type A spermatogonia. In spite of the biologic significance of undifferentiated type A spermatogonia, little is known about their behavior and properties because of a lack of specific cell surface markers. Here we show that CDH1 (previously known as E-cadherin) is expressed specifically in undifferentiated type A spermatogonia in the mouse testis. Histologic analysis showed that CDH1-positive cells had all the characteristics of undifferentiated type A spermatogonia. Whole-mount immunohistochemistry showed that CDH1-positive cells made clusters mainly comprising one, two, four, or eight cells. They survived after administration of the cytotoxic agent busulfan to mice, ...
Looking for abdominal testis? Find out information about abdominal testis. or , one of a pair of glands that produce the male reproductive cells, or sperm sperm or spermatozoon , in biology, the male gamete , corresponding to the... Explanation of abdominal testis
This illustration depicts the vasculature of the testes. The inset, top right, provides an overview showing of the origin of the testicular arteries from the aorta and their course towards the testes. The main illustration shows the vasculature of the testes in more detail with the testes sectioned to show a lateral superior view. The testicular a. (shown black in both figures for emphasis) is the primary blood supply for the testes. It divides into 2-4 capsular arteries at the mediastinum of the testes that pierce through the visceral layer of tunica vaginalis. They then give off a centripetal aa. that feed each lobule in the testes. The 3 different layers of the spermatic cord are depicted in the upper left of the main image. The illustration also shows two areas where anastomoses occur at the head and the tail of the epididymis to provide collateral circulation to the testes. ...
Normally testicles develop in the abdomen, near the kidney, and descend through the abdominal wall, then through the inguinal canal, and enter the scrotum. Cryptorchidism (or undescended testes) is a condition seen in newborns when one or both of the male testes have not passed down into the scrotal sac. Thirty percent of cases are bilateral (involve both testes).. Undescended testes may occur for several reasons. Known causes may include hormonal disorders, abdominal wall disorders, and chromosomal defects. Retractile testes can occur in boys where the testicle descended completely but a muscle reflex causes a testicle to move back and forth from the scrotum to the groin.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The effect of experimental cryptorchism on the isozymes of lactate dehydrogenase in mouse testes. AU - Goldberg, Erwin. AU - Hawtrey, Christopher. PY - 1968/1/1. Y1 - 1968/1/1. N2 - Unilateral cryptorchism produced by experimental retention of one testis in the abdomen of the mouse results in a rapid decrease in the weight of that testis. At the same time the specific activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) decreases to 70% of the normal value. The sperm‐specific isozyme, LDH‐X, declines from 41% of the total activity to only 16% after eleven days in the abdomen. All LDH‐X activity is lost by post‐operative day 24. The relative proportion of the other isozymes of LDH increase following the operation. LDH‐5, absent from the mature testis, is detectable in the cryptorchid testis at post‐operative day 28 and represents 15% of the total LDH activity. These observations provide further support of the suggestion that LDH‐X is only found in the testes when meiosis is ...
Among pregnant women ibuprofen is one of the most frequently used pharmaceutical compounds with up to 28% reporting use. Regardless of this, it remains unknown whether ibuprofen could act as an endocrine disruptor as reported for fellow analgesics paracetamol and aspirin. To investigate this, we exposed human fetal testes (7-17 gestational weeks (GW)) to ibuprofen using ex vivo culture and xenograft systems. Ibuprofen suppressed testosterone and Leydig cell hormone INSL3 during culture of 8-9 GW fetal testes with concomitant reduction in expression of the steroidogenic enzymes CYP11A1, CYP17A1 and HSD17B3, and of INSL3. Testosterone was not suppressed in testes from fetuses younger than 8 GW, older than 10-12 GW, or in second trimester xenografted testes (14-17 GW). Ex vivo, ibuprofen also affected Sertoli cell by suppressing AMH production and mRNA expression of AMH, SOX9, DHH, and COL2A1. While PGE2 production was suppressed by ibuprofen, PGD2 production was not. Germ cell transcripts POU5F1, TFAP2C,
TY - JOUR. T1 - Expression of heat shock factor 2 in mouse testis. T2 - Potential role as a regulator of heat-shock protein gene expression during spermatogenesis. AU - Sarge, K. D.. AU - Park-Sarge, O. K.. AU - Kirby, J. D.. AU - Mayo, K. E.. AU - Morimoto, R. I.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2007 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 1994. Y1 - 1994. N2 - We have examined the expression and function of heat shock transcription factor 2 (HSF2) in spermatogenic cells of mouse testis. The results of in situ RNA hybridization analysis, RNA filter hybridization, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis indicate that HSF2 mRNA expression in testis is subject to developmental and cell type- dependent, as well as stage-dependent, regulation. Localized expression of HSF2 mRNA in testis first appears between Day 14 and Day 21 of postnatal development. In adult testis, HSF2 mRNA is found at highest levels in spermatocytes and round spermatids. Immunocytochemical staining and ...
There are approximately 8,800 new diagnosis of testis cancer each year, which account for 0.5% of all new cancer diagnoses. Most testis tumors present with a painless mass or swelling in the testis. The patients exam typically reveals a firm, nontender testis mass. Men between 20 and 34 years of age are at highest risk of testis cancer, with decreasing risk over time.. An abnormal testicular exam will trigger a full workup including tumor markers (HCG, AFP, B-HCG), testicular ultrasound and cross-sectional imaging (CT or MRI) to evaluate for metastatic disease. Unless bulky metastatic disease is seen, the patient will need to undergo radical orchiectomy. During this procedure, the affected testis will be removed through an incision in the groin as to not violate or disturb the lymphatic channels in the scrotum. The pathologist will evaluate for the type of tumor cells present which, in conjunction with postoperative tumor marker levels, will determine further therapy.. Testis cancers are ...
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of selection for increased size of testes on semen and testis characteristics. Boars from a line selected for increased size of testes at 150 d of age (TS, n = 25) and a randomly selected control line (C, n = 18) were used. Semen was collected three times per week for 3 wk (TRT1) then daily for 3 wk (TRT2) beginning when boar age averaged 276 d. It was followed by a 4-wk period of one collection per week and then the TRT1-TRT2 sequence was repeated. After 64 collections, boars were castrated and testes were evaluated for sperm numbers. Volume of semen, percentage of motile sperm cells, and percentage of abnormal cells in the semen did not differ (P | .05) between lines. Concentration of sperm cells in the semen was greater for TS boars at TRT 1 (35.0 million cells/mL, P | .10) and TRT 2 (29.5 million cells/mL, P | .01). Number of sperm cells per ejaculate was greater for TS boars (6.1 and 4.3 billion cells for TRT 1 and TRT 2, respectively; P | .05
NLRP3 in somatic non-immune cells of rodent and primate testes NLRP3 is part of the NLRP3 inflammasome and a global sensor of cellular damage. It was recently discovered in rodent Sertoli cells. We investigated NLRP3 in mouse, human and non-human primate (marmoset and rhesus macaque) testes, employing immunohistochemistry. Sertoli cells of all species expressed NLRP3, and the expression preceded puberty. In addition, peritubular cells of the adult human testes expressed NLRP3. NLRP3 and associated genes (PYCARD, CASP1, IL1B) were also found in isolated human testicular peritubular cells and the mouse Sertoli cell line TM4. Male infertility due to impairments of spermatogenesis may be related to sterile inflammatory events. We observed that the expression of NLRP3 was altered in the testes of patients suffering from mixed atrophy syndrome, in which tubules with impairments of spermatogenesis showed prominent NLRP3 staining. In order to explore a possible role of NLRP3 in male infertility, ...
The aim of the present study was stereological evaluation of testes of azoospermic animal model using busulfan in rat. Three groups of male adult rats were used in this study. The first group was injected by single dose of busulfan (10 mg kg-1) and their testes were removed on day 35 post injection. The second group received double doses of busulfan with 21 days interval and their testes were removed on day 35 after the second injection. The testes of the third group were removed without busulfan therapy. In 10 circular transverse sections of tubules stained with hematoxylin-eosin, stereological parameters were measured. The testes were rated for its spermatogenic potential on a modified spermatogenic scale of 0 to 6. Cellular (germinal epithelium) diameter and area of the seminiferous tubules, total diameter and cross sectional area of the tubules of the seminiferous tubules in rats that received double doses of busulfan were less than the rats in single dose of busulfan and control groups (p | 0.05).
TY - JOUR. T1 - Endocrine tests in phenotypic children with bilateral impalpable testes can reliably predict congenital anorchism. AU - Levitt, Selwyn B.. AU - Sobel, Edna H.. AU - Kogan, Stanley J.. AU - Mortimer, Robin H.. AU - Schneider, Keith M.. AU - Engel, Rainer M E. AU - Becker, Jerrold M.. PY - 1978. Y1 - 1978. N2 - Congenital anorchism is a rare condition. Bilateral impalpable undescended testes are relatively common by comparison. Surgical exploration has been regarded as the final arbiter between anorchism and bilateral cryptorchism. Exploration has not proved completely reliable in making this differentiation. Endocrine studies, particularly the human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) stimulation test together with measurements of basal plasma gonadotropins, can reliably exclude functioning testicular tissue. Eleven fully evaluated and operated cases support this contention. In the specific clinical setting of a normal phenotypic male child with a 46XY karyotype and no müllerian ...
To quantitatively assess the histological and ultrastructural changes resulting from aging in the human testis. Age-related histological and ultrastructural changes were evaluated using light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and immunohistochemistry on 41 testicular samples obtained from elderly men and, respectively, assigned to group A (n = 20), 54-69 years old or group B (n = 21), 70-89 years old. Testicular samples derived from 17 young men were used for control. The numbers of Sertoli cells in the aged groups were significantly lower than that in the controls (p | 0.05). With the exception of the Sertoli cell ratios (germ cells/Sertoli cells) of spermatogonia and primary spermatocytes, results showed lower levels of the Sertoli cell ratios of round spermatids and elongated spermatids in the elderly men compared with the young men (p | 0.05). A similar degenerative pattern of the organelles was shown in germ cells and Sertoli cells in the aging testes under TEM.
1. We have purified membrane-associated Ins(1,4,5)P3/Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 5-phosphatases from bovine testis and human erythrocytes by chromatography on several media, including a novel 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate affinity column. 2. The enzymes have apparent molecular masses of 42 kDa (testis) and 70 kDa (erythrocyte), as determined by SDS/PAGE, and affinities for Ins(1,4,5)P3 of 14 microM and 22 microM respectively. 3. The two enzymes hydrolyse both Ins(1,4,5)P3 and Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 and are therefore type I Ins(1,4,5)P3 5-phosphatases [nomenclature of Hansen, Johanson, Williamson and Williamson (1987) J. Biol. Chem. 262, 17319-17326]. 4. On chromatofocusing, the partially purified testicular enzyme migrates as two peaks of activity, with pI values of about 5.8 and 5.5. The erythrocyte enzyme exhibits only the latter peak. 5. The testis 5-phosphatase is labile at 37 degrees C, but its activity can be maintained in the presence of 50 mM phorbol dibutyrate (PdBu). After PdBu treatment, a third form of the ...
Cryptorchidism (or undescended testes) is a condition seen in newborns when one or both of the male testes have not passed down into the scrotal sac. About 10% of cases involve both testes. Cryptorchidism is more commonly seen in premature males because the testes do not descend from the abdomen to the scrotal sac until the seventh month of fetal development. ...
The tumor suppressor protein p53 is considered a guardian of genome integrity, regulating the induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in response to irradiation to block the transmission of teratogenic mutations to progeny cells. We examined the function of p53 in highly radiosensitive tissues, the developing brain and mature testis, using a small fish model, medaka (Oryzias latipes). Medaka offer advantages as a vertebrate model system, as the transparency and small size of the embryos enables clear detection of apoptotic cells in the developing brain. In addition, the simple architecture of medaka testes enables more precise identification of the differentiating spermatogenic stages compared with mammals. We found that in irradiated p53-deficient embryonic brain, diminished induction of apoptosis facilitated tissue regeneration earlier compared to irradiated wild-type embryos, which remained structural abnormalities in the retina at hatching. Moreover, the prominent delay in apoptotic induction
The objective of this study was to assess macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of the testes in unilaterally cryptorchid dogs (n=16 and n=13, respectively). An additional goal was to measure and compare plasma levels of testosterone between the cryptoid (n=13) and control dogs (n=16). The size and weight of the retained tested were lower (P ,0.01) compared with the descended testes in the unilaterally cryptoid dogs of different breeds, but there was no difference between the inguinal and abdominal cryptoid testes (P ,0.01). Spermatogenesis was significantly suppressed in the cryptorchid testes compared with the contralateral testes of the unilaterally cryptorchid dogs. The number of Leydig cells was higher (P ,0.01) in the cryptorchid than in scrotal testes. Plasma concentration of testosterone did not vary (P ,0.1) between the cryptoid and control dogs. Normal endocrine function could be maintained in the cryptorchid dogs, despite the smaller testicular size of the retained testes ...
Pluripotency of spermatogonial stem cells from adult mouse testis. Guan, Kaomei; Nayernia, Karim; Maier, Lars S.; Wagner, Stefan; Dressel, Ralf; Jae Ho Lee; Nolte, Jessica; Wolf, Frieder; Manyu Li; Engel, Wolfgang; Hasenfuss, Gerd // Nature;4/27/2006, Vol. 440 Issue 7088, p1199 Embryonic germ cells as well as germline stem cells from neonatal mouse testis are pluripotent and have differentiation potential similar to embryonic stem cells, suggesting that the germline lineage may retain the ability to generate pluripotent cells. However, until now there has been no... ...
This paper investigates mechanisms of sperm competition by comparing reproductive characteristics across 74 butterfly species. Testis size scales with body size and, after controlling for this allometry, relative testis size increases with risk of sperm competition, as defined by female mating frequency. Both eupyrene (fertilizing) and apyrene (non-fertile) sperm lengths correlate positively with body size. After controlling for body size, relative eupyrene sperm lengths are greater in species where males experience higher risks of sperm competition. These results suggest that sperm competition in butterflies selects for increased investment in spermatogenesis, and specifically longer fertilizing sperm. Because longer sperm may be faster and more powerful, eupyrene sperm may therefore compete energetically, and are not selected to be minimally sized to maximize numbers for a purely raffle-based sperm competition mode. Apyrene sperm lengths are not affected directly by risk of encountering rival ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - In situ localization of rat testis-specific calcineurin B subunit isoform β1 in the developing rat testis. AU - Miyamoto, Kazuhiro. AU - Matsui, Hideki. AU - Tomizawa, Kazuhito. AU - Kuwata, Yoshihiro. AU - Itano, Toshifumi. AU - Tokuda, Masaaki. AU - Hatase, Osamu. PY - 1994/9/15. Y1 - 1994/9/15. N2 - In situ localization and developmental changes in expression of testis-specific calcineurin B subunit isoform β1 was examined in rat testis. Two different sizes of mRNA signal, 4.0 kb and 0.9 kb, were detected by Northern blot hybridization. Both signals were expressed synchronously with the start of meiosis at 3 weeks after birth, and increased depending on the maturation of spermatogenesis. In situ hybridization using non-radioactive riboprobes showed that the β1 mRNA was specifically localized to spermatocytes where meiosis occurs but none or very little was observed in spermatogonia, spermatids, Sertoli or Leydig cells.. AB - In situ localization and developmental changes in ...
The germinal epithelium is the innermost layer of the testicle. Germinal epithelium is also known as the wall of the seminiferous tubule within the testes. The cells in the epithelium are connected via tight junctions. One may observe two types of cell in the germinal epithelium: The large Sertoli cells (which are not dividing) function as supportive cells to the developing sperm. The second cell type are the cells belonging to the spermatogenic cell lineage. These develop to eventually become sperm cells (Spermatozoon). Typically the spermatogenic cells will make four to eight layers in the germinal epithelium.[1] ...
Pdgfr-alpha mediates testis cord organization and fetal Leydig cell development in the XY gonad.: During testis development, the rapid morphological changes ini
The primitive sex cords continue to proliferate and penetrate deep into the medulla, forming the testis cords. This occurs due to the presence of testis-determining factor (TDF), encoded by the SRY gene.. The testis cords in the hilum of the develop gonad eventually form the rete testis, which is a network which connects the seminiferous tubules to the efferent ducts.. By the fourth month of development the testis cords are solid (without lumen) and composed of primitive germ cells and Sertoli cells, the latter of which are derived from the surface epithelium of the gonadal ridge.. The testis cords remain solid until puberty, at which point they are hollowed out, giving them a lumen. At this point the testis cords have become the seminiferous tubules, which carry the sperm cells to the rete testis.. ...
Medimachine dissociation of human testicular tissues results in a cell suspension enriched for SALL4-positive undifferentiated spermatogonia.
Cryptorchidism or undescended testicles involves the failure of the testes to descend permanently in their terminal scrotal position [80]. The estimated incidence at birth is 2-3.4% [7,17,81], although up to one-third of the cases resolve spontaneously during the first 3 months [81]. Seventy-five percent of the cases are usually unilateral and the undescended testes can be palpated in the inguinal canal [82]. Etiology is not clear, although a variety of risk factors such as defects in specific genes, prematurity, low birth weight, intrauterine growth restriction, alcohol consumption, and maternal smoking have been suggested [26,80,81,83-86]. The main complications include reduced fertility, an increased risk of testicular cancer, and the possibility of associated abnormalities. Evidence suggests that both the location and the time of cryptorchidism correlate with the loss of germ cells and Leydig cells [87]. Paternity rates are similar in case of unilateral cryptorchidism, but significantly ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Stimulation of protein synthesis in round spermatids from rat testes by lactate. AU - Nakamura, Masahisa. AU - Hino, Akiya. AU - Yasumasu, Ikuo. AU - Kato, Junzo. PY - 1981/4. Y1 - 1981/4. N2 - Lactate markedly increased the rate of [3H]leucine incorporation into the protein of isolated round spermatids (steps 1-8) from rat testes. Four kinds of hexoses, glucose, fructose, galactose, and monnose, also stimulated [3H]leucine incorporation, but to much lesser extents than lactate. Ribose had no effect. The glucose-induced stimulation of protein synthesis was entirely suppressed by iodoacetate and NaF, whereas iodoacetate and NaF were without effect on the lactate-induced increase in protein synthesis. Lactate stimulated both protein synthesis and ATP production in the spermatids. However, both of these stimulatory effects of lactate were completely blocked by DNP and rotenone. Rotenone entirely blocked oxygen consumption, as expected, whilst DNP enhanced it additively with lactate. ...
Tumor antigen P815AB is recognized by cytolytic T lymphocytes (CTL) on mouse mastocytoma P815. This antigen is encoded by P1A, a gene activated in several tumors but silent in normal tissues except for testis and placenta. Notwithstanding the expression of P1A in testis, we found that male mice mounted P815AB-specific CTL responses as efficiently as females. The responding males remained fertile and no autoimmune lesions were observed in their testes. By immunohistochemistry with a rabbit antiserum directed against the P1A protein, we identified spermatogonia as the testicular cells expressing P1A. The absence of MHC class-I molecules on spermatogonia could be one of the mechanisms of protection against testicular autoimmunity, as the antigenic peptide should not be displayed at the cell surface. Human genes MAGE, BAGE and GAGE, which also code for tumor antigens recognized by autologous CTL, are not expressed in normal tissues other than testis. The results obtained in mice with antigen P815AB ...
The reduction of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone in the testis is catalyzed by Δ4-5α-reductase (EC 1. 3.1.4). Dihydrotestosterone is reduced further to 5α-androstane-3α, 17β-diol. The 5α-reductase is the rate-limiting step in the conversion of testosterone to androstanediol. The in vitro activity of this enzyme in the rat testis is notably elevated in prepubertal animals but decreases to low levels in the mature rat. Previous in viv~ studies have indicated that gonadotropins may regulate the activity of 5α-reductase in the rat testis. In this work, in vitro and..:in vivo experiments have been performed in order to study the role of gonadotropins and cyclic nucleotides in the regulation of testicular 5α-reductase in the rat. The 5α-reductase activity has been determined in testicular tissue from rats 5 to 60 days of age using an in vitro assay. The level of activity was low in the neonatal rat. The levels were increased at 20 days of age with a peak activity at about day 30. In the ...
Mammalian spermatogenesis consists of many cell types and biological processes and serves as an excellent model for studying gene regulation at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. identified five major regulatory mechanisms termed transcript only, transcript degradation, translation repression, translation de-repression, and protein degradation based on changes in protein level relative to changes in mRNA level at the mitosis/meiosis transition and the meiosis/post-meiotic development transition. We found that post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms are related to the generation of piRNAs and antisense transcripts. Our results provide a valuable inventory of proteins produced during mouse spermatogenesis and contribute to elucidating the mechanisms of the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression in mammalian spermatogenesis. Spermatogenesis in animals is usually a complex yet tightly regulated developmental process that involves many cell types. Similar to other ...
Introduction: Sertoli cells support germ cell development in the testis via an elaborate network of cell junctions that confers structural, communicating, and signaling support. However, Sertoli cell junctions and cytoskeletons are the target of environmental toxicants. Because germ cells rely on Sertoli cells for the provision of structural/functional/nutritional support, exposure of males to toxicants leads to germ cell exfoliation due to Sertoli cell injuries. Interestingly, the molecular mechanism(s) by which toxicants induce cytoskeletal disruption that leads to germ cell exfoliation is unclear, until recent years, which are discussed herein. This information can possibly be used to therapeutically manage toxicant-induced infertility/subfertility in human males. Areas covered: In this review, we provide a brief update on the use of Sertoli cell system developed for rodents and humans in vitro, which can be deployed in any research laboratory with minimal upfront setup costs. These systems can be
Neonatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol DES leads to the alteration of gene expression in the testis in the long term. NCBI, 2004.
Mammalian spermatogenesis is certainly a complicated differentiation process that occurs in many stages in the seminiferous tubules of the testes. attained from entire testes to end up being separated with a water lean. The STA-PUT technique, exhibited right here, uses a linear BSA gradient and basic sedimentation to individual spermatogenic cells centered on size and mass6-9. The STA-PUT technique offers many advantages over the additional two most broadly utilized strategies to individual spermatogenic cell types: FACS and elutriation10-13. The STA-PUT equipment needs just many items of specific glassware put together in a chilly space or huge refrigerator. Therefore, it is usually much less costly than using a cell sorter or an elutriator. The STA-PUT technique produces higher quantities of cells per cell type and testis than can become categorized by FACS in a similar period framework, although the chastity of each cell 158013-43-5 supplier populace is usually not really as high as those ...
De novo point mutations arise predominantly in the male germline and increase in frequency with age, but it has not previously been possible to locate specific, identifiable mutations directly within the seminiferous tubules of human testes. Using microdissection of tubules exhibiting altered expression of the spermatogonial markers MAGEA4, FGFR3, and phospho-AKT, whole genome amplification, and DNA sequencing, we establish an in situ strategy for discovery and analysis of pathogenic de novo mutations. In 14 testes from men aged 39-90 y, we identified 11 distinct gain-of-function mutations in five genes (fibroblast growth factor receptors FGFR2 and FGFR3, tyrosine phosphatase PTPN11, and RAS oncogene homologs HRAS and KRAS) from 16 of 22 tubules analyzed; all mutations have known associations with severe diseases, ranging from congenital or perinatal lethal disorders to somatically acquired cancers. These results support proposed selfish selection of spermatogonial mutations affecting growth factor
T4 -- See Thyroxine.. TeBG -- See Testosterone-estradiol-binding Globulin.. Termination -- The ending of a pregnancy by choice by induced labor (resulting in a live birth or stillbirth) or abortion. See Abortion.. Teratogen -- Any substance capable of causing malformations in a developing embryo.. TESA -- See Testicular Sperm Aspiration.. TESE -- See Testicular Sperm Extraction.. Testes -- The two male sexual glands contained in the scrotum. They produce the male hormone testosterone and the male reproductive cells (sperm).. Testicle -- The male gonad. It produces sperm and male sex hormones.. Testicular Biopsy -- A minor surgical procedure used to take a small sample of testicular tissue for microscopic examination; a test used to diagnose male fertility problems when no other means is available (this is because the biopsy procedure itself may cause testicular damage).. Testicular Enzyme Defect -- A congenital enzyme defect that prevents the testes from responding to hormonal stimulation. Will ...
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5.1.1 Testis (Interactive Diagram) -What are the principal functional compartments of the testis? -What are the functions of the testis? -What is cryptorchidism and what are its consequences? -What is the blood-testis barrier? -What is the function of androgen-binding protein and where is it synthesized ...
5.1.1 Testis (Interactive Diagram) -What are the principal functional compartments of the testis? -What are the functions of the testis? -What is cryptorchidism and what are its consequences? -What is the blood-testis barrier? -What is the function of androgen-binding protein and where is it synthesized ...
A presença, em altas concentrações, de nitrogênio, em suas diversas formas, causada pela descarga de efluentes em corpos receptores, pode causar diversos, e sérios, problemas ambientais. O tratamento biológico oferece uma alternativa para a eliminação deste contaminante, onde, uma das etapas consiste na nitrificação do efluente através de bactérias nitrificantes conhecidas como Nitrosomonas e Nitrobacter. Testes de nitrificação em batelada foram realizados afim de estabelecer-se parâmetros a serem adotados em testes de atividade específica de bactérias nitrificantes. Os testes de nitrificação foram realizados, utilizando-se, como substrato, efluentes sintético e de uma unidade frigorífica da Sadia, e como inóculo, um lodo coletado de uma estação de tratamento de esgotos da CASAN em Florianópolis,SC. Os testes foram conduzidos em reatores em batelada confeccionados em vidro e posteriormente em garrafas de PET de 2L, onde foram controlados os seguintes fatores: temperatura ...
KSman I Have seen on a few of Your post that once intratesticular testosterone levels reach a higher level an AI is ineffective, as Im a little confused? From my findings an AI should reduce aromatase by large percentage( dose depending ), in other words if 1 mg of arimidex isnt reducing aromatase,raise dosage accordingly to a level to effectively lower aromatase at the cell or blood serum estrogen levels. Please understand that Im not doubting your words or findings, Im trying to find an ...
R. Alvarenga, G Avelar, S. Lacerda, Ap Satie, Dominique Mahé, et al.. Spontaneous in vitro seminiferous tubule formation from human isolated testis cells. V Workshop on Male Reproductive Biology (V WMRB), Dec 2015, Sao Paulo, Brazil. ⟨hal-02435234⟩ ...
Undescended Testes and Retractile Testes - Learn about the causes, symptoms, diagnosis & treatment from the MSD Manuals - Medical Consumer Version.
Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental toxicant and an endocrine disruptor in humans and rodents. Several organs (e.g., kidney, liver) are affected by Cd and recent studies have illustrated that the testis is exceedingly sensitive to Cd toxicity. More important, Cd and other toxicants, such as heavy metals (e.g., lead, mercury) and estrogenic-based compounds (e.g., bisphenols) may account for the recent declining fertility in men among developed countries by reducing sperm count and testis function. In this review, we critically discuss recent data in the field that have demonstrated the Cd-induced toxicity to the testis is probably the result of interactions of a complex network of causes. This is likely to involve the disruption of the blood-testis barrier (BTB) via specific signal transduction pathways and signaling molecules, such as p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). We also summarize current studies on factors that confer and/or regulate the testis sensitivity to Cd, such as Cd ...
Brief answer: Needs immediate surgery. Detailed answer: Hi, welcome to HCM. In your child, there is microphallus and both testis are undescended and are in inguinal region, this will need immediate surgery as undescended testis may lead to complications in future. It can lead to carcinoma. I...
Extensive studies have shown that estrogenic endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can disrupt testis differentiation and even cause feminization in vertebrates. However, little is known about the mechanisms by which estrogenic EDCs disrupt testis differentiation. Here, we employed Xenopus laevis, a model amphibian species sensitive to estrogenic EDCs, to explore the molecular and cellular events by which 17β-estradiol (E2) disrupts testis differentiation and causes feminization. Following waterborne exposure to E2 from stage 45/46, genetically male X. laevis were confirmed to undergo testis differentiation inhibition and ovary differentiation activation at stages 52 and 53, ultimately displaying gonadal feminization at stage 66. Using a time-course RNA sequencing approach, we then identified thousands of differentially expressed transcripts (DETs) in genetically male gonad-mesonephros complexes at stages 48, 50 and 52 (the window for testis differentiation) between E2 treatment and the ...
0VS94ZZ is a billable procedure code used to indicate the performance of reposition right testis, percutaneous endoscopic approach. Code valid for the year 2021
Structure. The glandular structure of the testis consists of numerous lobules. Their number, in a single testis, is estimated by Berres at 250, and by Krause at 400. They differ in size according to their position, those in the middle of the gland being larger and longer. The lobules (Fig. 91149) are conical in shape, the base being directed toward the circumference of the organ, the apex toward the mediastinum. Each lobule is contained in one of the intervals between the fibrous septa which extend between the mediastinum testis and the tunica albuginea, and consists of from one to three, or more, minute convoluted tubes, the tubuli seminiferi. The tubules may be separately unravelled, by careful dissection under water, and may be seen to commence either by free cecal ends or by anastomotic loops. They are supported by loose connective tissue which contains here and there groups of interstitial cells containing yellow pigment granules. The total number of tubules is estimated by Lauth at 840, ...
Undescended testes is when one or both of the male testes have not passed down into the scrotal sac. This is a condition seen in some newborn baby boys.
Undescended testes is when one or both of the male testes have not passed down into the scrotal sac. This is a condition seen in some newborn baby boys.
Testes formation[edit]. During mammalian development, the gonads are at first capable of becoming either ovaries or testes.[5] ... At about week 6, epithelial sex cords develop within the forming testes and incorporate the germ cells as they migrate into the ... The mesoderm-derived epithelial cells of the sex cords in developing testes become the Sertoli cells, which will function to ... Throughout adulthood, androgens and FSH cooperatively act on Sertoli cells in the testes to support sperm production.[6] ...
Testis[edit]. Main article: Testicle. Testis has two major functions: To produce sperm by meiotic division of germ cells within ... All of the structures remain attached to the testis and form what is known as the spermatic cord by the time the testis is in ... Genetic sex determines whether the gonads will be testes or ovaries. In the developing embryo if the testes are developed, it ... which is attached to the testis and extends to the inguinal canal to the wall of the scrotum as a testis to sense it passes to ...
Testes[edit]. The periphery of the testes are converted into the tunica albuginea. Cords of the central mass run together and ... In short, the descent of the testes consists of the opening of a connection from the testis to its final location at the ... t. Testis in the place of its original formation.. *t', together with the dotted lines above, indicates the direction in which ... The gonads are the precursors of the testes in males and ovaries in females. They initially develop from the mesothelial layer ...
Testis[edit]. In the male the LHCGR has been identified on the Leydig cells that are critical for testosterone production, and ... is a transmembrane receptor found predominantly in the ovary and testis, but also many extragonadal organs such as the uterus ...
... but testis not at all.[34] The satirists Persius and Juvenal also used the word testiculī. Veterinary writers use both testis ... testis). This word may have derived from the Latin for "witnesses". Cicero's letter says "testēs" verbum honestissimum in ... According to Katz, the word testis itself appears to be derived from the root trityo- ("third") and originally meant a third ...
The original Latin word testis, "witness", was used in the firmly established legal principle "Testis unus, testis nullus" (one ... Hydrocele testis, swelling around testes caused by accumulation of clear liquid within a membranous sac, the testis usually ... The testes are covered by a tough membranous shell called the tunica albuginea. Within the testes are very fine coiled tubes ... The basal condition for mammals is to have internal testes.[25] The testes of the non-boreotherian mammals, such as the ...
In reptiles, there is an additional canal between the testis and the head of the epididymis and which receives the various ... Spermatozoa formed in the testis enter the caput epididymis, progress to the corpus, and finally reach the cauda region, where ... The head of the epididymis receives spermatozoa via the efferent ducts of the mediastinium of the testis. It is characterized ...
Archaeological evidence suggests that pigs were domesticated from wild boar as early as 13,000-12,700 BC in the Near East in the Tigris Basin,[14] Çayönü, Cafer Höyük, Nevalı Çori[15] being managed in the wild in a way similar to the way they are managed by some modern New Guineans.[16] Remains of pigs have been dated to earlier than 11,400 BC in Cyprus. Those animals must have been introduced from the mainland, which suggests domestication in the adjacent mainland by then.[17] There was also a separate domestication in China which took place about 8000 years ago.[18][19]. DNA evidence from subfossil remains of teeth and jawbones of Neolithic pigs shows that the first domestic pigs in Europe had been brought from the Near East. This stimulated the domestication of local European wild boar, resulting in a third domestication event with the Near Eastern genes dying out in European pig stock. Modern domesticated pigs have involved complex exchanges, with European domesticated lines being ...
Testis Veritatis; a reply to Richard Montagu's Appello Caesarem; 1641; Catholicke Charity; originally written in response to a ...
All of the structures remain attached to the testis and form what is known as the spermatic cord by the time the testis is in ... Genetic sex determines whether the gonads will be testes or ovaries. In the developing embryo if the testes are developed, it ... which is attached to the testis and extends to the inguinal canal to the wall of the scrotum as a testis to sense it passes to ... This is due to the production of Anti-Müllerian hormone by the Sertoli cells of the testes.[citation needed] ...
Testis and penis size. Evolution has caused sexually selected adaptations to occur in penis and testis size in order to ... Research has shown that a positive correlation exists between the number of sperm ejaculated and testis size.[33] Larger testes ... Moller, A. P. (1988). "Ejaculate quality, testes size and sperm competition in primates". Journal of Human Evolution. 17: 479- ... Sperm are produced in the testes and stored in the attached epididymis. During ejaculation, sperm are propelled up the vas ...
A note on the "Historia Augusta"". - in: Historia testis. Mélanges d'épigraphie, d'histoire ancienne et de philologie offerts à ...
The blood supply to the testis can also be altered during this procedure, potentially reducing supply. Long-term follow-ups are ... From here incision/s are through the outer covering of the testis to retrieve biopsies of seminiferous tubules, the structures ... Both procedures can alter the steroid function of the testes causing a decline in serum testosterone levels, which can result ... This allows the surgeon to observe regions of seminiferous tubules of the testes that have more chance of containing ...
In the human female, the urethra is about 1.9 inches (4.8 cm) to 2 inches (5.1 cm) long and exits the body between the clitoris and the vagina, extending from the internal to the external urethral orifice. The meatus is located below the clitoris. It is placed behind the symphysis pubis, embedded in the anterior wall of the vagina, and its direction is obliquely downward and forward; it is slightly curved with the concavity directed forward. The proximal 2/3rds is lined by transitional epithelium cells while distal 1/3rd is lined by stratified squamous epithelium cells.[10] The urethra consists of three coats: muscular, erectile, and mucous, the muscular layer being a continuation of that of the bladder. Between the superior and inferior fascia of the urogenital diaphragm, the female urethra is surrounded by the urethral sphincter. Somatic (conscious) innervation of the external urethral sphincter is supplied by the pudendal nerve. ...
Germinal epithelium is also known as the wall of the seminiferous tubule within the testes. The cells in the epithelium are ... Histology image: 17803loa - Histology Learning System at Boston University - "Male Reproductive System: testis, germinal ...
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) occurs in older men;[28] the prostate often enlarges to the point where urination becomes difficult. Symptoms include needing to urinate often (frequency) or taking a while to get started (hesitancy). If the prostate grows too large, it may constrict the urethra and impede the flow of urine, making urination difficult and painful and, in extreme cases, completely impossible. BPH can be treated with medication, a minimally invasive procedure or, in extreme cases, surgery that removes the prostate. Minimally invasive procedures include transurethral needle ablation of the prostate (TUNA) and transurethral microwave thermotherapy (TUMT).[29] These outpatient procedures may be followed by the insertion of a temporary prostatic stent, to allow normal voluntary urination, without exacerbating irritative symptoms.[30] In some cases, "obesity management may be an effective method to reduce prostate volume."[7] The surgery most often used in such cases is called ...
The subcutaneous tissue of penis (or superficial penile fascia) is continuous above with the fascia of Scarpa, and below with the dartos tunic of the scrotum and the fascia of Colles. It is sometimes just called the "dartos layer".[1] It attaches at the intersection of the body and glans.[2] The term "superficial penile fascia" is more common, but "subcutaneous tissue of penis" is the term used by Terminologia Anatomica. ...
Brain and testis tissue. The C-terminal domain is smaller in size but far more rich in selenium. Binds to heparin in a pH- ... "The selenium-rich C-terminal domain of mouse selenoprotein P is necessary for the supply of selenium to brain and testis but ... glycosylated The function of the C-terminal domain is known to be vital for maintaining levels of selenium in brain and testis ...
It mainly presents in the genital tract, in regions such as the testis and epididymis. Because of this, researchers had a ... If located in the testes region, removal of the tumor must be handled with great care to prevent damage to testosterone ... Williams SB, Han M, Jones R, Andrawis R (2004). "Adenomatoid tumor of the testes". Urology. 63 (4): 779-81. doi:10.1016/j. ... Amin, Waqas; Parwani, Anil V. (January 2009). "Adenomatoid Tumor of Testis". Clinical Medicine. Pathology. 2: 17-22. doi: ...
Czyba, J.C.; Girod, C. (1980). "Development of normal testis". In Hafez, E.S.E. (ed.). Descended and Cryptorchid Testis. The ... Consequently, the testes are located outside the body in a sack of skin called the scrotum. The optimal temperature is ... Testes produce 200 to 300 million spermatozoa daily. However, only about half or 100 million of these become viable sperm. The ... The location [Testes/Scrotum] is specifically important as the process of spermatogenesis requires a lower temperature to ...
The testis is outstretched. Spicules are arcuate with ventral flanges and the distal ends pointed with small apical notches. ...
One testis is present. Infective second stage juveniles (J2) find a young host, migrate to areas of new growth and are carried ...
Angelicos testes, sudarium, et vestes.. Surrexit Christus spes mea: praecedet suos [vos] in Galilaeam.. [Credendum est magis ...
CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Paton, Graeme (6 October 2006). "Vardy link to drive on creationism". TES. TES Global ...
TES. "TES Schools Awards: TES Schools Awards 2017". Retrieved 23 October 2017. Spiller, Lisa (25 November ...
Roberts, John (22 August 2018). "GCSEs 2018: New exams 'taking toll on pupils' mental health' , Tes". Retrieved 30 ... Davidson, Amelia (21 August 2018). "GCSE results: 'The exam cycle shrank my happiness' , Tes". Retrieved 30 December ...
TES. TES Global. Retrieved 1 February 2017. Use of isolation booths in schools criticised as 'barbaric' punishment. The ...
"Exclusive: New students get a Minecraft tour of school". TES. TES. Retrieved 21 July 2020. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter ( ...
Lobulus testis, 4. Mediastinum testis, 5. Tubuli seminiferi contorti, 6. Tubuli seminiferi recti, 7. Rete testis, 8. Ductuli ... Tail or lower pole of testis, 7: Testicular lobules, 8: Parenchyma of testis, 9: Efferent ductules, 10: Mediastinum testis, 11 ... The glandular structure of the testis consists of numerous lobules.. Their number, in a single testis, is estimated by Berres ... Anatomy photo:36:st-1401 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center - "Inguinal Region, Scrotum and Testes: Testis" ...
In humans the testes occur as a pair of oval-shaped organs. They are contained within the scrotal sac, which is located ... Testis, in animals, the organ that produces sperm, the male reproductive cell, and androgens, the male hormones. ... Alternative Titles: testes, testicle. Testis, plural testes, also called testicle, in animals, the organ that produces sperm, ... Anatomy of the testes. In humans each testis weighs about 25 grams (0.875 ounce) and is 4-5 cm (1.6-2.0 inches) long and 2-3 cm ...
Teratoma of Testis. Br Med J 1947; 1 doi: (Published 29 March 1947) Cite this as: Br Med ...
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Os testes são utilizados no diagnóstico clínico, na triagem e na pesquisa.… ... Testes diagnósticos * 1. Testes Diagnósticos Roberto Medronho Faculdade de Medicina - UFRJ * 2. Processo de decisão clínica que ... Testes em paralelo Diagnóstico rápido. Ex: situações de emergência O resultado positivo é considerado se um dos dois testes ... sensibilidade do teste B O resultado negativo dos testes em paralelo somente será considerado se os dois testes resultarem ...
Hutson J.M., Thorup J.M., Beasley S.W. (2016) Transabdominal Migration of the Testis. In: Descent of the Testis. Springer, Cham ... Undescended testes remain a dilemma despite recent advances in research. Aust N Z J Surg. 1990;60(6):429-39.PubMedCrossRef ... The role of the epididymis in descensus testis and the topographical relationship between the testis and epididymis from the ... Backhouse KM, Butler H. The gubernaculum testis of the pig (Sus scropha). J Anat. 1960;94:107-20.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle ...
"Bacillus testis" Cimmino et al. 2016. ›Bacillus sp. SIT10. ›CSUR P1492. ›DSM 101190. ›strain SIT10. ...
Two Cases of Pubopenile Testis. Br Med J 1959; 2 doi: (Published 22 August 1959) Cite ...
Spermatogonial stem cells of the testis. M Dym. PNAS November 22, 1994 91 (24) 11287-11289; ...
The testes are 2 egg-shaped male reproductive organs located in the scrotum. They produce sperm and the male hormone, ... The testes are 2 egg-shaped male reproductive organs located in the scrotum. They produce sperm and the male hormone, ... Testis and testicular adnexa. In: Goldblum JR, Lamps LW, McKenney JK, Myers JL, eds. Rosai and Ackermans Surgical Pathology. ...
Description In the fetus, the testes are in the abdomen. ... undescended testes is a congenital condition characterized by ... In some newborn boys the testes are not present in the scrotum, either because the testes did not descend or because the testes ... In 5 percent of cases of undescended testes, the testis on one side is completely absent. In 10 percent of cases, both testes ... If the testes did not descend because they are absent, then the likely cause is different than for testes that are present but ...
... Martin Cann mjcann at MED.CORNELL.EDU Fri Jul 25 13:22:26 EST 1997 *Previous message: (no subject) ... I am looking for a plasmid based testis expression library (from any species). If anyone could spare me a few micrograms I ...
Descensus testis definition at, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Look it ... The descent of the testis from the abdomen into the scrotum, normally occurring during the seventh and eighth months of fetal ...
We found 7 dictionaries that include the word blood-testis barrier: General (2 matching dictionaries). *Blood-testis barrier: ... Blood-testis barrier: Legal dictionary [home, info] Computing (1 matching dictionary). *Blood-testis barrier: Encyclopedia [ ... Blood-Testis Barrier: Medical Dictionary [home, info] *blood-testis barrier: online medical dictionary [home, info] *Blood- ... Search for blood-testis barrier on Google or Wikipedia Search completed in 0.018 seconds.. Home Reverse Dictionary Customize ...
He said generally people come to get one testis removed but "we have conducted double testis replacements in at least six ... The doctor said inter-sex patients have both underdeveloped testis and an ovary. "In such cases, we replace the abnormal testis ... "The abnormal testis are a source of cancer in the abdomen and we remove them for the sake of patients safety. In two to three- ... Now, artificial testis from AIIMS This will be a boon to people suffering from the problem of having both underdeveloped male ...
The testes (plural) are the most essential organs of the male reproductive system. They are the glands where sperm and ... One of the most common complications that can occur with the testes is an undescended testis, which typically occurs in about ... The cremaster muscle is found only within the male human body and covers the testis. The muscle moves the testis, promoting ... Sperm travels through the testis from the tubules, through a network of ducts called the rete testis, to the epididymis. ...
... e informações sobre boas e más práticas comuns ao utilizar JUnit para testes de unidade. Explica também as principai… ... Agenda ● Importância dos testes ● Técnicas e Fases de testes * 31. Agenda ● Importância dos testes ● Técnicas e Fases de testes ... Testes de Unidade - Ferramenta JUnit * 33. Agenda ● Importância dos testes ● Técnicas e Fases de testesTestes de Unidade - ... Agenda ● Importância dos testes ● Técnicas e Fases de testesTestes de Unidade - Ferramenta JUnit - Boas e más Práticas ● ...
0 Seguidores Postado em 23 dez 2009 1 Seguidores Testes de Aceitação com Horas e Datas por Mark Levison Mark Levison Seguir 0 ... Notícias sobre Testes de Aceitação Seguidores A ferramenta de BDD Cucumber não é uma ferramenta de teste por Jan Stenberg Jan ... Seguidores TDD: Por onde começar meus testes? por Pedro Mariano Pedro Mariano Seguir 0 Seguidores Postado em 19 ago 2010 6 ... 0 Seguidores Postado em 29 jan 2009 1 Seguidores Testes de Aceitação Orientados a Exemplos por Vikas Hazrati Vikas Hazrati ...
Ajudando times de desenvolvimento a adotarem novas práticas e tecnologias. Conteúdos redigidos por pessoas desenvolvedoras. Lido por mais de 1,5 milhão de pessoas em todo o mundo.
In this case, the DNA came from the testes of Oncorhynchus keta - aka chum salmon. Sperm DNA is cheap and biofriendly. Its a ...
Os preços, condições de pagamento e valores de frete são válidos exclusivamente para as compras efetuadas em nosso site, não valendo, necessariamente, para as nossas lojas físicas. ...
Gubernaculum testis definition at, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Look ... Words nearby gubernaculum testis. guayusa, gubbah, gubbins, gubernaculum, gubernaculum dentis, gubernaculum testis, ... A mesenchymal column of tissue that connects the fetal testis to the developing scrotum and that is involved in testicular ...
Welcome to the updated version of Pathology for Urologists! This program was designed to help Urology residents and fellows familiarize themselves with the pathologic features of common urologic entities. This will serve not only as a resource tool for your review but also as a quick reference guide to urologic pathology.
... Goto Sponge NotDistinct Permalink An Entity of Type : owl:Thing, within Data Space : ...
Testis - Male reproductive organ, is clearly explained in Medindia s glossary of medical terms ... Testis - Glossary. Written & Compiled by Medindia Content Team. Medically Reviewed by The Medindia Medical Review Team on May ...
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Testis cancer synonyms, Testis cancer pronunciation, Testis cancer translation, English dictionary definition of Testis cancer ... Noun 1. testicular cancer - malignant tumor of the testis; usually occurring in older men seminoma carcinoma - any malignant ... Testis cancer - definition of Testis cancer by The Free Dictionary ... redirected from Testis cancer). Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical. ThesaurusAntonymsRelated WordsSynonymsLegend: ...
... cryptorchid testis translation, English dictionary definition of cryptorchid testis. Noun 1. undescended testis - a testis that ... Define cryptorchid testis. cryptorchid testis synonyms, cryptorchid testis pronunciation, ... undescended testis. (redirected from cryptorchid testis). Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Legal, Encyclopedia. Thesaurus ... undescended testis - a testis that fails to move into the scrotum as the male fetus develops; "undescended testicles have an ...
Definition of interstitial cell tumor of testis. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Includes medical terms ...
Testis Cancer Rates Continue to Rise. SAN DIEGO -- The incidence of testicular cancer continued its puzzling rise through the ...
  • The testes are formed in the abdominal cavity and descend into the scrotum during the seventh month of gestation, when they are stimulated by androgens. (
  • The testes are 2 egg-shaped male reproductive organs located in the scrotum . (
  • Also known as cryptorchidism, undescended testes is a congenital condition characterized by testicles that do not follow the normal developmental pattern of moving into the scrotum before birth. (
  • In some newborn boys the testes are not present in the scrotum, either because the testes did not descend or because the testes never developed in the fetus. (
  • The doctor will check for the testes in the scrotum during the normal newborn examination. (
  • The newborn examination always checks for testes in the scrotum. (
  • Surgery done to move the testis into the scrotum does not reduce the likelihood of malignancy but allows accessibility of the testes to screen for masses which will allow early treatment. (
  • This is at first a slender band, extending from that part of the skin of the groin which afterward forms the scrotum through the inguinal canal to the body and epididymis of the testis. (
  • citation needed] The positions of the ectopic testis may be: in the lower part of the abdomen, front of thigh, femoral canal, skin of penis or behind the scrotum. (
  • The descent of the testis from the abdomen into the scrotum, normally occurring during the seventh and eighth months of fetal life. (
  • Though the artificial testis cannot produce sperms, yet it helps the scrotum to grow normally," Gupta told. (
  • The testes are contained in the scrotum and are composed of dense connective tissue containing around three hundred internal compartments called lobules. (
  • This occurs when the testes, which form in the abdomen, fail to descend into the scrotum when puberty begins. (
  • This can be addressed by either waiting around three to six months after the initial examination for the testis to descend, or with a surgical procedure called an Orchidopexy, which involves artificially moving the testis to the scrotum. (
  • A mesenchymal column of tissue that connects the fetal testis to the developing scrotum and that is involved in testicular descent. (
  • The testes are paired ovoid structures that are housed in the scrotum and positioned so that the long axis is vertical. (
  • Abnormalities of the Testis and Scrotum and their Surgical Management. (
  • Hydrocele testis is a medical condition in which fluid fills the tunica vaginalis , a sac that surrounds a testicle, and causes swelling in the scrotum . (
  • In this procedure, a small incision is made in the scrotum to expose the testis. (
  • Over the last 3 months' gestation, the testis must course its way down from its original retroperitoneal position to its final destination in the scrotum. (
  • The testis is a paired, ovoid male reproductive organ that sits in the scrotum, separated from its mate by a scrotal septum. (
  • Inferiorly, the testis is anchored to the scrotum by the scrotal ligament, a remnant of the gubernaculum. (
  • Ultrasound examination of the scrotum revealed cystic changes in the rete testis regions of both testes, more pronounced on the symptomatic (right) side (Figures 1 through 3). (
  • Rete testis , 8. (
  • Sperm travels through the testis from the tubules, through a network of ducts called the rete testis, to the epididymis. (
  • Rete testis, epididymis, and spermatic cord were inconspiciuous. (
  • Cystic dysplasia of the rete testis (CDRT) is a very rare cause of a paediatric scrotal mass often associated with renal and other genitourinary tract anomalies. (
  • Pathologic examination revealed multiple, anastomosing, irregular cystic spaces of varying sizes and shapes predominantly located in the region of the rete testis. (
  • Tubular ectasia of rete testis with spermatocele. (
  • 1) Spermatoceles have a high association with tubular ectasia of the rete testis. (
  • Tubular ectasia of the rete testis is a benign condition that results from partial or complete obliteration of the efferent ducts. (
  • On ultrasound, diagnostic keys are numerous small cystic structures within the rete testis without calcifications or solid components and a characteristic location in the posterolateral region of the testis near the mediastinum testis. (
  • however, if the MRI study is performed for other reasons, there is a confirmation of the nonenhancing cystic nature of these lesions since as they appear hypo-intense on T1-weighted images and hyperintense on T2-weighted images in the rete testis. (
  • The differential diagnosis includes epididymal cystadenoma, adenocarcinoma of the rete testis, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and dilatation of the seminiferous tubules secondary to testicular tumor. (
  • The epididymis is a long, coiled tube that stores sperm and transports it from the testes. (
  • A 1937 surgical resection specimen consisting of a bisected testis and epididymis showing multiple foci of caseating tuberculosis in the epididymis with a small hydrocoele of the. (
  • Torsion of the appendix testis and appendix epididymis occurs when tissue of the testis twists, which cuts off blood supply. (
  • What are the signs and symptoms of a Pediatric Torsion of the Appendix Testis and Appendix Epididymis? (
  • An image depicting the testes and epididymis can be seen below. (
  • The tunica vaginalis testis (a remnant of the processus vaginalis) envelopes the testis in a double layer, except at the superior and posterior borders, where the spermatic cord and epididymis adhere to the testes. (
  • The visceral layer of the tunica vaginalis testis is closely applied to the testis, epididymis, and ductus deferens. (
  • On the posterolateral surface of the testis, this layer invests a slitlike recess between the body of the epididymis and the testis that is called the sinus of epididymis. (
  • The epididymal head overhangs the upper pole of the testis, receives the seminal fluid from the ducts of the testis (which pierce the upper portion of the mediastinum), then allows the passage of the sperm into the distal portion of the epididymis. (
  • Presence of undescended testes is differentiated from absence of testicles by measuring the amount of gonadotropin hormone in the blood. (
  • The primary symptom associated with hydrocele testis is swelling in one or both testicles. (
  • Swelling in the testicles may be a symptom of hydrocele testis. (
  • Their number, in a single testis, is estimated by Berres at 250, and by Krause at 400. (
  • In case of a single testis replacement, the patient never faces any problem as the second one produces both the male hormone and sperms. (
  • Each bar represents a single testis. (
  • A letter to the editor is presented about a 45-year-old man who was referred for investigation for an undescended right testis. (
  • Superiorly, it is suspended by the spermatic cord, with the left testis often sitting lower than the right testis. (
  • A 40-year-old man with no remarkable medical history presented with a painless, palpable lump in the right testis that had been slowly growing in the previous few months. (
  • Testis , plural testes, also called testicle , in animals, the organ that produces sperm , the male reproductive cell , and androgens , the male hormones. (
  • A ectopic testis is a testicle that, although not an undescended testicle, has taken a non-standard path through the body and ended up in an unusual location. (
  • Screening is advised in individuals who are deemed at high risk of testis tumours, e.g. affected first degree relative (especially an identical twin), history of a delayed or undescended testis, and particularly patients who have had a prior malignancy in the contralateral testicle. (
  • Hydrocele testis occurs when fluid fills the sac that surrounds a testicle. (
  • Torsion of the appendix testis is a twisting of a vestigial appendage that is located along the testicle. (
  • Primary chemotherapy in management of tumors of undescended testis: Where it stands? (
  • The article discusses primary chemotherapy in management of tumors of undescended testis. (
  • Cancer-testis (CT) antigens are expressed in a variety of malignant tumors, but in normal adult tissue, they are only expressed in testicular germ cells. (
  • They may have increased tumor rates, especially of the testes, and the tumors of the testes commonly become calcified and can be seen on X-ray. (
  • Surgery may be needed to treat discomfort associated with hydrocele testis. (
  • Mediastinum testis , 5. (
  • The lobules are conical in shape, the base being directed toward the circumference of the organ, the apex toward the mediastinum testis . (
  • Each lobule is contained in one of the intervals between the fibrous septa which extend between the mediastinum testis and the tunica albuginea , and consists of from one to three, or more, minute convoluted tubes, the tubuli seminiferi . (
  • The partitions between the lobes and the seminiferous tubules both converge in one area near the anal side of each testis to form what is called the mediastinum testis. (
  • On the posterior surface, it is reflected inwardly to form an incomplete vertical septum called the mediastinum testis. (
  • The mediastinum testis extends from the superior to near the inferior portion of the gland. (
  • These divide the interior of the testis into numerous, cone-shaped spaces that have a wide base at the gland's surface and narrow as they converge to the mediastinum. (
  • Wells L. Descent of the testis: anatomical and hormonal considerations. (
  • Backhouse KM, Butler H. The gubernaculum testis of the pig (Sus scropha). (
  • In the inguinal crest of a peculiar structure, the gubernaculum testis makes its appearance. (
  • Discusses the treatment for cryptorchidism, or undescended testis. (
  • Part I. Offers tips on improving accurate diagnosis of undescended testis or cryptorchidism. (
  • Exposure to environmental estrogens can cause male infertility and disorders of the reproductive system, such as hypospadias (small testes), cryptorchidism (undescended testes), and testicular cancer. (
  • The testes contain germ cells that differentiate into mature spermatozoa, supporting cells called Sertoli cells, and testosterone -producing cells called Leydig (interstitial) cells . (
  • Testosterone and its potent derivative, dihydrotestosterone, play key roles in the formation of male genitalia in the fetus during the first trimester of gestation but do not play a role in the actual formation of the testes. (
  • The production of testosterone by the fetal testes is stimulated by human chorionic gonadotropin, a hormone secreted by the placenta . (
  • According to, testosterone enanthate, testosterone cypionate and testosterone gel can have side effects that include changes in the size and shape of the testes. (
  • As the fetus develops, the functioning testis produces the male hormone testosterone to allow development of male genitalia. (
  • The testes produce both sperm and the androgenic hormone testosterone, which is a vital hormone for male development, driving the changes that take place during puberty. (
  • Testosterone is released from the testes by Leydig cells that lie between structures called seminiferous tubules. (
  • Proper development of the fetal penis requires not just testosterone from the testes, but a second hormone produced by other tissues, including the placenta, according to a new study publishing February 14 in the open-access journal PLOS Biology from Paul Fowler of the University of Aberdeen, Michelle Bellingham of the University of Glasgow, and colleagues in the UK, France and Sweden. (
  • During development of the male fetus, the testes release testosterone, a steroid hormone which is converted to 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) by the genital tubercle, helping to ensure that this primordial structure develops into a penis, rather than into the female clitoris. (
  • Recently, penis development was shown to also depend on a second process, called the alternative or "backdoor" pathway, which also ends in the production of DHT but doesn't depend on the production of testosterone by the testes. (
  • Just wondering if everyone with this condition has small testes? (
  • Well, there are a lot of conditions that can cause small testes. (
  • This testicular sperm freezing can be very useful, especially in men with small testes, as the biopsy does not need to be repeated again during treatment. (
  • Beneath the tunica vaginalis is the capsule of the testis, termed the tunica albuginea. (
  • Deep to the tunica vaginalis, the tunica albuginea is a tough, fibrous outer covering of the testis. (
  • The tunica vasculosa is the vascular layer of the testis , consisting of a plexus of bloodvessels, held together by delicate areolar tissue. (
  • The testes (plural) are the most essential organs of the male reproductive system. (
  • On the other side, a long-lasting irregular blood circulation of the testis induced by varicocele (stage 3) could play an important role in the aetiopathogenesis [ 1 ]. (
  • Furthermore, the higher temperature of the testis induced by varicocele should be considered as a causative factor in the tumorigenesis [ 3 ]. (
  • Undescended testes are twice as likely to develop cancer as normally descended testes. (
  • An adult man is three to 17 times more likely to develop testicular cancer if he has had a testis that did not descend naturally. (
  • The incidence of testicular cancer in men who did not have both testes descend normally is about 1 in 2000. (
  • Undescended testes are of concern because, although they are not known to be a threat to the child's immediate health, they are associated with an increased likelihood of negative outcomes later in life, including an increased likelihood of sterility and an increased incidence of testicular cancer. (
  • The All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS) has developed artificial testis that is a boon to people suffering from the problem of having both underdeveloped male and female genitals as well as cancer in the abdomen. (
  • The abnormal testis are a source of cancer in the abdomen and we remove them for the sake of patients' safety. (
  • The positive association of testis cancer with hyperemesis gravidarum, (33,34) an increased frequency of testicular cancer in the firstborn of sibships, (35) and the temporary decline in testis cancer incidence in Norwegian babies born during the deprivations of World War II (36,37) support an important role of maternal hyperestrogenism in predisposing to testicular cancer. (
  • We found that this father and son had a set of genes that predispose them to both genitourinary or urologie cancers, and testis cancer is within that group, as well as stomach cancers," Pastuszak said in a press briefing. (
  • Gilligan, "Quality of life among testis cancer survivors," Urologic Oncology: Seminars and Original Investigations, vol. (
  • Characterizing the morbidity of postchemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissection for testis cancer in a national cohort of privately insured patients," Urology, vol. (
  • Chest staging in testis cancer patients: imaging modality selection based upon risk assessment as determined by abdominal computerized tomography scan results. (
  • Continuing increase in incidence of germ-cell testis cancer in young adults: Experience from Connecticut, USA, 1935-1992. (
  • Progression detection of stage I non-seminomatous testis cancer on surveillance: Implications for the followup protocol. (
  • 11] With one amazing development, the introduction of Cisplatin into standard chemotherapy for testis cancer , there was a complete transformation from the expectation of early death to the potential of long-term survival in most young men with this dreadful disease. (
  • In addition to the increased risk of malignant diseases particularly testis cancer , sperm counts, sperm quality (especially chromatin integrity), sex hormones and sex drive decrease during aging of men and all of them lead to a decline in fecundity in older men (1). (
  • None of the patients had been previously diagnosed with or treated for prostate or testis cancer , and none of the patients had received hormone therapy. (
  • Cancer of the testis is relatively uncommon in B.C., but the incidence rate has almost quadrupled in the past 40 years. (
  • Patients with testicular atrophy of any cause such as cryptorchism, mumps orchitis, or ectopic testis have an increased risk for developing testis cancer. (
  • There is also a 3-5% risk for testis cancer patients to develop a contralateral testis cancer. (
  • First degree relatives of a testis cancer patient have a 3-10 fold increase in risk for developing a testis cancer. (
  • Carcinoma in situ of contralateral testis in patients with testicular germ cell cancer: study of 27 cases in 500 patients. (
  • Due to the overall low incidence and high cure rate of testis cancer there is no need for additional preventive measures besides self examination for first-degree relatives. (
  • Cancer/testis (CT) antigens, of which more than 40 have now been identified, are encoded by genes that are normally expressed only in the human germ line, but are also expressed in various tumour types, including melanoma, and carcinomas of the bladder, lung and liver. (
  • Cancer/testis (CT) antigens are immunogenic in cancer patients, exhibit highly tissue-restricted expression, and are considered promising target molecules for cancer vaccines. (
  • Our data indicate that the PAX7 + subset of A single spermatogonia functions as robust testis stem cells that maintain fertility in normal spermatogenesis in healthy mice and mediate recovery after severe germline injury, such as occurs after cancer therapy. (
  • Expression of cancer-testis antigens in endometrial carcinomas using a tissue microarray. (
  • Estrogen is a potent proliferative agent and can lead to cancer of the female breast and male testes. (
  • Odiele, whom Vogue refers to as an Alexander Wang staple, says being intersex is 'not that big of a deal,' but she can't say the same for the two surgeries she has undergone, one at age 10 to remove those testes, which doctors told her parents could lead to cancer. (
  • Dermoid cyst of an undescended intra-abdominal testis with torsion: A rare case report. (
  • How is testicular torsion differentiated from hydrocele, testis tumor or scrotal edema? (
  • An emergency operation is required for twisted testis (torsion of the testis). (
  • Because torsion of the appendix testis poses no threat to the overall health of your son, treatment is relatively simple. (
  • Ultrasonography, showed a cystic lesion of the left testis associated with absence of the left kidney. (
  • Up to 30 percent of boys born prematurely have testes that have not yet made the full descent. (
  • One of the most common complications that can occur with the testes is an undescended testis, which typically occurs in about two to four percent of all male infants and around thirty percent of boys born prematurely. (
  • Compared with the adult testis, PAX7 + cells constituted a much higher percentage of neonatal germ cells. (
  • B ) Counts of total PAX7 + cells by IHC of serially sectioned PD1 and adult testes ( n = 3). (
  • Total numbers were similar in neonatal and adult testes. (
  • Described by some as being shaped and sized like a large olive or small plum, the average volume of the adult testis is approximately 25 mL. (
  • Therapeutically reprogrammed from germ line stem cells found in the testes of adult human males, PrimeCellTM is the first non-embryonic stem cell showing the potential to become any type of cell from any organ, something previously thought possible only for embryonic stem cells - the definition of true pluripotency. (
  • A unique form of lactate dehydrogenase was observed in the starch-gel electrophoretic patterns of adult human testes. (
  • What Is Hydrocele Testis? (
  • Hydrocele testis is not painful and usually goes away on its own. (
  • Though hydrocele testis is generally harmless, it can sometimes warrant medical attention, especially if the swelling does not go away on its own. (
  • To diagnose hydrocele testis, a doctor will usually perform a physical exam, and he might use an ultrasound to confirm his diagnosis as well. (
  • Hydrocele testis does not usually require treatment. (
  • burcinc-- I had hydrocele testis surgery. (
  • burcinc-- The first line of treatment for hydrocele testis is usually draining. (
  • I've just been diagnosed with a hydrocele testis. (
  • What exactly does a hydrocele testis surgery entail? (
  • Some cases of hydrocele testis may warrant medical attention. (
  • Needle aspiration may be used to treat hydrocele testis that does not resolve on its own. (
  • Reports on the characteristics of abnormalities involving the testis in children such as inguinal hernia, hydrocele and the undescended testis. (
  • Your search returned 4 prion locus lncRNA, testis expressed Antibodies across 4 suppliers. (
  • A testicular carcinoma in intraabdominal undescended testis can mimic other mesenteric or retroperitoneal mass. (
  • We propose to classify this non-malignant tumor as a vascular rich Sertoli cell tumor of the testis. (
  • In this review, we summarize the recent findings regarding the regulation of testis cord integrity by a series of Sertoli cell transcription factors, including the WT1-SOX8/SOX9-beta-CATENIN-DHH network, GPR56, STIM1, and NR0B1 (also known as DAX1). (
  • In particularly, we emphasize the underappreciated role of peritubular myoid cells in testis cord maintenance and their cooperation with Sertoli cells. (
  • The regulation of the size, shape, and number of testis cords by Sertoli cell proliferation (e.g. (
  • Unlike most blood-tissue barriers, the blood-testis barrier has been found to be made up of specialized, extremely tight junctions between Sertoli cells. (
  • Morphologically, our case had two distinct entities-a high-grade varicocele and a vascular tumor of the testis. (
  • On one side, it could be that the existence of varicocele and benign tumor in the same testis is due to chance. (
  • The clinical take-home message of the case report is as follows: a high-grade varicocele can occur with a benign vascular tumor of the testis. (
  • Testis tumor produces scrotal enlargement, only rarely accompanied by pain. (
  • Considering taking medication to treat refractory malignant tumor of testis? (
  • Below is a list of common medications used to treat or reduce the symptoms of refractory malignant tumor of testis. (
  • The doctor said inter-sex patients have both underdeveloped testis and an ovary. (
  • This gene encodes a metallothionein-like protein which has been shown to be expressed differentially in mouse testis and ovary. (
  • In case of a double testis replacement, the patient needs male hormone injection in due intervals," said Gupta, who is also chief of the SAARC paediatric surgeons' association. (
  • What Hormone Is Produced by the Testes? (
  • The testes also synthesize anti-Müllerian hormone, insulin-like factor 3 and estradiol. (
  • The goal of this article was to study the effect of the aromatase enzyme in human testes, the effects of high and low hormone levels on the testes, as well as the location of aromatase in testes. (
  • The gene for aromatase is expressed in many tissues (including testis), and hormone production controls male fertility. (
  • The testis (from the Greek word orchis ) is the male gland important for both reproductive (exocrine) and endocrine functions. (
  • The germ cells migrate to the fetal testes from the embryonic yolk sac. (
  • PAX7 + spermatogonia make up a higher percentage of germ cells in the neonatal testis. (
  • In sexually active male animals, estrogen production is in the Leydig cell of the testes. (
  • during adolescence, gonadotropic hormones from the pituitary gland at the base of the brain stimulate the development of tissue, and the testes become capable of producing sperm and androgens. (
  • Researchers have designed a compound that homes in on the testis and prevents sperm from accessing a key tissue, halting their development. (
  • In normal tissues, standardized RT-PCR experiments showed that 19/43 CT genes were testis-restricted, 10/43 CT genes were tissue-restricted (mRNA detected in 2 or fewer non-gametogenic tissues), 9/43 CT genes were differentially expressed (mRNA detected in 3-6 non-gametogenic tissues), and 5/43 CT genes were ubiquitously expressed. (
  • In terms of immunogenicity, 14/29 testis/tissue-restricted CT gene families have been shown to induce a cellular and/or humoral immune response in humans. (
  • The testis is then fixed into position by stitching it to the surrounding tissue to prevent a recurrence. (
  • The appendix testis is a small piece of tissue that is usually located on the upper part of the testis. (
  • Formerly, when doctors performed a testis biopsy, they would send only one chunk of tissue for testing. (
  • In a new report, scientists describe a technique that yields fertile primate sperm when tissue from the testes of young rhesus monkeys are grafted into mice. (
  • In a report set for publication in the journal Biology of Reproduction, scientists at the University of Pennsylvania and the University of California, Davis, describe a technique that yields fertile primate sperm when tissue from the testes of young rhesus monkeys are grafted into mice. (
  • In the experiment, donor tissue from the testes of two 13-month-old rhesus monkeys was grafted under the back skin of specially prepared mice. (
  • Topics covered include testis development and differentiation, paracrine and endocrine interactions, genetics and cell biology of spermatogenesis, epididymal maturation and fertilization, and genetic defects and remedies. (
  • The Council has published important findings in this field over the past decade that provide a solid basis for exploring the blood-testis barrier as a means of disrupting spermatogenesis. (
  • Additionally, recent studies from the laboratory have discovered there are two additional regulatory axes that modulate BTB remodeling to support the transport of preleptotene spermatocytes across the blood-testis barrier to support spermatogenesis. (
  • The XVth Testis Workshop has a strong comparative flavor with contributions on worms (Caenorhabditis), flies (Drosophila), and chickens, which are models that permit and thereby reveal the power of genetic analy- ses of the molecular mechanisms involved in spermatogenesis. (
  • Many children who have undescended testes have reduced fertility as adults. (
  • It is thought that as many as 50 to 75 percent of children with undescended testes have problems with fertility as adults. (
  • Estrogens appear to be very important to normal testes and male fertility. (
  • In his introductory remarks, R. E. Mancini comments on the "mysterious aura" that since antiquity has surrounded the function of the human testis, a perspective that may contribute to the continuing imposition of fertility control on women rather than men. (
  • Testis cords, embryonic precursors of the seminiferous tubules, are fundamental for testis structure and function. (
  • The embryonic differentiation of the primitive, indifferent gonad into either the testes or the ovaries is determined by the presence or absence of genes carried on the Y chromosome . (
  • A novel testis-specific metallothionein-like protein, tesmin, is an early marker of male germ cell differentiation. (
  • Transcription of the SRY gene (testis-determining factor region) on the Y chromosome ultimately leads to sex differentiation. (
  • Vertical section of the testis, to show the arrangement of the ducts. (
  • Located on the posterior border of the testis, it is composed of 3 parts, including the head (caput), body (corpora), and tail (cauda). (
  • 2]-induced oxidative stress in a dose-dependent manner, (2) improved the mean weight of the cryptorchid testis , (3) maintained sperm counts, motility, and spermatogenic cell density, (4) decreased levels of 8-OHdG and increased levels of SOD, demonstrating its antioxidant effect, (5) significantly increased Nrf2 and HO-1, and (6) significantly decreased apoptosis. (
  • Further efforts and new genetic models are needed to unveil the gene networks and underlying mechanisms regulating testis cord integrity and morphology after sex determination. (
  • Her research team found that the mutation blocked the function of a specific gene in the stem cells that becomes support cells in the testis, causing the fruit flies to change from a male to a female identity. (
  • Cutting-edge studies of the blood-testis barrier promise to help the Council develop novel male contraceptives. (
  • The blood-testis barrier is a physical barrier separating the testes from the bloodstream. (
  • Further, the Council has discovered a peptide that regulates the expression of FAK, thereby compromising the integrity and function of the blood-testis barrier. (
  • These axes are found between the blood-testis barrier and the basement membrane, involving fragments of collagen-α3 chain and also laminin-α2 chain, both are constituent components of the basement membrane. (
  • Additionally, it could serve to hold open the blood-testis barrier to allow more Adjudin to enter the testes, thus boosting Adjudin's effectiveness at a lower dosage with potentially fewer side effects. (
  • The identity of the spermatogonial stem cell population in the undisturbed testis is controversial due to a lack of reliable and specific markers. (
  • The Testis: From Stem Cell to Sperm Function presents the proceedings of the XVth Testis Workshop held in Louisville, Kentucky. (
  • This prologue sets the scene for the remainder of the volume that follows a logical progression, as the title implies, from stem cell to cell function, but that is necessarily preceded by sex determination, the quintessential requirement for there being a testis in the first place. (