Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)ROC Curve: A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.False Positive Reactions: Positive test results in subjects who do not possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of healthy persons as diseased when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.False Negative Reactions: Negative test results in subjects who possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of diseased persons as healthy when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Reagent Kits, Diagnostic: Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Reagent Strips: Narrow pieces of material impregnated or covered with a substance used to produce a chemical reaction. The strips are used in detecting, measuring, producing, etc., other substances. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Radiopharmaceuticals: Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Fluorodeoxyglucose F18: The compound is given by intravenous injection to do POSITRON-EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY for the assessment of cerebral and myocardial glucose metabolism in various physiological or pathological states including stroke and myocardial ischemia. It is also employed for the detection of malignant tumors including those of the brain, liver, and thyroid gland. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1162)Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image. This type of ultrasonography is well-suited to identifying the location of high-velocity flow (such as in a stenosis) or of mapping the extent of flow in a certain region.Diagnostic Errors: Incorrect diagnoses after clinical examination or technical diagnostic procedures.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Observer Variation: The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).Positron-Emission Tomography: An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Biopsy, Fine-Needle: Using fine needles (finer than 22-gauge) to remove tissue or fluid specimens from the living body for examination in the pathology laboratory and for disease diagnosis.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Early Diagnosis: Methods to determine in patients the nature of a disease or disorder at its early stage of progression. Generally, early diagnosis improves PROGNOSIS and TREATMENT OUTCOME.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Clinical Coding: Process of substituting a symbol or code for a term such as a diagnosis or procedure. (from Slee's Health Care Terms, 3d ed.)Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Preoperative Care: Care given during the period prior to undergoing surgery when psychological and physical preparations are made according to the special needs of the individual patient. This period spans the time between admission to the hospital to the time the surgery begins. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)International Classification of Diseases: A system of categories to which morbid entries are assigned according to established criteria. Included is the entire range of conditions in a manageable number of categories, grouped to facilitate mortality reporting. It is produced by the World Health Organization (From ICD-10, p1). The Clinical Modifications, produced by the UNITED STATES DEPT. OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES, are larger extensions used for morbidity and general epidemiological purposes, primarily in the U.S.Diagnostic Tests, Routine: Diagnostic procedures, such as laboratory tests and x-rays, routinely performed on all individuals or specified categories of individuals in a specified situation, e.g., patients being admitted to the hospital. These include routine tests administered to neonates.Coronary Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the heart muscle after injection of a contrast medium.Area Under Curve: A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)Ultrasonography: The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections or echoes of ultrasonic pulses directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz.Tomography, Spiral Computed: Computed tomography where there is continuous X-ray exposure to the patient while being transported in a spiral or helical pattern through the beam of irradiation. This provides improved three-dimensional contrast and spatial resolution compared to conventional computed tomography, where data is obtained and computed from individual sequential exposures.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Biopsy, Needle: Removal and examination of tissue obtained through a transdermal needle inserted into the specific region, organ, or tissue being analyzed.Point-of-Care Systems: Laboratory and other services provided to patients at the bedside. These include diagnostic and laboratory testing using automated information entry.Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products: Soluble protein fragments formed by the proteolytic action of plasmin on fibrin or fibrinogen. FDP and their complexes profoundly impair the hemostatic process and are a major cause of hemorrhage in intravascular coagulation and fibrinolysis.Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Endosonography: Ultrasonography of internal organs using an ultrasound transducer sometimes mounted on a fiberoptic endoscope. In endosonography the transducer converts electronic signals into acoustic pulses or continuous waves and acts also as a receiver to detect reflected pulses from within the organ. An audiovisual-electronic interface converts the detected or processed echo signals, which pass through the electronics of the instrument, into a form that the technologist can evaluate. The procedure should not be confused with ENDOSCOPY which employs a special instrument called an endoscope. The "endo-" of endosonography refers to the examination of tissue within hollow organs, with reference to the usual ultrasonography procedure which is performed externally or transcutaneously.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Palpation: Application of fingers with light pressure to the surface of the body to determine consistence of parts beneath in physical diagnosis; includes palpation for determining the outlines of organs.Serologic Tests: Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.Contrast Media: Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Cytodiagnosis: Diagnosis of the type and, when feasible, the cause of a pathologic process by means of microscopic study of cells in an exudate or other form of body fluid. (Stedman, 26th ed)Probability: The study of chance processes or the relative frequency characterizing a chance process.Thyroid Nodule: A small circumscribed mass in the THYROID GLAND that can be of neoplastic growth or non-neoplastic abnormality. It lacks a well-defined capsule or glandular architecture. Thyroid nodules are often benign but can be malignant. The growth of nodules can lead to a multinodular goiter (GOITER, NODULAR).Epidemiologic Methods: Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon: A method of computed tomography that uses radionuclides which emit a single photon of a given energy. The camera is rotated 180 or 360 degrees around the patient to capture images at multiple positions along the arc. The computer is then used to reconstruct the transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images from the 3-dimensional distribution of radionuclides in the organ. The advantages of SPECT are that it can be used to observe biochemical and physiological processes as well as size and volume of the organ. The disadvantage is that, unlike positron-emission tomography where the positron-electron annihilation results in the emission of 2 photons at 180 degrees from each other, SPECT requires physical collimation to line up the photons, which results in the loss of many available photons and hence degrades the image.Molecular Diagnostic Techniques: MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques used in the diagnosis of disease.Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted: Application of computer programs designed to assist the physician in solving a diagnostic problem.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Physical Examination: Systematic and thorough inspection of the patient for physical signs of disease or abnormality.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Coronary Stenosis: Narrowing or constriction of a coronary artery.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Ultrasonography, Doppler: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with frequency-shifted ultrasound reflections produced by moving targets (usually red blood cells) in the bloodstream along the ultrasound axis in direct proportion to the velocity of movement of the targets, to determine both direction and velocity of blood flow. (Stedman, 25th ed)Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures: Methods, procedures, and tests performed to diagnose disease, disordered function, or disability.Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.Clinical Enzyme Tests: Analyses for a specific enzyme activity, or of the level of a specific enzyme that is used to assess health and disease risk, for early detection of disease or disease prediction, diagnosis, and change in disease status.Frozen Sections: Thinly cut sections of frozen tissue specimens prepared with a cryostat or freezing microtome.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Ultrasonography, Prenatal: The visualization of tissues during pregnancy through recording of the echoes of ultrasonic waves directed into the body. The procedure may be applied with reference to the mother or the fetus and with reference to organs or the detection of maternal or fetal disease.Vaginal Smears: Collection of pooled secretions of the posterior vaginal fornix for cytologic examination.Clinical Laboratory Techniques: Techniques used to carry out clinical investigative procedures in the diagnosis and therapy of disease.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Coronary Artery Disease: Pathological processes of CORONARY ARTERIES that may derive from a congenital abnormality, atherosclerotic, or non-atherosclerotic cause.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Lymphatic Metastasis: Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.Multidetector Computed Tomography: Types of spiral computed tomography technology in which multiple slices of data are acquired simultaneously improving the resolution over single slice acquisition technology.Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Gentian Violet: A dye that is a mixture of violet rosanilinis with antibacterial, antifungal, and anthelmintic properties.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Multimodal Imaging: The use of combination of imaging techniques or platforms (e.g., MRI SCAN and PET SCAN) encompassing aspects of anatomical, functional, or molecular imaging methods.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Medical Records: Recording of pertinent information concerning patient's illness or illnesses.Chest Pain: Pressure, burning, or numbness in the chest.Cervix Uteri: The neck portion of the UTERUS between the lower isthmus and the VAGINA forming the cervical canal.C-Reactive Protein: A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.Urinalysis: Examination of urine by chemical, physical, or microscopic means. Routine urinalysis usually includes performing chemical screening tests, determining specific gravity, observing any unusual color or odor, screening for bacteriuria, and examining the sediment microscopically.Ultrasonography, Mammary: Use of ultrasound for imaging the breast. The most frequent application is the diagnosis of neoplasms of the female breast.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Echocardiography: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Latex Fixation Tests: Passive agglutination tests in which antigen is adsorbed onto latex particles which then clump in the presence of antibody specific for the adsorbed antigen. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Single-Blind Method: A method in which either the observer(s) or the subject(s) is kept ignorant of the group to which the subjects are assigned.Natriuretic Peptide, Brain: A PEPTIDE that is secreted by the BRAIN and the HEART ATRIA, stored mainly in cardiac ventricular MYOCARDIUM. It can cause NATRIURESIS; DIURESIS; VASODILATION; and inhibits secretion of RENIN and ALDOSTERONE. It improves heart function. It contains 32 AMINO ACIDS.Vagina: The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)Exercise Test: Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.Confidence Intervals: A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.Fever: An abnormal elevation of body temperature, usually as a result of a pathologic process.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Liver Cirrhosis: Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.Uterine Cervical Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.Bacteriuria: The presence of bacteria in the urine which is normally bacteria-free. These bacteria are from the URINARY TRACT and are not contaminants of the surrounding tissues. Bacteriuria can be symptomatic or asymptomatic. Significant bacteriuria is an indicator of urinary tract infection.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Vaginal Discharge: A common gynecologic disorder characterized by an abnormal, nonbloody discharge from the genital tract.Angiography, Digital Subtraction: A method of delineating blood vessels by subtracting a tissue background image from an image of tissue plus intravascular contrast material that attenuates the X-ray photons. The background image is determined from a digitized image taken a few moments before injection of the contrast material. The resulting angiogram is a high-contrast image of the vessel. This subtraction technique allows extraction of a high-intensity signal from the superimposed background information. The image is thus the result of the differential absorption of X-rays by different tissues.Chlamydia trachomatis: Type species of CHLAMYDIA causing a variety of ocular and urogenital diseases.Chlamydia Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus CHLAMYDIA.Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect combined with real-time imaging. The real-time image is created by rapid movement of the ultrasound beam. A powerful advantage of this technique is the ability to estimate the velocity of flow from the Doppler shift frequency.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Elasticity Imaging Techniques: Non-invasive imaging methods based on the mechanical response of an object to a vibrational or impulsive force. It is used for determining the viscoelastic properties of tissue, and thereby differentiating soft from hard inclusions in tissue such as microcalcifications, and some cancer lesions. Most techniques use ultrasound to create the images - eliciting the response with an ultrasonic radiation force and/or recording displacements of the tissue by Doppler ultrasonography.Triage: The sorting out and classification of patients or casualties to determine priority of need and proper place of treatment.Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Direct: A form of fluorescent antibody technique utilizing a fluorochrome conjugated to an antibody, which is added directly to a tissue or cell suspension for the detection of a specific antigen. (Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Patient Selection: Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.CA-125 Antigen: Carbohydrate antigen most commonly seen in tumors of the ovary and occasionally seen in breast, kidney, and gastrointestinal tract tumors and normal tissue. CA 125 is clearly tumor-associated but not tumor-specific.Magnetic Resonance Angiography: Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.Blood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Mediastinum: A membrane in the midline of the THORAX of mammals. It separates the lungs between the STERNUM in front and the VERTEBRAL COLUMN behind. It also surrounds the HEART, TRACHEA, ESOPHAGUS, THYMUS, and LYMPH NODES.Sputum: Material coughed up from the lungs and expectorated via the mouth. It contains MUCUS, cellular debris, and microorganisms. It may also contain blood or pus.Mammography: Radiographic examination of the breast.Pregnancy Trimester, Second: The middle third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 15th through the 28th completed week (99 to 196 days) of gestation.Troponin T: One of the three polypeptide chains that make up the TROPONIN complex. It is a cardiac-specific protein that binds to TROPOMYOSIN. It is released from damaged or injured heart muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC). Defects in the gene encoding troponin T result in FAMILIAL HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY.Forecasting: The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.Disease-Free Survival: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.Decision Trees: A graphic device used in decision analysis, series of decision options are represented as branches (hierarchical).Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia: A malignancy arising in uterine cervical epithelium and confined thereto, representing a continuum of histological changes ranging from well-differentiated CIN 1 (formerly, mild dysplasia) to severe dysplasia/carcinoma in situ, CIN 3. The lesion arises at the squamocolumnar cell junction at the transformation zone of the endocervical canal, with a variable tendency to develop invasive epidermoid carcinoma, a tendency that is enhanced by concomitant human papillomaviral infection. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.Microscopy: The use of instrumentation and techniques for visualizing material and details that cannot be seen by the unaided eye. It is usually done by enlarging images, transmitted by light or electron beams, with optical or magnetic lenses that magnify the entire image field. With scanning microscopy, images are generated by collecting output from the specimen in a point-by-point fashion, on a magnified scale, as it is scanned by a narrow beam of light or electrons, a laser, a conductive probe, or a topographical probe.Calcitonin: A peptide hormone that lowers calcium concentration in the blood. In humans, it is released by thyroid cells and acts to decrease the formation and absorptive activity of osteoclasts. Its role in regulating plasma calcium is much greater in children and in certain diseases than in normal adults.Fetal Distress: A nonreassuring fetal status (NRFS) indicating that the FETUS is compromised (American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists 1988). It can be identified by sub-optimal values in FETAL HEART RATE; oxygenation of FETAL BLOOD; and other parameters.Calcinosis: Pathologic deposition of calcium salts in tissues.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Specimen Handling: Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Immunologic Tests: Immunologic techniques involved in diagnosis.Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi: A technetium imaging agent used to reveal blood-starved cardiac tissue during a heart attack.Decision Support Techniques: Mathematical or statistical procedures used as aids in making a decision. They are frequently used in medical decision-making.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Radiography, Thoracic: X-ray visualization of the chest and organs of the thoracic cavity. It is not restricted to visualization of the lungs.Early Detection of Cancer: Methods to identify and characterize cancer in the early stages of disease and predict tumor behavior.Tuberculosis, Pulmonary: MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.Pharyngitis: Inflammation of the throat (PHARYNX).Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.Neoplasm Recurrence, Local: The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.Adnexa Uteri: Appendages of the UTERUS which include the FALLOPIAN TUBES, the OVARY, and the supporting ligaments of the uterus (BROAD LIGAMENT; ROUND LIGAMENT).Gestational Age: The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.Fertilization in Vitro: An assisted reproductive technique that includes the direct handling and manipulation of oocytes and sperm to achieve fertilization in vitro.Ventricular Dysfunction, Left: A condition in which the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart was functionally impaired. This condition usually leads to HEART FAILURE; MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; and other cardiovascular complications. Diagnosis is made by measuring the diminished ejection fraction and a depressed level of motility of the left ventricular wall.Chromogenic Compounds: Colorless, endogenous or exogenous pigment precursors that may be transformed by biological mechanisms into colored compounds; used in biochemical assays and in diagnosis as indicators, especially in the form of enzyme substrates. Synonym: chromogens (not to be confused with pigment-synthesizing bacteria also called chromogens).Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.Pregnancy, Ectopic: A potentially life-threatening condition in which EMBRYO IMPLANTATION occurs outside the cavity of the UTERUS. Most ectopic pregnancies (>96%) occur in the FALLOPIAN TUBES, known as TUBAL PREGNANCY. They can be in other locations, such as UTERINE CERVIX; OVARY; and abdominal cavity (PREGNANCY, ABDOMINAL).Emergency Service, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of immediate medical or surgical care to the emergency patient.PhenazinesBreast Diseases: Pathological processes of the BREAST.Rectum: The distal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, between the SIGMOID COLON and the ANAL CANAL.Neonatal Screening: The identification of selected parameters in newborn infants by various tests, examinations, or other procedures. Screening may be performed by clinical or laboratory measures. A screening test is designed to sort out healthy neonates (INFANT, NEWBORN) from those not well, but the screening test is not intended as a diagnostic device, rather instead as epidemiologic.Medical History Taking: Acquiring information from a patient on past medical conditions and treatments.Netherlands: Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Unnecessary Procedures: Diagnostic, therapeutic, and investigative procedures prescribed and performed by health professionals, the results of which do not justify the benefits or hazards and costs to the patient.Colposcopy: The examination, therapy or surgery of the cervix and vagina by means of a specially designed endoscope introduced vaginally.Image Enhancement: Improvement of the quality of a picture by various techniques, including computer processing, digital filtering, echocardiographic techniques, light and ultrastructural MICROSCOPY, fluorescence spectrometry and microscopy, scintigraphy, and in vitro image processing at the molecular level.Dobutamine: A catecholamine derivative with specificity for BETA-1 ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS. It is commonly used as a cardiotonic agent after CARDIAC SURGERY and during DOBUTAMINE STRESS ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY.Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Pyuria: The presence of white blood cells (LEUKOCYTES) in the urine. It is often associated with bacterial infections of the urinary tract. Pyuria without BACTERIURIA can be caused by TUBERCULOSIS, stones, or cancer.Colorectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Diagnostic Techniques, Obstetrical and Gynecological: Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of conditions related to pregnancy, labor, and the puerperium and of diseases of the female genitalia. It includes also demonstration of genital and pregnancy physiology.Iopamidol: A non-ionic, water-soluble contrast agent which is used in myelography, arthrography, nephroangiography, arteriography, and other radiological procedures.Vision Screening: Application of tests and examinations to identify visual defects or vision disorders occurring in specific populations, as in school children, the elderly, etc. It is differentiated from VISION TESTS, which are given to evaluate/measure individual visual performance not related to a specific population.Urine: Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the URETHRA.Pulmonary Embolism: Blocking of the PULMONARY ARTERY or one of its branches by an EMBOLUS.Uterine Hemorrhage: Bleeding from blood vessels in the UTERUS, sometimes manifested as vaginal bleeding.Mediastinoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the anterior superior mediastinum of the thorax.Leukocyte Count: The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.Hysteroscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the interior of the uterus.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Monitoring, Physiologic: The continuous measurement of physiological processes, blood pressure, heart rate, renal output, reflexes, respiration, etc., in a patient or experimental animal; includes pharmacologic monitoring, the measurement of administered drugs or their metabolites in the blood, tissues, or urine.Angiography: Radiography of blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium.Medical Records Systems, Computerized: Computer-based systems for input, storage, display, retrieval, and printing of information contained in a patient's medical record.
Schön, Wadsö I (1988). "The potential use of microcalorimetry in predictive tests of the action of antineoplastic drugs on ... Suurkuusk, J; Wadsö, L (1974). "Design and testing of an improved precise drop calorimeter for the measurement of heat capacity ... The rate was predictive of long-term tree growth rates, was consistent for specimens from a given tree and was found to ... 2003). IMC is also of great utility in evaluating the "runaway potential" of materials which are significant fire or explosion ...
doi:10.1016/0165-1110(81)90032-4. Purchase (1982). "An appraisal of predictive tests for carcinogenicity". Mutation Research. ... "A microplate version of the SOS/umu-test for rapid detection of genotoxins and genotoxic potentials of environmental samples". ... The umu test, using only a single Salmonella strain, could potentially test a greater range of new chemicals with the same ... A simple colorimetric test is possible by adding a lactose analog which is degraded by β-galactosidase, producing a colored ...
Janke, Alexander T.; Overbeek, Daniel L.; Kocher, Keith E.; Levy, Phillip D. "Exploring the Potential of Predictive Analytics ... There are three fundamental challenges to be addressed: (1) variation in how standards are tested and implemented; (2) ... "IOS Press Ebooks - Exploring Lab Tests Over Utilization Patterns Using Health Analytics Methods". doi:10.3233/978-1-61499-664-4 ... Expansive limits on the collection of data may unnecessarily limit its potential usefulness. In addition to data collection, ...
... showing potential predictive validity. Social anhedonia usually manifests in adolescence, possibly because of a combination of ... Unpublished test Meehl PE (1962). "Schizotaxia, schizotypy, schizophrenia". The American Psychologist. 17 (12): 827-838. doi: ... Socially anhedonic individuals perform worse on a number of neuropsychological tests than non-anhedonic participants, and show ... This dysfunctional stress reactivity may correlate with hedonic capacity, providing a potential explanation for the increased ...
... consensus when testing potential anxiety and OCD medication is to perform a battery of anxiety tests with a high predictive ... The test is also sensitive to antidepressant agents. The test is sensitive to two major classes of drugs the Selective ... If the test measured OCD then benzodiazepines would not affect rodent behavior. The marble burying test measures one acute dose ... Younger mice will bury marbles faster than older mice so the age of the mice being tested must be the same. There are mixed ...
Nine of the 10 tests have 5-minute time limits. The remaining test requires two to ten minutes of testing time. Is a tool for ... Historically, research documenting the low predictive validity and the potential for invasion of privacy based on item content ... Short-term memory tests lack face validity in predicting job performance. Information Processing Tests Selection tests that ... Short-term Memory Tests A form of cognitive ability test that are exemplified by short-term memory tasks such as forward digit ...
For example, one tool is the integrity test, which is a test that attempts to assess whether potential employees will engage in ... Performance on these tests, which includes ability and aptitude tests, can be judged as right or wrong. Ability tests come in ... This research appears to indicate that personality is predictive of both types of performance. A separate study, however, found ... Psychological tests are broadly divided by the British Psychological Society into the following two types. Test of typical ...
... forced swim tests, tail suspension test, and learned helplessness models. Criteria frequently used to assess depression in ... corresponding to a negative predictive value of 98% and a positive predictive value of 32% (positive and negative likelihood ... There are several potential biomarkers, including Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor and various functional MRI techniques. One ... There is no laboratory test for major depression. Testing, however, may be done to rule out physical conditions that can cause ...
A potential new market segment can be developed with this technology. Destructive testing Inspection Maintenance testing ... In field tests, THz-wave radar detected chemicals at the 10-ppm level from 60 meters away. This method can be used in a fence ... Failure analysis Forensic engineering Materials science Predictive maintenance Reliability engineering Stress testing Terahertz ... It was critical to have a method that did not require fluid (water) coupling; i.e.; ultrasonic testing methods require water ...
Discovery of colorectal cancer PIK3CA mutation as potential predictive biomarker: power and promise of molecular pathological ... In this model, diagnostic testing is often employed for selecting appropriate and optimal therapies based on the context of a ... While precision medicine currently individualizes treatment mainly on the basis of genomic tests (e.g. Oncotype DX), several ... "N-of-One: Tailored Clinical Molecular Test Interpretation". n-of-one.com. Blau, CA, Liakopoulou, E (2013). "Can we deconstruct ...
... for testing potential antidepressants activities with a strong predictive validity. Besides, it allows rapid screening of large ... Behavioral despair might be assessed with tests such as the forced-swimming test or the tail suspension test. Changes in ... Open field test, elevated plus maze test, and dark/light box test can work as an antidepressant screen by measuring anxiety- ... Forced-swimming test: The forced-swimming test (FST) is based on the observation that animals develop an immobile posture in an ...
... not on diagnostic or predictive capabilities. The Strength Deployment Inventory, Porter's psychometric test based on ... because people experience these overdone strengths as potential threats to self-worth. He suggested that personal filters ... relationship awareness theory and psychometric tests. His career included military, government, business and clinical settings ... The Person-Relatedness Test measured and validated Erich Fromm's four non-productive orientations. In 1967 he restructured the ...
... showing potential predictive validity.[36][49] Social anhedonia usually manifests in adolescence, possibly because of a ... It is very uncommon that a neurological examination and blood tests can determine the cause of a specific case of sexual ... Unpublished test ... providing a potential explanation for the increased anxiety ... Socially anhedonic individuals perform worse on a number of neuropsychological tests than non-anhedonic participants,[38][39] ...
It is done through tests, which are directly administered and judged by Hiring Managers who will be supervising the potential ... Some correlate better with job performance than with others; employers often use more than one to maximize predictive power. ... Tests must be representative of the tested field, otherwise litigation can be brought against the test-giver. Situational ... Different types of assessments may be used for employment testing, including personality tests, intelligence tests, work ...
DTC tests make the applicability of predictive medicine very real and accessible to consumers. Benefits of DTC testing include ... Preconception testing: Preconception testing is conducted on a person or two potential parents before a child is even conceived ... Myriad Genetics is already generating revenue from genetic tests for BRCA1 and BRCA2. Aside from genetic testing, predictive ... Predictive Risk Testing: Testing that is conducted to determine the probability of developing a specific disease not the ...
Predictive tests[edit]. There have been many assessments of tests aimed at predicting pre-eclampsia, though no single biomarker ... This test has a high negative predictive value among those individuals with a history of prior pre-eclampsia.[15] ... Recent studies have shown that looking for podocytes (specialized cells of the kidney) in the urine has the potential to aid in ... is likely to be sufficiently predictive of the disorder.[10] Predictive tests that have been assessed include those related to ...
... modeling the LDB is best done in a battery of anxiety modeling tests with high predictive validity to determine the potential ... The light-dark box test (LDB) is a popular animal model used in pharmacology to assay unconditioned anxiety responses in ... Bourin, M; Hascoet, M (2003). "The mouse light/dark box test". European Journal of Pharmacology. 463: 55-65. doi:10.1016/s0014- ... When other anti-anxiety drugs such as SSRIs have been tested contradicting observations have been noted questioning its ...
... and post-test probability Precision (statistics) Precision and recall Prediction interval Predictive analytics Predictive ... and two-tailed tests One-class classification One-factor-at-a-time method One-tailed test - redirects to One- and two-tailed ... a potential application of Bayesian analysis Graphical model Graphical models for protein structure GraphPad InStat - software ... Telegraph process Test for structural change Test-retest reliability Test score Test set Test statistic Testimator Testing ...
Predictive and presymptomatic testing: Predictive and presymptomatic types of testing are used to detect gene mutations ... Forensic testing: Forensic testing uses DNA sequences to identify an individual for legal purposes. Unlike the tests described ... The potential negative impact of genetic testing has led to an increasing recognition of a "right not to know".[25] In some ... Gene Testing *^ Holtzman NA, Murphy PD, Watson MS, Barr PA (October 1997). "Predictive genetic testing: from basic research to ...
As part of predictive engineering analytics, modal testing has to evolve, delivering results that increase simulation realism ... Already when evaluating potential architectures, 1D simulation should be combined with models of control software, as the ... During HiL simulation, the engineers verify if regulation, security and failure tests on the final product can happen without ... But that does not at all reduce the importance of physical testing. On the contrary. First of all will final prototype testing ...
There is potential to mix up related target conditions of PPV and NPV, such as interpreting the PPV or NPV of a test as having ... To evaluate diagnostic tests where the gold standard looks only at potential causes of disease, one may use an extension of the ... Suppose the fecal occult blood (FOB) screen test is used in 2030 people to look for bowel cancer: The small positive predictive ... The strength of the FOB screen test is instead in its negative predictive value - which, if negative for an individual, gives ...
1995 Sep-Oct;25(5):32-9 Pregnancy and Prenatal Testing - Lab Tests Online Our Bodies Ourselves chapter on Prenatal Testing and ... The Quad test is therefore said to have a 4% positive predictive value (PPV) because only 4% of women who are told they are " ... Are the risks of prenatal diagnosis, such as amniocentesis worth the potential benefit? Knowing about certain birth defects ... both a First Trimester Combined Test and a Triple/Quad test is performed, and a report is only produced after both tests have ...
Standardized tests (all students take the same test under the same conditions) often use multiple-choice tests for these ... test of knowledge of driving rules is appropriate while a predictively valid test would assess whether the potential driver ... It is well to distinguish between "subject-matter" validity and "predictive" validity. The former, used widely in education, ... High-stakes tests have been blamed for causing sickness and test anxiety in students and teachers, and for teachers choosing to ...
genetic testing for the major AD genetic risk factor, APOE ε4, the gene for a form of apolipoprotein E, and other studies ... ADNI contributes data to a number of consortia and big data projects which have the potential to unlock many of the mysteries ... Studies using ADNI data have helped refine these tests to be more sensitive to very early changes in cognition. ADNI is working ... 1 for the discovery of novel predictive AD biomarkers. One measure of the success of this open data sharing approach is the ...
... are highly sensitive tests that can identify specific pathogens present. Serology testing for antibodies is not as useful since ... Upon gynecologic ultrasound, a potential finding is tubo-ovarian complex, which is edematous and dilated pelvic structures as ... Laparoscopic identification is helpful in diagnosing tubal disease; a 65 percent to 90 percent positive predictive value exists ... Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs), direct fluorescein tests (DFA), and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) ...
Outlook and currently unused potential[edit]. It is estimated that the total amount of data that is stored on the world's ... EBU subjective listening tests on low-bitrate audio codecs. *Audio Archiving Guide: Music Formats (Guide for helping a user ... Other types of lossy compressors, such as the linear predictive coding (LPC) used with speech, are source-based coders. These ... HD Greetings - 1080p Uncompressed source material for compression testing and research. *Explanation of lossless signal ...
Lab Testing. The decision to test via Rapid screening with throat swab should be individualized by patient. Rapid strep tests ... Patients with 2 points have a positive predictive value of about 50%. The chance of strep in a patient scoring 1, 0 or -1 is ... It is important to note that the great majority of pharyngitis is viral in origin, however given the potential complications of ... Parents of patients may request strep testing specifically. In patients with positive rapid antigen testing, the benefit is ...
This review provides preliminary support that dynamic tests can provide a valuable addition to conventional tests to assess ... Dynamic testing of learning potential in adults with cognitive impairments: A systematic review of methodology and predictive ... Dynamic testing of learning potential in adults with cognitive impairments: A systematic review of methodology and predictive ... Learning potential was quantified using numerical (post-test score, difference score, gain score, regression residuals) and ...
... week announced results from an analysis of three multicenter clinical research trials that indicate its BGM Galectin-3 test is ... predictive of rehospitalization for heart failure within the first 30 days following discharge from an initial hospital stay. ... BabySeq Carrier Results Go Beyond Commercial Carrier Tests, Inform Parents Reproductive Plans ... Analysis Indicates BG Medicines Galectin-3 Test is Predictive of Hospital Readmissions. Mar 28, 2014 ...
13:30 Multi-Organ on a chip technologies; potential impact on predictive substance testing. ... The group develops and tests enabling technologies and methods to facilitate manufacturing of cell therapies (allogeneic and ... 14:10 Organ printing and the potential of guided angiogenesis. William Whitford, Strategic Solutions Leader, GE Healthcare. ... 3D Cell Culture 2017 will address the latest developments of 3D cell culture techniques; the ways in which predictive 3D models ...
The aim of the current study was to investigate to what extent childrens potential for learning is related to their level of ... To inspect the relationship between cognitive flexibility and childrens dynamic test performance, we analysed the predictive ... Although the literature supports the assessment of flexibility through card sorting tests and verbal fluency tests (e.g. ... For examining dynamic test scores at the group level, pre-test and post-test accuracy scores were used. In addition, the number ...
Modified nucleosides were recently presented as potential tumor markers for breast cancer. The patterns of the levels of ... LVQ, SVM and BP networks were trained and the performance was evaluated by the classification of the test sets into the ... Predictive Value of Tests * Sensitivity and Specificity Substances * Biomarkers, Tumor * Nucleosides ... Urinary nucleosides as potential tumor markers evaluated by learning vector quantization Artif Intell Med. 2003 Jul;28(3):265- ...
A Test Case in Big Data. Large data collections hold tremendous potential for marketers when combined with other data, such as ... Marketing-specific applications for big data include improved prospect identification, simultaneous ad campaign tests, and ... Examining Big Datas Potential In Predictive Marketing. Posted by David Rathert August 21, 2013 ... Examining Big Datas Potential In Predictive Marketing. Big DataBusiness IntelligenceData ManagementData MiningITMarketing. ...
You can with predictive modeling. See how you can use predictive modeling -- the Holy Grail of direct marketing -- to wrestle ... Using A/B tests. The common reaction to an A/B test where A outperforms B is to throw away B and always use A. But there are ... So, you think youre ready to dive into predictive modeling. You see the benefits; you understand its potential value relative ... They wanted to test it before spending thousands on postage and paper. So, they ran a simple test: Once all the data was ...
Predictive Genetic Testing , Predictive genetic testing is a trending scientific advancement that could assist coaches and ... consumer direct genetic testing, but is their information credible and are there any risks associated with genetic testing? We ... 1 There are many different (sport) genetic testing companies now popping up in the marketplace who offer easily accessible, ... Potential Risks of Genetic Tests. To date, some potential risks with predictive genetic testing have been identified, and we ...
Dipyridamole thallium-201 scintigraphy as a preoperative screening test. A reexamination of its predictive potential. Study of ... Pulmonary function tests and spirometry help in diagnosing obstructive lung diseases. However, these tests are not predictive ... Pregnancy Testing. The ASA published recommendations in 2016 regarding recommendations for pre-operative pregnancy testing. The ... Cardiology referral and management of pharmacologic stress testing is appropriate if the results of testing will impact the ...
Keywords: Evoked potentials, visual; Visual acuity; Vision tests/standards; Predictive value of tests; Reference values ... Test-retest reliability of swept visual evoked potential measurements of infant visual acuity and contrast sensitivity. Pediatr ... The test was performed in a dark room so that the primary cues for accommodation were provided by the display. ... Sweep-VEP tests, including set-up and rest breaks, typically lasted 10 to 20 minutes, depending on the subjects age and ...
As a test of predictive performance the chi-squared test of independence will, in general, be more conservative than the ... suggested test of predictive failure. The paper also contains two applications: A dichotomous version of the test is applied to ... The test applies to a general m x n contingency table and it is shown that the standard null hypothesis of independence in a ... contingency table implies the null hypothesis of the proposed test of predictive failure but not vice versa. ...
The clinical predictive value (or lack thereof) of the results of in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility tests. J Clin Microbiol ... the full potential of kinetic measurements in predictive AST determination is likely underexplored. Lastly, newer techniques ... The Poisoned Well: Enhancing the Predictive Value of Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing in the Era of Multidrug Resistance. ... The Poisoned Well: Enhancing the Predictive Value of Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing in the Era of Multidrug Resistance ...
Predictive Genetic Testing and Consumer/Wellness Genomics Market Over centauries human DNA has undergone tremendous alteration ... Unlike conventional diagnostic testing, predictive genetic testing identifies the risk associated with potential conditions. In ... These tests are particularly beneficial for people from a family with a history of genetic disorder, although they themselves ... Global Predictive Genetic Testing and Consumer/Wellness Genomics Market: Overview. Predictive genetic testing are used to ...
... was entered into the logistic regression to determine predictive value of tests and combined risk factors. For all tests, a p ... Potential bias existed as all players at each club were not assessed. Attempts were made to test all available players on the ... The predictive validity of a single leg bridge test for hamstring injuries in Australian Rules Football Players ... The predictive validity of a single leg bridge test for hamstring injuries in Australian Rules Football Players ...
Basal prolactin levels and stimulation tests were of no additional predictive value. Each mother, regardless of milk production ... Mothers reached their maximum potential for milk production in varying periods of time (eight to 58 days). Shorter postpartum ... Genetic Testing Registry. *Influenza Virus. *Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM). *PubMed ...
To identify potential predictive biomarkers beyond the genomic alteration by which treatment is assigned or resistance ... paired t-tests for normally distributed biomarker values or McNemar tests for paired binary data). It will also be assessed ... Women of childbearing potential must have a negative serum pregnancy test within 2 weeks prior to registration; patients that ... Potential predictive biomarkers beyond the genomic alteration [ Time Frame: Baseline ]. Biomarkers measured prior to treatment ...
... and Preclinical Testing of Potential Treatment Agents for Drug Addiction (R01) RFA-DA-07-006. NIDA ... These models should be predictive of therapeutic targets. Investigators are not bound to conventional profiling techniques and ... in vitro and in vivo screening assays and preclinical tests for pharmacological and behavioral profiling of the compounds. ... Title: Design, Synthesis, and Preclinical Testing of Potential Treatment Agents for Drug Addiction (R01) Announcement Type This ...
However, conventional alternative food allergy tests lack a sufficient predictive value. Therefore, there is a critical need ... Basophils represent potential effector and immunoregulatory cells, as well as a potential source of IL-4, during the immune ... Testing the toxin hypothesis of allergy: mast cells, IgE, and innate and acquired immune responses to venoms CURRENT OPINION ... Mast cells: potential positive and negative roles in tumor biology. Cancer immunology research Marichal, T., Tsai, M., Galli, S ...
All test takers, including individuals with disabilities, deserve high quality tests that deliver meaningful scores. This is ... examine the comparability and predictive validity of admissions tests. *explore new and emerging technologies that have the ... potential to improve access to technology-based assessments for individuals with disabilities ... develop alternative testing formats such as computer-voiced test versions - like one already available for the GRE® test - for ...
Great AF test! I also did a similar tests with my older D200 using my 4 year old son as a subject, but his running is a little ... Interesting test. I see two potential problems that havent been mentioned.. If I understand you right, you have compared the ... Tagged with: auto focus D4 D600 D800 equipment review nikon Predictive Auto Focus Predictive Focus Tracking speeding pooch test ... Thanks so much for your most useful real-world test. I cant imagine a better test for the predictive autofocus. I think there ...
We used Fishers exact test for comparison of binary variables and Wilcoxons rank sum test and two-sample -tests for ... A Predictive Model for Prescription of the Two Kampo Formulas by Specialists. 2.4.1. Selection of Potential Predictor Variables ... We developed the full model using these nine potential predictive variables. The AIC for the full model was 127.9, and the AUC ... The model that contained all the potential predictive variables was considered the full model. To measure the effect size of ...
The univariate Cox proportional hazards model was used to determine potential prognostic variables predictive for OS. Variables ... and Fishers exact test for categorical variables (all other variables). Fishers exact tests were used to compare response ... Baseline characteristics were compared between groups using a pooled t-test for continuous variables (that is, age, time since ... Survival curves were compared using log-rank test stratified by study (P,0.001). ...
  • Some sources state that patients with very high Centor Score should be given antibiotics without testing, however this decision is clinician dependent and should take into account the whole clinical picture. (physicianassistantboards.com)
  • More research is warranted to further evaluate and refine dynamic testing methodology and to further elucidate its predictive validity concerning rehabilitation outcomes relative to other cognitive and functional status indices. (uu.nl)
  • Predictive and external validity were evaluated within an independent external sample (n = 500). (chiro.org)
  • The National Institutes of Health -Department of Education-Department of Energy (NIH-DOE) Task Force on Genetic Testing stated in 1998 that any proposed initiation of population-based genetic screening requires careful attention to the parameters of both analytical and clinical validity. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The detailed comparison of two vertebrate systems, fish and rodent, may give more predictive value for efficacy of drugs in humans. (asm.org)
  • 3D Cell Culture 2017 will bring together leading professionals and researchers in the industry to discuss the latest developments and future potential of this technique. (smi-online.co.uk)
  • In meeting this objective, this Skin Notation Profile intends to inform the audience--mostly occupational health practitioners, researchers, policy- and decision-makers, employers, and workers in potential y hazardous workplaces--so that improved risk-manage- ment practices may be developed to better protect workers from the risks of skin contact with the chemicals of interest. (cdc.gov)
  • This review provides preliminary support that dynamic tests can provide a valuable addition to conventional tests to assess patients' abilities. (uu.nl)
  • If a teacher or other educational professional has a question about a child's cognitive functioning, for instance in cases where a child cannot cope with every day classroom situations, a school or educational psychologist often administers a conventional, static test, for example, an intelligence or school achievement test. (springer.com)
  • However, conventional alternative food allergy tests lack a sufficient predictive value. (stanford.edu)
  • 10 . The method of claim 8 in which the predictive model predicts behavior of a prospective or current customer with respect to purchase of a product or service of a vendor. (google.com)
  • 12 . The method of claim 8 in which the predictive model predicts behavior of a current customer with respect to risk of asserting claims, loan payment or prepayment to a vendor. (google.com)
  • The purpose of this document is to suggest to the device manufacturer or investigation sponsor important preclinical and clinical tests that should be performed to generate data that will provide reasonable assurance of the safety and effectiveness of these devices for their intended purposes. (fda.gov)
  • It is common practice to estimate potential market size by taking recent industry volume as the first approximation to the measure of expected market size. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In the absence of industry sales figures, and in order to avoid the expense of direct data collection, corollary or proxy data may be used to estimate market potentials. (encyclopedia.com)
  • absolute difference between estimate and true predictive value). (bmj.com)
  • We estimate that introducing sFlt-1/PlGF ratio or PlGF test for women with suspected preeclampsia will lead to a direct budget impact of approximately 12.4 million Norwegia kroner annually. (fhi.no)
  • This fact may be underappreciated by clinicians and laboratorians and is not obvious in the absence of repeated testing, which is not generally performed in a clinical setting. (asm.org)
  • Does exposure to simulated patient cases improve accuracy of clinicians' predictive value estimates of diagnostic test results? (bmj.com)
  • The data being presented by our academic collaborators at ACR show that the Vectra test accurately measures inflammation and can help predict patients' risk of adverse health outcomes, enabling clinicians to tailor precision treatment plans to achieve better outcomes. (globalbankingandfinance.com)
  • [ 6 ] One meta-analysis concluded that for screening, if the duration of test is not a major consideration, then the MMSE is the best choice for primary care clinicians who want both a rule-in and rule-out tool. (medscape.com)
  • As a result, we present an improved zebrafish larva drug-screening platform which offers new insights into drug efficacy and identifies potential false negatives and drugs that are effective in zebrafish and rodents. (asm.org)
  • The lowest PPD predictive values will occur in persons without known tuberculosis exposure who were vaccinated recently or many times with intradermal BCG. (annals.org)
  • Gradient's predictive toxicology services include the use of iterative read-across strategies, evaluation and interpretation of available in vitro toxicity data, application of in silico computational toxicology programs ( e.g . expert rule based programs, and quantitative structure activity relationship programs [QSAR]), and pathway-based toxicology for predicting unknown chemical toxicity. (gradientcorp.com)
  • These outcomes suggest that dynamic testing, and more in particular, the graduated prompting procedure, supports children's cognitive flexibility, thereby giving children with weaker flexibility the opportunity to show more of their cognitive potential as measured through inductive reasoning. (springer.com)
  • PlGF tests may reduce the time to a preeclampsia diagnosis and may reduce the risk of severe maternal adverse outcomes e.g. cerebral haemorrhage. (fhi.no)
  • We are unable to conclude whether sFlt-1/PlGF or PlGF testing improve neonatal outcomes or not. (fhi.no)
  • Potential health care savings due to earlier diagnosis and reduction in maternal adverse outcomes remain to be explored. (fhi.no)
  • See how you can use predictive modeling -- the Holy Grail of direct marketing -- to wrestle with and segment mounds of customer data. (marketingsherpa.com)
  • The paper also contains two applications: A dichotomous version of the test is applied to the CBI's Industrial Trends Surveys of actual and expected price changes in the manufacturing sector, and a trichotomous version of the test is applied to the demand data from business surveys of French manufacturing industry conducted by INSEE. (repec.org)
  • Marketing-specific applications for big data include improved prospect identification, simultaneous ad campaign tests, and highly personalized message creation. (smartdatacollective.com)
  • Large data collections hold tremendous potential for marketers when combined with other data, such as internal customer information. (smartdatacollective.com)
  • Researchers in Pittsburgh, working iosurveillance is the automated monitoring of infor- in an integrated delivery network that used a single data mation sources of potential value in detecting an dictionary to minimize the difficulty of reconciling dis- emerging epidemic, whether naturally occurring or the parate coding systems, found this approach effective for result of bioterrorism. (cdc.gov)
  • For example, in connection with a project in which a user generates a predictive model based on historical data about a system being modeled, the user is provided through a graphical user interface a structured. (google.com)
  • For example, in connection with a project in which a user generates a predictive model based on historical data about a system being modeled, the user is provided through a graphical user interface a structured sequence of model generation activities to be followed, the sequence including dimension reduction, model generation, model process validation, and model re-generation. (google.com)
  • In connection with a project in which a user generates a predictive model based on historical data about a system being modeled, and in which the project includes a series of user choice points and actions or parameter settings that govern the generation of the model based on rules, which direct the user to select and apply an optimal model. (google.com)
  • We collected clinical data from 128 dysmenorrhea patients, compared the two patient groups and selected significantly different factors as potential predictors, and used logistic regression to establish a model. (hindawi.com)
  • In estimating market potentials it is important to choose the relevant definition, but this choice is often influenced by the data available. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Data on complementary goods, for example, can serve this purpose-the market potential of automobile batteries for replacement can be estimated from data on the distribution of cars, sales of electrical appliances will be related to and limited by the number and location of wired homes. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Yet explaining "predictive" data in a 10- to 15-minute office visit will divert attention from more important topics. (latimes.com)
  • Based on these new data, the company is working to enhance the Vectra test report to provide patients with their "individual risk" of radiographic progression in one year. (globalbankingandfinance.com)
  • However, critics argue that most of these static instruments predominantly measure the effects of past learning experiences and do not result in sufficient information about underlying cognitive processes and strategies in relation to children's (potential for) learning, or instructional needs in order to provide in-depth input for educational interventions (e.g. (springer.com)
  • Annie and I held a meeting after the shoot and decided even though Bill was throwing like a girl we were able to pull off a sufficient test. (naturalexposures.com)
  • Clinical AST methods that are currently in use are too time-consuming to allow routine repeat testing of isolates, but if new automated methods sufficiently increase the speed and efficiency of AST, such replicate testing may become practical and may be applied in a targeted fashion to isolates and antimicrobials which, based on underlying resistance patterns, may be at increased risk for variable AST results. (asm.org)
  • 7 . The method of claim 1 also including enabling the user to replicate information about the predictive model as it existed as of the making of any one of the choices. (google.com)
  • Laboratory test orders and results were aggregated and mapped to a common nomenclature. (cdc.gov)
  • Laboratory workers can be exposed to numerous potential hazards including chemical, biological, physical, and radioactive. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The test is a mass spec-based laboratory-developed test, Proteomics International said, adding it anticipates another licensing deal for the test with a certified lab in coming weeks. (genomeweb.com)
  • To determine age norms for grating visual acuity and interocular acuity differences measured by the sweep-visually evoked potentials (VEP) technique in the first three years of life. (scielo.br)
  • Pattern-reversal visually evoked potentials (VEP) can also be used to determine grating acuity thresholds. (scielo.br)
  • The tests are open ended, time bound, business related questions which applicants need to submit their responses for in order to prove their abilities. (wikipedia.org)
  • For this reason, the skin is often exposed to potential y hazardous agents, including chemicals, which may contribute to the onset of a spectrum of adverse health effects ranging from localized damage (such as irritant contact der- matitis and corrosion) to induction of immune-mediated responses (such as allergic contact dermatitis and pulmonary responses) or systemic toxicity (such as neurotoxicity and hepatotox- icity). (cdc.gov)
  • Regulatory bodies across the globe are calling for reduced animal testing and use of emerging alternative technologies while simultaneously requiring greater substance toxicity evaluation and characterization than ever before. (gradientcorp.com)
  • Predictive toxicology describes a multidisciplinary approach to chemical toxicity evaluation that uses a suite of non-animal testing methods to forecast the effects of a chemical on biological systems. (gradientcorp.com)
  • BG Medicine this week announced results from an analysis of three multicenter clinical research trials that indicate its BGM Galectin-3 test is predictive of rehospitalization for heart failure within the first 30 days following discharge from an initial hospital stay. (genomeweb.com)
  • Single delay the communication of confirmatory test results and jurisdiction systems using this approach have been devel- notification of the appropriate public health organization oped in Hawaii and Indianapolis (9,10). (cdc.gov)
  • Results were independent of available potential confounders. (aappublications.org)
  • If results similar to our own can be obtained by all diagnostic laboratories, REFtb would allow proper treatment of more than 85% of patients that would be missed during their initial visit to a clinic using current diagnostic strategies, reducing the potential for further spread of disease. (asm.org)
  • The gold standard tests, culture and smear microscopy, are lab based and usually require multiple visits to the clinic before conclusive diagnosis ( 12 - 15 ), often taking weeks to months before results are obtained and frequently becoming contaminated, preventing definitive results ( 16 - 19 ). (asm.org)
  • False positive results and the attendant emotional distress represent a potential complication. (medscape.com)
  • The results of the tests could shed light on numerous aspects of the. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The results were published in the scientific journal 'Nature Climate Change', and reveal that these models display extensive deficits in their illustration of the industrial system, which could result in faulty estimates of the societal advantages and potential environmental impacts of new climate policies and technologies. (azocleantech.com)
  • Positive results from predictive tests (GPMTs and LLNAs) [Tang et al. (cdc.gov)
  • At antenatal consultation, all pregnant women have their blood pressure assessed and urine tested by a midwife or a general practitioner. (fhi.no)
  • Previous research on dynamic testing has identified different measures of potential for learning, including the amount and the type of feedback received during training, performance after training, the change in performance from the pre-training to post-training stage, and the transfer of learned skills (e.g. (springer.com)
  • Watch Cara Laitusis, Senior Research Scientist at ETS, talk about our research on testing individuals with disabilities (3:27). (ets.org)
  • This Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) issued by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), National Institutes of Health, solicits research applications from institutions/organizations that propose design, synthesis, and preclinical testing of potential treatment agents for drug addiction and/or relapse prevention. (nih.gov)
  • The purpose of this RFA is to stimulate research for the design, synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of new classes of compounds as potential treatment agents for cocaine, methamphetamine or cannabinoid addiction based on novel pharmacological interventions and molecular targets other than biogenic amine transporters. (nih.gov)
  • The discovery of the HD gene in 1993 (Huntington's Disease Collaborative Research Group) made testing more accurate, less expensive, faster, and possible for every person at risk for HD. (encyclopedia.com)
  • He represents many international research organizations as member including M.S.E.R.A & A.E.R.A, U.S.A. He has also worked extensively for National Testing Service, NTS and Higher Education Commission, HEC, as a trainer. (scribd.com)
  • And even if a potential candidate does not thoroughly research the company, they may have heard about it through a variety of other means. (ddiworld.com)
  • MDNA Life Sciences has launched the Mitomic Prostate Test Real-Time PCR Kit for research use only in Europe. (genomeweb.com)
  • Among the research topics she has covered are studies on compounds of potential pharmaceutical interest from ibuprofen and 2-naphthyl acetic acid. (bccresearch.com)
  • Testing hamstring strength with the hip and knee at functional angles and assessing endurance parameters may be more relevant for examining the risk of hamstring injury. (bmj.com)
  • We have developed a new evaluation method for the potential functionome, based on the completion ratio of Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) functional modules. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Thus, it is difficult to differentiate the functional potentials between different genomes and metagenomes by analysis based on COG classification. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Such tests are also proposed as a means of identifying women at low risk so that a) unnecessary admissions can be avoided, and b) they can return home reassured. (fhi.no)
  • sFlt-1/PlGF ratio tests were associated with little or no differences in hospital admissions within the first week after the test, and for the remainder of the pregnancy. (fhi.no)
  • Sera were tested prospectively for IgA and IgG AGA by enzymed-linked immunosorbent assay and IgA EMA by immunofluorescence techniques on monkey esophagus and human umbilical cord sections in 95 pediatric patients referred for duodenal biopsies. (aappublications.org)
  • 4 For example, scientists have previously identified genes that are associated with improved athletic performance to later discover that the same gene has an increased risk for Alzheimer's disease which may affect the athlete who was tested. (coach.ca)
  • This new class of medical tests are aimed at reducing the risk of morbidity and mortality amongst consumers. (medgadget.com)
  • Not only did the markers provide a possible clue for finding the HD gene and understanding the mechanism by which the gene causes brain cells to die, this discovery meant that predictive testing for some individuals at risk for HD was possible through the use of a technique called linkage. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Linkage testing requires the collection and analysis of blood samples from affected and elderly unaffected relatives of the at-risk individual who asks for testing to trace the pattern of inheritance of the HD gene in a specific family. (encyclopedia.com)
  • It's great to have a public debate about the ethics of preventive detention (for psychiatric patients and other potential risk groups, perhaps). (badscience.net)
  • In coordination with the Humane Society of the United States (HSUS), Gradient provided written comments to US EPA regarding the draft chemical prioritization and risk evaluation rules, including the use of alternatives to animal testing for chemical hazard evaluation. (gradientcorp.com)
  • This study evaluated the ability of the Vectra test to predict patients' "individual percentage risk" of RP within one year. (globalbankingandfinance.com)
  • Blood test-based tests may possibly predict a pregnant woman's risk of developing preeclampsia. (fhi.no)
  • The tests evaluated may aid to predict the risk of developing preeclampsia. (fhi.no)
  • Thus, this form of testing is expected to allow consumers to take up wellness measurements well in time to lead a life of normalcy, characterized by good health. (medgadget.com)
  • Predictive ability of decrease in bone mass was roughly similar to (or, for hip or spine measurements, better than) that of a 1 SD increase in blood pressure for stroke and better than a 1 SD increase in serum cholesterol concentration for cardiovascular disease. (bmj.com)
  • Learning potential was quantified using numerical (post-test score, difference score, gain score, regression residuals) and categorical (groups) indices. (uu.nl)
  • Computational techniques, including predictive algorithms and mathematical models that describe a selected process (such as skin permeation) by means of analytical or numerical methods. (cdc.gov)
  • Information about each test was presented once in the numerical format and once in the experience format. (bmj.com)
  • The study followed a pre-test-training-post-test control group design. (springer.com)
  • The Interlaboratory Study of Novel Flame Retardants (INTERFLAB 2) was conducted by 20 laboratories in 12 countries to test the precision and accuracy of the analysis of 24 "novel" flame retardants (NF. (bioportfolio.com)