Maximal Expiratory Flow-Volume Curves: Curves depicting MAXIMAL EXPIRATORY FLOW RATE, in liters/second, versus lung inflation, in liters or percentage of lung capacity, during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviation is MEFV.Maximal Expiratory Flow Rate: The airflow rate measured during the first liter expired after the first 200 ml have been exhausted during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviations are MEFR, FEF 200-1200, and FEF 0.2-1.2.Lung Volume Measurements: Measurement of the amount of air that the lungs may contain at various points in the respiratory cycle.Forced Expiratory Flow Rates: The rate of airflow measured during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination.Peak Expiratory Flow Rate: Measurement of the maximum rate of airflow attained during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviations are PEFR and PFR.Respiratory Function Tests: Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.Residual Volume: The volume of air remaining in the LUNGS at the end of a maximal expiration. Common abbreviation is RV.Vital Capacity: The volume of air that is exhaled by a maximal expiration following a maximal inspiration.Forced Expiratory Volume: Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.Airway Obstruction: Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the lungs.Total Lung Capacity: The volume of air contained in the lungs at the end of a maximal inspiration. It is the equivalent to each of the following sums: VITAL CAPACITY plus RESIDUAL VOLUME; INSPIRATORY CAPACITY plus FUNCTIONAL RESIDUAL CAPACITY; TIDAL VOLUME plus INSPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME plus functional residual capacity; or tidal volume plus inspiratory reserve volume plus EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME plus residual volume.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Airway Resistance: Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.Spirometry: Measurement of volume of air inhaled or exhaled by the lung.Pulmonary Ventilation: The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration: An office in the Department of Labor responsible for developing and establishing occupational safety and health standards.National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (U.S.): An institute of the CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION which is responsible for assuring safe and healthful working conditions and for developing standards of safety and health. Research activities are carried out pertinent to these goals.United States Department of Veterans Affairs: A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with overall planning, promoting, and administering programs pertaining to VETERANS. It was established March 15, 1989 as a Cabinet-level position.Veterans Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of VETERANS.Hospitals, Veterans: Hospitals providing medical care to veterans of wars.Occupational Health: The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.Veterans: Former members of the armed services.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Airway Remodeling: The structural changes in the number, mass, size and/or composition of the airway tissues.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Body Height: The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.Thorax: The upper part of the trunk between the NECK and the ABDOMEN. It contains the chief organs of the circulatory and respiratory systems. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Myotonic Dystrophy: Neuromuscular disorder characterized by PROGRESSIVE MUSCULAR ATROPHY; MYOTONIA, and various multisystem atrophies. Mild INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY may also occur. Abnormal TRINUCLEOTIDE REPEAT EXPANSION in the 3' UNTRANSLATED REGIONS of DMPK PROTEIN gene is associated with Myotonic Dystrophy 1. DNA REPEAT EXPANSION of zinc finger protein-9 gene intron is associated with Myotonic Dystrophy 2.Muscle Weakness: A vague complaint of debility, fatigue, or exhaustion attributable to weakness of various muscles. The weakness can be characterized as subacute or chronic, often progressive, and is a manifestation of many muscle and neuromuscular diseases. (From Wyngaarden et al., Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p2251)Corneal Dystrophies, Hereditary: Bilateral hereditary disorders of the cornea, usually autosomal dominant, which may be present at birth but more frequently develop during adolescence and progress slowly throughout life. Central macular dystrophy is transmitted as an autosomal recessive defect.Muscular Dystrophies: A heterogeneous group of inherited MYOPATHIES, characterized by wasting and weakness of the SKELETAL MUSCLE. They are categorized by the sites of MUSCLE WEAKNESS; AGE OF ONSET; and INHERITANCE PATTERNS.Myotonic Disorders: Diseases characterized by MYOTONIA, which may be inherited or acquired. Myotonia may be restricted to certain muscles (e.g., intrinsic hand muscles) or occur as a generalized condition.Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne: An X-linked recessive muscle disease caused by an inability to synthesize DYSTROPHIN, which is involved with maintaining the integrity of the sarcolemma. Muscle fibers undergo a process that features degeneration and regeneration. Clinical manifestations include proximal weakness in the first few years of life, pseudohypertrophy, cardiomyopathy (see MYOCARDIAL DISEASES), and an increased incidence of impaired mentation. Becker muscular dystrophy is a closely related condition featuring a later onset of disease (usually adolescence) and a slowly progressive course. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1415)Bronchitis: Inflammation of the large airways in the lung including any part of the BRONCHI, from the PRIMARY BRONCHI to the TERTIARY BRONCHI.Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive: A disease of chronic diffuse irreversible airflow obstruction. Subcategories of COPD include CHRONIC BRONCHITIS and PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA.Lung Diseases, Obstructive: Any disorder marked by obstruction of conducting airways of the lung. AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION may be acute, chronic, intermittent, or persistent.Pulmonary Emphysema: Enlargement of air spaces distal to the TERMINAL BRONCHIOLES where gas-exchange normally takes place. This is usually due to destruction of the alveolar wall. Pulmonary emphysema can be classified by the location and distribution of the lesions.Sleep Apnea Syndromes: Disorders characterized by multiple cessations of respirations during sleep that induce partial arousals and interfere with the maintenance of sleep. Sleep apnea syndromes are divided into central (see SLEEP APNEA, CENTRAL), obstructive (see SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE), and mixed central-obstructive types.Polysomnography: Simultaneous and continuous monitoring of several parameters during sleep to study normal and abnormal sleep. The study includes monitoring of brain waves, to assess sleep stages, and other physiological variables such as breathing, eye movements, and blood oxygen levels which exhibit a disrupted pattern with sleep disturbances.Sleep Apnea, Obstructive: A disorder characterized by recurrent apneas during sleep despite persistent respiratory efforts. It is due to upper airway obstruction. The respiratory pauses may induce HYPERCAPNIA or HYPOXIA. Cardiac arrhythmias and elevation of systemic and pulmonary arterial pressures may occur. Frequent partial arousals occur throughout sleep, resulting in relative SLEEP DEPRIVATION and daytime tiredness. Associated conditions include OBESITY; ACROMEGALY; MYXEDEMA; micrognathia; MYOTONIC DYSTROPHY; adenotonsilar dystrophy; and NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p395)Snoring: Rough, noisy breathing during sleep, due to vibration of the uvula and soft palate.Sleep: A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility.Breath Tests: Any tests done on exhaled air.Monitoring, Ambulatory: The use of electronic equipment to observe or record physiologic processes while the patient undergoes normal daily activities.Infant Formula: Liquid formulations for the nutrition of infants that can substitute for BREAST MILK.Infant Food: Food processed and manufactured for the nutritional health of children in their first year of life.Dietary Proteins: Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Caseins: A mixture of related phosphoproteins occurring in milk and cheese. The group is characterized as one of the most nutritive milk proteins, containing all of the common amino acids and rich in the essential ones.Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children from birth to 2 years of age.Milk, Human
  • PEFR is the maximal flow (or speed) achieved during the maximally forced exhalation initiated at full inhalation, measured in liters per minute. (justia.com)
  • The relaxation curve of the chest wall is passed through the elastic recoil pressure of the chest at end exhalation, and the distance between the beginning of the pressure-volume loop (arrow) and the relaxation curve represents intrinsic PEEP. (fitness-vip.com)
  • The slow VC test, to discover air trapping and thus not underestimate obstruction, should always precede the forced vital capacity (FVC) test as bronchospasm (a sudden constriction of the muscles in the walls of the bronchioles) may be induced in susceptible subjects during the forced test. (personneltoday.com)
  • No significant relationships were observed between AC and spirometric parameters such as % predicted forced vital capacity (FVC), % predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV 1 ) and FEV 1 /FVC. (medsci.org)
  • Plasma adiponectin levels were inversely correlated with forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV 1 ) per forced vital capacity in both men and women. (medsci.org)
  • The absence of depression of terminal flow rates or measurable adverse changes in other standard small airways tests suggests that chronic consumer use of this hair spray does not lead to demonstrable functional respiratory impairment in this group of originally healthy individuals. (springer.com)
  • The six minute walk test (6MWT) has been used to evaluate the functional capacity of these patients, since it can be performed by severely limited individuals, and those who do not tolerate other functional capacity evaluation tests . (scirp.org)
  • The purpose of this article is to illustrate pathologic conditions, namely obliterative bronchiolitis, in which expiratory CT scan can be abnormal despite normal inspiratory CT examination, and to highlight indications for this technique in patients with clinical and functional suspect of bronchiolar obstruction. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Furthermore, we have highlighted the indications for expiratory CT scan in patients with clinical and functional suspect of bronchiolar obstruction. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Anthropometric data were collected, and functional variables were assessed before and after the maximal stress test. (jornaldepneumologia.com.br)
  • the aver- age flow from the point at which 25 percent of the FVC has been exhaled to the Lung Volumes and Capacities point at which 75 percent of the FVC has been exhaled. (pdfmedarticles.com)
  • These data were used to derive improved prediction equations for each sex by age group for 5 spirometric and flow-volume variables. (nih.gov)
  • Although there were significant (P = 0.05) rises in FVC, PEFR, FEF 25% and FEF 75% after 1 year, other changes suggestive of bronchodilatation on acute testing did not persist. (springer.com)
  • All subjects were induced to acute hypoxia and were submitted to maximal stress testing. (jornaldepneumologia.com.br)
  • Diagnosis of recurrent rupture of interventricular septum during acute myocardial infarction by Doppler color flow mapping. (courtfield.ml)
  • The goodness-of-fit and the values of derived parameters (upper asymptote, maximum compliance and points of maximum curvature) in four sigmoid models were compared, using pressure-volume data from 30 mechanically ventilated patients during the early phase of acute lung injury. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The pressure-volume curves have been widely studied in acute lung injury and the acute respiratory distress syndrome [ 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The objective of this study was to assess the goodness of fit of four previously published sigmoid models of pressure-volume curve using data from patients with acute lung injury, and to compare the values of the calculated parameters. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To test the hypothesis that in early, mild, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patients with diffuse loss of aeration, the application of the open lung approach (OLA) would improve homogeneity in lung aeration and lung mechanics, without affecting hemodynamics. (asahq.org)
  • Bronchial spasm (paroxysmal and steady) - Expiratory dyspnoe, dry cough, dry rales. (hubpages.com)
  • Bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) and full and partial flow-volume loops were measured before and after ascent to 5000 m altitude to determine if there are changes in resting bronchial tone and BHR that might explain the symptoms. (ox.ac.uk)
  • These results are consistent with the notion that airway responsiveness is influenced by airway-parenchymal interdependence and indicate that the results of bronchial provocation testing in the supine posture cannot be directly compared with those in the upright posture. (nih.gov)
  • A new method for bronchial-provocation testing in asthmatic subjects using a dry powder of mannitol. (springer.com)
  • ERS technical standard on bronchial challenge testing: general considerations and performance of methacholine challenge tests. (springer.com)
  • In vitro potency, maximal efficacy, rate of recovery from maximal block of ENaC, and rate of drug absorption were compared for amiloride, benzamil, and phenamil in cultured human and ovine bronchial epithelial cells. (aspetjournals.org)
  • METHODS: BHR to histamine was measured using a turbine spirometer to record partial and full flow-volume curves and expressed as log dose slopes. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The main advantage of the FOT is the simplicity of the test administration, which requires little cooperation from the patient and involves the production of parameters describing the resistive and reactive properties of the respiratory system that are complementary to traditional pulmonary assessment methods [ 3 - 5 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Manual methods are based on the visual identification of three linear zones of the curve, defining the points as the intersections between these three lines, the maximal compliance as the slope of the medial section and total lung capacity as the maximum value reached. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The work per breath is represented by the cross-hatched area subtended by the inspiratory part of the pressure-volume loop on the left and the relaxation curve of the chest wall on the right. (fitness-vip.com)
  • There are a number of different ACT's such as the active cycle of breathing technique, high-frequency chest wall oscillations, positive expiratory pressure (PEP) and oscillatory PEP. (springer.com)
  • Since only a limited panel of CF mutations is routinely tested, the absence of CF mutations does not exclude the diagnosis of CF. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • In France a diagnosis of EIA by a physician is required, yet β 2 agonists are the drugs most commonly identified by urine tests performed during sports competitions, particularly bicycle races. (bmj.com)
  • Objective Our goal was to assess the precision of the GeneXpert test in the diagnosis of pulmonary TB. (eg.net)