Locomotion: Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.Galliformes: An order of heavy-bodied, largely terrestrial BIRDS including pheasants, TURKEYS, grouse, QUAIL, and CHICKENS.Radar: A system using beamed and reflected radio signals to and from an object in such a way that range, bearing, and other characteristics of the object may be determined.Spacecraft: Devices, manned and unmanned, which are designed to be placed into an orbit about the Earth or into a trajectory to another celestial body. (NASA Thesaurus, 1988)Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Gait: Manner or style of walking.Extraterrestrial Environment: The environment outside the earth or its atmosphere. The environment may refer to a closed cabin (such as a space shuttle or space station) or to space itself, the moon, or other planets.Mars: The fourth planet in order from the sun. Its two natural satellites are Deimos and Phobos. It is one of the four inner or terrestrial planets of the solar system.Homing Behavior: Instinctual patterns of activity related to a specific area including ability of certain animals to return to a given place when displaced from it, often over great distances using navigational clues such as those used in migration (ANIMAL MIGRATION).Running: An activity in which the body is propelled by moving the legs rapidly. Running is performed at a moderate to rapid pace and should be differentiated from JOGGING, which is performed at a much slower pace.Satellite Imagery: Composition of images of EARTH or other planets from data collected during SPACE FLIGHT by remote sensing instruments onboard SPACECRAFT. The satellite sensor systems measure and record absorbed, emitted, or reflected energy across the spectra, as well as global position and time.Walking: An activity in which the body advances at a slow to moderate pace by moving the feet in a coordinated fashion. This includes recreational walking, walking for fitness, and competitive race-walking.Acceleration: An increase in the rate of speed.Off-Road Motor Vehicles: Motorized, recreational vehicles used on non-public roads. They include all-terrain vehicles, dirt-bikes, minibikes, motorbikes, trailbikes, and snowmobiles. Excludes MOTORCYCLES, which are considered public road vehicles.Skiing: A snow sport which uses skis to glide over the snow. It does not include water-skiing.Saturn: The sixth planet in order from the sun. It is one of the five outer planets of the solar system. Its twelve natural satellites include Phoebe and Titan.Decerebrate State: A condition characterized by abnormal posturing of the limbs that is associated with injury to the brainstem. This may occur as a clinical manifestation or induced experimentally in animals. The extensor reflexes are exaggerated leading to rigid extension of the limbs accompanied by hyperreflexia and opisthotonus. This condition is usually caused by lesions which occur in the region of the brainstem that lies between the red nuclei and the vestibular nuclei. In contrast, decorticate rigidity is characterized by flexion of the elbows and wrists with extension of the legs and feet. The causative lesion for this condition is located above the red nuclei and usually consists of diffuse cerebral damage. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p358)Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Desert Climate: A type of climate characterized by insufficient moisture to support appreciable plant life. It is a climate of extreme aridity, usually of extreme heat, and of negligible rainfall. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Remote Sensing Technology: Observation and acquisition of physical data from a distance by viewing and making measurements from a distance or receiving transmitted data from observations made at distant location.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Flight, Animal: The use of wings or wing-like appendages to remain aloft and move through the air.Swimming: An activity in which the body is propelled through water by specific movement of the arms and/or the legs. Swimming as propulsion through water by the movement of limbs, tail, or fins of animals is often studied as a form of PHYSICAL EXERTION or endurance.Orientation: Awareness of oneself in relation to time, place and person.Artificial Limbs: Prosthetic replacements for arms, legs, and parts thereof.Spatial Analysis: Techniques which study entities using their topological, geometric, or geographic properties.Ice: The solid substance formed by the FREEZING of water.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Hindlimb: Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)Forelimb: A front limb of a quadruped. (The Random House College Dictionary, 1980)Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Ants: Insects of the family Formicidae, very common and widespread, probably the most successful of all the insect groups. All ants are social insects, and most colonies contain three castes, queens, males, and workers. Their habits are often very elaborate and a great many studies have been made of ant behavior. Ants produce a number of secretions that function in offense, defense, and communication. (From Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p676)Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Geographic Information Systems: Computer systems capable of assembling, storing, manipulating, and displaying geographically referenced information, i.e. data identified according to their locations.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Lower Extremity: The region of the lower limb in animals, extending from the gluteal region to the FOOT, and including the BUTTOCKS; HIP; and LEG.Postural Balance: A POSTURE in which an ideal body mass distribution is achieved. Postural balance provides the body carriage stability and conditions for normal functions in stationary position or in movement, such as sitting, standing, or walking.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Extremities: The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Lampreys: Common name for the only family (Petromyzontidae) of eellike fish in the order Petromyzontiformes. They are jawless but have a sucking mouth with horny teeth.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Video Recording: The storing or preserving of video signals for television to be played back later via a transmitter or receiver. Recordings may be made on magnetic tape or discs (VIDEODISC RECORDING).Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)Tarsus, Animal: The region in the hindlimb of a quadruped, corresponding to the human ANKLE.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Equipment Failure Analysis: The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.Periodicity: The tendency of a phenomenon to recur at regular intervals; in biological systems, the recurrence of certain activities (including hormonal, cellular, neural) may be annual, seasonal, monthly, daily, or more frequently (ultradian).Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.LizardsEquipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Interneurons: Most generally any NEURONS which are not motor or sensory. Interneurons may also refer to neurons whose AXONS remain within a particular brain region in contrast to projection neurons, which have axons projecting to other brain regions.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Spinal Cord Injuries: Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Motion Pictures as Topic: The art, technique, or business of producing motion pictures for entertainment, propaganda, or instruction.Gait Disorders, Neurologic: Gait abnormalities that are a manifestation of nervous system dysfunction. These conditions may be caused by a wide variety of disorders which affect motor control, sensory feedback, and muscle strength including: CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; or MUSCULAR DISEASES.Caenorhabditis elegans: A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.Lameness, Animal: A departure from the normal gait in animals.Weight-Bearing: The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.Posture: The position or attitude of the body.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Deceleration: A decrease in the rate of speed.Amphetamine: A powerful central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic. Amphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulation of release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. Amphetamine is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic. The l- and the d,l-forms are included here. The l-form has less central nervous system activity but stronger cardiovascular effects. The d-form is DEXTROAMPHETAMINE.Stereotyped Behavior: Relatively invariant mode of behavior elicited or determined by a particular situation; may be verbal, postural, or expressive.Chemotaxis, Leukocyte: The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.Contact Inhibition: Arrest of cell locomotion or cell division when two cells come into contact.Robotics: The application of electronic, computerized control systems to mechanical devices designed to perform human functions. Formerly restricted to industry, but nowadays applied to artificial organs controlled by bionic (bioelectronic) devices, like automated insulin pumps and other prostheses.Motor Neurons, Gamma: Motor neurons which activate the contractile regions of intrafusal SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS, thus adjusting the sensitivity of the MUSCLE SPINDLES to stretch. Gamma motor neurons may be "static" or "dynamic" according to which aspect of responsiveness (or which fiber types) they regulate. The alpha and gamma motor neurons are often activated together (alpha gamma coactivation) which allows the spindles to contribute to the control of movement trajectories despite changes in muscle length.Quipazine: A pharmacologic congener of serotonin that contracts smooth muscle and has actions similar to those of tricyclic antidepressants. It has been proposed as an oxytocic.Foot: The distal extremity of the leg in vertebrates, consisting of the tarsus (ANKLE); METATARSUS; phalanges; and the soft tissues surrounding these bones.Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.Instinct: Stereotyped patterns of response, characteristic of a given species, that have been phylogenetically adapted to a specific type of situation.Iguanas: Large herbivorous tropical American lizards.Serotonin: A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.Reticular Formation: A region extending from the PONS & MEDULLA OBLONGATA through the MESENCEPHALON, characterized by a diversity of neurons of various sizes and shapes, arranged in different aggregations and enmeshed in a complicated fiber network.Struthioniformes: An order of flightless birds comprising the ostriches, which naturally inhabit open, low rainfall areas of Africa.Exploratory Behavior: The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Body Size: The physical measurements of a body.Central Pattern Generators: Networks of nerve cells that control the firing patterns of MOTOR NEURONS to produce rhythmic movements such as MASTICATION; WALKING; SWIMMING; RESPIRATION; and PERISTALSIS.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Nerve Net: A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.Hyperkinesis: Excessive movement of muscles of the body as a whole, which may be associated with organic or psychological disorders.Efferent Pathways: Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a nerve center toward a peripheral site. Such impulses are conducted via efferent neurons (NEURONS, EFFERENT), such as MOTOR NEURONS, autonomic neurons, and hypophyseal neurons.Dopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Joints: Also known as articulations, these are points of connection between the ends of certain separate bones, or where the borders of other bones are juxtaposed.Lumbosacral Region: Region of the back including the LUMBAR VERTEBRAE, SACRUM, and nearby structures.Escape Reaction: Innate response elicited by sensory stimuli associated with a threatening situation, or actual confrontation with an enemy.Strepsirhini: A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of the following five families: CHEIROGALEIDAE; Daubentoniidae; Indriidae; LEMURIDAE; and LORISIDAE.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Anterior Horn Cells: MOTOR NEURONS in the anterior (ventral) horn of the SPINAL CORD which project to SKELETAL MUSCLES.Friction: Surface resistance to the relative motion of one body against the rubbing, sliding, rolling, or flowing of another with which it is in contact.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins: Proteins from the nematode species CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. The proteins from this species are the subject of scientific interest in the area of multicellular organism MORPHOGENESIS.Cocaine: An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.Afferent Pathways: Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Peroneal Nerve: The lateral of the two terminal branches of the sciatic nerve. The peroneal (or fibular) nerve provides motor and sensory innervation to parts of the leg and foot.Proprioception: Sensory functions that transduce stimuli received by proprioceptive receptors in joints, tendons, muscles, and the INNER EAR into neural impulses to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Proprioception provides sense of stationary positions and movements of one's body parts, and is important in maintaining KINESTHESIA and POSTURAL BALANCE.Tendons: Fibrous bands or cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE at the ends of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that serve to attach the MUSCLES to bones and other structures.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Mesencephalon: The middle of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain. Without further subdivision, midbrain develops into a short, constricted portion connecting the PONS and the DIENCEPHALON. Midbrain contains two major parts, the dorsal TECTUM MESENCEPHALI and the ventral TEGMENTUM MESENCEPHALI, housing components of auditory, visual, and other sensorimoter systems.TurtlesColubridae: The largest family of snakes, comprising five subfamilies: Colubrinae, Natricinae, Homalopsinae, Lycodontinae, and Xenodontinae. They show a great diversity of eating habits, some eating almost anything, others having a specialized diet. They can be oviparous, ovoviviparous, or viviparous. The majority of North American snakes are colubrines. Among the colubrids are king snakes, water moccasins, water snakes, and garter snakes. Some genera are poisonous. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, pp321-29)Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Toes: Any one of five terminal digits of the vertebrate FOOT.Feedback, Sensory: A mechanism of communicating one's own sensory system information about a task, movement or skill.Orthopedic Equipment: Nonexpendable items used in the performance of orthopedic surgery and related therapy. They are differentiated from ORTHOTIC DEVICES, apparatus used to prevent or correct deformities in patients.Videotape Recording: Recording of visual and sometimes sound signals on magnetic tape.Alligators and Crocodiles: Large, long-tailed reptiles, including caimans, of the order Loricata.Brain Stem: The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Gravitation: Acceleration produced by the mutual attraction of two masses, and of magnitude inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the two centers of mass. It is also the force imparted by the earth, moon, or a planet to an object near its surface. (From NASA Thesaurus, 1988)Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
  • Taken together with previous studies, the findings suggest the availability of visual information about the terrain near a particular step is most essential during the latter half of the preceding step, which constitutes a critical control phase in the bipedal gait cycle. (arvojournals.org)
  • Humans regularly traverse many types of terrain that require visually guided modifications of gait. (arvojournals.org)
  • A controller estimates terrain slope and modulates the augmentation torque and the impedance according to a phase of the gait cycle. (google.de)
  • The gallop is the preferred gait by mammals for agile traversal through terrain. (edu.au)
  • The Scout II quadruped runs on flat ground in a bounding gait, and was motivated by an effort to understand the minimal mechanical design and control complexity for dynamically stable locomotion. (upenn.edu)
  • The RHex 0 hexapod runs dynamically in a tripod gait over flat and badly broken terrain. (upenn.edu)
  • The agent is engaged in path integration, terrain discrimination and gait adaptation, and moving target following tasks. (uzh.ch)
  • Brain plasticity may help overcome the gait problems in old age, but there is a price to pay: cognitive resources allocated to seniors' locomotion are no longer available for other activities while walking, such as obstacle avoidance, navigation along a planned route, watching for pedestrian and vehicular traffic, as well as engaging in gait-unrelated tasks. (hindawi.com)
  • These results revealed a trend in the way that the practice of physical activities in a specific training program comprising activities designed to develop strength, balance, and locomotion can improve the gait parameters during obstacle negotiation, in older people with Parkinson's disease. (egms.de)
  • We propose that the requirement to climb vertical terrain may drive the prevalence of the tripod gait over faster alternative gaits with minimal ground contact. (epfl.ch)
  • G. Taga, A model of the neuro-musculo-skeletal system for human locomotion, I. Emergence of basic gait. (springer.com)
  • Most legged robots usually employ high gain position control, which means that it is crucially important that the planned reference trajectories are a good match for the actual terrain, and that tracking is accurate. (mpg.de)
  • The presented results show that we have all elements needed for robust all-terrain locomotion, which should also generalize to other legged systems, e.g., humanoid robots. (mpg.de)
  • The authors present two new biologically inspired jumping robots, Jollbot and Glumper, both of which incorporate additional locomotion techniques of rolling and gliding respectively. (bath.ac.uk)
  • It can automatically adapt to different walking robots and allow them to perform stable self-organized locomotion as well as quickly deal with damage within a few walking steps. (frontiersin.org)
  • Typically, the connections between sensory feedback and neural circuits for locomotion control of walking robots are static. (frontiersin.org)
  • Many attempts have been made to develop legged robots capable of navigating such terrain (Raibert 1986). (experts.com)
  • Unfortunately, difficult terrain taxes not only the kinematical capabilities of such systems, but also the sensory, path planning, and balancing abilities of even the most state-of-the-art robots. (experts.com)
  • Dynamic locomotion with four and six-legged robots" by Martin Buehler, Uluc Saranli et al. (upenn.edu)
  • However, many research groups quickly grew more and more interested in studying locomotion itself, designing and inventing robots with various modes of locomotion. (mdpi.com)
  • In the last decades, more and more modes of locomotion were considered for robots, and each of them was developed independently from the others. (mdpi.com)
  • As if robots didn't already have enough trouble keeping their balance, they lose any shot at conventional locomotion techniques on the sensitive micro-terrain of, say, your lower intestine. (popularmechanics.com)
  • Robots such as the Dutch "wormbots" from Delft University of Technology squeeze through the human digestive system by switching between undulatory motion to wiggle like a snake (good for when things get watery) and peristaltic locomotion to shrink and elongate like an earthworm ( watch a "wormbot" in action ). (popularmechanics.com)
  • Editor's note: Legged robots have the ability to follow troops on long journeys across extremely difficult terrain. (scientificamerican.com)
  • BigDog and LittleDog are related in that they are both focused on solving the problems that will enable legged robots to accompany war fighters as they cross complex terrain,' says Tom Wagner, program manager in DARPA's Information Processing Techniques Office. (scientificamerican.com)
  • A.J Ijspeert, Central pattern generators for locomotion control in animals and robots: a review. (springer.com)
  • The team behind the bot hopes its means of locomotion could one day help a new generation of of rover robots get around alien planets quickly and easily. (themarysue.com)
  • Prof. Jonathan Hurst of Oregon State University, and the initiator of the study, is sure that this type of locomotion will catch on in walking robots of the future. (nanowerk.com)
  • The diversity of jumping mechanisms found in nature is explored to support the theory that jumping is a desirable ability for a robot locomotion system to incorporate, and then the size-related constraints are determined from first principles. (bath.ac.uk)
  • A need has been expressed for a robot locomotion concept that incorporates both efficient, rapid motion on smooth surfaces as well as the capacity to traverse a variety of challenging terrain obstacles, including but not limited to: stairs, rubble, and other environmental impediments. (ohiolink.edu)
  • Additionally, new technologies must be investigated to improve mobility of UGV platforms in unstructured environments including complex terrain and urban settings using novel locomotion means and intelligent control systems. (globalsecurity.org)
  • To achieve these objectives, in this paper we add two crucial elements to legged locomotion, i.e., floating-base inverse dynamics control and predictive force control, and we show that these elements increase robustness in face of unknown and unanticipated perturbations (e.g. obstacles). (mpg.de)
  • A close-up view of Salto, short for saltatorial locomotion on terrain obstacles. (livescience.com)
  • While the difficulty ramps up at a gradual pace, Locomotion is best played in short bursts given how similar the stages and obstacles can be within each of the game's four worlds. (nintendoworldreport.com)
  • To successfully complete this phase, each team's LittleDog needed to move at the rate of at least a half an inch (1.3 centimeters) per second over terrain that included obstacles 1.9 inches (4.8 centimeters) in height. (scientificamerican.com)
  • In most cases, the machines walk on level terrain in the laboratory and are only required to avoid defined obstacles. (nanowerk.com)
  • Designing controllers that allow for robustly stable, energy efficient, and fast locomotion over unstructured terrain is essential for applications, such as first response, and disaster robotics. (cmu.edu)
  • For example, robotics researchers are trying to mimic the snake's capability to negotiate a range of challenging terrain types [ 6 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Next up for Bijma: looking at how dung beetle locomotion could be used in robotics. (scientificamerican.com)
  • The Advanced Robotics Research Line at Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, an English-language research Institute, is seeking a highly motivated, full-time post-doc, who will have a leading research role in the development of Locomotion of a Quadrupedal Field Robot. (iit.it)
  • One of the LittleDog competition's biggest challenges has been improving on the original software so that the robot can read any map and then navigate the map's terrain, says Carnegie Mellon Robotics Institute research scientist Drew Bagnell. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Darken R, Cockayne W, Carmein D (1997) The omni-directional treadmill: a locomotion device for virtual worlds. (springer.com)
  • Nagamori A, Wakabayashi K, Ito M (2005) The ball array treadmill: a locomotion interface for virtual world. (springer.com)
  • A possible solution to improve the robustness of legged locomotion is to maximize the compliance of the controller. (mpg.de)
  • The estimation accuracy of the wheel normal reaction on different terrains and the robustness against parameter uncertainties are validated. (trb.org)
  • In particular, the ability of walking machines to adapt to unstructured terrain and the resulting requirements to the control architecture are emphasized by the researchers. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The candidate will join IIT's Dynamic Legged Systems Lab (www.iit.it/hyq) with the purpose of developing and extending existing locomotion algorithms to adapt the project's hydraulic quadruped robot to the given end-user scenarios. (iit.it)
  • Using that information, Bowling and his research group hope to develop agile locomotion in a legged robot. (nd.edu)
  • Real-time information on the wheel static and dynamic normal reaction on various road and terrain conditions is extremely important for agile tyre dynamics to improve vehicle mobility. (trb.org)
  • But how animals provide stability to their bodies as they move on non-level terrain - the controlled descent of geckos being just one example - needs to be closely studied. (redorbit.com)
  • Accordingly, unexpected situations such as leg damage might lead to unstable locomotion if the sensory connection strength cannot be automatically or continuously adjusted to deliver proper information for adaptation. (frontiersin.org)
  • Lateral and frontal disturbances during locomotion due to terrain irregularities have been dealt with using conventional sensory feedback that was realized based on the inverse pendulum model. (springer.com)
  • The slithering locomotion of snakes requires additional frictional properties [ 4 ] and resistance against wear [ 5 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • A special feature characterizes the first of the four movements, namely that the snake has to exert normal forces against projections from the ground 1 to induce longitudinal sliding, so that tangential frictional forces operating between the serpent and the terrain have to be minimized, because they simply oppose gliding forward. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • This model for locomotion, pioneered by Gray [ 1 - 3 ], is based on the muscular elasticity of the snake's body and allows us to explain how locomotion can occur in the absence of tangential frictional forces . (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • This multi-functionality of the gecko adhesive system permits effective locomotion on both uphill and downhill slopes," said Timothy Higham , an assistant professor of biology, in whose lab the research was done. (redorbit.com)
  • The use of adhesive pads for locomotion across non-horizontal surfaces is a trait that evolved separately in different species, making it an example of convergent evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Direction-dependence is an important and fundamental property of adhesive structures that are able to rapidly and controllably adhere during locomotion. (wikipedia.org)
  • While compliance is trivially achieved by reduced feedback gains, for terrain requiring precise foot placement (e.g. climbing rocks, walking over pegs or cracks) compliance cannot be introduced at the cost of inferior tracking. (mpg.de)
  • A locomotion interface is a device that creates an artificial sensation of physical walking. (springer.com)
  • Stable walking on variable visco-elastic terrains using meta-parameters for passive state migration. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • For simulation purposes we used the parameters given in Table1 for the locomotion, the robot body and the ground (assuming that the robot is walking on a level surface of compact clay). (psu.edu)
  • Walking over deterministic variation in terrain slopes of up to 10 degrees. (cmu.edu)
  • Accordingly, the device is capable of normalizing or augmenting human biomechanical function, responsive to a wearer's activity, regardless of speed and terrain, and can be used, for example, as a knee orthosis, prosthesis, or exoskeleton. (google.de)
  • Its design and control was motivated by a collaboration of roboticists, biologists, and mathematicians, in an attempt to capture specific biomechanical locomotion principles. (upenn.edu)
  • Due to the compact size and the ability to fly the multicopter is used in difficult terrain and even caves. (dlr.de)
  • DARPA is looking for its mini-legged robot to cross progressively difficult terrain at increased speeds. (scientificamerican.com)
  • In such situations, successful locomotion requires walkers to use visual information to identify safe target footholds and modulate stride length, width, and timing to land on those footholds with precision and efficiency. (arvojournals.org)
  • Strong adhesion may be beneficial in many situations but it also can create difficulties in locomotion. (wikipedia.org)
  • The same is true for a mission descending on Mars, except in this case the terrain will not include any prepared landing surfaces. (nap.edu)
  • According to this recent approach, age-related deficits of locomotion can be partly compensated by cognitive workaround strategies, thus replacing automated sensorimotor processing with effortful higher-order functions. (hindawi.com)