Compounds with a core of 10 carbons generally formed via the mevalonate pathway from the combination of 3,3-dimethylallyl pyrophosphate and isopentenyl pyrophosphate. They are cyclized and oxidized in a variety of ways. Due to the low molecular weight many of them exist in the form of essential oils (OILS, VOLATILE).
A somewhat heterogeneous class of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of alkyl or related groups (excluding methyl groups). EC 2.5.
Beneficial microorganisms (bacteria or fungi) encapsulated in carrier material and applied to the environment for remediation and enhancement of agricultural productivity.
A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are evergreen, pyramidal trees with whorled branches and thin, scaly bark. Each of the linear, spirally arranged leaves is jointed near the stem on a separate woody base.
A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. Balm of Gilead is a common name more often referring to POPULUS and sometimes to COMMIPHORA.
Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.
The only specie of the genus Ginkgo, family Ginkgoacea. It is the source of extracts of medicinal interest, especially Egb 761. Ginkgo may refer to the genus or species.
A genus of rubiaceous South American trees that yields the toxic CINCHONA ALKALOIDS from their bark; QUININE; QUINIDINE; chinconine, cinchonidine and others are used to treat MALARIA and CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS.
A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.
Phosphoric or pyrophosphoric acid esters of polyisoprenoids.
BEETLES in the family Curculionidae and the largest family in the order COLEOPTERA. They have a markedly convex shape and many are considered pests.
Enzymes of the isomerase class that catalyze reactions in which a group can be regarded as eliminated from one part of a molecule, leaving a double bond, while remaining covalently attached to the molecule. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 5.5.
Oils which evaporate readily. The volatile oils occur in aromatic plants, to which they give odor and other characteristics. Most volatile oils consist of a mixture of two or more TERPENES or of a mixture of an eleoptene (the more volatile constituent of a volatile oil) with a stearopten (the more solid constituent). The synonym essential oils refers to the essence of a plant, as its perfume or scent, and not to its indispensability.
A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE with strong-smelling foliage. It is a source of SANTONIN and other cytotoxic TERPENES.
DITERPENES with three LACTONES and a unique tert-butyl group, which are found in GINKGO plants along with BILOBALIDES.
Twenty-carbon compounds derived from MEVALONIC ACID or deoxyxylulose phosphate.
Six-carbon alicyclic hydrocarbons which contain one or more double bonds in the ring. The cyclohexadienes are not aromatic, in contrast to BENZOQUINONES which are sometimes called 2,5-cyclohexadiene-1,4-diones.
A plant species of the genus OCIMUM, family LAMIACEAE. It is a condiment with carminative properties.
Changing an open-chain hydrocarbon to a closed ring. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Uptake of substances through the SKIN.
A colorless liquid extracted from oils of plants such as citronella, neroli, cyclamen, and tuberose. It is an intermediate step in the biological synthesis of cholesterol from mevalonic acid in vertebrates. It has a delicate odor and is used in perfumery. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A clear, colorless, viscous organic solvent and diluent used in pharmaceutical preparations.
Common name for several daisy-like plants (MATRICARIA; TRIPLEUROSPERMUM; ANTHEMIS; CHAMAEMELUM) native to Europe and Western Asia, now naturalized in the United States and Australia.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
A plant species of the genus ARTEMISIA, family ASTERACEAE. It is the source of the antimalarial artemisinin (ANTIMALARIALS).
A plant species of the family ACTINIDIACEAE, order Theales.
Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-carbon bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. This subclass contains the DECARBOXYLASES, the ALDEHYDE-LYASES, and the OXO-ACID-LYASES. EC 4.1.
Cyclic esters of hydroxy carboxylic acids, containing a 1-oxacycloalkan-2-one structure. Large cyclic lactones of over a dozen atoms are MACROLIDES.
Flammable, amorphous, vegetable products of secretion or disintegration, usually formed in special cavities of plants. They are generally insoluble in water and soluble in alcohol, carbon tetrachloride, ether, or volatile oils. They are fusible and have a conchoidal fracture. They are the oxidation or polymerization products of the terpenes, and are mixtures of aromatic acids and esters. Most are soft and sticky, but harden after exposure to cold. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Dorland, 28th ed)
Five-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives.
A plant genus of the family LILIACEAE. Members contain allergens, tuliposide A and tulipalin A.
Terpenes of five units of HEMITERPENES, formed from geranylfarnesyl pyrophosphate.
A plant genus of the family ROSACEAE. Members contain sanguiin.
The five-carbon building blocks of TERPENES that derive from MEVALONIC ACID or deoxyxylulose phosphate.
An enzyme that, in the pathway of cholesterol biosynthesis, catalyzes the condensation of isopentenyl pyrophosphate and dimethylallylpyrophosphate to yield pyrophosphate and geranylpyrophosphate. The enzyme then catalyzes the condensation of the latter compound with another molecule of isopentenyl pyrophosphate to yield pyrophosphate and farnesylpyrophosphate. EC
A plant genus in the family ROSACEAE, order Rosales, subclass Rosidae. It is best known as a source of the edible fruit (apple) and is cultivated in temperate climates worldwide.
The above-ground plant without the roots.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
A species of the Beta genus. Cultivars are used as a source of beets (root) or chard (leaves).
A group of alicyclic hydrocarbons with the general formula R-C5H9.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
A plant genus of the family SANTALACEAE which is the source of sandalwood oil.
Unsaturated hydrocarbons of the type Cn-H2n, indicated by the suffix -ene. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p408)
A four-carbon sugar that is found in algae, fungi, and lichens. It is twice as sweet as sucrose and can be used as a coronary vasodilator.
A plant genus of the family CUPRESSACEAE which should not be confused with other cedar and cypress trees of THUJA or CUPRESSUS genera.
Culture of an isolated organism free from any other associating or contaminating organisms.
A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are evergreen trees mainly in temperate climates.
A chemical process for separating the components of a liquid mixture by boiling and collecting condensed vapors.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
Eighteen-carbon cyclopentyl polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID via an oxidative pathway analogous to the EICOSANOIDS in animals. Biosynthesis is inhibited by SALICYLATES. A key member, jasmonic acid of PLANTS, plays a similar role to ARACHIDONIC ACID in animals.
A plant genus of the family CUPRESSACEAE.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Sets of enzymatic reactions occurring in organisms and that form biochemicals by making new covalent bonds.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Cell lines developed from disaggregated BALB/c mouse embryos. They are extremely sensitive to CONTACT INHIBITION, and highly susceptible to transformation by SV40 VIRUS and murine sarcoma virus (SARCOMA VIRUSES, MURINE).
Six-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives. Various polyneuropathies are caused by hexane poisoning.
A group of 3-hydroxy-4-keto-FLAVONOIDS.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
An alcohol produced from mint oils or prepared synthetically.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid that contain two phosphate groups.
INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.
The application of suitable drug dosage forms to the skin for either local or systemic effects.
The reproductive organs of plants.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)
Oils derived from plants or plant products.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The facilitation of biochemical reactions with the aid of naturally occurring catalysts such as ENZYMES.
Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The selection of one food over another.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A class of enzymes that catalyze geometric or structural changes within a molecule to form a single product. The reactions do not involve a net change in the concentrations of compounds other than the substrate and the product.(from Dorland, 28th ed) EC 5.
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
Methodologies used for the isolation, identification, detection, and quantitation of chemical substances.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.
The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.
The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).
A plant species of the family FABACEAE widely cultivated for ANIMAL FEED.
Transferases are enzymes transferring a group, for example, the methyl group or a glycosyl group, from one compound (generally regarded as donor) to another compound (generally regarded as acceptor). The classification is based on the scheme "donor:acceptor group transferase". (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.
A group of enzymes within the class EC 3.6.1.- that catalyze the hydrolysis of diphosphate bonds, chiefly in nucleoside di- and triphosphates. They may liberate either a mono- or diphosphate. EC 3.6.1.-.
A phylum of fungi which have cross-walls or septa in the mycelium. The perfect state is characterized by the formation of a saclike cell (ascus) containing ascospores. Most pathogenic fungi with a known perfect state belong to this phylum.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Mutant strains of mice that produce little or no hair.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The EDIBLE GRAIN, barley, is widely used as food.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
Diseases of plants.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
A class of compounds composed of repeating 5-carbon units of HEMITERPENES.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
A genus of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria. Most species are free-living in soil and water, but the major habitat for some is the diseased tissue of warm-blooded hosts.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.

Retinal stimulates ATP hydrolysis by purified and reconstituted ABCR, the photoreceptor-specific ATP-binding cassette transporter responsible for Stargardt disease. (1/2230)

Many substrates for P-glycoprotein, an ABC transporter that mediates multidrug resistance in mammalian cells, have been shown to stimulate its ATPase activity in vitro. In the present study, we used this property as a criterion to search for natural and artificial substrates and/or allosteric regulators of ABCR, the rod photoreceptor-specific ABC transporter responsible for Stargardt disease, an early onset macular degeneration. ABCR was immunoaffinity purified to apparent homogeneity from bovine rod outer segments and reconstituted into liposomes. All-trans-retinal, a candidate ligand, stimulates the ATPase activity of ABCR 3-4-fold, with a half-maximal effect at 10-15 microM. 11-cis- and 13-cis-retinal show similar activity. All-trans-retinal stimulates the ATPase activity of ABCR with Michaelis-Menten behavior indicative of simple noncooperative binding that is associated with a rate-limiting enzyme-substrate intermediate in the pathway of ATP hydrolysis. Among 37 structurally diverse non-retinoid compounds, including nine previously characterized substrates or sensitizers of P-glycoprotein, only four show significant ATPase stimulation when tested at 20 microM. The dose-response curves of these four compounds are indicative of multiple binding sites and/or modes of interaction with ABCR. Two of these compounds, amiodarone and digitonin, can act synergistically with all-trans-retinal, implying that they interact with a site or sites on ABCR different from the one with which all-trans-retinal interacts. Unlike retinal, amiodarone appears to interact with both free and ATP-bound ABCR. Together with clinical observations on Stargardt disease and the localization of ABCR to rod outer segment disc membranes, these data suggest that retinoids, and most likely retinal, are the natural substrates for transport by ABCR in rod outer segments. These observations have significant implications for understanding the visual cycle and the pathogenesis of Stargardt disease and for the identification of compounds that could modify the natural history of Stargardt disease or other retinopathies associated with impaired ABCR function.  (+info)

Prevention and therapy of cancer by dietary monoterpenes. (2/2230)

Monoterpenes are nonnutritive dietary components found in the essential oils of citrus fruits and other plants. A number of these dietary monoterpenes have antitumor activity. For example, d-limonene, which comprises >90% of orange peel oil, has chemopreventive activity against rodent mammary, skin, liver, lung and forestomach cancers. Similarly, other dietary monoterpenes have chemopreventive activity against rat mammary, lung and forestomach cancers when fed during the initiation phase. In addition, perillyl alcohol has promotion phase chemopreventive activity against rat liver cancer, and geraniol has in vivo antitumor activity against murine leukemia cells. Perillyl alcohol and d-limonene also have chemotherapeutic activity against rodent mammary and pancreatic tumors. As a result, their cancer chemotherapeutic activities are under evaluation in Phase I clinical trials. Several mechanisms of action may account for the antitumor activities of monoterpenes. The blocking chemopreventive effects of limonene and other monoterpenes during the initiation phase of mammary carcinogenesis are likely due to the induction of Phase II carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes, resulting in carcinogen detoxification. The post-initiation phase, tumor suppressive chemopreventive activity of monoterpenes may be due to the induction of apoptosis and/or to inhibition of the post-translational isoprenylation of cell growth-regulating proteins. Chemotherapy of chemically induced mammary tumors with monoterpenes results in tumor redifferentiation concomitant with increased expression of the mannose-6-phosphate/insulin-like growth factor II receptor and transforming growth factor beta1. Thus, monoterpenes would appear to act through multiple mechanisms in the chemoprevention and chemotherapy of cancer.  (+info)

Role of metabolic activation in the pathogenesis of chemically induced pulmonary disease: mechanism of action of the lung-toxic furan, 4-ipomeanol. (3/2230)

Many xenobiotics produce hepatic injury due to their metabolism in the liver to highly reactive electrophile intermediates which form covalent conjugates with nucleophilic cellular constituents. This presentation describes studies indicating that the production of chemically reactive metabolites by pulmonary metabolism of xenobiotics can also play a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of chemically induced lung disease.  (+info)

Disparate T cell requirements of two subsets of lupus-specific autoantibodies in pristane-treated mice. (4/2230)

Intraperitoneal injection of pristane induces a lupus-like disease in BALB/c and other non-autoimmune mice characterized by autoantibody production and the development of immune complex disease closely resembling lupus nephritis. Two subsets of autoantibodies are induced by pristane: IgG anti-DNA DNA and -chromatin autoantibodies are strongly IL-6-dependent, whereas IgG anti-nRNP/Sm and -Su antibodies are not. The present studies were carried out to examine the role of T cells in establishing this dichotomy between the production of anti-nRNP/Sm/Su versus anti-DNA/chromatin autoantibodies. Autoantibody production and renal disease were evaluated in athymic (nude) mice treated with pristane. BALB/c nu/nu mice spontaneously developed IgM and IgG anti-single-stranded (ss)DNA and -chromatin, but not anti-nRNP/Sm or -Su, autoantibodies. Pristane treatment increased the levels of IgG anti-chromatin antibodies in nu/nu mice, but did not induce production of anti-nRNP/Sm or -Su antibodies. In contrast, BALB/c nu/+ and +/+ control mice did not spontaneously produce autoantibodies, whereas anti-nRNP/Sm and -Su autoantibodies were induced by pristane in approx. 50% of nu/+ and +/+ mice and anti-DNA/chromatin antibodies at lower frequencies. Nude mice spontaneously developed mild renal lesions that were marginally affected by pristane, but were generally milder than the lesions developing in pristane-treated nu/+ and +/+ mice. The data provide further evidence that two distinct pathways with different cytokine and T cell requirements are involved in autoantibody formation in pristane-induced lupus. This dichotomy may be relevant to understanding differences in the regulation of anti-DNA versus anti-nRNP/Sm autoantibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus, as well as the association of anti-DNA, but not anti-nRNP/Sm, with lupus nephritis.  (+info)

Apoptosis and cell-cycle arrest in human and murine tumor cells are initiated by isoprenoids. (5/2230)

Diverse classes of phytochemicals initiate biological responses that effectively lower cancer risk. One class of phytochemicals, broadly defined as pure and mixed isoprenoids, encompasses an estimated 22,000 individual components. A representative mixed isoprenoid, gamma-tocotrienol, suppresses the growth of murine B16(F10) melanoma cells, and with greater potency, the growth of human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) and human leukemic (HL-60) cells. beta-Ionone, a pure isoprenoid, suppresses the growth of B16 cells and with greater potency, the growth of MCF-7, HL-60 and human colon adenocarcinoma (Caco-2) cells. Results obtained with diverse cell lines differing in ras and p53 status showed that the isoprenoid-mediated suppression of growth is independent of mutated ras and p53 functions. beta-Ionone suppressed the growth of human colon fibroblasts (CCD-18Co) but only when present at three-fold the concentration required to suppress the growth of Caco-2 cells. The isoprenoids initiated apoptosis and, concomitantly arrested cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Both suppress 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase activity. beta-Ionone and lovastatin interfered with the posttranslational processing of lamin B, an activity essential to assembly of daughter nuclei. This interference, we postulate, renders neosynthesized DNA available to the endonuclease activities leading to apoptotic cell death. Lovastatin-imposed mevalonate starvation suppressed the glycosylation and translocation of growth factor receptors to the cell surface. As a consequence, cells were arrested in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. This rationale may apply to the isoprenoid-mediated G1-phase arrest of tumor cells. The additive and potentially synergistic actions of these isoprenoids in the suppression of tumor cell proliferation and initiation of apoptosis coupled with the mass action of the diverse isoprenoid constituents of plant products may explain, in part, the impact of fruit, vegetable and grain consumption on cancer risk.  (+info)

Activation of the transforming growth factor beta signaling pathway and induction of cytostasis and apoptosis in mammary carcinomas treated with the anticancer agent perillyl alcohol. (6/2230)

The mechanisms of action of the anticancer agent perillyl alcohol (POH), presently in Phase II clinical trials, were investigated in advanced rat mammary carcinomas. Gross and ultrastructural morphology of POH-mediated tumor regression indicated that apoptosis accounted for the marked reduction in the epithelial compartment. Characterization of cell growth and death indices revealed that apoptosis was induced within 48 h of chemotherapy, before the induction of cytostasis. RNA expression studies, based on a multiplexed-nuclease protection assay, demonstrated that cell cycle- and apoptosis-related genes were differentially expressed within 48 h of POH treatment; p21(Cip1/WAF1), bax, bad, and annexin I were induced; cyclin E and cyclin-dependent kinase 2 were repressed; and bcl-2 and p53 were unchanged. Next, a potential role for transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) signaling in POH-mediated carcinoma regression was explored. RNA expression studies, again based on a multiplexed-nuclease protection assay, showed that TGF-beta-related genes were induced and temporally regulated during POH treatment: (a) c-jun and c-fos were transiently induced within 12 h of chemotherapy; (b) TGF-beta1 was induced within 24 h of chemotherapy; (c) the mannose 6-phosphate/insulin-like growth factor II receptor and the TGF-beta type I and II receptors were induced within 48 h of chemotherapy; and (d) smad3 was induced during active carcinoma regression. In situ protein expression studies, based on fluorescence-immunohistochemistry in concert with confocal microscopy, confirmed up-regulation and demonstrated colocalization of TGF-beta1, the mannose 6-phosphate/insulin-like growth factor II receptor, the TGF-beta type I and II receptors, and Smad2/Smad3 in epithelial cells. Nuclear localization of Smad2/Smad3 indicated that the TGF-beta signaling pathway was activated in regressing carcinomas. Subpopulations of Smad2/Smad3-positive and apoptotic nuclei colocalized, indicating a role for Smads in apoptosis. Thus, Smads may serve as a potential biomarker for anticancer activity. Importantly, none of the POH-mediated anticancer activities were observed in normal mammary gland.  (+info)

Stimulation of pregnant rat uterine contraction by the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixture aroclor 1242 may be mediated by arachidonic acid release through activation of phospholipase A2 enzymes. (7/2230)

The polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixture Aroclor 1242 (A1242) increases frequency of contractions of pregnant rat uteri, suggesting a possible mechanism for decreased gestational age and increased spontaneous abortion in women and animals exposed to PCBs. In the present study, we hypothesized that A1242-induced stimulation of uterine contraction is mediated by arachidonic acid released by phospholipase A2 (PLA2) enzymes. Isometric uterine contraction was measured in longitudinal uterine strips isolated from gestation day 10 rat. Pretreatment of uterine strips with the PLA2 inhibitor (E)-6-(bromomethylene)tetrahydro-3-(1-naphthalenyl)-2H-pyran-2-one (HELSS) or manoalide, or an inhibitor of the G protein of PLA2, isotetrandrine, completely prevented the increase of contractile frequency induced by 50 microM A1242. However, the phospholipase C inhibitors 2-nitro-4-carboxyphenyl-N,N-diphenylcarbamate (NCDC) and neomycin were unable to block stimulation of uterine contraction by A1242. In accordance, A1242 (100 microM) did not release inositol phosphates from myo-[3H]inositol-labeled myometrial cells, whereas myometrial cells prelabeled with [3H]arachidonic acid released arachidonic acid in a concentration- and time-dependent manner after exposure to A1242 (10-100 microM). A1242 significantly stimulated arachidonic acid release in the absence of extracellular calcium, although the release was attenuated. Analysis of the eicosanoids released by A1242 indicated that only 0.83% of released [3H]arachidonic acid was metabolized to eicosanoids and 99.07% remained as free arachidonate. Uterine contraction increased in strips exposed to exogenous arachidonic acid (1-100 microM). This study suggests that A1242 stimulates contraction in pregnant rat uterus by a mechanism involving PLA2-mediated arachidonic acid release, and that arachidonic acid, rather than eicosanoids, may mediate A1242 uterotonic action in the uterus.  (+info)

Metabolism of (R)-(+)-pulegone and (R)-(+)-menthofuran by human liver cytochrome P-450s: evidence for formation of a furan epoxide. (8/2230)

(R)-(+)-Pulegone, a monoterpene constituent of pennyroyal oil, is a hepatotoxin that has been used in folklore medicine as an abortifacient despite its potential lethal effects. Pulegone is metabolized by human liver cytochrome P-450s to menthofuran, a proximate hepatotoxic metabolite of pulegone. Expressed human liver cytochrome (CYP) P-450s (1A2, 2A6, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1, and 3A4) were tested for their ability to catalyze the oxidations of pulegone and menthofuran. Expressed CYP2E1, CYP1A2, and CYP2C19 oxidized pulegone to menthofuran, with respective Km and Vmax values of 29 microM and 8.4 nmol/min/nmol P-450 for CYP2E1, 94 microM and 2.4 nmol/min/nmol P-450 for CYP1A2, and 31 microM and 1.5 nmol/min/nmol P-450 for CYP2C19. The human liver P-450s involved in the metabolism of menthofuran are the same as pulegone except for the addition of CYP2A6. These P-450s were found to oxidize menthofuran to a newly identified metabolite, 2-hydroxymenthofuran, which is an intermediate in the formation of the known metabolites mintlactone and isomintlactone. Based on studies with 18O2 and H218O, 2-hydroxymenthofuran arises predominantly from a dihydrodiol formed from a furan epoxide. CYP2E1, CYP1A2, and CYP2C19 oxidized menthofuran with respective Km and Vmax values of 33 microM and 0.43 nmol/min/nmol P-450 for CYP2E1, 57 microM and 0.29 nmol/min/nmol P-450 for CYP1A2, and 62 microM and 0.26 nmol/min/nmol P-450 for CYP2C19.  (+info)

Lupus nephritis (LN) is a representative manifestation in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Some studies have shown that myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) play a vital role in the regulation of the SLE process. MDSC infiltration in the kidney as well as inflammation and oxidative stress provokes the acceleration and deterioration of LN. Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is thought to be a major regulator of the antioxidant response. Baicalein is a flavonoid with known anti-inflammatory effects and antioxidant response. However, the effects of baicalein on MDSCs, inflammation, and oxidative stress are not evaluated in the development of pristane-induced LN in mice. The renoprotective effect of baicalein was detected in a pristane-induced lupus mice model. NLRP3 inflammasome activation and NF-κB phosphorylation as well as reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and Nrf2 activation were examined. The percentages and function changes of MDSCs were measured. The possible mechanisms of the
The recruitment of monocytes to inflamed tissues is critical for host defense against a variety of pathogens; however, this response can be a double-edged sword creating a state of chronic inflammation if not properly regulated (34). Monocyte trafficking is directed by adhesion proteins, chemokines, and their receptors (34), but the mechanisms and factors controlling these molecules have yet to be fully elucidated. Others and we have recently demonstrated in the pristane-induced model of chronic inflammation, which results in the development of lupus-like disease, that mice lacking the transcription factor Irf5 are protected from disease development (19, 26, 36). We found that protection of Irf5−/− mice from lupus onset and pathogenic autoantibody production was due in part to a weakened type I IFN signature and significant skewing of the cytokine milieu toward a more protective Th2-like environment (19). In the present study, we examined the role of IRF5 in the early stages of lupus ...
Results 3 days after pristane application the proportion of cells positive for cleaved caspase 3 was highly increased in draining inguinal lymph nodes of DA.1F rats indicating apoptosis. Interestingly, the apoptosis rate decreased to normal levels as seen as in naïve animals within 2 weeks but draining lymph nodes became extremely hypercellular. In peripheral blood both apoptosis and necrosis rates doubled during the first week after pristane injection. In the acute disease phase four times increased apoptosis and necrosis rates were observed which was in contrast to the draining lymph nodes which normalised during the disease course. The authors could not observe any phagoytosis deficiency in pristane-injected animals rather a strongly increased phagocytosis activity was seen in the acute disease phase. In line with this in vivo data, pristane induced pronounced apoptosis and secondary necrosis in a dose dependent manner when added to cultured rat splenocytes.. ...
Terpenoids, or isoprenoids, are a family of compounds with great structural diversity which are essential for all living organisms. In cyanobacteria, they are synthesized from the methylerythritol-phosphate (MEP) pathway, using glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate and pyruvate produced by photosynthesis as substrates. The products of the MEP pathway are the isomeric five-carbon compounds isopentenyl diphosphate and dimethylallyl diphosphate, which in turn form the basic building blocks for formation of all terpenoids. Many terpenoid compounds have useful properties and are of interest in the fields of pharmaceuticals and nutrition, and even potentially as future biofuels. The MEP pathway, its function and regulation, and the subsequent formation of terpenoids have not been fully elucidated in cyanobacteria, despite its relevance for biotechnological applications. In this review, we summarize the present knowledge about cyanobacterial terpenoid biosynthesis, both regarding the native metabolism and ...
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FIG. 5. (A) Box plots of transcript expression Z scores for the genes in the σ32 heat shock regulon, oxidative stress-regulated genes (OxyR and SoxS oxidative stress regulons), and osmotically induced operons at 1 hour and 3 hours postinduction. The box plots include the Z scores for all genes detected in the respective functional category based upon EcoCyc (40) annotation and gene ontology classification. The local Z score generated from the SNOMAD analysis represents a change value weighted to account for the confidence in the data, and any gene with a Z score with an absolute value of ,1.96 was considered differentially expressed (9). The box plots show the values of the greatest down-regulation, lower quartile (Q1), median, upper quartile (Q3), and largest up-regulation observed for each profile for the regulon or gene group indicated. There were three expression profiles generated in this experiment, as follows: profile A, the 1- and 3-hour-postinduction transcript profile for the ...
Terpenoids are found in many living organisms throughout nature, especially plants, fungi and marine animals.19 If you want to increase your intake of these beneficial compounds via your diet, eating more whole plant foods is an excellent way to start. By eating a wide variety, you can be sure youre consuming a variety of different terpenoids. For example, a list of dietary terpenoids being evaluated for anticancer activity, and their dietary sources, was published in the journal Frontiers in Bioscience:20. ...
65997-00-4 - Terpenes and Terpenoids, turpentine-oil, terpinolene fraction - Searchable synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
Terpenoids (isoprenoids) represent the largest and most diverse class of chemicals among the myriad compounds produced by plants. Plants employ terpenoid metabolites for a variety of basic functions in growth and development but use the majority of terpenoids for more specialized chemical interactio …
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Other names: cis-Geraniol; cis-3,7-Dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-ol; Nerol; Neryl alcohol; 2-cis-3,7-Dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-ol; (Z)-Geraniol; cis-2,6-Dimethyl-2,6-octadien-8-ol; (Z)-3,7-Dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-ol; (Z)-Nerol; 2,6-Octadien-1-ol, 3,7-dimethyl-, (2Z)-; 3,7-Dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-ol, cis-; 2,6-Dimethyl-2,6-octadien-8-ol; 3,7-Dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-ol; Vernol; (2Z)-3,7-Dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-ol; Nerol (cis-geraniol ...
Terpenes and Terpenoids, limonene fraction manufacturers, producers, distributors, companies, organizations, service providers list
My laboratory evaluates mechanisms of immune modulation by novel and established MS therapeutics. We demonstrated for the first time that cholesterol-reducing statins can induce T cell immune modulation and are capable of reversing autoimmune disease in vivo. We demonstrated that atorvastatin inhibits expression of genes involved in Ag presentation as well as genes and proteins involved in T cell immune modulation, effects that occur through inhibition of isoprenoid metabolism, but is independent of cholesterol reduction. This work led us to conduct the first placebo-controlled trial of a statin in MS, an NIH-sponsored multicenter trial that demonstrated oral atorvastatin reduced the risk of developing new brain demyelinating lesions. In our investigation evaluating the mechanism of action of glatiramer acetate (GA, Copolymer-1, Copaxone®), a medication used in MS therapy, my laboratory demonstrated for the first time that type II (M2) myeloid cells could prevent or reverse CNS autoimmune ...
Elevated expression of LL-37 and its activating protease have been described in RA patients (6, 64), and mechanistic studies are beginning to unravel the role of LL-37 in this disease. Periarticular osteopenia is a common finding among patients with RA (65), and LL-37 induces apoptosis of osteoblasts, which could contribute to reduced bone formation in arthritic joints (7). Furthermore, a recent report characterized elevated expression of LL-37 primarily in the osteoclasts and granulocytes within the human RA synovium (66). Using a pristane-induced arthritis model in rats, upregulation of rCRAMP, the rat ortholog of LL-37, was demonstrated in granulocytes, macrophages, and γδ T cells of synovial fluid. Importantly, transfer of pristane-exposed neutrophils induced arthritis, whereas type I IFN or autoantibody responses in control rats did not (66). This suggests that LL-37 may contribute to arthritis development, but further studies are needed to clarify its role.. An association between ...
Terpenes and terpenoids are the primary constituents of the essential oils of many types of plants and flowers. In nature terpenes are often the building blocks for larger and more complex molecules, such as steroids, pigments and vitamins (for example, vitamin A, K, E are terpenoids). The complex mixtures of terpenes
Any properly sourced hemp extract can help with most health problems. However, in order to achieve the synergy effect and the best therapeutic effect, it is recommended to use a combination of different preparations alternately. The most frequently recommended option is a combination of different CBD and CBDA oils, which has a significant impact on the broadening of the range of cannabinoids and an increased terepective effect.. In the case of mild health problems, e.g. 5% oil 10ml (500mg CBD, trace THC, CBC, terpenoids, flavonoids).. In chronic and moderately difficult conditions, e.g. oil 4% 30ml (1200mg CBD, trace THC, CBC, terpenoids, flavonoids) in combination with 15% RAW 10ml (1500mg CBD + CBDA, trace CBC, CBN, CBG, terpenoids, flavonoids) .. In the case of serious health problems, when it is necessary to administer a higher dose, oil 4% 50ml (2000mg CBD, trace THC, CBC, terpenoids, flavonoids) in combination with 20% RAW 10g (2000mg CBD + CBDA, trace CBC, CBN, CBG, terpenoids, ...
What are terpenes? Terpenes are a class of organic compounds produced by plants and insects. Many terpenes are aromatic and create a form of protection for the plant. Terpenes and terpenoids are the primary components of the essential oils of many types of plants and flowers.
Publication date: August 2019Source: Phytochemistry Letters, Volume 32Author(s): Marwa Elsbaey, Chiaki Tanaka, Tomofumi MiyamotoAbstractTwo new oxoindolo diterpene epimers, anthcolorin G 1 and anthcolorin H 2, nine new meroterpenes, (7R,8R)-8-hydroxysydowic acid 4, (7S,10S)-10-hydroxy-sydowic acid 5, (7S,11R)-12-hydroxy-sydowic acid 6, (7S,11R)-12-acetoxy-sydowic acid 7, (7R,8R)-1,8-epoxy-11-hydroxy-sydonic acid 9, 7-deoxy-7,14-didehydro-11-hydroxy-sydonic acid 11, 7-deoxy-7,14-didehydro-12-acetoxy-sydonic acid 14, and (E)-7-deoxy-7,8-didehydro-12-acetoxy-sydonic acid 15, (7R)-11-hydroxy-sydonic acid methyl ester 18, and a ...
Terpenes and terpenoids make up the largest and most diverse class of natural chemicals found in plants. Some complex terpenes can even be found in animals.
Learn the difference between terpenes and terpenoids and their chemical structure affects the cannabis plant as well as your body.
Terpenoids are important for plant survival and also possess biological properties that are beneficial to humans. Here, we describe the state of the art in ...
Herde, Marco et al Identification and Regulation of TPS04/GES, an Arabidopsis Geranyllinalool Synthase Catalyzing the First Step in the Formation of the Insect-Induced Volatile C16-Homoterpene TMTT. The Plant Cell 20.4 (2008): 1152-1168. Web. 17 Feb. 2020. ...
1. 3R-[2-(14)C]Mevalonate was incorporated into geranyl and neryl beta-d-glucosides in petals of Rosa dilecta in up to 10.6… Expand ... is the marketplace for research antibodies. Find the right antibody for your research needs. Geraniol degradation
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The public activities coordination tool (PACT) provides an overview of the substance-specific activities that authorities are working on under REACH and the CLP Regulation. These activities are being carried out in line with ECHAs Integrated Regulatory Strategy.. PACT provides up-to-date information on the activities planned, ongoing or completed by ECHA and/or MSCAs for a given substance in the following areas:. ...
Isoprenoid compounds are the most chemically diverse collection of molecules found in nature. There are currently over 55,000 individual structures, with a larg...
Build your favorite entourage effect: PhytoTerps isolated terpenes are the foundation for terpene exploration. These botanically-sourced terpenes are also the building blocks of PhytoDabs High Terp Isolates custom strain profiles. PhytoTerps are sourced from high-quality plants excluding medical marijuana, and are Gen
Best kush terpenes on the market. No fruity smells, just loud, in-your-face, skunky kush terps. The Triangle Kush strain is one of the most legendary genetics that has contributed to many of todays top strains. This profile is the real deal.
Terpenes and Terpenoids Bulk and Wholesale Informational website, presenting you details of different cannabinoids and terpenoid properties and makeup.
TERPENOIDDefinisi  biosintesis  Klasifikasi  Sifat  manfaat  definisi Terpen adalah senyawa hidrokarbon dengan ru...
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Monoterpenes are found in the essential oils of many plants including fruits, vegetables, and herbs. They prevent the carcinogenesis process at both the initiation and promotion/progression stages. In addition, monoterpenes are effective in treating early and advanced cancers. Monoterpenes such as limonene and perillyl alcohol have been shown to prevent mammary, liver, lung, andother cancers. These compounds have also been used to treat a variety of rodent cancers, including breast and pancreatic carcinomas. In addition, in vitro data suggest that they may be effective in treating neuroblastomas and leukemias. Both limonene and perillyl alcohol are currently being evaluated in phase I clinical trials in advanced cancer patients. The monoterpenes have several cellular and molecular activities that could potentially underlie their positive therapeutic index. The monoterpenes inhibit the isoprenylation of small G proteins. Such inhibitions could alter signal transduction and result in altered gene ...
article{65821d8d-a0ec-488b-9cea-da943297d169, abstract = {A single intradermal injection of the mineral oil pristane in susceptible DA.1F rats induces erosive arthritis closely mimicking rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Pristane-induced arthritis (PIA) is driven by autoreactive T cells but no autoantigen has been identified to date. We therefore analyzed B and T cell responses to autoantigens potentially involved in the pathogenesis of RA, including IgG, citrullinated proteins, stress proteins, glucose-6-phosphate isomerase, and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP)-A2 (RA33). IgG and lgM autoantibodies to hnRNP-A2 were detectable in sera of pristane-primed DA.1F rats already 1 wk before disease onset, reached maximum levels during the acute phase, and correlated with arthritis severity. Apart from rheumatoid factor, autoantibodies to other Ags were not observed. CD4(+) lymph node cells isolated 10 days after pristane injection produced IFN-gamma but not IL-4 in response to stimulation with ...
Isoprenoids are produced by every organism on the planet, and isoprenoids are widely used as pharmaceuticals, flavors and colorants in foods, fragrances in perfumes and colognes, and biofuels. The Keasling Lab has a long history in engineering isoprenoid metabolism in a variety of organisms, including Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, for production of valuable isoprenoids. We have engineered cells with heterologous biosynthesis pathways to increase production of desired final products, discovered novel terpene synthases and terpene modifying enzymes from plants and other organisms, and engineered terpene enzymes to produce unnatural products. One of the signature projects of the Keasling Lab is the engineering of E. coli and S. cerevisiae for production of the antimalarial drug artemisinin. Example publications include:. ...
Currently, statins are the only drugs acting on the mammalian isoprenoid pathway. The mammalian genes in this pathway are not easily amenable to genetic manipulation. Thus, it is difficult to study the effects of the inhibition of various enzymes on the intermediate and final products in the isoprenoid pathway. In fission yeast, antifungal compounds such as azoles and terbinafine are available as inhibitors of the pathway in addition to statins, and various isoprenoid pathway mutants are also available. Here in these mutants, treated with statins or antifungals, we quantified the final and intermediate products of the fission yeast isoprenoid pathway using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry. In hmg1-1, a mutant of the gene encoding 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGR), ergosterol (a final sterol product), and squalene (an intermediate pathway product), were decreased to approximately 80% and 10%, respectively, compared with that of wild-type cells. Consistently
With any new discipline comes corresponding language foreign to what were used to. Within that discipline are sects with their own dialects, such as the analytical cannabis lab, extraction facility, or grow. Like mastering Spanish or American or Sumerian, to extract knowledge requires understanding of what the words mean.. Terpene v. Terpenoid. Often, the word terpene relates many different molecules like limonene or pinene or caryophyllene. Sometimes for simplicity, this term is used even when the molecules arent technically terpenes, but rather terpenoids like linalool or geraniol or fenchol. The difference lay in what elements comprise the molecule. If carbon (C) and hydrogen (H) are the only two elements present, its a terpene. If another element like oxygen (O) is present, its a terpenoid. Alcohols have -OH groups in their molecular structure and their names end in -ol, so geraniol, linalool, bisabolol, etc. are indeed terpene alcohols. These substances may also be dissected into their ...
Neem oil is exceptionally rich and contains a strong odor. It must be diluted accordingly before being added to your products. We recommend experimenting with this oil in small quantities so that the smell does not affect your final product. Below are some examples of how Neem Oil can be used:Foot fungus - add a few drops to a foot bath, foot powder or an ointment formulaDandruff and head lice: Massage into hair and scalp with peanut oil or other carrier oil.In ointments - add a few drops to your healing ointmentIn soaps - use Neem Oil with your base oilsGarden pesticide - In case of acute pest infestation, spray Neem Oil directly onto the leaves of the affected plant. You can also apply the preparation together with the irrigation water over the plant, in which case the plants absorb the oil through their roots and are strengthened from withinAcne - mix a small amount into your facial lotion and apply to problem areasBathtub - mix a few drops into the bath waterInsect repellents: use in lotions to ward
The ability to treat most advanced malignancies with classic cytotoxic DNA-damaging agents is limited, with little curative potential and rare durable remissions. This has led to emphasis on the development of new therapeutic agents with novel mechanisms of action. POH is a monoterpene that has shown preclinical activity in a number of different tumor types, including mammary, pancreatic, stomach, lung, skin, and liver cancers. Although the mechanism of action is not yet clear, a number of potentially important drug-related activities have been observed in preclinical studies, including cellular effects such as an early G1 arrest and the induction of apoptosis, biochemical effects such as the inhibition of post-translational modification of proteins involved in signal transduction, and differential gene regulation with overexpression of the M6P/IGF-II and TGF-β type II receptor genes (15 , 17 , 18 , 21) . Preclinical data suggested that the monoterpenes may have a tumoristatic effect and that ...
Using a pristane-induced murine SLE model, we show that IRF5 is required for the development of ANAs and IC glomerular deposits, two cardinal features of SLE. Similar findings were independently made by another group (26) and were anticipated from studies identifying autoimmune-prone alleles of human IRF5 (19, 20). In the present study, we go beyond the previous by examining IRF5s molecular mechanism in promoting SLE-like autoimmune disease. We demonstrate that the absence of pathogenic ANAs in pristane-treated Irf5−/− mice is likely due to IRF5s direct regulation of class switching to IgG2a in B cells. IgG2a has been demonstrated to be the most potent isotype in mediating pathogenic (and protective) immune processes because of its enhanced induction of FcR-mediated effector functions (12). In particular, we observe that anti-dsDNA and anti-sm IgG2a (and to a lesser extent IgG2b) autoantibodies are reduced or absent in pristane-injected Irf5−/− mice, whereas IgM autoantibodies remain ...
α-Pinene is a monoterpene found in conifers and believed to enhance memory (Perry et al., 2000). α-Pinene did alter neurotransmission, but like limonene, it did reduced CB1 signaling (F(6,84)=3.198, P=0.0071).. Discussion. Terpenoids are cannabinoid-associated terpenes that are continuing to find their way into consumer interests due to their often-claimed therapeutic benefits, though there is little understanding of their actual effects on cannabinoid signaling. We tested several of the more widely promoted terpenes: myrcene, linalool, limonene, α-pinene, and nerolidol in a well-characterized neuronal model that utilizes endogenous cannabinoid signaling. Our chief findings are that most terpenoids either had no effect, or a modest inhibitory effect on cannabinoid signaling at 1μM. The exception was nerolidol, which had dual, opposing effects. Nerolidol reduced cannabinoid signaling, likely by inhibiting endocannabinoid synthesis, but also enhanced maximal CB1 signaling. This suggests that ...
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Terpinolene is a cannabis terpene that displays a piney or woody aroma with hints of herbal spice and citrus. Typically found in sativa strains such as Jack Herer and Afghani terpinolene offers a mildly sedative effect and can reduce anxiety.
Figure 4: Antinociceptive Activity and Redox Profile of the Monoterpenes (+)-Camphene, |i|p|/i|-Cymene, and Geranyl Acetate in Experimental Models
Gutta, P.; Tantillo, D. J. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2005, 44, 2719-2723: Proton Sandwiches: Nonclassical Carbocations with 4-Coordinate Protons. This article was highlighted in the Science Concentrates section of the May 2, 2005 issue of C&EN.. Bojin, M. D.; Tantillo, D. J. J. Phys. Chem. A 2006, 110, 4810-481: Nonclassical Carbocations as C-H Hydrogen Bond Donors Gutta, P.; Tantillo, D. J. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2006, 128, 6172-6179: Theoretical Studies of Farnesyl Cation Cyclization: Pathways to Pentalenene. Hong, Y. J.; Tantillo, D. J. Org. Lett. 2006, 8, 4601-4604: Which is More Likely in Trichodiene Biosynthesis: Hydride or Proton Transfer?. Gutta, P.; Tantillo, D. J. Org. Lett. 2007, 9, 1069-1071: A Promiscuous Proton in Taxadiene Biosynthesis?. Willenbring, D.; Tantillo, D. J. Russ. J. Gen. Chem. 2008, 78, 723-731 (Rossiiskii Khimicheskii Zhurnal 2007, 51, 49-55): Mechanistic Possibilities for Oxetane Formation in the Biosynthesis of Taxols D Ring. Lodewyk, M. W.; Gutta, P.; ...
Gutta, P.; Tantillo, D. J. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2005, 44, 2719-2723: Proton Sandwiches: Nonclassical Carbocations with 4-Coordinate Protons. This article was highlighted in the Science Concentrates section of the May 2, 2005 issue of C&EN.. Bojin, M. D.; Tantillo, D. J. J. Phys. Chem. A 2006, 110, 4810-481: Nonclassical Carbocations as C-H Hydrogen Bond Donors Gutta, P.; Tantillo, D. J. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2006, 128, 6172-6179: Theoretical Studies of Farnesyl Cation Cyclization: Pathways to Pentalenene. Hong, Y. J.; Tantillo, D. J. Org. Lett. 2006, 8, 4601-4604: Which is More Likely in Trichodiene Biosynthesis: Hydride or Proton Transfer?. Gutta, P.; Tantillo, D. J. Org. Lett. 2007, 9, 1069-1071: A Promiscuous Proton in Taxadiene Biosynthesis?. Willenbring, D.; Tantillo, D. J. Russ. J. Gen. Chem. 2008, 78, 723-731 (Rossiiskii Khimicheskii Zhurnal 2007, 51, 49-55): Mechanistic Possibilities for Oxetane Formation in the Biosynthesis of Taxols D Ring. Lodewyk, M. W.; Gutta, P.; ...
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Sial-86485; Terpinolene technical, |=85% (GC); CAS No.: 586-62-9; Synonyms: 4-Isopropylidene-1-methylcyclohexene; p-Menth-1,4(8)-diene; p-Meth-1-en-8-yl-formate; Linear Formula: C10H16; Empirical Formula: C10H16; find related products, papers, technical documents, MSDS & more at Sigma-Aldrich.
Research shows that terpinolene has sedative effects on mice, but it only seems to be present in sativas or sativa-heavy hybrids.
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Garcinol- Garcinol Garcinol is a potent inhibitor of histone acetyl transferases p300 (IC50=7 mM) and pCAF (IC50=5 mM). Induces apoptosis in various cell lines. Promotes expansion of human hematopoietic stem cells. Cell permeable. Physical Properties
Phytocannabinoids, terpenes, and terpenoids are just some of the compounds that affect the reception and experience of cannabis. Lets dive into some cannabis chemistry!
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Pharmaceuticals From Fungi and Plants: The researchers are investigating and engineering the biosynthesis of diverse isoprenoid- and phenylpropanoid derived natural products using enzymes isolated from plants and fungi, to produce chemicals with medicinal properties. A major research area in the group is the biosynthesis of isoprenoid compounds. Isoprenoids represent the largest class of natural products with over 20,000 compounds described. These compounds have a wide range of biological functions and are of industrial and pharmaceutical interest as pharmaceuticals, antioxidants, colorants, vitamins, and aroma compounds. This group is currently investigating the biosynthesis of one group of pharmaceutically important isoprenoids - the sesquiterpenes. These cyclic molecules represent a rich source for the discovery of new pharmaceuticals ...
Article Proposal for a deconvolution procedure for the gas chromatographic estimation of pristane and phytane in marine sediments. In this paper, a deconvolution procedure for improving the quantitative estimation of specific hydrocarbons by chromato...
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Jullyana S.S. Quintans, Saravanan Shanmugam, Luana Heimfarth, Adriano Antunes S. Araújo, Jackson R.G.da S. Almeida, et al.. Monoterpenes modulating cytokines - A review. Food and Chemical Toxicology, Elsevier, 2019, 123, pp.233-257. ⟨hal-01956152⟩ ...
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Terpenes[edit]. Further information: Terpenes. Terpenes and terpenoids of many kinds are found in a variety of medicinal plants ... Wiart, Christopher (2014). Terpenes. Lead Compounds from Medicinal Plants for the Treatment of Neurodegenerative Diseases. pp. ... Tchen, T. T. (1965). "Reviewed Work: The Biosynthesis of Steroids, Terpenes & Acetogenins". American Scientist. 53 (4): 499A- ... Singsaas, Eric L. (2000). "Terpenes and the Thermotolerance of Photosynthesis". New Phytologist. 146 (1): 1-2. doi:10.1046/j. ...
Terpenes[edit]. Hi Shaddack. I've noticed that you've added a couple of terpenes. I've been doing the same, in preparation for ... writing a much more complete article for terpene. I'll hopefully get to it soon. Perhaps this weekend. If you have any ...
He widened the area of his research, adding to it the chemistry of higher terpenes and steroids. After the successful synthesis ... He published his hypothesis, the Biogenetic Isoprene Rule (that the carbon skeleton of terpenes is composed variously of ... With expertise in the terpene field, he became senior lecturer in 1918, and in 1923, honorary professor at the ETH ( ...
Eggersdorfer, Manfred (15 June 2000). "Terpenes". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi: ...
Simonsen, J.; Barton, D. H. R. (1952). The Terpenes. Vol. 111. Cambridge University Press, London. ,volume= has extra text ( ... Büchi, G.; Erickson, R. E.; Wakabyashi, N. (1961). "Terpenes. XVI. Constitution of Patchouli Alcohol and Absolute Configuration ...
"Myrcene Food Grade Natural Terpene". ElevationTerpenes. Retrieved 2020-09-12. "Myrcene Terpene for Extracts, vape and ... Of the several terpenes extracted from Humulus lupulus (hops), the largest monoterpenes fraction is β-myrcene. One Swiss study ... Terpenes arise naturally from dehydration of terpenol geraniol. Plants biosynthesize myrcene via geranyl pyrophosphate (GPP). ... M. Eggersdorfer (2005). "Terpenes". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007. ...
Breitmaier, Eberhand (2007). Terpenes. Wiley-VCH. p. 44. ISBN 978-3-527-60910-9. Retrieved 12 September 2010. Lorenzen, K.; ...
Cuminum cyminum Melaleuca alternifolia Cannabis Origanum syriacum Coriandrum sativum M. Eggersdorfer (2005). "Terpenes". ...
p. 6. ISBN 0-909605-69-6. Eggersdorfer, Manfred (2000). "Terpenes". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: ... "In-vitro inhibition of human erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase by Salvia lavandulaefolia essential oil and constituent terpenes ...
"Terpenes". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a26_205. ISBN 3527306730. ...
This epoxide can be obtained in two steps from the terpene patchoulol and also from borneol. The reaction sequence is also ... Buchi, G.; MacLeod, William D.; Padilla, J. (1964-10-01). "Terpenes. XIX.1 Synthesis of Patchouli Alcohol2". Journal of the ... Büchi, G.; Erickson, R. E.; Wakabayashi, Nobel (1961-02-01). "Terpenes. XVI.1,2 Constitution of Patchouli Alcohol and Absolute ... Patchoulene oxide (1) could be accessed from terpene patchoulol (52) through a series of acid-catalyzed carbocation ...
Herout, Vlastimil; Benesova, Vera; Pliva, Josef (1953). "Terpenes. XLI. Sesquiterpenes of ginger oil". Collection of ...
Record in the GESTIS Substance Database of the Institute for Occupational Safety and Health M. Eggersdorfer (2005). "Terpenes ...
M. Eggersdorfer (2005). "Terpenes". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007. ...
Eggersdorfer, Manfred (2000). "Terpenes". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/ ...
... (/lɪˈnæloʊɒl, laɪ-, -loʊoʊl, -ˈluːl/) refers to two enantiomers of a naturally occurring terpene alcohol found in many ... March 2019). "Analysis of Terpenes in Cannabis sativa L. Using GC/MS: Method Development, Validation, and Application". Planta ... Lavender oil Eggersdorfer, Manfred (2000). "Terpenes". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi ... "The biochemical and molecular basis for the divergent patterns in the biosynthesis of terpenes and phenylpropenes in the ...
As for other terpenes, it is insoluble in water, flammable, colorless, and has a pungent smell. It is a minor constituent of ... "Terpenes". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a26_205. Pino, Jorge A.; ...
... is a monoterpene alcohol that has been isolated from a variety of sources such as cajuput oil, pine oil, and petitgrain oil.[2] There are four isomers: alpha-, beta-, gamma-terpineol, and terpinen-4-ol. Beta- and gamma-terpineol differ only by the location of the double bond. Terpineol is usually a mixture of these isomers with alpha-terpineol as the major constituent. ...
Related terpenes. Valencene Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F ...
Terpene synthase enzymes (many), having in common a terpene synthase N terminal domain (protein domain) ... Simonsen, J. L. (1947). The Terpenes. 1 (2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press. OCLC 477048261.. [page needed] ... Weitkamp, A. W. (1959). "I. The Action of Sulfur on Terpenes. The Limonene Sulfides". Journal of the American Chemical Society ... Limonene is a relatively stable monoterpene and can be distilled without decomposition, although at elevated temperatures it ...
Pine and fir resins are a particularly valued source of terpenes used in the organic synthesis of many other synthetic or ... For example, linalool and coumarin are both naturally occurring compounds that can be inexpensively synthesized from terpenes. ...
Rom terpenes. Orchid scents Ambergris: Lumps of oxidized fatty compounds, whose precursors were secreted and expelled by the ... Pine and fir resins are a particularly valued source of terpenes used in the organic synthesis of many other synthetic or ... For example, linalool and coumarin are both naturally occurring compounds that can be inexpensively synthesized from terpenes. ...
Wallach, O. (1912). "Zur Kenntnis der Terpene und der Ätherischen Öle" [Regarding Terpenes and Essential Oils]. Liebigs Ann. ... Nelson, E. K. "Chapter 5: Oxides: Ascaridole". The Terpenes. 2. CUP Archive. pp. 446-452. Pape, M. (1975). "Industrial ...
De Carvalho, C. C. C. R.; Da Fonseca, M. M. R. (2006). "Carvone: Why and how should one bother to produce this terpene". Food ... Simonsen, J. L. (1953). The Terpenes. 1 (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 394-408. ...
Weitkamp, A. W. (1959). "I. The Action of Sulfur on Terpenes. The Limonene Sulfides". Journal of the American Chemical Society ... ISBN 0-582-06009-5. Booth, Judith K.; Page, Jonathan E.; Bohlmann, Jörg (29 March 2017). Hamberger, Björn (ed.). "Terpene ... Simonsen, J. L. (1947). The Terpenes. 1 (2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press. OCLC 477048261.[page needed] Pakdel, H. (2001 ...
Suchý, M.; Herout, V.; Šorm, F. (1960). "On terpenes. CVI. On hydrogenation products of cynaropicrin, the bitter principle of ...
α-Pinene is an organic compound of the terpene class, one of two isomers of pinene. It is an alkene and it contains a reactive ... α-Pinene is one of the many terpenes and terpenoids found in cannabis plants. These compounds are also present in significant ... It is widely theorized by scientists and cannabis experts alike that these terpenes and terpenoids contribute significantly to ... Simonsen, J. L. (1957). The Terpenes. 2 (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 105-191. PDR for Herbal Medicine ...
TerpenesEdit. *Thymol. *Pine oil. OtherEdit. The biguanide polymer polyaminopropyl biguanide is specifically bactericidal at ...
TerpenesEdit. Further information: Terpenes. Terpenes and terpenoids of many kinds are found in resinous plants such as the ... Tchen, T. T. (1965). "Reviewed Work: The Biosynthesis of Steroids, Terpenes & Acetogenins". American Scientist. Research ... Singsaas, Eric L. (2000). "Terpenes and the Thermotolerance of Photosynthesis". New Phytologist. New York: Wiley. 146 (1): 1-2 ...
Terpenes are fragrant oils that give cannabis its aromatic diversity. Theyre what give Blueberry its signature berry smell and ... Infographic: How Do Cannabis Terpenes Affect the Body?. Presented By Dr. Dabber October 14, 2015 ... Terpenes are by no means unique to cannabis; they can be found in many other herbs, fruits, and plants as well. ... Like cannabinoids, terpenes bind to receptors in the brain and give rise to various effects. The above infographic outlines ...
Researchers examine how terpenes can inhibit growth of liver cancer cells As main component of essential oils, terpenes can ... A central class of compounds are terpenes. More than 8000 terpenes and about 30,000 of the related terpenoids are currently ... Sativa Investments completes 1000th cannabinoid and terpenes test at PhytoVista Laboratories Sativa Investments PLC, the UKs ... one of the nations largest diversified media and information companies in the cannabis space and publisher of Terpenes and ...
TERPENE. FOUND IN. EFFECTS / USES. SOURCE (Study). SENTENCE CONFIRMING THE EFFECT (Include Terpene/Cannabinoid). FUN FACTS. ... Terpenes such as myrcene may constitute a lead for the development of new peripheral analgesics with a profile of action ... Terpenes such as myrcene may constitute a lead for the development of new peripheral analgesics with a profile of action ... The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of thyme is apparently related to its terpenes type components such as, myrcene ...
Check out Terpenes and Testing Magazines events, learn more, or contact this organizer. ... Terpenes and Testing Magazine is using Eventbrite to organize upcoming events. ...
Terpene (ro); Category:Terpenes and terpenoids (en); تصنيف:تيربينات (ar); பகுப்பு:டெர்பீன்கள் மற்றும் டெர்பினாய்டுகள் (ta); ... English: A terpene is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon based on combinations of the isoprene unit. Terpenoids are compounds ... Media in category "Terpenes and terpenoids". The following 11 files are in this category, out of 11 total. ... Categoría:Terpenos y terpenoides (es); Категория:Терпены и терпеноиды (ru); Kategorie:Terpenoid (de-ch); Category:Terpenes and ...
New and upcoming brand announces the release of their highly sought after CBD infused tinctures with terpenes. The ... Each terpene contained has the potential to produce calming, energizing and memory boosting effects. This is why we felt naming ... The Relief Leaf oil is now available in 1,000 mg of CBD and a specific isolated terpene is contained in each bottle for taste ... In addition, terpenes enhance the effect of the CBD, known as the entourage effect and carry their own benefits. ...
This approach is illustrated using the conidiogenone family of terpenes as a representative case; however, this framework ... demonstrated here on a series of polycyclic terpenes. ... guided synthesis of complex polycyclic terpenes. *Pengfei Hu1 ... Hu, P., Chi, H.M., DeBacker, K.C. et al. Quaternary-centre-guided synthesis of complex polycyclic terpenes. Nature 569, 703-707 ... This approach is illustrated using the conidiogenone family of terpenes as a representative case; however, this framework ...
Terpenes are a class of unsaturated aliphatic hydrocarbons distinguished by at least one branched 5-carbon ring structure (an ... General information regarding the class of terpenes, An article on ... Terpenes are insoluble in water, but dissolve in alcohol. The lighter terpenes are volatile and aromatic. These are derived ... Steroids and xanthophylls are larger molecules that contain terpene structures. A few terpenes with which you might already be ...
Clove leaf oil terpenes. Click here for all products containing this ingredient ...
Make research projects and school reports about Terpenes easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and ... Terpenes. Terpenes (terpenoids) are a very large family of plant compounds that play a variety of roles in many different ... terpenes A group of unsaturated hydrocarbons present in plants (see essential oil). Terpenes consist of isoprene units, CH2:C( ... In many cases, the molecules that bring those scents to your nose are terpenes. Terpenes are a class of molecules that ...
The reduction of the tosylate of filipendulol (2,7,7-trimethylbicyclo[3.1.1]hept-2-en-6-ol) with lithium tetrahydroaluminate in ether has given a hydrocarbon (I), C10H16 (bp 66.5°C/50 mm, nD20...
Columbia Care presents Talking Terpenes: Connecting Food and Cannabis - Thursday, January 17, 2019 , Saturday, January 19, 2019 ... Talking Terpenes: Connecting Food and Cannabis. Join us for the next installment of the "Talking Terpenes" series instructed by ... Patients will be guided through terpene benefits, dosing suggestions and a live jucing demo to lead you into a healthy New Year ... Talking Terpenes: Connecting Food and Cannabis at Columbia Care Illinois 4758 North Milwaukee Avenue, Chicago, IL 60630 ...
Terpenes are aromatic compounds found in different herbs and plants around the world. When used in tandem with with CBD, they ... Whys that? It has to do with terpenes. What are terpenes?. When you peel an orange in your kitchen, theres a citrusy smell. ... Terpenes are responsible for these scents. Terpenes are aromatic compounds found in many different herbs and plants around the ... Filed Under: Innovation, Lifestyle, Health, CBD, sponsored, CBD oil, terpenes, cbd terpenes, Colorado Botanicals ...
Terpene definition is - any of various isomeric hydrocarbons C10H16 found present in essential oils (as from conifers) and used ... Comments on terpene. What made you want to look up terpene? Please tell us where you read or heard it (including the quote, if ... Other Words from terpene. terpeneless \ ˈtər-​ˌpēn-​ləs \ adjective terpenoid \ ˈtər-​pə-​ˌnȯid , ˌtər-​ˈpē-​ \ adjective or ... Post the Definition of terpene to Facebook Share the Definition of terpene on Twitter ...
XXX OG Terpenes are one of the most popular and highly potent strains of Terpenes on the market. XXX OG Terpenes have been ... Plant Terpenes. Organic terpenes are spherical-shaped flowers. They come with a dense and heavy bud structure like the typical ... It has a terpene flavor similar to the fresh soil and pine along with lemon. And lastly, it is considered as the daughter of ... On burning organic terpenes forms a smooth smoke for an indica. You will feel a cloyingly sweet and peppery when you inhale it ...
... terpenes can be found in food additives for flavor and in cosmetics for pleasant scents. In addition, these plant compounds ... In aromatherapy, the power of terpenes is harnessed through our sense of smell. In massage, essential oils transmit terpenes ... terpenes. Pronounced "ter-peenz," the word probably isnt part of your daily conversation, but the effects of terpenes are very ... come from the terpenes within these plants. And terpenes in essential oils give each one its unique characteristics and ...
A few terpenes are linked "tail to tail", and larger branched terpenes may be linked "tail to mid". Formula Strictly speaking ... The term "terpene" was coined in 1866 by the German chemist August Kekulé. The name "terpene" is a shortened form of " ... The one terpene that has major applications is natural rubber (i.e. polyisoprene). The possibility that other terpenes could be ... Terpenoids are terpenes that have been modified with (usually oxygen-containing) functional groups. The terms terpenes and ...
Terpenes in marijuana vaping products may produce toxic chemicals. The natural terpenes in marijuana are removed during ... Terpenes are more liquid, and adding them makes the cannabinoids more tractable and easier to manage." RELATED Study links ... Terpenes are found in the essential oils of some plants, particularly conifers and citrus. They are the compound that "gives ... Terpenes, removed from marijuana during distillation, are often added back to e-liquids used for vape cartridges and other ...
New research at Brown University and in Japan suggests bacteria could be a rich source of terpenes, the natural compounds ... Since the discovery of terpenes more than 150 years ago, scientists have isolated some 50,000 different terpene compounds ... terpenes More in Chemistry & Physics. * Nanoscale sculpturing leads to unusual packing of nanocubes DOE/Brookhaven National ... Bacteria could be rich source for making terpenes. Brown University. Journal. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. ...
This study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41506187), the Hunan Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China (2015JJ3176), and a project supported by the Scientific Research Fund of Hunan Provincial Education Department (16C1674). ...
The resulting terpene based unsaturated polyester resins were afterwards crosslinked via UV-irradiation to yield polyester ... To showcase the inherent potential of terpenes as a source material for novel biopolymers, α-pinene was transformed into ...
Sequences containing this domain belong to the terpene synthase family. It has been suggested that this gene family be ... designated tps (for terpene synthase). Sequence comparisons reveal similarities between the monoterpene (C10) synthases, ...
Archives for terpenes. Medical marijuana dispensary Maui Grown Therapies holds first of two open houses. April 10, 2017. by ...
These terpenes will provide better performance than existing petroleum-based aviation fuels. Allylix will draw upon their ... Evolva - High Performance Aviation Fuels from Terpenes Gas Technology Institute (GTI) - Efficient Natural Gas-to-Methanol ... Allylix (now Evolva) is producing terpenes--energy dense molecules that can be used as high-performance aviation fuels--from ... industrial-scale terpene manufacturing experience to produce aviation sesquiterpenes at a low cost and large scale. Going ...
... Players Astrra Chemicals, Arora Aromatics - published on ... Introduction about Global Terpenes Global Terpenes Market Size (Sales) Market Share by Type (Product Category) in 2017 Terpenes ... Terpenes Manufacturing Cost Analysis Terpenes Key Raw Materials Analysis Terpenes Chain, Sourcing Strategy and Downstream ... Global Terpenes Market Analysis 2012-2017 and Forecast 2018-2023 Terpenes are a large and diverse class of organic compounds, ...
Other terpene tonics that are high in α-pinene and terpinolene will give you a more uplifting effect, he adds. The terpene ... True Terpenes sources its terpenes from other natural products, such as getting linalool from lavender and limonene from citrus ... "For our edibles, we dont want all those terpenes in there," Reed says. The smell and taste of the terpenes, which can be quite ... Today, Heldreth is the chief science officer at True Terpenes, an Oregon-based company that markets terpenes to companies that ...
Heres how L.A. entrepreneurs are using cannabis terpenes in food and cocktails. ... Terpenes are an organic compound found in plants, and even some insects, that gives weed its notable aroma and flavor. ... The answer, without going down a scientific rabbit hole, is terpenes. A terpene is an organic compound found in all plants - ... opened the Terpene Lab in downtown L.A. Jones business now consists largely of selling terpenes wholesale to companies ...
Since terpenes are most representative of carbocyclic compounds found in nature and characterized by intricate assays of ring ... and up-to-date discussion of the major ring-forming processes used in synthesis takes its examples from the terpene field. ...
Company Looks to Secure Intellectual Property Rights for Terpene-Based Pesticide. LAS VEGAS, March 11, 2019 /PRNewswire/ -- ... Terpenes are major components of plant derived essential oils and have been used by humans for thousands of years. Natural ... "We sought to take advantage of the production of terpenes by cannabis plants as naturally-derived microbial control agents," ... "A METHOD OF DETERMINING TERPENE-BASED BIOCONTROL AGENTS FOR CANNABIS AND HEMP." This application relates to a method of using ...
Focusing on the terpenes, the largest class of plant natural products, we investigate the basis of terpene diversity through ... Plant terpene diversification. Alexander M. Boutanaev, Tessa Moses, Jiachen Zi, David R. Nelson, Sam T. Mugford, Reuben J. ... Plant terpene diversification. Alexander M. Boutanaev, Tessa Moses, Jiachen Zi, David R. Nelson, Sam T. Mugford, Reuben J. ... which synthesize and modify terpene scaffolds. Here, focusing on these two gene families, we investigate terpene synthesis and ...
  • Terpenoids are compounds related to terpenes, which may include some oxygen functionality or some rearrangement, however the two terms are often used interchangeably. (
  • Terpenes (terpenoids) are a very large family of plant compounds that play a variety of roles in many different plants. (
  • Although sometimes used interchangeably with "terpenes", terpenoids (or isoprenoids) are modified terpenes that contain additional functional groups, usually oxygen-containing. (
  • Terpenoids are terpenes that have been modified with (usually oxygen-containing) functional groups. (
  • The terms terpenes and terpenoids are used interchangeably by some. (
  • The inventory of terpenes and terpenoids is estimated at 55,000 chemical entities. (
  • Terpenes and terpenoids are also the primary constituents of the essential oils of many types of plants and flowers. (
  • In plants, terpenes and terpenoids are important mediators of ecological interactions. (
  • For example, turpentine, a mixture of terpenes (e.g. pinene), obtained from the distillation of pine tree resin, is used an organic solvent and as a chemical feedstock (mainly for the production of other terpenoids). (
  • Terpenoids (mono-, sesqui-, di-, etc.) have similar physical properties but tend to be more polar and hence slightly more soluble in water and somewhat less volatile than their terpene analogues. (
  • Terpenes, terpenoids, terps. (
  • When terpenes are modified chemically, such as by oxidation or rearrangement of the carbon skeleton, the resulting compounds are generally referred to as terpenoids . (
  • Some authors will use the term terpene to include all terpenoids. (
  • Terpenes and terpenoids are the primary constituents of the essential oils of many types of plants and flowers. (
  • Synthetic variations and derivatives of natural terpenes and terpenoids also greatly expand the variety of aromas used in perfumery and flavors used in food additives. (
  • Molecules derived from modification of terpenes (such as by oxidation ) are called terpenoids or isoprenoids , although the term 'terpene' is often taken to include terpenoids as well. (
  • Terpenes and terpenoids are often categorized by the number of apparent isoprene units they contain, even though these molecules are not derived directly from isoprene itself. (
  • The partition coefficient of the test substance, Terpenes and terpenoids, turpentine oil, aplha-pinene fraction, dimers (greater than 99%), was determined to be greater than 3.16 x 10^6, log10 Pow >6.5. (
  • The partition coefficient of the test substance, Terpenes and terpenoids, turpentine oil, alpha-terpene fraction, dimers was carried out using the HPLC method in a process compatible with Method A.8 Partition Coefficient of Commission Regulation (EC) No. 440/2008 of 30 May 2008, Method 117 of the OECD guidelines for Testing of Chemicals, 13 April 2004 and Method 830.7570 of the OCSPP Guidelines, August 1996. (
  • Terpenes/terpenoids are present in cannabis and there is some attention to them of late. (
  • Terpenes, or terpenoids, are compounds that give many plants their distinctive flavors and aromatic qualities. (
  • Terpenes and Terpenoids [Working Title]. (
  • Terpenes with rearrangements in their carbon skeleton are referred to as terpenoids. (
  • There are not many reports on microbial transformation of terpenoids by fungi of the Aspergillus genus, although their ability to transform terpenes is recognised. (
  • However, when a plant is dried out or placed through a curing process, the terpenes are broken down through the process of oxidization and metamorphose into terpenoids. (
  • As much as 50% of terpenes or terpenoids can be lost forever with evaporation affecting the quality of taste and smell. (
  • Terpenes are aromatic compounds found in many different herbs and plants around the world. (
  • There is an entourage effect in cannabis where the different cannabinoids, flavonoids, terpenes and other compounds play off and increase each other's therapeutic effects and values. (
  • Terpenes (/ˈtɜːrpiːn/) are a class of natural products consisting of compounds with the formula (C5H8)n. (
  • The compounds, known as terpenes, are added into pure THC distillations to dilute the product and provide the vapor with aroma and taste, said senior researcher Robert Strongin, a professor of organic chemistry at Portland State University in Oregon. (
  • Since the discovery of terpenes more than 150 years ago, scientists have isolated some 50,000 different terpene compounds derived from plants and fungi. (
  • Testing all 262 wasn't practical, so the team chose a few they thought might give them the best chance of finding terpene compounds that hadn't previously been identified. (
  • Since terpenes are most representative of carbocyclic compounds found in nature and characterized by intricate assays of ring structures, they are the most attractive and challenging targets for synthesis and a testing ground for defining the limitation of annulation techniques. (
  • Terpenes] are typically complex cyclic compounds that are very diffi cult to synthesize. (
  • New natural roles undoubtedly remain to be discovered for this large class of compounds, given that such a small percentage of terpenes has been investigated so far. (
  • Terpenes are a diverse class of chemical compounds produced by a variety of plants. (
  • Although plants are the natural source of terpene compounds, engineered microbial platforms would be the most convenient and cost-effective approach for large-scale production of advanced biofuels. (
  • Next steps for the researchers include using the pathway to make terpenes that are new to nature for use in compounds that are too expensive to manufacture with current methods. (
  • Terpenes are a large and diverse class of organic compounds, produced by a variety of plants, particularly conifers , and by some insects. (
  • Of all the aroma compounds found in wine, terpenes seem to get the most attention and study. (
  • All grapes have terpenes-some bursting with them, others in quantities below sensory threshold, where they still may work synergistically with other compounds to affect aroma in indirect ways. (
  • Most terpene-related wine conversations focus on what are known as monoterpenes (think floral, rose, and citrus) that are just one part of a diverse family of aroma compounds called isoprenoids. (
  • So terpenes are aromatic compounds - but why are they springing up all of a sudden in all my nerdy news feeds? (
  • The entourage effect simply means that cannabinoids such as THC and CBD, along with the hundreds of other compounds, along with the terpenes, are meant to work together. (
  • Utilizing all the compounds and terpenes in the plant may just be the best way after all. (
  • Terpenes are organic compounds that give plants their unique smell. (
  • Not limited to the main compounds of CBD and THC, or even the composition of other cannabinoids, terpenes may play a vital role in the therapeutic applications of different varieties of medical cannabis and hemp. (
  • Terpenes are by no means the only volatile organic compounds that are in for a good chat. (
  • Experts say the emotional and physical benefits of certain terpenes can be felt after forest bathing (which actually doesn't involve any water) , using essential oils with a high concentration of the compounds, and yes, smoking cannabis. (
  • These terpenes are organic compounds that are responsible for the highly aromatic fragrances found in all sorts of flora, commonly including trees, flowers, herbs, spices, and fruits. (
  • True Terpenes is a leader in precision botanical terpene blends using pure, food grade isolated compounds derived from non-cannabis sources. (
  • The ancient spice routes and related economies owe much of their existence to the terpenes found in highly-prized herbs and spices, due to the strong smells associated with many of these organic compounds. (
  • Terpenes are compounds that contribute to the flavor and scent of marijuana. (
  • But it turns out marijuana produces another group of compounds called terpenes. (
  • Terpenes are known to interact with THC and CBD, the main active compounds in marijuana. (
  • While terpenes are potent enough to cause their own range of effects, they also act in concert with other compounds found in cannabis. (
  • The unique aromas and flavors of different cannabis strains are a result of compounds known as terpenes. (
  • The biotransformation of terpenes is of interest because it allows production of enantiomerically pure compounds under mild conditions. (
  • Terpene compounds are widely used in aromatherapy, but they also seem to have their own effects. (
  • Douglas-fir beetle attack increased emissions and concentrations of terpene compounds linked to increased tree flammability in other conifer species and compounds known to attract beetles (e.g., a-pinene, camphene, and D-limonene). (
  • The diverse palate of cannabis flavors is impressive enough, but arguably the most fascinating characteristic of terpenes is their ability to interact synergistically with other compounds in the plant, like cannabinoids. (
  • Each bottle contains a terpene such as: Linalool for a calming effect (CALM), Pinene for focusing the mind, (FOCUS) and (ELEVATE) for energy in addition to the overall benefits of the CBD oil. (
  • Varnish for musical instruments like violins can be made largely from the terpene pinene. (
  • To showcase the inherent potential of terpenes as a source material for novel biopolymers, α-pinene was transformed into different monomers and subsequently polymerized. (
  • Terpenes commonly found in cannabis strains include Pinene (which smells like a pine forest and is the most traditionally dank smell), limonene (which has a bright, citrusy vibe) and Humulene (a hoppy, woodsy aroma). (
  • The brand sent me a list of active terpenes with their supposed medical applications (lavender aroma relaxes you, pinene is anti-inflammatory, limonene is antibacterial, etc). (
  • Here we describe the isolation and analysis of six genomic clones encoding terpene synthases of conifers, [(-)-pinene (C 10 ), (-)-limonene (C 10 ), ( E )-α-bisabolene (C 15 ), δ-selinene (C 15 ), and abietadiene synthase (C 20 ) from Abies grandis and taxadiene synthase (C 20 ) from Taxus brevifolia ], all of which are involved in natural products biosynthesis. (
  • The company is best known for their Precision Strain Profiles which replicate the taste, aroma and effects of cannabis utilizing terpenes from other botanicals such as lavender (Linalool), hops (Beta-Caryophyllene) or pine (Alpha Pinene). (
  • Terpene/C5 hydrocarbon resin is α-pinene&β-pinene modified C5 hydrocarbon resin by chemical process. (
  • MTD series terpene-phenolic resin obtained by catalytic polymerization the turpentine or α -pinene with phenol etc. (
  • Limonene, a terpene found in citrus fruits and peppermint, has a mood-elevating effect, while pinene, found in sage and conifers has been shown to aid in alertness and memory retention. (
  • Bee Chill combines the fresh, earthy terpene nerolidol with the most common terpene in the world, pinene, and the sweet citrus smell and taste of geraniol into one 4 oz. or 8 oz. jar of organic, natural honey. (
  • Bee Fluid consists of the terpenes myrcene, humulene and pinene, giving Bee Fluid an herbal aroma, delivering a powerful anti-inflammatory boost that is all-natural and tastes delicious. (
  • The high density of coniferous trees native to the region release terpenes (Pinene), especially in warm weather, which reacts with natural ozone to produce this hazy blue appearance (with the help of atmospheric filtering). (
  • Pinene: This terpene is commonly found in the resin of pine trees. (
  • What is Pinene and What are the Benefits of This Cannabis Terpene? (
  • Terpenes are fragrant oils that give cannabis its aromatic diversity. (
  • The lighter terpenes are volatile and aromatic . (
  • According to John, the entourage effect is the idea that each of the cannabinoids and terpenes (aromatic essential oils) that are naturally present in cannabis plants are necessary to help medical patients reap the maximum benefits from the plant. (
  • True Terpenes is a Portland, Oregon based company that specializes in providing custom terpene-based aromatic flavors. (
  • Terpenes are volatile aromatic molecules found in essential oils that give plants their unique aromas and flavors. (
  • Each terpene has unique properties and interactions with the nervous system and the human body, and terpenes as a whole are responsible for many of the immediate actions of aromatic herbs. (
  • This is LTRMN's first vape line and True Terpenes made it easy to get started with a combination of turnkey aromatic solutions and custom profiles. (
  • Terpenes are the aromatic oils that cause many of the different scents and flavors in marijuana. (
  • Terpenes Are Aromatic Essential Oils Created By All Plants, And Cannabis Has Hundreds Of Them THE STRANGER: THC Is Not What You Think It Is - Stop Talking About THC - Seattle WA. (
  • Terpenes such as myrcene may constitute a lead for the development of new peripheral analgesics with a profile of action different from that of the aspirin-like drugs. (
  • The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of thyme is apparently related to its terpenes type components such as, myrcene, camphene and pcymene (Table I), since there is a relationship between the chemical structures of the most abundant oils and their antimicrobial activities. (
  • Indeed, the claim that myrcene, the main terpene in cannabis, somehow increases THC delivery to the brain is based on absolutely nothing, sorry folks. (
  • Myrcene is the most common terpene and is believed to contribute to the sedative "couch-lock" effect of indica strains. (
  • Ingesting the terpene myrcene, for example, generally gives users a sedated feeling-it can be so potent, in fact, that smoking a sativa-dominant strain high in myrcene could give someone the exact opposite of the racy, uplifting feeling commonly associated with sativa strains. (
  • The above infographic outlines properties of six common cannabis terpenes along with a few strains that tend to express notable levels of each. (
  • XXX OG Terpenes are one of the most popular and highly potent strains of Terpenes on the market. (
  • XXX OG Terpenes have been around a long time and were found in older strains of cannabis, now they are being extracted and used to flavor edibles, oils, and vape cartridges. (
  • We spent an afternoon sampling two strains per cookie, and found most of them tasted great (did you know terpenes that smell of fuel can blunt menthol's burn? (
  • By infusing the CBD with terpenes, Green Roads is able to tailor-make strains that provide maximum relief. (
  • Looking at data from different cannabis samples and trying to observe differences in terpene content between strains, some labs began making unsubstantiated claims regarding terpenes. (
  • Nevertheless, connoisseurs began to demand higher terpene contents for the flavor, the "medical benefits" and this popular idea that terpenes modulate the effect of cannabinoids in the brain and are responsible for the perceived subjective effects of different strains. (
  • Strains that have an abundance of this terpene are suitable for the management of depression, inflammation, pain, and anxiety. (
  • These hemp terpenes are found in the following strains. (
  • It's believed that the terpenes present in various strains of cannabis enhance the effect of cannabinoids like THC and CBD. (
  • By implementing engineered yeast strains capable of biosynthesizing some of these terpenes, their team was able to reproduce the same hoppy flavor without actually adding the hops. (
  • These terpenes are responsible for the different smells in the marijuana plant, and may have an impact on the effects of individual strains. (
  • Terpene profiles may someday be used to categorize different strains, providing users with more knowledge and freedom of choice. (
  • Terpenes are a genetic trait, making them an excellent tool for identifying and distinguishing strains, clones, and hybrids. (
  • This is part of why terpene profiles are so useful as a way to identify strains. (
  • While it makes up the bulk of the terpenes in most cannabis strains it's actually not responsible entirely for the "bud" smell. (
  • A terpene responsible for the strong smell of pine trees, it's also found in significant qualities in some strains of cannabis. (
  • This has led many to believe that terpenes may play a key role in differentiating the effects of various cannabis strains. (
  • Steroid s and xanthophylls are larger molecules that contain terpene structures. (
  • In many cases, the molecules that bring those scents to your nose are terpenes. (
  • Allylix (now Evolva) is producing terpenes--energy dense molecules that can be used as high-performance aviation fuels--from simple sugars using engineered microbes. (
  • So Ryan began researching the process, experimenting with extraction, and through trial and error came up with a system that uses cold temperatures to keep the full terpene profile intact - high heat can destroy some terpene molecules, he says. (
  • Terpenes are a large class of naturally occurring molecules that are useful in industries ranging from pharmaceuticals and cosmetics to food and biofuels. (
  • Terpenes are difficult to biosynthesize because nature's methods for making the building blocks of these molecules are lengthy, complicated and involve enzymes that are difficult to engineer," says Gavin Williams, associate professor of chemistry at NC State and lead author of a paper describing the work. (
  • a simplified definition says: Terpenes are easily evaporated fragile scent molecules used by plants, fungi, and other living organisms to attract pollinators (Roses), repel herbivores (Lemons), and attract predators of herbivores (1). (
  • Now that we have a "taste" of what terpenes are and what they can offer, we will dig further into the uses for terpenes in our next post, when we discuss the purported medicinal properties of these amazing molecules. (
  • Learn more about our portfolio of terpene certified reference materials, which can support your analytical testing for these remarkable molecules, on our webshop . (
  • Terpenes are group of hydrocarbons (organic molecules made up of hydrogen and carbon) found principally in essential oils from many plants, responsible for the captivating aromas and tastes. (
  • This dank series uses strain specific terpenes (flavor molecules) plus organic hemp flavors to mimic real marijuana strain smells. (
  • The ozonolysis of limonene yielded the carboxylic acids: limonic acid and pinic acid and the carbonyls: 1-(4-methylcyclohex-3-en-1-yl)ethanone (4AMCH), glyoxal, methyl glyoxal, 4-oxopentanal and 6-oxo-3-(prop-1-en-2-yl)heptanal (IPOH). (
  • Prank Bar makes cocktails, such as the "Mon Frere," a mix of Plymouth Gin Cocchi Americano, limonene terpenes and Regan's Orange Bitter (I'm no mixologist, but isn't it redundant to add limonene to a drink that already has orange bitters? (
  • The primary ingredient is limonene, a powerful antimicrobial terpene commonly found in citrus peels. (
  • CBD Expo Tour 2019 produced by Mace Media Group, one of the nation's largest diversified media and information companies in the cannabis space and publisher of Terpenes and Testing Magazine, today announced CBD Lion as the Headline Sponsor for CBD Expo MIDWEST in Indianapolis, Indiana to take place on March 15-16, 2019. (
  • CBD Expo Tour 2019, produced by MACE Media Group, one of the nation's largest diversified media and information companies in the cannabis space and publisher of Terpenes and Testing Magazine, announced Celeste Miranda and Adam Dr. Adam Abodeely, MD, MBA, FACS, FASCRS will be the keynote speakers for CBD Expo MIDWEST in Indianapolis, Indiana to take place on March 15-16, 2019. (
  • This brand new research report with title Global Terpenes Market Research Report 2019 provides 100+ in-depth tables, charts and graphs that will help you make better informed strategic decisions. (
  • What are the benefits of terpenes? (
  • To get the benefits of terpenes elsewhere, check the ingredient list on essential oils for lavender, sage, lemon, and peppermint, or take a hike (two hours is enough to reap the benefits) through a coniferous forest for some next level #naturetherapy . (
  • In fact, cannabinoids and terpenes work together in something called the entourage effect. (
  • That's another aspect of the entourage effect, which is driven by both cannabinoids and terpenes. (
  • The flowers have the highest potency of active ingredients, also called cannabinoids and terpenes. (
  • What role do cannabis plant hairs play in the production of cannabinoids and terpenes? (
  • When choosing a strain based on its terpene content, keep in mind that different harvests may demonstrate dramatically different terpenoid profiles due to variances in growing and curing techniques. (
  • The primary drivers of terpene diversification are terpenoid synthases and cytochromes P450, which synthesize and modify terpene scaffolds. (
  • The primary drivers of terpene diversification are terpenoid synthase (TS) "signature" enzymes (which generate scaffold diversity), and cytochromes P450 (CYPs), which modify and further diversify these scaffolds, so paving the way for further downstream modifications. (
  • Three distinct classes of terpene synthase genes were discerned, from which assumed patterns of sequential intron loss and the loss of an unusual internal sequence element suggest that the ancestral terpenoid synthase gene resembled a contemporary conifer diterpene synthase gene in containing at least 12 introns and 13 exons of conserved size. (
  • These three acyclic prenyl diphosphates serve as the immediate precursors of the corresponding monoterpenoid (C 10 ), sesquiterpenoid (C 15 ), and diterpenoid (C 20 ) classes, to which they are converted by a very large group of enzymes called the terpene (terpenoid) synthases. (
  • This whole terpene craze seemingly started with a review published in the British Journal of Pharmacology in 2011, titled, "Taming THC: potential cannabis synergy and phytocannabinoid-terpenoid entourage effects. (
  • In aromatherapy, the power of terpenes is harnessed through our sense of smell. (
  • The natural terpenes in marijuana are removed during distillation to produce pure THC for e-liquids and concentrates, and then added back in for taste and smell. (
  • Terpenes, removed from marijuana during distillation, are often added back to e-liquids used for vape cartridges and other products for taste and smell. (
  • Simply put, terpenes are what gives an orange its citrusy smell. (
  • Group leader Paolina Garbeva explains: "Serratia, a soil bacterium, can smell the fragrant terpenes produced by Fusarium, a plant pathogenic fungus. (
  • Simply put, terpenes are the reasons plants smell and taste the way they do. (
  • The smell and taste of an orange, lemon, mango, and even hemp or marijuana are due to the presence of specific terpenes that inform their particular flavors and aromas. (
  • Besides their essential functions, it is the terpenes in plants that induce the body to release hormones that may change the physical, mental, or emotional state of those who smell or taste them. (
  • The peace you feel when you walk through a pine plantation, or when you smell lavender is due to terpenes. (
  • For years it was thought that people benefited from inhaling terpenes because our olfactory system, or sense of smell, is tied to emotional centres in the brain, thus having a positive effect on our mood," says Kaplan. (
  • Florida Honey Pot Farms is combining the known medicinal benefits of CBD and home-grown Florida honey with more than one favorite terpene strain, giving each of their Bee Chill, Bee Fluid and Bee Relieved collections a distinct smell, taste and differentiating effect. (
  • In fact, terpenes are a plants way of warning predators through smell. (
  • Let's not forget, of course, that terpenes also are present in wines and cannabis and regulate the taste and smell of these products. (
  • However, there is more to terpenes than just the regulation of smell and taste, as they also provide therapeutic benefits. (
  • Terpenes are what you smell, and knowing what they are will deepen your appreciation of cannabis whether you're a medical patient or recreational consumer. (
  • True Terpenes is the first cannabis flavoring and terpene supply company to pass inspection for GMP, ISO 9001:2015 and FSSC 22000. (
  • These certifications verify that True Terpenes operations are working to improve supply chain safety. (
  • True Terpenes recognizes the importance of food safety throughout the food supply chain at all stages: sourcing, storage, handling, processing, packaging, and distribution. (
  • By implementing world-class safety and quality systems, True Terpenes becomes the only botanical terpene supply company to earn the coveted ISO 9001:2015 and FSSC 22000 certifications. (
  • True Terpenes is also third party GMP (Good Manufacturing Practices) audited, recently garnering a score of 97 percent. (
  • It also has opened the door to work with large non-cannabis companies that are interested in the cannabis angle but require high-level supply chain control," says True Terpenes CEO, Chris Campagna. (
  • says True Terpenes Marketing Director Benjamin Disinger. (
  • True Terpenes believes the answer to the current health crisis is to implement existing regulations that help assure our food, supplements and medications are safe for consumption. (
  • True Terpenes has invested heavily in this belief. (
  • Employees are properly trained on Food Defense, GMP and standard operating procedures to ensure the integrity, safety and quality of our products," says True Terpenes Chief Compliance Officer Alesya Bradley. (
  • All True Terpenes products come with SDS (Safety Data Sheets), COA (Certificates of Analysis) and have been tested to exceed the varying standards in the state cannabis markets. (
  • True Terpenes supports these efforts to increase regulations and oversight of ingredients used in the cannabis and food industries," says True Terpenes CSO David Heldreth. (
  • True Terpenes is actively working with state regulators to convince them on the importance of adopting quality manufacturing benchmarks such as GMP. (
  • He is a founding partner of the GreenWay Cannabis Network and True Terpenes - a cannabis research and development think tank. (
  • Leading Oregon Cannabis Brand House LTRMN Launches True Terpenes Product Line LTRMN recently launched Bezel, which focuses on clean, quality vape cartridges that take the guesswork out of buying. (
  • Each Bezel product features True Terpenes natural, botanically-derived terpene profiles and isolated CBD, THC or a mixture of the two. (
  • The combination of True Terpenes and isolate gives Bezel's products consistency that allows consumers to get the same experience every time. (
  • PORTLAND, Ore., Dec. 5, 2018 /PRNewswire-PRWeb/ -- You can now experience two cutting edge Oregon brands at the same time - True Terpenes and LTRMN. (
  • True Terpenes is an industry leading, award winning , botanical terpene company that focuses on using terpenes from non-cannabis sources to replicate the taste, aroma and effect of the plant. (
  • Working with True Terpenes was a no-brainer," says Phil Kirkland who oversees Product Strategy at LTRMN. (
  • For more information on True Terpenes products please visit , email info(at) or call (888) 954-8550. (
  • Terpenes are widely used as fragrances and flavors in consumer products such as perfumes, cosmetics and cleaning products, as well as food and drink products. (
  • At Jones' store in L.A., cannabis business owners can come in to sample terpenes, mix and match flavors and create their own blends - cherry mixed with cheesecake mixed with gelato, he says as an example. (
  • While the terpene concentrate, known as terp drops, are typically used for amplifying the flavors of cannabis, it certainly has shown potential for applications in brewing sphere. (
  • Researchers lead by biochemist Charles Denby, at the University of California Berkeley, have investigated the complexities behind the terpenes responsible for common flavors found in the popular hops like the Cascade variety. (
  • There were licensees who were concerned there was no distinction between artificial versus natural [flavors]," says OLCC spokesman Mark Pettinger, "and that there was no requirement with regard to providing information on the sourcing of non-cannabis-generated terpenes. (
  • When it comes to manufacturing products from terpenes, manufacturers extract individual terpenes and add them to products to create the flavors and scents of many everyday products that we enjoy, such as perfumes, personal products and even foods. (
  • Secreted in the same glands that produce cannabinoids like THC and CBD, terpenes are the pungent oils that color cannabis varieties with distinctive flavors like citrus, berry, mint, and pine. (
  • Terpenes are a large and varied class of hydrocarbons, produced primarily by a wide variety of plants, particularly conifers, [1] though also by some insects such as swallowtail butterflies, which emit terpenes from their osmeterium. (
  • Scientists from JBEI noticed that a terpene called bisabolane had a chemical structure similar to that of the hydrocarbons that make up diesel fuel. (
  • Terpenes are any of a class of monocyclic hydrocarbons of the formula C10H16, obtained from plants. (
  • Terpenes are organic hydrocarbons found in many plants and some insects. (
  • Terpenes are a large and diverse group of hydrocarbons with many pharmaceutical and industrial applications including fragrances, preservatives, flavouring agents and drugs, e.g. anti-malarial artemisin, and the cancer drug Taxol. (
  • Ryan C. uses a proprietary process to manufacture his own cannabis oil that uses actual cannabis-derived terpenes. (
  • The company has pure, cannabis-derived terpenes, as well as those sourced from other plant species. (
  • Because it is more expensive to deal with cannabis-derived terpenes, there is a practice within the industry of taking terpenes from non-cannabis sources and synthetically reintroducing them into extracts. (
  • Beginning June 1, the OLCC is instituting new rules to make information pertaining to non-cannabis-derived terpenes on extracts and concentrate packaging more conspicuous. (
  • Full-spectrum, organic CBD oil, infused with isolated potent terpenes to add an extra punch for taste and effect. (
  • Organic terpenes are spherical-shaped flowers. (
  • On burning organic terpenes forms a smooth smoke for an indica. (
  • A terpene is an organic compound found in all plants - fruits, vegetables and cannabis included - which provides the product with its aroma and flavor. (
  • Los Angeles Refinery now sources its organic cannabis from "strategic" partners and then uses a proprietary process to break the plant down into molecular parts, remove contaminants such as waxes and lipids, and then reassemble the desired ingredients of THC and terpenes into a final product, he says. (
  • Bulkanna steam-distilled natural terpenes are organic, food grade and non-GMO. (
  • Designed by women leaders of the industry, Kat Almulla and Renee Kirwan have handcrafted the most unique organic CBD honey with special blends of botanical terpenes. (
  • In CBD supplements, the natural terpenes from hemp can enhance the healthful effects. (
  • The CBD crystalline is combined with the terpene-infused hemp seed oil, giving you the added benefit of the omega-6 and omega-3's. (
  • You may be familiar with the terms cannabinoids and phytocannabinoids derived from hemp, but there are two additional phycompounds that are vital to achieving the sought-after "entourage effect" - terpenes and flavonoids. (
  • Over 20,000 different terpenes have been identified to date, and at least 100 can be found within the hemp plant. (
  • Terpenes in hemp, should I care? (
  • A team of researchers led by the Netherlands Institute of Ecology (NIOO-KNAW) has demonstrated for the first time that two different types of micro-organisms-bacteria and fungi-use fragrances, known as terpenes, to hold conversations. (
  • Pronounced "ter-peenz," the word probably isn't part of your daily conversation, but the effects of terpenes are very familiar to all of us. (
  • When you walk in a forest and the air seems fresher, or you walk along a tree-lined street and feel more relaxed, you're experiencing the effects of terpenes released by the trees. (
  • A systematic and comprehensive update on the cardiovascular effects of terpenes is provided. (
  • Overall, this review enables a better understanding of the cardiovascular effects of terpenes, thus paving the way towards future research in medicinal chemistry and rational drug design. (
  • The wide-ranging effects of terpenes include reducing inflammation, relieving pain, and aiding with sleep. (
  • Medical and recreational users alike can enjoy the diverse effects of terpenes. (
  • Researchers from North Carolina State University have developed an artificial enzymatic pathway for synthesizing isoprenoids, or terpenes, in E. coli. (
  • Each dose pen's unique terpene makeup plays a meaningful role in taking you to the specific 'needstate' you want to reach, like relief, bliss, or calm," adds Park. (
  • Each strain of cannabis has a unique terpene profile, producing its own distinct set of terpenes. (
  • Over 100 different terpenes have been identified in the cannabis plant, and every strain tends toward a unique terpene type and composition. (
  • Our analyses shed light on the roots of terpene biosynthesis and diversification in plants. (
  • A model presented for the evolutionary history of plant terpene synthases suggests that this superfamily of genes responsible for natural products biosynthesis derived from terpene synthase genes involved in primary metabolism by duplication and divergence in structural and functional specialization. (
  • So far, over 200 different terpenes have been identified in cannabis. (
  • What is XXX OG Strain of Terpenes? (
  • In the future, it may be possible to access strain-specific cannabis oils, as well as made-to-order marijuana extracts with a full array of terpenes artfully tailored to meet the needs and desires of individual users. (
  • With the unique nature of each terpene strain, you may need to try several to find out which terpene is right for you. (
  • Cannabis has a variety of terpenes-hundreds, in fact-that vary depending on the strain and its climate, maturation, soil, fertilizer, and more. (
  • Terpenes are the essential oil building blocks used in the production of resins (Cannabinoids) and are responsible for the variety of specific effects, tastes, and smells unique to each strain. (
  • Each strain of cannabis tends to be dominated by a specific type of terpene. (
  • The specific terpene that dominates a strain of cannabis makes it effective for the management of a particular issue and not another. (
  • In the future, terpenes could become a key factor in matching users with their ideal strain. (
  • While Sour Diesel is the most prominent strain containing significant amounts of this terpene it's present in many across the board. (
  • Many cannabis analysis labs now test terpene content, so any consumer can have a better idea of what effects their strain might produce. (
  • Most research has focused on the health effects of individual terpenes. (
  • In general, emissions and concentrations of total and individual terpenes were greater for yellow and red needles than green needles. (
  • The natural terpenes in marijuana are removed during the distillation process used to produce pure THC, Strongin said. (
  • Manufacturers also use terpenes to thin the pure cannabinoids that are being distilled from marijuana plants, he added. (
  • What Are Terpenes, the Secret Ingredient of Marijuana? (
  • What are Terpenes in Marijuana? (
  • The terpenes-CBD combination causes the high a person gets when they smoke or otherwise take in marijuana. (
  • This terpene one of the most abundant terpenes in marijuana. (
  • It follows, therefore, that understanding which terpenes are in marijuana products would help you choose the product that helps with the issue you want to handle. (
  • Terpenes are not just found in marijuana. (
  • Terpenes are produced in high concentrations in the flowers and leaves of the marijuana plant. (
  • Marijuana and Terpenes: An Overview Ever wonder why Orange Kush smells so citrisy or why Blueberry actually tastes like blueberries? (
  • Some of you who have been dipping into the marijuana research from time to time may have heard the word 'terpenes' come up in the latest sci. (
  • Raber heads the Werc Shop, a Los Angeles company that mixes terpenes from lavender, oranges, black pepper and other plants to mimic the flavor and scent of cannabis varieties. (
  • The distinctive aromas of lavender, pine, cinnamon, nutmeg, and other plants, as well as the unique tastes of spices, come from the terpenes within these plants. (
  • If you've ever caught a whiff of sage, lavender, or cannabis, you've smelled terpenes at work. (
  • Some distinct terpene aromas can be found in eucalyptus, lavender, rosemary, lemons, pine trees, strawberries and oranges - and even in soothing essential oils found at home. (
  • It is best to try a 'low-heat' device such as a Dr. Dabber Ghost Vaporizer pen or an adjustable eNail to extract the full benefit and flavor of your terpenes. (
  • It has a terpene flavor similar to the fresh soil and pine along with lemon. (
  • A type of natural plant chemical, terpenes can be found in food additives for flavor and in cosmetics for pleasant scents. (
  • Terpenes are being added to numerous cannabis products to enhance flavor and boost potential health benefits. (
  • I think that pretty well illustrates where the scalability and cost-effectiveness comes in," says Richard Burlingame, vice president of R&D at Allyix, a San Diego-based company that has begun creating and marketing terpenes for the flavor and fragrance industry. (
  • As of yet, it is impossible to re-create the odor and flavor of the 150+ terpenes that exist in various cannabis cultivars or cultigens using food sources such as fruits and plants. (
  • Terpenes are commonly found in everyday products like lotions, body creams, perfumes, and processed foods. (
  • CBD Hacker , the definitive guide to the CBD industry, has released an infographic that introduces some of the terpenes that are most commonly found in CBD products. (
  • Some insects use some terpenes as a form of defense. (
  • For example, termites of the subfamily Nasutitermitinae to ward off predatory insects, through the use of a specialized mechanism called a fontanellar gun, which ejects a resinous mixture of terpenes. (
  • Garbeva says, "We have known for some time that plants and insects use terpenes to communicate with each other. (
  • In some plants, terpenes can attract insects like butterflies and bees to aid in the pollination process. (
  • In other plants, however, terpenes may act and cause a strong reaction against plant predators, such as foraging animals, pests and insects. (
  • Terpenes are further classified by the number of carbons: monoterpenes (C10), sesquiterpenes (C15), diterpenes (C20), etc. (
  • Boiling points scale with molecular size: terpenes, sesquiterpenes, and diterpenes respectively at 110, 160, and 220 °C. Being highly non-polar, they are insoluble in water. (
  • Allylix will draw upon their industrial-scale terpene manufacturing experience to produce aviation sesquiterpenes at a low cost and large scale. (
  • Terpenes are the essential oils found in the trichomes of the cannabis plant, which give all plants, flowers and herbs their diverse aromas. (
  • As a fresh, herbal terpene that offers up sweet, piney aromas and hints of citrus, its clear to see its influence of the classic's composition. (
  • Although terpenes are found everywhere, they are commonly associated with cannabis, thanks to the pungent aromas that can be described as skunky, sour, earthy, fruity or sweet. (
  • Terpenes are also major biosynthetic building blocks. (
  • In addition to their roles as end-products in many organisms, terpenes are major biosynthetic building blocks within nearly every living creature. (
  • While the rise of CBD marked 2015 and the flood of CBD rich and CBD-only products illuminated 2016, this is the year of the terpene (Turr-Peeen), or Terp for short. (
  • To do that, Cane searched through the genome data gathered for a group of bacteria called Streptomyces , looking for sequences similar those known to produce terpene synthases in plants and fungi. (
  • Eventually, he found that Streptomyces did indeed have genes encoding terpene synthases and that those enzymes could be used to make terpenes. (
  • In plants, terpenes are typically found as a component of the essential oils. (
  • Terpenes are found in the essential oils of some plants, particularly conifers and citrus. (
  • While terpenes are naturally occurring in cannabis plants, extracting and refining them for use in a concentrate or oil is a difficult process. (
  • We sought to take advantage of the production of terpenes by cannabis plants as naturally-derived microbial control agents," offered Cindy Orser , PhD, Digipath's Chief Science Officer, "Not only can terpenes be used to distinguish and categorize cannabis cultivars from one another, we noticed that certain cultivars fail for mold much more often than others and it can be tied to their terpene chemoprofile. (
  • More than 50,000 types of terpenes have been discovered to date, yet most occur in plants and microorganisms at minute levels. (
  • The terpenes used in the Botanical Terpene blend are extracted from a variety of plants using steam distillation and are tested to be free of solvents. (
  • Plants are rich in secondary metabolites, being terpenes the most abundant and structurally diverse group. (
  • While terpenes are found in many plants, cannabis produces a staggering variety of them. (
  • Nature's Nectar™ Terpene Plus is specifically formulated to increase the concentration of essential oil production in fruiting and flowering plants. (
  • All plants have terpenes. (
  • Terpenes perform a fundamental role in the health of plants. (
  • Terpenes are the natural form of these composites when they are found in living plants. (
  • Not unlike other strong-smelling plants and flowers, the development of terpenes in cannabis began for adaptive purposes: to repel predators and lure pollinators. (
  • A terpene is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon based on combinations of the isoprene unit. (
  • Terpenes are a class of unsaturated aliphatic hydrocarbon s distinguished by at least one branched 5-carbon ring structure (an isoprene unit). (
  • Because they share the common building block of isoprene, terpenes can be categorized based on how many terpene units they include. (
  • The fact that terpenes are built up from isoprene building blocks, much like any other polymer, suggests that polymerization is a possibility. (
  • Conceptually derived from isoprenes, the structures and formulas of terpenes follow the biogenetic isoprene rule or the C5 rule, as described in 1953 by Leopold Ružička and colleagues. (
  • Terpenes are derived biosynthetically from units of isoprene, which has the molecular formula C 5 H 8 . (
  • The basic molecular formulas of terpenes are multiples of that, (C 5 H 8 ) n where n is the number of linked isoprene units. (
  • Sesterterpenes , terpenes having 25 carbons and five isoprene units, are rare relative to the other sizes. (
  • The resulting terpene based unsaturated polyester resins were afterwards crosslinked via UV-irradiation to yield polyester networks with adjustable properties. (
  • Loos & Dilworth Inc., Bristol, PA, now offers a family of light-colored terpene phenolic resins in varying softening point ranges. (
  • Other terpenes are added back in to make sure the product smells like pot. (
  • Smells produced by terpenes discourage destructive animals in one of two ways. (
  • Terpenes are what's responsible for the different smells and tastes that we associate with just about everything," says Will Thysell, founder and co-owner of White Label Extracts in Eugene. (
  • The terpene beta-caryophyllene found in basil, oregano, black pepper, and cannabis has been shown to have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and pain-relieving benefits. (
  • But scientists have studied some of the most common and abundant terpenes found in cannabis. (
  • The power of terpenes and cannabinoids used to only be activated by vaporization or the combustion of cannabis. (
  • And that's not all: "We actually believe that terpenes are the most popular chemical medium on our planet to communicate through," they report. (
  • In addition, terpenes enhance the effect of the CBD, known as the 'entourage effect' and carry their own benefits. (
  • A 2011 study by Dr. Ethan B. Russo, MD showed that THC wasn't necessary for terpenes, CBD, and other ingredients to produce the Entourage Effect. (
  • In supplements, CBD plays the lead and terpenes can play supporting roles to create what researchers have described as an "entourage effect. (
  • Many say that terpenes also contribute to the "entourage effect" of weed, a hotly contested principle that refers to how the different components of cannabis - THC, CBD, terpenes, and more - interact to produce distinct physical or therapeutic effects. (
  • If THC and CBD are the gas pedal powering the entourage effect, terpenes would be the steering wheel directing where you go. (
  • This terpene also relieves pain, aids sleep, and has anti-inflammatory properties. (
  • Terpenes from cannabis have some of the strongest anti-inflammatory properties of any plant, according to proponents, and a good number of doctors are now studying their effects and benefits in replacing opioids. (
  • This terpene is believed to be an antibiotic, anti-inflammatory, a sedative, a pain reliever, and a muscle relaxant. (
  • A study published in the Journal of Toxicological Research showed that the Japanese practice of forest bathing, or shinrin-yoku , in a terpene-rich environment has potential anti-inflammatory, anti-tumorigenic, and neuroprotective affects on human health. (
  • Bee Relieved is the company's super honey, infused with broad-spectrum CBD and enhanced with terpene profiles terpineol, a-bisabolol, citral, and b-caryophyllene, giving it natural anti-inflammatory properties. (
  • The 1939 Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded to Leopold Ružička "for his work on polymethylenes and higher terpenes", "including the first chemical synthesis of male sex hormones. (
  • David Cane, a professor of chemistry at Brown and one of the authors on the new paper, began working about 15 years ago to understand how bacteria make terpenes. (
  • I want to get the latest chemistry news from C&EN in my inbox every week. (
  • Lab-tested products are the only surefire way of knowing a strain's terpene potency - without it, you'll have to rely on your nose to guide you. (
  • The Relief Leaf offers a full line of CBD health and beauty products, including terpene infused tinctures, bath bombs products, and creams. (
  • The company uses CO 2 for lower-temperature extraction, which enables them to preserve cannabinoids, terpenes, and flavonoids and separate THC without diluting their products. (
  • After they had selected a few, the team made use of a genetically engineered Streptomyces bacterium as a bio-refinery to generate the terpene products. (
  • The work also suggests that there may be many new terpene products as yet undiscovered hiding in the genomes of bacteria. (
  • The idea is that terpenes enhance the health benefits of the products either alone or synergistically with other terpenes, THC, CBD, and other minor cannabinoids found in cannabis. (
  • The terpenes are the largest class of plant natural products. (
  • Focusing on the terpenes, the largest class of plant natural products, we investigate the basis of terpene diversity through analysis of multiple sequenced plant genomes. (
  • As the largest class of natural products, terpenes have a variety of roles in mediating antagonistic and beneficial interactions among organisms. (
  • One of their signature products is a CBD-infused terpene oil. (
  • I am not going to spend any more time learning about terpenes and cannabis but this video makes me think that products made with cannabis (and as we'll see later, agave) terpenes are meant to pair with and perhaps enhance isolated THC and CBD cannabinoids . (
  • After legalization progressed and labs popped up to analyze legal cannabis products for potency-and essential oil content-the terpene obsession really picked up. (
  • We set out to introduce some of the most common terpenes that consumers will encounter in CBD products. (
  • Read the full story at . (
  • A leading global supplier of tall oil and terpene derived products. (
  • Please explore our range of terpenes products below and get in touch if you have any questions about how we can support you in your analytical testing. (
  • What terpenes are and how they will affect us when we consume them is becoming more accessible everyday, this is due to a growing cannabis focused scientific community, companies specializing in terpene products, and the effort of all sorts of cannabis educators - breeders, growers, processors, budtenders, speakers, and bloggers. (
  • If you're purchasing cannabis for medicinal or recreational purposes (Parliament recently passed Bill C-45 , the Cannabis Act), look for products that list terpenes as part of the cannabis blend. (
  • For that reason, White Label lists terpene percentages on its products' packaging. (
  • The report then analyzes the global Terpene Resin market size (volume and value), and the sales segment market is also discussed by product type, application and region. (
  • Then the Terpene Resin OEM market and Terpene Resin production market status is discussed. (
  • Figure 4: Mixtures of terpenes, such as conifer resin, may act synergistically in defense. (
  • Terpenes are the major components of rosin and of turpentine produced from resin. (
  • The Fraunhofer Institute for Interfacial Engineering and Biotechnology IGB has developed a sustainable alternative to petrochemically produced plastics using terpenes found in resin-rich wood. (
  • Bacteria and other microorganisms are known to make terpenes too, but they've received much less study. (
  • New research at Brown University, published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences , shows that the genetic capacity of bacteria to make terpenes is widespread. (
  • The verified bacterial sequences found by Cane and others enabled researchers to refine subsequent searches for additional terpene synthase genes. (
  • Besides protecting the plant terpenes also attract helpful organisms such as bees to help with the pollination. (
  • Scientists from the Joint BioEnergy Institute have created a new type of renewable biofuel based on fragrant terpenes found in fir trees. (
  • And terpenes in essential oils give each one its unique characteristics and aromatherapy benefits. (
  • In massage, essential oils transmit terpenes through the skin. (
  • Terpenes are major components of plant derived essential oils and have been used by humans for thousands of years. (
  • In this post, you'll learn all you need to know about essential oils vs terpenes, including what this difference means for your health and your brand. (
  • One reason for this is that hop flowers secrete essential oils that are rich in terpenes. (
  • We found large differences in volatile and within-needle terpene concentrations among crown classes and variation across a growing season. (
  • There was little relationship between air temperature or within-needle concentrations of terpenes and emission of terpenes, suggesting that passive emission of terpenes (e.g., from dead foliage) does not fully explain changes in volatile emissions. (
  • Many terpenes such as menthol (shown in Figure 1) and camphor have medicinal values. (
  • Any mild medicinal benefits from terpenes in prevention of disease or induction of mild anti-anxiety effects can be best obtained from their natural sources. (
  • The terpene derived from cannabis has many positive uses and the mixologists who use it are looking to incorporate it into society in a positive and intelligent way. (
  • In fact, Lagunitas Brewing recently released a brew called SuperCritical Ale, infused with terpenes derived from cannabis. (
  • Higher amounts of terpenes are released by trees in warmer weather, where they may function as a natural mechanism of cloud seeding. (
  • The one terpene that has major applications is natural rubber (i.e. polyisoprene). (
  • Reflecting their defensive role, terpenes are used as active ingredients of natural pesticides in agriculture. (
  • Natural terpenes play a critical role in a plant's interaction with its environment, including repelling pests and attracting pollinators. (
  • With former Ph.D. student Sean Lund, and current graduate student Rachael Hall, Williams designed an artificial pathway for terpene synthesis that utilizes only two enzymes, rather than the six or seven that occur in natural pathways. (
  • Its natural terpene profile closely mimics the taste and aroma of strawberries. (
  • There are more than 4,000 terpenes in the natural world, but only around 75 have been identified in grapes, and a few dozen in wine. (
  • The scent is greater when the terpenes are combusted because they become aerosolized at high temperatures, but they also release a scent in their natural state. (
  • Terpenes are responsible for these scents. (
  • Terpenes are responsible for most of the scents in perfumes, candles, and incense too. (
  • So first I wanted to learn about terpenes in tequila and then about how this brand is supposedly upping the terpene content. (
  • They are also very low in terpene content. (
  • The seeds don't contain active ingredients in terms of cannabinoids or terpenes, so they don't cause feelings of intoxication, but they may still have beneficial health properties based on their nutrient content. (