Compounds with a core of 10 carbons generally formed via the mevalonate pathway from the combination of 3,3-dimethylallyl pyrophosphate and isopentenyl pyrophosphate. They are cyclized and oxidized in a variety of ways. Due to the low molecular weight many of them exist in the form of essential oils (OILS, VOLATILE).
A somewhat heterogeneous class of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of alkyl or related groups (excluding methyl groups). EC 2.5.
Beneficial microorganisms (bacteria or fungi) encapsulated in carrier material and applied to the environment for remediation and enhancement of agricultural productivity.
A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are evergreen, pyramidal trees with whorled branches and thin, scaly bark. Each of the linear, spirally arranged leaves is jointed near the stem on a separate woody base.
A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. Balm of Gilead is a common name more often referring to POPULUS and sometimes to COMMIPHORA.
Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.
The only specie of the genus Ginkgo, family Ginkgoacea. It is the source of extracts of medicinal interest, especially Egb 761. Ginkgo may refer to the genus or species.
A genus of rubiaceous South American trees that yields the toxic CINCHONA ALKALOIDS from their bark; QUININE; QUINIDINE; chinconine, cinchonidine and others are used to treat MALARIA and CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS.
A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.
Phosphoric or pyrophosphoric acid esters of polyisoprenoids.
BEETLES in the family Curculionidae and the largest family in the order COLEOPTERA. They have a markedly convex shape and many are considered pests.
Enzymes of the isomerase class that catalyze reactions in which a group can be regarded as eliminated from one part of a molecule, leaving a double bond, while remaining covalently attached to the molecule. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 5.5.
Oils which evaporate readily. The volatile oils occur in aromatic plants, to which they give odor and other characteristics. Most volatile oils consist of a mixture of two or more TERPENES or of a mixture of an eleoptene (the more volatile constituent of a volatile oil) with a stearopten (the more solid constituent). The synonym essential oils refers to the essence of a plant, as its perfume or scent, and not to its indispensability.
A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE with strong-smelling foliage. It is a source of SANTONIN and other cytotoxic TERPENES.
DITERPENES with three LACTONES and a unique tert-butyl group, which are found in GINKGO plants along with BILOBALIDES.
Twenty-carbon compounds derived from MEVALONIC ACID or deoxyxylulose phosphate.
Six-carbon alicyclic hydrocarbons which contain one or more double bonds in the ring. The cyclohexadienes are not aromatic, in contrast to BENZOQUINONES which are sometimes called 2,5-cyclohexadiene-1,4-diones.
A plant species of the genus OCIMUM, family LAMIACEAE. It is a condiment with carminative properties.
Changing an open-chain hydrocarbon to a closed ring. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Uptake of substances through the SKIN.
A colorless liquid extracted from oils of plants such as citronella, neroli, cyclamen, and tuberose. It is an intermediate step in the biological synthesis of cholesterol from mevalonic acid in vertebrates. It has a delicate odor and is used in perfumery. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A clear, colorless, viscous organic solvent and diluent used in pharmaceutical preparations.
Common name for several daisy-like plants (MATRICARIA; TRIPLEUROSPERMUM; ANTHEMIS; CHAMAEMELUM) native to Europe and Western Asia, now naturalized in the United States and Australia.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
A plant species of the genus ARTEMISIA, family ASTERACEAE. It is the source of the antimalarial artemisinin (ANTIMALARIALS).
A plant species of the family ACTINIDIACEAE, order Theales.
Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-carbon bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. This subclass contains the DECARBOXYLASES, the ALDEHYDE-LYASES, and the OXO-ACID-LYASES. EC 4.1.
Cyclic esters of hydroxy carboxylic acids, containing a 1-oxacycloalkan-2-one structure. Large cyclic lactones of over a dozen atoms are MACROLIDES.
Flammable, amorphous, vegetable products of secretion or disintegration, usually formed in special cavities of plants. They are generally insoluble in water and soluble in alcohol, carbon tetrachloride, ether, or volatile oils. They are fusible and have a conchoidal fracture. They are the oxidation or polymerization products of the terpenes, and are mixtures of aromatic acids and esters. Most are soft and sticky, but harden after exposure to cold. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Dorland, 28th ed)
Five-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives.
A plant genus of the family LILIACEAE. Members contain allergens, tuliposide A and tulipalin A.
Terpenes of five units of HEMITERPENES, formed from geranylfarnesyl pyrophosphate.
A plant genus of the family ROSACEAE. Members contain sanguiin.
The five-carbon building blocks of TERPENES that derive from MEVALONIC ACID or deoxyxylulose phosphate.
An enzyme that, in the pathway of cholesterol biosynthesis, catalyzes the condensation of isopentenyl pyrophosphate and dimethylallylpyrophosphate to yield pyrophosphate and geranylpyrophosphate. The enzyme then catalyzes the condensation of the latter compound with another molecule of isopentenyl pyrophosphate to yield pyrophosphate and farnesylpyrophosphate. EC
A plant genus in the family ROSACEAE, order Rosales, subclass Rosidae. It is best known as a source of the edible fruit (apple) and is cultivated in temperate climates worldwide.
The above-ground plant without the roots.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
A species of the Beta genus. Cultivars are used as a source of beets (root) or chard (leaves).
A group of alicyclic hydrocarbons with the general formula R-C5H9.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
A plant genus of the family SANTALACEAE which is the source of sandalwood oil.
Unsaturated hydrocarbons of the type Cn-H2n, indicated by the suffix -ene. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p408)
A four-carbon sugar that is found in algae, fungi, and lichens. It is twice as sweet as sucrose and can be used as a coronary vasodilator.
A plant genus of the family CUPRESSACEAE which should not be confused with other cedar and cypress trees of THUJA or CUPRESSUS genera.
Culture of an isolated organism free from any other associating or contaminating organisms.
A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are evergreen trees mainly in temperate climates.
A chemical process for separating the components of a liquid mixture by boiling and collecting condensed vapors.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
Eighteen-carbon cyclopentyl polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID via an oxidative pathway analogous to the EICOSANOIDS in animals. Biosynthesis is inhibited by SALICYLATES. A key member, jasmonic acid of PLANTS, plays a similar role to ARACHIDONIC ACID in animals.
A plant genus of the family CUPRESSACEAE.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Sets of enzymatic reactions occurring in organisms and that form biochemicals by making new covalent bonds.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Cell lines developed from disaggregated BALB/c mouse embryos. They are extremely sensitive to CONTACT INHIBITION, and highly susceptible to transformation by SV40 VIRUS and murine sarcoma virus (SARCOMA VIRUSES, MURINE).
Six-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives. Various polyneuropathies are caused by hexane poisoning.
A group of 3-hydroxy-4-keto-FLAVONOIDS.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
An alcohol produced from mint oils or prepared synthetically.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid that contain two phosphate groups.
INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.
The application of suitable drug dosage forms to the skin for either local or systemic effects.
The reproductive organs of plants.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)
Oils derived from plants or plant products.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The facilitation of biochemical reactions with the aid of naturally occurring catalysts such as ENZYMES.
Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The selection of one food over another.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A class of enzymes that catalyze geometric or structural changes within a molecule to form a single product. The reactions do not involve a net change in the concentrations of compounds other than the substrate and the product.(from Dorland, 28th ed) EC 5.
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
Methodologies used for the isolation, identification, detection, and quantitation of chemical substances.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.
The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.
The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).
A plant species of the family FABACEAE widely cultivated for ANIMAL FEED.
Transferases are enzymes transferring a group, for example, the methyl group or a glycosyl group, from one compound (generally regarded as donor) to another compound (generally regarded as acceptor). The classification is based on the scheme "donor:acceptor group transferase". (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.
A group of enzymes within the class EC 3.6.1.- that catalyze the hydrolysis of diphosphate bonds, chiefly in nucleoside di- and triphosphates. They may liberate either a mono- or diphosphate. EC 3.6.1.-.
A phylum of fungi which have cross-walls or septa in the mycelium. The perfect state is characterized by the formation of a saclike cell (ascus) containing ascospores. Most pathogenic fungi with a known perfect state belong to this phylum.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Mutant strains of mice that produce little or no hair.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The EDIBLE GRAIN, barley, is widely used as food.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
Diseases of plants.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
A class of compounds composed of repeating 5-carbon units of HEMITERPENES.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
A genus of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria. Most species are free-living in soil and water, but the major habitat for some is the diseased tissue of warm-blooded hosts.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.

Retinal stimulates ATP hydrolysis by purified and reconstituted ABCR, the photoreceptor-specific ATP-binding cassette transporter responsible for Stargardt disease. (1/2230)

Many substrates for P-glycoprotein, an ABC transporter that mediates multidrug resistance in mammalian cells, have been shown to stimulate its ATPase activity in vitro. In the present study, we used this property as a criterion to search for natural and artificial substrates and/or allosteric regulators of ABCR, the rod photoreceptor-specific ABC transporter responsible for Stargardt disease, an early onset macular degeneration. ABCR was immunoaffinity purified to apparent homogeneity from bovine rod outer segments and reconstituted into liposomes. All-trans-retinal, a candidate ligand, stimulates the ATPase activity of ABCR 3-4-fold, with a half-maximal effect at 10-15 microM. 11-cis- and 13-cis-retinal show similar activity. All-trans-retinal stimulates the ATPase activity of ABCR with Michaelis-Menten behavior indicative of simple noncooperative binding that is associated with a rate-limiting enzyme-substrate intermediate in the pathway of ATP hydrolysis. Among 37 structurally diverse non-retinoid compounds, including nine previously characterized substrates or sensitizers of P-glycoprotein, only four show significant ATPase stimulation when tested at 20 microM. The dose-response curves of these four compounds are indicative of multiple binding sites and/or modes of interaction with ABCR. Two of these compounds, amiodarone and digitonin, can act synergistically with all-trans-retinal, implying that they interact with a site or sites on ABCR different from the one with which all-trans-retinal interacts. Unlike retinal, amiodarone appears to interact with both free and ATP-bound ABCR. Together with clinical observations on Stargardt disease and the localization of ABCR to rod outer segment disc membranes, these data suggest that retinoids, and most likely retinal, are the natural substrates for transport by ABCR in rod outer segments. These observations have significant implications for understanding the visual cycle and the pathogenesis of Stargardt disease and for the identification of compounds that could modify the natural history of Stargardt disease or other retinopathies associated with impaired ABCR function.  (+info)

Prevention and therapy of cancer by dietary monoterpenes. (2/2230)

Monoterpenes are nonnutritive dietary components found in the essential oils of citrus fruits and other plants. A number of these dietary monoterpenes have antitumor activity. For example, d-limonene, which comprises >90% of orange peel oil, has chemopreventive activity against rodent mammary, skin, liver, lung and forestomach cancers. Similarly, other dietary monoterpenes have chemopreventive activity against rat mammary, lung and forestomach cancers when fed during the initiation phase. In addition, perillyl alcohol has promotion phase chemopreventive activity against rat liver cancer, and geraniol has in vivo antitumor activity against murine leukemia cells. Perillyl alcohol and d-limonene also have chemotherapeutic activity against rodent mammary and pancreatic tumors. As a result, their cancer chemotherapeutic activities are under evaluation in Phase I clinical trials. Several mechanisms of action may account for the antitumor activities of monoterpenes. The blocking chemopreventive effects of limonene and other monoterpenes during the initiation phase of mammary carcinogenesis are likely due to the induction of Phase II carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes, resulting in carcinogen detoxification. The post-initiation phase, tumor suppressive chemopreventive activity of monoterpenes may be due to the induction of apoptosis and/or to inhibition of the post-translational isoprenylation of cell growth-regulating proteins. Chemotherapy of chemically induced mammary tumors with monoterpenes results in tumor redifferentiation concomitant with increased expression of the mannose-6-phosphate/insulin-like growth factor II receptor and transforming growth factor beta1. Thus, monoterpenes would appear to act through multiple mechanisms in the chemoprevention and chemotherapy of cancer.  (+info)

Role of metabolic activation in the pathogenesis of chemically induced pulmonary disease: mechanism of action of the lung-toxic furan, 4-ipomeanol. (3/2230)

Many xenobiotics produce hepatic injury due to their metabolism in the liver to highly reactive electrophile intermediates which form covalent conjugates with nucleophilic cellular constituents. This presentation describes studies indicating that the production of chemically reactive metabolites by pulmonary metabolism of xenobiotics can also play a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of chemically induced lung disease.  (+info)

Disparate T cell requirements of two subsets of lupus-specific autoantibodies in pristane-treated mice. (4/2230)

Intraperitoneal injection of pristane induces a lupus-like disease in BALB/c and other non-autoimmune mice characterized by autoantibody production and the development of immune complex disease closely resembling lupus nephritis. Two subsets of autoantibodies are induced by pristane: IgG anti-DNA DNA and -chromatin autoantibodies are strongly IL-6-dependent, whereas IgG anti-nRNP/Sm and -Su antibodies are not. The present studies were carried out to examine the role of T cells in establishing this dichotomy between the production of anti-nRNP/Sm/Su versus anti-DNA/chromatin autoantibodies. Autoantibody production and renal disease were evaluated in athymic (nude) mice treated with pristane. BALB/c nu/nu mice spontaneously developed IgM and IgG anti-single-stranded (ss)DNA and -chromatin, but not anti-nRNP/Sm or -Su, autoantibodies. Pristane treatment increased the levels of IgG anti-chromatin antibodies in nu/nu mice, but did not induce production of anti-nRNP/Sm or -Su antibodies. In contrast, BALB/c nu/+ and +/+ control mice did not spontaneously produce autoantibodies, whereas anti-nRNP/Sm and -Su autoantibodies were induced by pristane in approx. 50% of nu/+ and +/+ mice and anti-DNA/chromatin antibodies at lower frequencies. Nude mice spontaneously developed mild renal lesions that were marginally affected by pristane, but were generally milder than the lesions developing in pristane-treated nu/+ and +/+ mice. The data provide further evidence that two distinct pathways with different cytokine and T cell requirements are involved in autoantibody formation in pristane-induced lupus. This dichotomy may be relevant to understanding differences in the regulation of anti-DNA versus anti-nRNP/Sm autoantibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus, as well as the association of anti-DNA, but not anti-nRNP/Sm, with lupus nephritis.  (+info)

Apoptosis and cell-cycle arrest in human and murine tumor cells are initiated by isoprenoids. (5/2230)

Diverse classes of phytochemicals initiate biological responses that effectively lower cancer risk. One class of phytochemicals, broadly defined as pure and mixed isoprenoids, encompasses an estimated 22,000 individual components. A representative mixed isoprenoid, gamma-tocotrienol, suppresses the growth of murine B16(F10) melanoma cells, and with greater potency, the growth of human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) and human leukemic (HL-60) cells. beta-Ionone, a pure isoprenoid, suppresses the growth of B16 cells and with greater potency, the growth of MCF-7, HL-60 and human colon adenocarcinoma (Caco-2) cells. Results obtained with diverse cell lines differing in ras and p53 status showed that the isoprenoid-mediated suppression of growth is independent of mutated ras and p53 functions. beta-Ionone suppressed the growth of human colon fibroblasts (CCD-18Co) but only when present at three-fold the concentration required to suppress the growth of Caco-2 cells. The isoprenoids initiated apoptosis and, concomitantly arrested cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Both suppress 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase activity. beta-Ionone and lovastatin interfered with the posttranslational processing of lamin B, an activity essential to assembly of daughter nuclei. This interference, we postulate, renders neosynthesized DNA available to the endonuclease activities leading to apoptotic cell death. Lovastatin-imposed mevalonate starvation suppressed the glycosylation and translocation of growth factor receptors to the cell surface. As a consequence, cells were arrested in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. This rationale may apply to the isoprenoid-mediated G1-phase arrest of tumor cells. The additive and potentially synergistic actions of these isoprenoids in the suppression of tumor cell proliferation and initiation of apoptosis coupled with the mass action of the diverse isoprenoid constituents of plant products may explain, in part, the impact of fruit, vegetable and grain consumption on cancer risk.  (+info)

Activation of the transforming growth factor beta signaling pathway and induction of cytostasis and apoptosis in mammary carcinomas treated with the anticancer agent perillyl alcohol. (6/2230)

The mechanisms of action of the anticancer agent perillyl alcohol (POH), presently in Phase II clinical trials, were investigated in advanced rat mammary carcinomas. Gross and ultrastructural morphology of POH-mediated tumor regression indicated that apoptosis accounted for the marked reduction in the epithelial compartment. Characterization of cell growth and death indices revealed that apoptosis was induced within 48 h of chemotherapy, before the induction of cytostasis. RNA expression studies, based on a multiplexed-nuclease protection assay, demonstrated that cell cycle- and apoptosis-related genes were differentially expressed within 48 h of POH treatment; p21(Cip1/WAF1), bax, bad, and annexin I were induced; cyclin E and cyclin-dependent kinase 2 were repressed; and bcl-2 and p53 were unchanged. Next, a potential role for transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) signaling in POH-mediated carcinoma regression was explored. RNA expression studies, again based on a multiplexed-nuclease protection assay, showed that TGF-beta-related genes were induced and temporally regulated during POH treatment: (a) c-jun and c-fos were transiently induced within 12 h of chemotherapy; (b) TGF-beta1 was induced within 24 h of chemotherapy; (c) the mannose 6-phosphate/insulin-like growth factor II receptor and the TGF-beta type I and II receptors were induced within 48 h of chemotherapy; and (d) smad3 was induced during active carcinoma regression. In situ protein expression studies, based on fluorescence-immunohistochemistry in concert with confocal microscopy, confirmed up-regulation and demonstrated colocalization of TGF-beta1, the mannose 6-phosphate/insulin-like growth factor II receptor, the TGF-beta type I and II receptors, and Smad2/Smad3 in epithelial cells. Nuclear localization of Smad2/Smad3 indicated that the TGF-beta signaling pathway was activated in regressing carcinomas. Subpopulations of Smad2/Smad3-positive and apoptotic nuclei colocalized, indicating a role for Smads in apoptosis. Thus, Smads may serve as a potential biomarker for anticancer activity. Importantly, none of the POH-mediated anticancer activities were observed in normal mammary gland.  (+info)

Stimulation of pregnant rat uterine contraction by the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixture aroclor 1242 may be mediated by arachidonic acid release through activation of phospholipase A2 enzymes. (7/2230)

The polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixture Aroclor 1242 (A1242) increases frequency of contractions of pregnant rat uteri, suggesting a possible mechanism for decreased gestational age and increased spontaneous abortion in women and animals exposed to PCBs. In the present study, we hypothesized that A1242-induced stimulation of uterine contraction is mediated by arachidonic acid released by phospholipase A2 (PLA2) enzymes. Isometric uterine contraction was measured in longitudinal uterine strips isolated from gestation day 10 rat. Pretreatment of uterine strips with the PLA2 inhibitor (E)-6-(bromomethylene)tetrahydro-3-(1-naphthalenyl)-2H-pyran-2-one (HELSS) or manoalide, or an inhibitor of the G protein of PLA2, isotetrandrine, completely prevented the increase of contractile frequency induced by 50 microM A1242. However, the phospholipase C inhibitors 2-nitro-4-carboxyphenyl-N,N-diphenylcarbamate (NCDC) and neomycin were unable to block stimulation of uterine contraction by A1242. In accordance, A1242 (100 microM) did not release inositol phosphates from myo-[3H]inositol-labeled myometrial cells, whereas myometrial cells prelabeled with [3H]arachidonic acid released arachidonic acid in a concentration- and time-dependent manner after exposure to A1242 (10-100 microM). A1242 significantly stimulated arachidonic acid release in the absence of extracellular calcium, although the release was attenuated. Analysis of the eicosanoids released by A1242 indicated that only 0.83% of released [3H]arachidonic acid was metabolized to eicosanoids and 99.07% remained as free arachidonate. Uterine contraction increased in strips exposed to exogenous arachidonic acid (1-100 microM). This study suggests that A1242 stimulates contraction in pregnant rat uterus by a mechanism involving PLA2-mediated arachidonic acid release, and that arachidonic acid, rather than eicosanoids, may mediate A1242 uterotonic action in the uterus.  (+info)

Metabolism of (R)-(+)-pulegone and (R)-(+)-menthofuran by human liver cytochrome P-450s: evidence for formation of a furan epoxide. (8/2230)

(R)-(+)-Pulegone, a monoterpene constituent of pennyroyal oil, is a hepatotoxin that has been used in folklore medicine as an abortifacient despite its potential lethal effects. Pulegone is metabolized by human liver cytochrome P-450s to menthofuran, a proximate hepatotoxic metabolite of pulegone. Expressed human liver cytochrome (CYP) P-450s (1A2, 2A6, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1, and 3A4) were tested for their ability to catalyze the oxidations of pulegone and menthofuran. Expressed CYP2E1, CYP1A2, and CYP2C19 oxidized pulegone to menthofuran, with respective Km and Vmax values of 29 microM and 8.4 nmol/min/nmol P-450 for CYP2E1, 94 microM and 2.4 nmol/min/nmol P-450 for CYP1A2, and 31 microM and 1.5 nmol/min/nmol P-450 for CYP2C19. The human liver P-450s involved in the metabolism of menthofuran are the same as pulegone except for the addition of CYP2A6. These P-450s were found to oxidize menthofuran to a newly identified metabolite, 2-hydroxymenthofuran, which is an intermediate in the formation of the known metabolites mintlactone and isomintlactone. Based on studies with 18O2 and H218O, 2-hydroxymenthofuran arises predominantly from a dihydrodiol formed from a furan epoxide. CYP2E1, CYP1A2, and CYP2C19 oxidized menthofuran with respective Km and Vmax values of 33 microM and 0.43 nmol/min/nmol P-450 for CYP2E1, 57 microM and 0.29 nmol/min/nmol P-450 for CYP1A2, and 62 microM and 0.26 nmol/min/nmol P-450 for CYP2C19.  (+info)

The terpene alpha-pinene, is a major component of the common solvent, turpentine. The term terpene was coined in 1866 by the ... A few terpenes are linked "tail to tail", and larger branched terpenes may be linked "tail to mid". Strictly speaking all ... The one terpene that has major applications is natural rubber (i.e. polyisoprene). The possibility that other terpenes could be ... Furthermore, terpenes are produced from terpenoids and many terpenoids are produced from terpenes. Both have strong and often ...
... N terminal domain Terpene synthase C terminal domain This disambiguation page lists articles associated with ... Terpene synthases include: β-farnesene synthase (3R,6E)-nerolidol synthase (-)-α-pinene synthase (E)-β-ocimene synthase These ... the title Terpene synthase. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended ...
Terpene synthase C terminal domain Chen F, Tholl D, Bohlmann J, Pichersky E (2011). "The family of terpene synthases in plants ... In molecular biology, this protein domain belongs to the terpene synthase family (TPS). Its role is to synthesize terpenes, ... Terpenes synthases have a role in producing important molecules in metabolism, these molecules are part of a large group called ... Sequences containing this protein domain belong to the terpene synthase family. It has been suggested that this gene family be ...
Terpene synthase N terminal domain Starks CM, Back K, Chappell J, Noel JP (1997). "Structural basis for cyclic terpene ... In molecular biology, this protein domain belongs to the terpene synthase family (TPS). Its role is to synthesize terpenes, ... Terpenes synthases have a role in producing important molecules in metabolism, these molecules are part of a large group called ... Sequences containing this protein domain belong to the terpene synthase family. It has been suggested that this gene family be ...
Eggersdorfer, Manfred (15 June 2000). "Terpenes". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi: ...
Simonsen, J.; Barton, D. H. R. (1952). The Terpenes. Vol. 111. Cambridge University Press, London. Büchi, G.; Macleod, W. D. ( ... Büchi, G.; Erickson, R. E.; Wakabyashi, N. (1961). "Terpenes. XVI. Constitution of Patchouli Alcohol and Absolute Configuration ...
Of the several terpenes extracted from Humulus lupulus (hops), the largest monoterpenes fraction is β-myrcene. One study of the ... "Myrcene Terpene for Extracts, vape and concentrates". ElevationTerpenes. Retrieved 2020-12-03. Baser, K. H. C.; Demirci, B.; ... Interestingly, photo-oxidation of myrcene has been shown to rearrange the molecule into a novel terpene known as "hashishene" ... M. Eggersdorfer (2005). "Terpenes". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007. ...
Breitmaier, Eberhand (2007). Terpenes. Wiley-VCH. p. 44. ISBN 978-3-527-60910-9. Retrieved 12 September 2010. Lorenzen, K.; ...
Cuminum cyminum Melaleuca alternifolia Cannabis Origanum syriacum Coriandrum sativum M. Eggersdorfer (2005). "Terpenes". ...
... is a set of isomeric terpenes. Existing as chiral cis and trans isomers, they arise from the hydrogenation of pinene. ... Eggersdorfer, Manfred (2000). "Terpenes". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/ ...
Wiart, Christopher (2014). Terpenes. Lead Compounds from Medicinal Plants for the Treatment of Neurodegenerative Diseases. pp. ... Thymol is one of many terpenes found in plants. Medicinal plants demand intensive management. Different species each require ... Polyphenols include phytoestrogens (top and middle), mimics of animal estrogen (bottom). Terpenes and terpenoids of many kinds ... Singsaas, Eric L. (2000). "Terpenes and the Thermotolerance of Photosynthesis". New Phytologist. 146 (1): 1-2. doi:10.1046/j. ...
p. 6. ISBN 0-909605-69-6. Eggersdorfer, Manfred (2000). "Terpenes". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: ... "In-vitro inhibition of human erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase by Salvia lavandulaefolia essential oil and constituent terpenes ...
"Terpenes". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a26_205. ISBN 3527306730 ...
Buchi, G.; MacLeod, William D.; Padilla, J. (1964-10-01). "Terpenes. XIX.1 Synthesis of Patchouli Alcohol2". Journal of the ... Büchi, G.; Erickson, R. E.; Wakabayashi, Nobel (1961-02-01). "Terpenes. XVI.1,2 Constitution of Patchouli Alcohol and Absolute ... Patchoulene oxide (1) could be accessed from terpene patchoulol (52) through a series of acid-catalyzed carbocation ... This epoxide can be obtained in two steps from the terpene patchoulol and also from borneol. The reaction sequence is also ...
... is a collection of bicyclic terpenoid derived from the terpene pinene, but containing a tertiary alcohol. Both cis ... Eggersdorfer, Manfred (2000). "Terpenes". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/ ...
Gingerol sequiphellandrene Herout, Vlastimil; Benesova, Vera; Pliva, Josef (1953). "Terpenes. XLI. Sesquiterpenes of ginger oil ...
Record in the GESTIS Substance Database of the Institute for Occupational Safety and Health M. Eggersdorfer (2005). "Terpenes ...
M. Eggersdorfer (2005). "Terpenes". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007. ...
Eggersdorfer, Manfred (2000). "Terpenes". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/ ...
Eggersdorfer, Manfred (2000). "Terpenes". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/ ... Linalool (/lɪˈnæloʊɒl, laɪ-, -loʊoʊl, -ˈluːl/) refers to two enantiomers of a naturally occurring terpene alcohol found in many ... March 2019). "Analysis of Terpenes in Cannabis sativa L. Using GC/MS: Method Development, Validation, and Application". Planta ... "The biochemical and molecular basis for the divergent patterns in the biosynthesis of terpenes and phenylpropenes in the ...
As for other terpenes, it is insoluble in water, flammable, colorless, and has a pungent smell. It is a minor constituent of ... "Terpenes". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a26_205. Pino, Jorge A.; ...
Simonsen, John Lionel (1957). The Terpenes. University Press. p. 383. v t e (Articles without InChI source, Articles without ...
Rom terpenes. Orchid scents Ambergris: Lumps of oxidized fatty compounds, whose precursors were secreted and expelled by the ... Pine and fir resins are a particularly valued source of terpenes used in the organic synthesis of many other synthetic or ... For example, linalool and coumarin are both naturally occurring compounds that can be inexpensively synthesized from terpenes. ...
Wallach, O. (1912). "Zur Kenntnis der Terpene und der Ätherischen Öle" [Regarding Terpenes and Essential Oils]. Liebigs Ann. ... Nelson, E. K. (1947). "Chapter 5: Oxides: Ascaridole". The Terpenes. Vol. 2. CUP Archive. pp. 446-452. Pape, M. (1975). " ...
De Carvalho, C. C. C. R.; Da Fonseca, M. M. R. (2006). "Carvone: Why and how should one bother to produce this terpene". Food ... Simonsen, J. L. (1953). The Terpenes. Vol. 1 (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 394-408. ...
Weitkamp, A. W. (1959). "I. The Action of Sulfur on Terpenes. The Limonene Sulfides". Journal of the American Chemical Society ... Simonsen, J. L. (1947). The Terpenes. Vol. 1 (2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press. OCLC 477048261.[page needed] Pakdel, H. ( ... ISBN 0-582-06009-5. Booth, Judith K.; Page, Jonathan E.; Bohlmann, Jörg (29 March 2017). Hamberger, Björn (ed.). "Terpene ...
Suchý, M.; Herout, V.; Šorm, F. (1960). "On terpenes. CVI. On hydrogenation products of cynaropicrin, the bitter principle of ...
α-Pinene is an organic compound of the terpene class, one of two isomers of pinene. It is an alkene and it contains a reactive ... α-Pinene is one of the many terpenes and terpenoids found in cannabis plants. These compounds are also present in significant ... It is widely theorized by scientists and cannabis experts alike that these terpenes and terpenoids contribute significantly to ... Simonsen, J. L. (1957). The Terpenes. Vol. 2 (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 105-191. PDR for Herbal ...
"The Effects of Pressure on Supercritical Extraction". Terpenes and Testing. January 2019. Retrieved 2019-07-11. Levy, David A ...
Majority of terpenes found in cannabis are hydrocarbons, which are a direct product of terpene synthase (TPS) enzymes. The ... Terpenes are a key component in chemotaxonomical classification of cannabis strains as terpene composition is a phenotypic ... Because terpenes and terpenoids are biologically active molecules, it is possible variations in terpenes may elicit different ... The lack of exact standards makes it sometimes difficult for scientists to classify new terpenes. Terpene profiles are subject ...
Lets take the example of cannabis and terpenes and the long lasting benefits that can be attained from it. Terpene flavors ... Terpene benefits on thc and cbd is quite immense due to it fighting off bacteria and with medicinal properties that counter ... Today, the topic of content is what role does terpenes play in the lives of people and what impact it has on the human body. ... Here are some famous terpenes flavors to talk about:. *Camphene: It is found in ginger, cilantro and cardamom which is a ...
Two terpenes make up the majority of Blue Dreams terpene profile. At 39%, Myrcene is the most common terpene in the profile - ... True Terpenes is a leader in precision botanical terpene blends using pure, food grade isolated compounds derived from non- ... True Terpenes Pie Hoe Profile Infused 1oz. Sale! $200.00. $191.75. SKU: TTP-ID-PIHO-1. Add to cart ... making notable shares of the terpene profile as well. Additional terpenes including humulene and limonene each make up 4% or ...
What is a terpene oil? Terpenes are fragrant oils that are secreted in the cannabis flowers sticky resin glands and give ... Yes, terpenes are known for enhancing the effects of both CBD and THC as well as enhancing the medical benefits related to both ... Certain types of terpenes actually bond to cannabinoid receptors, enhancing the effects of the other compounds that are active ... Catnip Kitty, one of Pennsylvanias first terpene oil beers, is a milkshake New England style IPA and will be available on ...
Description: Acyclic terpene alcohols, other than geraniol and isophytol MFN Duty Rate: 4.8%. Previous Tariff (2905.22.20 - ...
Exploring the Mechanisms Underlying Analgesic Properties of Minor Cannabinoids and Terpenes NOT-AT-20-002. NCCIH ... Terpenes can be found in other plants (e.g., fruits, vegetables and edible herbs). Unlike cannabinoids terpenes are not ... Terpenes comprise a smaller percentage of the phytochemicals in cannabis but give the plant its strain-specific properties such ... Improve methods to quantify systemic levels of minor cannabinoids and terpene. Topics that are not within the scope of this ...
Immortal Zkittlez has a strong tropical fruit terpene profile with acid and earthy notes. The Immortal Zkittlez seeds are now ... Immortal Zkittlez captivates at the first puff: the tropical terpene profile, the extra sweet touch, and the acid contribution ... it is an OG Kush phenotype highly valued for its strong acidic and floral terpene with a spicy touch. Legend OG is a plant ... from Legend OG make it a very distinctive cannabis strain, very pleasant to smoke for all those in search of exotic terpenes. ...
... a terpene commonly found in cannabis. Discover the potential health benefits of menthol and strains that have high levels of ... Another terpene found in cannabis, isopulegol, is designated as the precursor to menthol. So, even though strains with this ... Though not the most prominent terpene in cannabis, menthol is probably the most familiar. Best known as an additive to ... The best known of the terpenes present in cannabis, menthol is recognizable for its minty flavor and cooling sensation that ...
From terpenes to cosmetics and food to chocolate and bags, youre guaranteed to find everything hemp desires here! ...
Access the terpenes tags here. UPG acts as a virtual hand for patients, by helping them navigate through this ever-changing ... Terpenes in Cannabis: A Patient Overview. As a superfood, cannabis shares a lot of the same healing substances that other ...
Another common way of getting terpenes into your system is to inhale it. Since terpenes are sensitive oil, its effects can ... The experience or the relief that people get from cannabis actually depends on terpenes. Terpenes are really the great ... The Different Ways of How Terpenes can Enter the Body Posted by secure_admin on Nov 25, 2020 in CBD Services , 0 comments ... This is probably the easiest way to use terpenes because you could just put it on the lotion that you use or you mix it in with ...
Mint Terpene CBD These mint flavored straws contain natural terpenes and deliver full range Cannabinoids ... These mint flavored straws contain natural terpenes and deliver full range Cannabinoids fresh from Sativa leaves.. - Odorless ...
In this episode, i explain terpenes,and their uses in weed and other foods. ...
Types and Benefits of Terpenes:. Heres a great terpenes chart from Hydroponique that lists some of the most common terpenes ... Making Sure Terpenes are in my CBD:. So how do I know if these amazing, healthy, beneficial terpenes are in my CBD products? ... Terpenes have become the new buzz word.. Terpenes, terpenoids and terps, oh my! It is true that currently these terms are ... Understanding Terpenes:. All of this talk about terpenes, but the real question is - how does this impact me? There are several ...
More common seem to be so called flavor wheels, but there are no info of terpenes in those images. For example I personally ... Like the title says, lets discuss here about terpenes and how they contribute to the pleasure of smoking Cannabis. Ive tried ... or is it so that environment affects what terpenes "come up" in the plant? I mean does cannabis plant have within it the code ... for terpenes, but only some dominate due to genetic, environmental etc. reasons... Im curious to hear what you guys think, ...
... a terpene found in many spices and cannabis strains. Find out where you can experience caryophyllene ... What Makes Caryophyllene a Unique Terpene?. Caryophyllene is one of the most unique terpenes in cannabis because it can act ... When it comes to terpenes, caryophyllene takes the trophy for being one of the most unique terpenes found in cannabis. In this ... Its a unique terpene that we get a lot of questions about. Here are some of the answers to those questions:. ...
... Category: Antiseptic terpenes. IcoFont Icons. ...
Terpenes 8-cineloe. 8-Cineole. A-Humulene (Hoppy). A-Pinene (Pine). Alpha-Humulene. Alpha-Pinene. Alpha-Pinene (Pine). B- ...
Terpenes. How to Get the Best Terpenes During Decarb. Terpenes are critical for creating quality hemp extracts, but what is the ... Collecting quality hemp terpenes requires the wherewithal to understand how those terpenes will react to given pressures and ... The Best Methods for Extracting Hemp Terpenes. If it werent for hemp terpenes, any product derived from hemp would be largely ... To fully establish an accurate method for efficiently recovering terpenes, calculating terpene boiling point under vacuum is ...
In addition, terpenes are a natural diluent, so they are able to dilute any extract, oil or resin. The Original Cannabis ... The Terpenes offers you the perfect aroma of your favorite cannabis variety. 100% natural and free of solvents or heavy metals ... cigar and suitable for aromatherapy Test your extract with our cannabis terpenes of Skunk, Haze, OG Kush, etc. And you will be ... Terpenes are the main constituent of the essential oils of some plants and flowers, such as lemon, orange and cannabis. ...
Terpenes. Tap INTO NATURES Full Potential. After developing our proprietary cannabinoid formulas with CBG, CBC and CBN ... Terpenes contain some of Mother Natures greatest secrets. We unlocked them and put them in everything we make. ... We are pioneering the use of 100% natural botanically-derived terpenes in all of our products to help you achieve a new level ... We partnered with an industry leader in terpene research and replication to bring you the healing powers of these natural ...
All in all, terpenes are considered mildly psychoactive. The effects of terpenes on our mind and body, alone or combined with ... Are terpenes psychoactive? According to the National Cancer Institute, a drug or other substance that affects how the brain ... Terpenes interact with the ECS, or the endocannabinoid system, in our bodies to help regulate a multitude of functions, just ... Terpenes are found in every plant on earth including cannabis, but are they psychoactive? Heres everything you need to know. ...
... it was definitely thanks to all the wonderful terpenes doing their jobs.. Terpenes are aroma molecules found in most plant ... Terpenes. June 24, 2022. If you have ever had a certain strain of cannabis that makes you feel a certain way, with a beautiful ... There are terpenes like Myrcene, also found in Mangos, that give a slightly fruity aroma with earthy tones. Myrcene causes a ... Researching terpenes may help you discover why you like a certain strain so much more than another. Give it a try! ...
Due to the volatile nature of terpenes, each batch of Entourage Terpenes is diverse and can contain lower and or higher amounts ... Terpenes are non-polar oil-based hydrocarbons, that in pure form, can be very potent and sometimes volatile, flammable and even ... of terpenes per ml. It is our promise to get as close to the suggested content amount in each batch. ...
Lime terpenes are naturally derived solvents that give fresheness to your finished goods. Can be used in the formulation of air ...
Beyond these factors, experts cite another medicinal property of cannabis to consider: terpenes. ... Beyond these factors, experts cite another medicinal property of cannabis to consider: terpenes.. What Are Terpenes?. Terpenes ... Which Terpenes Should a Medical Cannabis Patient Look For? Every unique cannabis strain combines a unique mix of terpenes to ... For instance, the terpene myrcene is associated with reducing anxiety, whereas the terpene caryophyllene is known for its anti- ...
Terpenes are a natural compound found in flowers, fruits, plants and herbs. Theyre responsible for the aroma that some plants ... What are Terpenes? Terpenes are a natural compound found in flowers, fruits, plants and herbs. Theyre responsible for the ... Terpenes are a very important factor in the synergy between the compounds in CBD. In this article, well explain what Terpenes ... CBD compounds and terpenes are usually intact. Because terpenes are natural compounds in CBD, they play a primary role the ...
Terpene Ratio. Word Cloud. This word cloud represents general flavors, sources and possible effects based on the terpenes ...
Mango Kush Terpene Profile Wax Liquidizer (Hybrid). Rated 5.00 out of 5 ... Hawaiian Haze Terpene Profile Wax Liquidizer (Hybrid). Rated 5.00 out of 5 ... Gorilla Glue Terpene Profile Wax Liquidizer (Hybrid). Rated 5.00 out of 5 ... OG Kush Terpene Profile Wax Liquidizer (Hybrid). Rated 5.00 out of 5 ...
  • Through this Notice of Special Interest (NOSI), the National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH) announces its interest in supporting research grant applications to study minor cannabinoids and terpenes in the cannabis plant as it relates to pain and/or nociception. (
  • Through this NOSI, NCCIH intends to support highly innovative basic and/or mechanistic studies in appropriate model organisms and/or human subjects aiming to investigate the input of minor cannabinoids and terpenes on mechanisms underlying analgesia or pain relief. (
  • The mechanisms and processes underlying potential contribution of minor cannabinoids and terpenes to pain relief and functional restoration may be very broad encompassing different pain conditions. (
  • To address this question, more research is needed into the basic biological activity of the plant's diverse phytochemicals, specifically minor cannabinoids and terpenes. (
  • It is also unknown how minor cannabinoids and terpenes, either alone or in combination, may modulate the biological and neural systems associated with pain perception and analgesia. (
  • Recently, Dr. Helene M. Langevin, Director of NCCIH, posted a message about an upcoming, all-virtual event, NCCIH Workshop 2020: Exploring the Mechanisms Underlying Analgesic Properties of Minor Cannabinoids and Terpenes . (
  • To learn more about NCCIH research funding opportunities, please refer to our Notice of Special Interest: Exploring the Mechanisms Underlying Analgesic Properties of Minor Cannabinoids and Terpenes , number NOT-AT-20-002. (
  • Now, nine new research awards totaling approximately $3 million will investigate the potential pain-relieving properties and mechanisms of actions of the diverse phytochemicals in cannabis, including both minor cannabinoids and terpenes. (
  • The compounds terpenes and terpenoids, in common parlance, are named in the same breath, although there is a fundamental difference in both of them. (
  • Terpenes are the naturally occurring combination of carbon and hydrogen, whereas terpenoids are terpenes that have undergone chemical modification by altering the oxygen content of the compound. (
  • Efficient production of oxidized terpenoids via engineering fusion proteins of terpene synthase and cytochrome P450. (
  • Terpenes, Terpenoids and Terps - Oh My! (
  • They can be referred to as terpenoids, terpenes, and terps. (
  • True Terpenes is a leader in precision botanical terpene blends using pure, food grade isolated compounds derived from non-cannabis sources. (
  • Certain types of terpenes actually bond to cannabinoid receptors, enhancing the effects of the other compounds that are active in cannabis, including CBD and THC. (
  • Developing fusion enzymes for terpene synthase and P450 presents an efficient strategy toward oxidation of hydrophobic terpene compounds. (
  • The malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum produces chemical compounds called terpenes that give off odors that attract mosquitoes, according to new research. (
  • There is a lot of buzz around the terpene compounds that make up hemp, marijuana, and virtually every other plant on the planet. (
  • Terpenes are the naturally occurring chemical compounds found in plants. (
  • That is because they have all the compounds of the plant including all the terpenes. (
  • There is concern for potential health impacts of secondary organic compounds formed via terpene oxidation reactions (Rohr, 2013). (
  • These compounds exhibit active indoor air chemistry (ozone-initiated terpene chemistry), resulting in highly reactive intermediates that can exacerbate susceptible populations. (
  • among them, terpenes , a large class of organic compounds, have shown promise due to their anti-inflammatory, anti-tumorigenic, and hypolipidemic properties, among others recorded in the literature . (
  • Limonene: As the name suggests, it is found and named after lemon with citrus fruits and a powerful aroma of terpene that is quite entrancing to anyone who inhales the contents. (
  • Additional terpenes including humulene and limonene each make up 4% or less of Blue Dream's profile. (
  • We found total VOC conversion to be dominated by reactions both with O3, which almost solely reacted with D-limonene, and also with OH, which reacted with D-limonene, other terpenes, alcohols, aldehydes, and aromatics. (
  • Many more strains feature cannabinoid and terpene profiles suited to patients with anxiety. (
  • 30. Evolution of the Cannabinoid and Terpene Content during the Growth of Cannabis sativa Plants from Different Chemotypes. (
  • Cannabis contains more than 110 different cannabinoids and 120 different terpenes. (
  • The cannabis plant contains more than 110 cannabinoids and 120 terpenes, but the only compound that's been studied extensively is THC. (
  • At 39%, Myrcene is the most common terpene in the profile - which presents itself in the strain's hints of spice in its fragrance and flavors. (
  • A terpene is an aromatic organic hydrocarbon which is synthesized in a wide variety of plants, like cannabis, with the help of light exposure. (
  • In other words, if you're keen on losing weight, you must focus on consuming a high-CBD strain as compared to a high-THC strain of cannabis plant terpenes. (
  • Immortal Zkittlez captivates at the first puff: the tropical terpene profile, the extra sweet touch, and the acid contribution from Legend OG make it a very distinctive cannabis strain, very pleasant to smoke for all those in search of exotic terpenes. (
  • Terpenes comprise a smaller percentage of the phytochemicals in cannabis but give the plant its strain-specific properties such as aroma and taste. (
  • Every strain has a different terpene profile that gives it its unique traits. (
  • Each different strain or chemical variety of cannabis, sometimes called a chemovar, has its own signature of terpenes and cannabinoids. (
  • Final preparations for your palette include an alchemist's blend of terpene oils of Sour Diesel and Fruity Pebbles for that "dude, you got my cat high" experience! (
  • So, even though strains with this terpene aren't technically menthol weed, you may still experience an icy or numbing sensation when smoking weed with either of these terpenes. (
  • Terpenes give marijuana strains their distinctive properties, tastes, and smells. (
  • What Strains Have Anxiety-Reducing Terpenes? (
  • I've tried to find a comprehensive list of terpenes and their olfactory equivalents in cannabis strains. (
  • Terpene flavors abound across mountainous terrains and it is easily recognizable with its fragrance of cannabis, lavender and lily flavored aroma that once inhaled has a profound effect of relaxation that one who has smelled it can only describe its effects. (
  • Note: Terpenes are best stored in a refrigerator to preserve the wonderful sensitive aroma of cannabis. (
  • In the cannabis plant, there are innumerable terpenes, which affect the flavor and aroma of the plants, especially once these are cured. (
  • The amount of terpenes is very small, they are highly concentrated and a little goes along way, but make a huge impact on flavor and aroma. (
  • A recently conducted survey of cannabis consumers found that 70 percent of respondents were still unfamiliar with the terms "terpenes" and "entourage effect. (
  • A survey examining the profile of the "modern cannabis consumer" by Oasis Intelligence found that 70 percent of respondents were unfamiliar with the terms " terpenes " and "entourage effect" despite a recent industry push to market the terms as points of differentiation. (
  • Alpha pinene is the second most present terpene at 26% with beta pinene (11%) and beta caryophyllene (10%) making notable shares of the terpene profile as well. (
  • Humulene, akin to most other counterpart terpenes, has powerful anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. (
  • An Italian study uncovered how menthol could increase the pain threshold in mice during a battery of tests, thus demonstrating how the terpene can act as an analgesic agent. (
  • Simultaneously, users report a euphoric bliss and an analgesic, narcotic-like easing of the pain and tension in muscles and joints that comes as the cannabinoids and terpenes have fully run their course. (
  • Minor cannabinoids (those other than THC, the high-inducing component of marijuana) and certain terpenes found in the cannabis plant may have analgesic properties, but there has been little research on these substances to understand their effects and underlying mechanisms. (
  • Marijuana terpenes have different mechanisms of action, or ways they interact with your system. (
  • Which Marijuana Terpenes Help Anxiety Symptoms? (
  • You can find more than 200 terpenes in the marijuana plant. (
  • Most marijuana plants don't have a high enough concentration of a terpene for the terpene to provide benefits on its own. (
  • Humulene is one of the predominant terpenes in Humulus Lupulus, and it is also found in the cannabis plant. (
  • One of the putative mechanisms of action is that terpenes can influence the activity of cannabinoids or signaling from the cannabinoid receptors, but conclusive evidence to support this hypothesis is lacking. (
  • It is a popular stereotype belief that consumption of cannabis or inhaling its terpene triggers the brain receptors to release hormones which induce hunger pangs and thus leading to weight gain. (
  • it is an OG Kush phenotype highly valued for its strong acidic and floral terpene with a spicy touch. (
  • Camphene is a plant-derived mono-terpene which emits pungent odors of damp woodlands and fir needles. (
  • Caryophyllene Terpene: What is Caryophyllene? (
  • Reaction rates and probabilities were determined by equilibrating the PFR with both the terpene and the ozone and measuring the ozone consumption rate. (
  • In this study, we developed a strategy to improve the accessibility of terpene molecules for the P450 reaction by linking terpene synthase and P450 together. (
  • Terpene is an organic compound found in the peels of citrus fruits. (
  • This waxy, crystalline terpene occurs naturally in mint plants including peppermint and spearmint, although it can also be produced synthetically. (
  • There is one key difference between menthol in cigarettes and in cannabis: menthol (sometimes synthetic) is added to cigarettes, while the terpene occurs naturally in cannabis. (
  • The cannabis plant has potential pain-relieving properties and is a unique source of phytochemicals, containing more than 100 each of cannabinoids and terpenes, each with its own pharmacology. (
  • 2006). The presence of these terpenes in high concentrations present a potential hazard due to their reactivity with ozone. (
  • These mint flavored straws contain natural terpenes and deliver full range Cannabinoids fresh from Sativa leaves. (
  • Some people on prescription medication may opt to inhale their medicine through menthol-rich cannabis, as the terpene can serve as an anti-irritant. (
  • Another common way of getting terpenes into your system is to inhale it. (
  • Terpene benefits on thc and cbd is quite immense due to it fighting off bacteria and with medicinal properties that counter inflammation, swelling, colitis and anemia. (
  • Terpenes give the "nose" to the plants but they may also have medicinal purposes, positive or negative. (
  • 36. [Optimized chromatographic methods for the identification and quantification of terpenes in Cannabis sativa oil for medicinal use]. (
  • The study aims to use a patent review to evaluate the development and use of terpenes , or formulations containing terpenes , in new therapeutic options for the treatment of various types of cancer . (
  • Terpenes are fragrant oils that are secreted in the cannabis flower's sticky resin glands and give cannabis its aromatic diversity. (
  • Another terpene found in cannabis, isopulegol, is designated as the precursor to menthol. (
  • Terpenes can be found in other plants (e.g., fruits, vegetables and edible herbs). (
  • There are several hundred terpenes and they are found in almost every plant. (
  • The terpenes found in full spectrum products will have that synergistic characteristic due to the fact that they are keeping the entire plant together. (
  • Terpenes can also be found in broad spectrum products but they are beginning to manipulate the plant by taking some of the plant matter out. (
  • From terpenes to cosmetics and food to chocolate and bags, you're guaranteed to find everything hemp desires here! (
  • When we are talking about cannabis and hemp it is well known that both plants have an abundance of terpenes and cannabinoids. (
  • The method determines terpene lactones on the basis of the main terpene lactones (Bilobalide, Ginkgolide A, Ginkgolide B, Ginkgolide C, and Ginkgolide J) by high-performance liquid chromatography with evaporative light-scattering detection after extraction. (
  • The sample purification with prepacked columns allows selective extraction of the terpene lactones with no interferences from any matrix under study. (
  • 38. A Green Protocol for Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Volatile Oil Terpenes from Pterodon emarginatus Vogel. (
  • You might be surprised by this weight loss tip: Start using terpenes of herbal plants! (
  • What I thought was most interesting about terpenes is why they exist in plants. (
  • Abstrax is the only terpene manufacturer licensed in the United States to study, extract, and formulate our own cannabis terpene profiles. (
  • However, the terpenes can enhance the cannabinoids' effects or provide relief when concentrated into an extract. (
  • The best known of the terpenes present in cannabis, menthol is recognizable for its minty flavor and cooling sensation that acts as a minor pain reliever. (
  • Today, the topic of content is what role does terpenes play in the lives of people and what impact it has on the human body. (
  • Let's take the example of cannabis and terpenes and the long lasting benefits that can be attained from it. (
  • Let us look at the most popular terpenes and their amazing health benefits, including weight loss. (
  • Contrary to this belief, recent studies have published results highlighting the health benefits of cannabis terpenes which might actually help in weight reduction. (
  • The cannabis plant is known to have diverse benefits and its terpenes are no exception. (
  • There are over 100 different identified terpenes in the cannabis plant and their benefits to patients are gradually being discovered. (
  • Yes, terpenes are known for enhancing the effects of both CBD and THC as well as enhancing the medical benefits related to both. (
  • The terpenes in cannabis enhance the healing effects of cannabinoids and provide their own benefits. (
  • Before you continue reading the entire article, we urge you to share this to someone you know so that many people will be aware of the benefits of terpenes to the human body especially those who are experiencing health complications. (
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  • Many of these terpenes are gaining fame for bringing certain benefits to the user. (
  • That doesn't mean that there aren't benefits with isolated CBD products - there are - but you won't get those terpenes. (
  • Here's a great terpenes chart from Hydroponique that lists some of the most common terpenes benefits. (
  • The compound 'terpene' is gradually and steadily generating curiosity and grabbing the attention of experts from the health and botanical industry across the globe. (
  • In line with this, you have to be careful on the process of how you take it and how you dilute it because dilution is needed before orally taking terpenes because improper dilution and dosage can lead to fatality. (
  • Misbranding of special lemon, lemon terpene and citral. (
  • This is great if you are experiencing some skin diseases or some pain in your skin because topical application of terpenes will definitely alleviate the pain that you are feeling. (
  • More common seem to be so called flavor wheels, but there are no info of terpenes in those images. (
  • Terpenes and their derivatives are common tropospheric trace gases (Graedel, 1979). (
  • A single-laboratory validation was completed for a method to determine total terpene lactones in Ginkgo biloba products. (
  • The functionalization of terpenes using cytochrome P450 enzymes is a versatile route to the production of useful derivatives that can be further converted to value-added products. (
  • This strategy could be widely applicable to improve the biosynthetic titer of the functionalized products from hydrophobic terpene intermediates. (
  • Two terpenes make up the majority of Blue Dream's terpene profile. (
  • Immortal Zkittlez has a strong tropical fruit terpene profile with acid and earthy notes. (
  • Favored by patients looking for the lowest THC levels possible, Charlotte's Web also has a rich terpene profile. (
  • 37. An Optimized Terpene Profile for a New Medical Cannabis Oil. (
  • Broadly, terpenes can be broken down into the category of - sweet, sour, spicy, or bitter - with each category further subdivided into more distinct smells. (
  • Since terpenes are sensitive oil, its effects can reduce when you burn it in high temperatures meaning you should vaporize it if you want to experience its full effects. (
  • terpenes are a significant factor in the initiation, exacerbation, and propagation of some cases of chemical sensitivity. (
  • 1958). Few studies have investigated whether the ability of terpenes to facilitate chemical absorption correlates with increased irritation potentials. (
  • It wasn't until just recently that terpenes started getting attention in the cannabis community, although they have a long story. (
  • These effervescent alcohol-free drinks aim to inspire Earlier this year, Little Saints-a bold, effervescent and flavorful beverage brand that taps into terpenes, CBD and Reishi mushroom to inspire uplifting sensations-added spicy margarita and mimosa options to their roster of Plant Magic mocktails. (
  • 2005). Terpenes are also a major component of plant resins (Paduch et. (
  • There are also terpenes in the cannabis plant. (
  • Some terpenes have anxiety-relieving properties that improve cannabis' ability to calm you down. (
  • Terpenes are known to provide relief to a variety of issues such as anxiety , depression , insomnia, high blood pressure , cholesterol and yes also it also aids weight loss! (
  • Terpenes are really the great determinant of how high you could get from the cannabis that you are using. (