DNA sequences recognized as signals to end GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION.
The discontinuation of transcription at the end of a transcription unit, including the recognition of termination sites and release of the newly synthesized RNA molecule.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
A protein which effects termination of RNA synthesis during the genetic transcription process by dissociating the ternary transcription complex RNA;-RNA POLYMERASE DNA at the termination of a gene.
Any codon that signals the termination of genetic translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC). PEPTIDE TERMINATION FACTORS bind to the stop codon and trigger the hydrolysis of the aminoacyl bond connecting the completed polypeptide to the tRNA. Terminator codons do not specify amino acids.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.
A family (Aphididae) of small insects, in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, that suck the juices of plants. Important genera include Schizaphis and Myzus. The latter is known to carry more than 100 virus diseases between plants.
An agency in the Executive Branch of the Federal Government. It was created as an independent regulatory agency responsible for the implementation of federal laws designed to protect the environment. Its mission is to protect human health and the ENVIRONMENT.
Activities involved in ensuring the safety of FOOD including avoidance of bacterial and other contamination.
The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.
An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.
Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
A fibrous protein complex that consists of proteins folded into a specific cross beta-pleated sheet structure. This fibrillar structure has been found as an alternative folding pattern for a variety of functional proteins. Deposits of amyloid in the form of AMYLOID PLAQUES are associated with a variety of degenerative diseases. The amyloid structure has also been found in a number of functional proteins that are unrelated to disease.
A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)
Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.
Peptides generated from AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES PRECURSOR. An amyloid fibrillar form of these peptides is the major component of amyloid plaques found in individuals with Alzheimer's disease and in aged individuals with trisomy 21 (DOWN SYNDROME). The peptide is found predominantly in the nervous system, but there have been reports of its presence in non-neural tissue.
A group of sporadic, familial and/or inherited, degenerative, and infectious disease processes, linked by the common theme of abnormal protein folding and deposition of AMYLOID. As the amyloid deposits enlarge they displace normal tissue structures, causing disruption of function. Various signs and symptoms depend on the location and size of the deposits.
A single-pass type I membrane protein. It is cleaved by AMYLOID PRECURSOR PROTEIN SECRETASES to produce peptides of varying amino acid lengths. A 39-42 amino acid peptide, AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES is a principal component of the extracellular amyloid in SENILE PLAQUES.
Accumulations of extracellularly deposited AMYLOID FIBRILS within tissues.
A subtype of von Willebrand disease that results from a partial deficiency of VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR.
Group of hemorrhagic disorders in which the VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR is either quantitatively or qualitatively abnormal. They are usually inherited as an autosomal dominant trait though rare kindreds are autosomal recessive. Symptoms vary depending on severity and disease type but may include prolonged bleeding time, deficiency of factor VIII, and impaired platelet adhesion.
Rod-shaped storage granules for VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR specific to endothelial cells.
Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.
A high-molecular-weight plasma protein, produced by endothelial cells and megakaryocytes, that is part of the factor VIII/von Willebrand factor complex. The von Willebrand factor has receptors for collagen, platelets, and ristocetin activity as well as the immunologically distinct antigenic determinants. It functions in adhesion of platelets to collagen and hemostatic plug formation. The prolonged bleeding time in VON WILLEBRAND DISEASES is due to the deficiency of this factor.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
The development of new BLOOD VESSELS during the restoration of BLOOD CIRCULATION during the healing process.
Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.
Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.
Diamond. A crystalline form of carbon that occurs as hard, colorless or tinted isomeric crystals. It is used as a precious stone, for cutting glass, and as bearings for delicate mechanisms. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A strain of Staphylococcus aureus that is non-susceptible to the action of METHICILLIN. The mechanism of resistance usually involves modification of normal or the presence of acquired PENICILLIN BINDING PROTEINS.
A species of the fungus CRYPTOCOCCUS. Its teleomorph is Filobasidiella neoformans.
An envelope of loose gel surrounding a bacterial cell which is associated with the virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Some capsules have a well-defined border, whereas others form a slime layer that trails off into the medium. Most capsules consist of relatively simple polysaccharides but there are some bacteria whose capsules are made of polypeptides.
Substances elaborated by specific strains of bacteria that are lethal against other strains of the same or related species. They are protein or lipopolysaccharide-protein complexes used in taxonomy studies of bacteria.
A 34-amino acid polypeptide antibiotic produced by Streptococcus lactis. It has been used as a food preservative in canned fruits and vegetables, and cheese.
Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.
A genus of gram-positive, microaerophilic, rod-shaped bacteria occurring widely in nature. Its species are also part of the many normal flora of the mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina of many mammals, including humans. Pathogenicity from this genus is rare.
Nitrous acid sodium salt. Used in many industrial processes, in meat curing, coloring, and preserving, and as a reagent in ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES. It is used therapeutically as an antidote in cyanide poisoning. The compound is toxic and mutagenic and will react in vivo with secondary or tertiary amines thereby producing highly carcinogenic nitrosamines.
A species of anaerobic, gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae that produces proteins with characteristic neurotoxicity. It is the etiologic agent of BOTULISM in humans, wild fowl, HORSES; and CATTLE. Seven subtypes (sometimes called antigenic types, or strains) exist, each producing a different botulinum toxin (BOTULINUM TOXINS). The organism and its spores are widely distributed in nature.
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria mainly isolated from milk and milk products. These bacteria are also found in plants and nonsterile frozen and dry foods. Previously thought to be a member of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS (group N), it is now recognized as a separate genus.

Identifying the bicyclomycin binding domain through biochemical analysis of antibiotic-resistant rho proteins. (1/828)

Mutations M219K, S266A, and G337S in transcription termination factor Rho have been shown to confer resistance to the antibiotic bicyclomycin (BCM). All three His-tagged mutant Rho proteins exhibited similar Km values for ATP; however, the Vmax values at infinite ATP concentrations were one-fourth to one-third that for the His-tagged wild-type enzyme. BCM inhibition kinetics of poly(C)-dependent ATPase activity for the mutant proteins were non-competitive with respect to ATP (altering catalytic function but not ATP binding) and showed increased Ki values compared with His-tagged wild-type Rho. M219K and G337S exhibited increased ratios of poly(U)/poly(C)-stimulated ATPase activity and lower apparent Km values for ribo(C)10 in the poly(dC).ribo(C)10-dependent ATPase assay compared with His-tagged wild-type Rho. The S266A mutation did not show an increased poly(U)/poly(C) ATPase activity ratio and maintained approximately the same Km for ribo(C)10 in the poly(dC). ribo(C)10-dependent ATPase assay. The kinetic studies indicated that M219K and G337S altered the secondary RNA binding domain in Rho whereas the S266A mutation did not. Transcription termination assays for each mutant showed different patterns of Rho-terminated transcripts. Tyrosine substitution of Ser-266 led to BCM sensitivity intimating that an OH (hydroxyl) moiety at this position is needed for BCM (binding) inhibition. Our results suggest BCM binds to Rho at a site distinct from both the ATP and the primary RNA binding domains but close to the secondary RNA-binding (tracking) site and the ATP hydrolysis pocket.  (+info)

Sequence of Shiga toxin 2 phage 933W from Escherichia coli O157:H7: Shiga toxin as a phage late-gene product. (2/828)

Lysogenic bacteriophages are major vehicles for the transfer of genetic information between bacteria, including pathogenicity and/or virulence determinants. In the enteric pathogen Escherichia coli O157:H7, which causes hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic-uremic syndrome, Shiga toxins 1 and 2 (Stx1 and Stx2) are phage encoded. The sequence and analysis of the Stx2 phage 933W is presented here. We find evidence that the toxin genes are part of a late-phage transcript, suggesting that toxin production may be coupled with, if not dependent upon, phage release during lytic growth. Another phage gene, stk, encodes a product resembling eukaryotic serine/threonine protein kinases. Based on its position in the sequence, Stk may be produced by the prophage in the lysogenic state, and, like the YpkA protein of Yersinia species, it may interfere with the signal transduction pathway of the mammalian host. Three novel tRNA genes present in the phage genome may serve to increase the availability of rare tRNA species associated with efficient expression of pathogenicity determinants: both the Shiga toxin and serine/threonine kinase genes contain rare isoleucine and arginine codons. 933W also has homology to lom, encoding a member of a family of outer membrane proteins associated with virulence by conferring the ability to survive in macrophages, and bor, implicated in serum resistance.  (+info)

Dye structure affects Taq DNA polymerase terminator selectivity. (3/828)

All DNA sequencing methods have benefited from the development of new F667Y versions of Taq DNA polymerase. However, terminator chemistry methods show less uniform peak height patterns when compared to primer chemistry profiles suggesting that the dyes and/or their linker arms affect enzyme selectivity. We have measured elementary nucleotide rate and binding constants for representative rhodamine- and fluorescein-labeled terminators to determine how they interact with F667 versions of Taq Pol I. We have also developed a rapid gel-based selectivity assay that can be used to screen and to quantify dye-enzyme interactions with F667Y versions of the enzyme. Our results show that 6-TAMRA-ddTTP behaves like unlabeled ddTTP, while 6-FAM-ddTTP shows a 40-fold reduction in the rate constant for polymerization without affecting ground-state nucleotide binding. Detailed mechanism studies indicate that both isomers of different fluorescein dyes interfere with a conformational change step which the polymerase undergoes following nucleotide binding but only when these dyes are attached to pyrimidines. When these same dyes are attached to purines by the same propargylamino linker arm, they show no effect on enzyme selectivity. These studies suggest that it may be possible to develop fluorescein terminators for thermocycle DNA sequencing methods for polymerases that do not discriminate between deoxy- and dideoxynucleotides.  (+info)

Analysis of an autoregulatory loop controlling ToxT, cholera toxin, and toxin-coregulated pilus production in Vibrio cholerae. (4/828)

Coordinate expression of many virulence genes in the human pathogen Vibrio cholerae is controlled by the ToxR, TcpP, and ToxT proteins. These proteins function in a regulatory cascade in which ToxR and TcpP, two inner membrane proteins, are required to activate toxT and ToxT is the direct activator of virulence gene expression. ToxT-activated genes include those whose products are required for the biogenesis of cholera toxin (CTX) and the toxin-coregulated pilus, the major subunit of which is TcpA. This work examined control of toxT transcription. We tested a model whereby activation of toxT by ToxR and TcpP is required to prime an autoregulatory loop in which ToxT-dependent transcription of the tcpA promoter reads through a proposed terminator between the tcpF and toxT genes to result in continued ToxT production. Primer extension analysis of RNA from wild-type classical strain O395 showed that there are two products encoding toxT, one of which is longer than the other by 105 bp. Deletion of the toxT promoter (toxTDeltapro) resulted in the abolishment of toxT transcription, as predicted. Deletion of the tcpA promoter (tcpADeltapro) had no effect on subsequent detection of the smaller toxT primer extension product, but the larger toxT product was not detected, indicating that this product may be the result of transcription from the tcpA promoter and not of initiation directly upstream of toxT. Neither mutant strain produced detectable TcpA, but the CTX levels of the strains were different. The toxTDeltapro strain produced little detectable CTX, while the tcpADeltapro strain produced CTX levels intermediate between those of the wild-type and toxTDeltapro strains. Dependence of toxT transcription on TcpP and TcpH was confirmed by analyzing RNAs from strains carrying deletions in the genes encoding these regulators. The tcpP defect resulted in undetectable toxT transcription, whereas the tcpH mutation led to a diminishing of toxT RNA but not complete abolishment. Taken together, these results suggest that toxT transcription is dependent on two different promoters; one is directly upstream and is activated in part by TcpP and TcpH, and the other is much further upstream and is activated by ToxT.  (+info)

Mechanism of intrinsic transcription termination and antitermination. (5/828)

Gene expression is modulated by regulatory elements that influence transcription elongation by RNA polymerase: terminators that disrupt the elongation complex and release RNA, and regulators that overcome termination signals. RNA release from Escherichia coli RNA polymerase can be induced by a complementary oligonucleotide that replaces the upstream half of the RNA hairpin stem of intrinsic terminator transcripts, implying that RNA hairpins act by extracting RNA from the transcription complex. A transcription antiterminator inhibits this activity of oligonucleotides and therefore protects the elongation complex from destabilizing attacks on the emerging transcript. These effects illuminate the structure of the complex and the mechanism of transcription termination.  (+info)

Modulation of epidermal growth factor receptor gene transcription by a polymorphic dinucleotide repeat in intron 1. (6/828)

The influence of a highly polymorphic CA dinucleotide repeat in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene on transcription was examined with a quantitative nuclear run-off method. We could demonstrate that transcription of the EGFR gene is inhibited by approximately 80% in alleles with 21 CA repeats. In experiments with polymerase chain reaction products that spanned a region of more than 4,000 base pairs and contained the promoter, two enhancers, and the polymorphic region in the first intron of the gene, we found that transcription activity declines with increasing numbers of CA dinucleotides. In vivo pre-mRNA expression data from cultured cell lines support these findings, although other regulation mechanisms can outweigh this effect. In addition, we showed that under our experimental conditions RNA elongation terminates at a site closely downstream of the simple sequence repeat and that there are two separate major transcription start sites. Our results provide new insights in individually different EGFR gene expression and the role of the CA repeat in transcription of this proto-oncogene.  (+info)

Catabolite control of Escherichia coli regulatory protein BglG activity by antagonistically acting phosphorylations. (7/828)

In bacteria various sugars are taken up and concomitantly phosphorylated by sugar-specific enzymes II (EII) of the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS). The phosphoryl groups are donated by the phosphocarrier protein HPr. BglG, the positively acting regulatory protein of the Escherichia coli bgl (beta-glucoside utilization) operon, is known to be negatively regulated by reversible phosphorylation catalyzed by the membrane spanning beta-glucoside-specific EIIBgl. Here we present evidence that in addition BglG must be phosphorylated by HPr at a distinct site to gain activity. Our data suggest that this second, shortcut route of phosphorylation is used to monitor the state of the various PTS sugar availabilities in order to hierarchically tune expression of the bgl operon in a physiologically meaningful way. Thus, the PTS may represent a highly integrated signal transduction network in carbon catabolite control.  (+info)

mRNA surveillance in eukaryotes: kinetic proofreading of proper translation termination as assessed by mRNP domain organization? (8/828)

In the last few years it has become clear that a conserved mRNA degradation system, referred to as mRNA surveillance, exists in eukaryotic cells to degrade aberrant mRNAs. This process plays an important role in checking that mRNAs have been properly synthesized and functions, at least in part, to increase the fidelity of gene expression by degrading aberrant mRNAs that, if translated, would produce truncated proteins. A critical issue is how normal and aberrant mRNAs are distinguished and how that distinction leads to differences in mRNA stability. Recent results suggest a model with three main points. First, mRNPs have a domain organization that is, in part, a reflection of the completion of nuclear pre-mRNA processing events. Second, the critical aspect of distinguishing a normal from an aberrant mRNA is the environment of the translation termination codon as determined by the organization of the mRNP domains. Third, the cell distinguishes proper from improper termination through an internal clock that is the rate of ATP hydrolysis by Upf1p. If termination is completed before ATP hydrolysis, the mRNA is protected from mRNA degradation. Conversely, if termination is slow, then ATP hydrolysis and a structural rearrangement occurs before termination is completed, which affects the fate of the terminating ribosome in a manner that fails to stabilize the mRNA. This proposed system of distinguishing normal from aberrant transcripts is similar to, but distinct from other systems of kinetic proofreading that affect the accuracy of other biogenic processes such as translation accuracy and spliceosome assembly.  (+info)

On specific signals, segments of DNA corresponding to one or more cistrons become de-repressed and ready to transcribe. Each such DNA transcription segment has a promoter region, initiation site, coding region and a terminator region. Transcription begins at the initiation site and ends at the terminator region. A promoter region has RNA polymerase recognition site and RNA polymerase binding site.. Chain opening occurs in the region occupied by TATAATG nucleotides (TATA box) in most procaryotes. Enzymes required for chain separation are unwindases, gyrases and single stranded binding proteins. Terminator region has either poly A base sequence or palindromic sequence (iden-tical base sequence running in opposite directions in the two DNA chains).. RNA polymerase (common in procaryotes and specific in eucaryotes) binds itself to the promoter region. The two strands of DNA uncoil progressively from the site of polymerase binding. One of the two strands of DNA (3-» 5′) functions as a template ...
This gene encodes a transcription termination factor that is localized to the nucleolus and plays a critical role in ribosomal gene transcription. The encoded protein mediates the termination of RNA polymerase I transcription by binding to Sal box terminator elements downstream of pre-rRNA coding regions. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. This gene shares the symbol/alias TFF1 with another gene, NK2 homeobox 1, also known as thyroid transcription factor 1, which plays a role in the regulation of thyroid-specific gene expression ...
Transcript termination is essential for accurate gene expression and the removal of RNA polymerase (RNAP) at the ends of transcription units. In bacteria, two mechanisms are responsible for proper transcript termination: intrinsic termination and Rho-dependent termination. Intrinsic termination is m …
Must the terminator be in frame? - posted in Molecular Cloning: I cloned a gene into a vector. Stop codon is there. The terminator comes immediately thereafter, but unfortunately not in frame. What will happen? The manuals for some commercial vectors, such as pET, say that the terminator isnt quite necessary. My vector is self-made and the promoter and terminator are specific.
The Terminator - This is the film that cemented Schwarzeneggers spot in the action-brawn firmament, and it was well deserved. Hes chilling as the futuristic cyborg who kills without fear, without love, without mercy. James Camerons story and direc
Take control of your GM Gen V LT1, L83, or L86 engine with Terminator X! Do not settle for a factory ECU with a cumbersome tuning interface when you can have complete control of your engine, self-learning fuel strategies and the proven, race-winning technology of Holley EFI at a budget-friendly price! Terminator X features real-time fuel learn, an integrated 1bar MAP sensor, and four programmable inputs and outputs. The inputs and outputs are ideal for electric fans, boost control solenoids, progressive nitrous control, and much more. Terminator X comes fully loaded with base maps for common LT engine combinations to get you out of the garage and on the road/track fast. The 3.5 touch screen LCD handheld contains an easy to use calibration wizard as well as tuning and gauge display functions. All Gen V LT Terminator X kits will come with an external Gasoline Direct Injection Controller, which enables the end user to control and tune, factory injectors, GM Gen V LT Variable Valve Timing (VVT), ...
If you thought all the new Terminators in Terminator: Salvation are awesome, wait till Terminator 5! Variety is reporting Halcyon Co. toppers Derek Anderson and Victor Kubicek are developing a fifth installment of the man-vs.-machine franchise.. Based on reports, McG will be returning to direct the fifth installment of the series. In the spirit of the expanding global market, McG is considering filming the next movie in the middle east. If all goes well, the sequel will hit screens in 2011. ...
I am fascinated by DACs and the shifting sands of todays digital-audio marketplace. This month, I am reporting on two more DACs, both made by Denafrips: the $4498 Terminator, until recently their flagship DAC, and the $768 Ares II, the companys least expensive model. Like the HoloAudio May DAC I described last month, both Denafrips converters employ R-2R conversion schemes, and both render recordings into direct, unprocessed sound.
I am fascinated by DACs and the shifting sands of todays digital-audio marketplace. This month, I am reporting on two more DACs, both made by Denafrips: the $4498 Terminator, until recently their flagship DAC, and the $768 Ares II, the companys least expensive model. Like the HoloAudio May DAC I described last month, both Denafrips converters employ R-2R conversion schemes, and both render recordings into direct, unprocessed sound.
Terminator 2: Judgment Day. It has been 10 years since the events of Terminator. Sarah Connors ordeal is only just beginning as she struggles to protect her son John, the future leader of the human resistance against the machines, from a new Terminator, sent back in time to eliminate John Connor while hes still a child.. Sarah and John dont have to face this terrifying threat alone however. The human resistance have managed to send them an ally, a warrior from the future ordered to protect John Connor at any cost.. The battle for tomorrow has begun…. James Camerons epic action, sci-fi masterpiece starring Schwarzenegger in his most iconic role, has been converted in immersive 3D by Cameron himself. First hitting our screens in 1991 with groundbreaking special effects, the 3D version will take the seminal blockbuster to the next level of effects and into the 21st century for the next generation of fans.. Originally released on August 16 1991.. ...
My copy of Terminator 2 4K UHD BD just arrived today which was nice because I was not expecting it till after new years day. So I decided to bring out the 1080p blu-ray copy and play some of it then watch my new 4K UHD blu-ray to see the differences for myself. And to be honest I almost tried to cancel it but I decided to just let it come and keep it anyway since I feel I got it cheap enough.. View attachment 42862. As you can see I have been collecting terminator movies for awhile and I upgraded my HD-DVD version of Rise Of The Machines to upgrade from Dolby Digital Plus to Dolby True HD. So back to the newest release of Terminator 2: Judgement Day.. So I got my copy today and decided to watch a little of the 1080p blu-ray to see what the quality is like to refresh myself as I have not viewed it in awhile. I believe I have the 1st release on 1080p blu-ray so the video quality was most likely much better in the later release of the regular blu-ray. I place myself in the camp that appreciates the ...
TheBacteriophages.org --. Regulation of l Gene Expression by Transcription Termination and Antitermination by David I. Friedman and Donald L. Court Department of Microbiology and ...
In article ,1996Jun4.050619.20308 at alw.nih.gov,, bernard at elsie.nci.nih.gov says... , ,Bottom line: What are the sequences of phage polymerase ,termination signals? ,[Story of problems with in vitro transcription deleted] Just in case anyone was curious as to the answer... I received two very helpful e-mail replies to my request. Nick Theodorakis (ntheo at welchlink.welch.jhu.edu) pointed me to the work of MJ Chamberlin (UC Berkeley) as a good entry to phage termination signals. It would appear that the concensus is a hairpin loop followed by a run of Us. Nathan O. Siemers (siemers at bms.com) pointed me to Novagens pET vectors as a source of a typical T7 termination sequence. Indeed this 43 bp sequence is predicted to form a very stable (eg. dG = -19.6 kcal) hairpin loop (at least 7 pairs in the stem - more if G~U pairing is permitted) and trails off to a run of 6 Us. ...and my template for transcription? I found a loop with a 5 bp stem and a stability of -1.8 kcal followed by a run of 5 ...
CPn0316 is orthologously related to CT097: residues 1-434 of CPn0316 are 87% similar to residues 1-434 of CT097, NusA transcription antitermination factor from C. trachomatis ...
Buy the Philips Color Kinetics 50 ft Leader Cable with Terminator For Philips ColorGraze Powercore Fixtures at Full Compass. This 50-foot leader cable (part no. 108-000055-00) from Philips Color Kinetics includes a terminator and is designed for use with Philips ColorGraze Powercore fixtures.
The G50 Dye Terminator Removal Kit consists of pre-packed Sephadax G50 pre-hydrated with double-distilled water. The columns can be used for removing excess dye terminator, free nucleotides from sequencing and labeling reaction, desalting and for buffer exchange. The G50 column can purify DNA fragments longer than 20 bases in length with low molecular weight material retained in the gel matrix of the column. The column is designed to purify DNA fragments , 20 bases only, it is not suitable for PCR product primer removal ...
A 3 chain terminator is an oligo modification to block ligation at the 3 terminus. Click here to view our chain terminators to help your research!
Arnold Schwarzenegger promised us that he would be back - and he is in this blockbuster sequel to the 80s hit! Sarah Connor (Linda Hamilton reprising her role), who defeated an evil cyborg sent back in time to kill her before she gives birth to future resistance leader John Connor, must protect her 10-year-old son (Edward Furlong) from a new, advanced liquid-metal terminator (Robert Patrick) whos just arrived in town. Lucky for her, a previous terminator model (Schwarzenegger) has arrived to help her. Filled with groundbreaking special effects, T2 is best seen on the big screen!. ...
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Last Halloweens, my brother-in-law requested my help in making a Terminator mask. We looked at the terminator eyepiece made by The Dark Power and used it...
Theres a famous line in the 1984 science-fiction classic The Terminator when Kyle Reese (played by Michael Biehn ) says, Listen and understand. That terminator is out there...
TERMINATOR 2: 3D - Official US Trailer 2 (Feat James Cameron) - YouTube Amazon.com: Terminator 2: Judgment Day Endoarm Collectors Edition 4K...
Obter este item de uma biblioteca The Terminator. [James Cameron; Gale Anne Hurd; Arnold Schwarzenegger; Michael Biehn; Linda Hamilton; Paul Winfield; Lance Henriksen; Adam Greenberg; Mark Goldblatt; Brad Fiedel; Stan Winston; Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer.; Orion Pictures.; Hemdale Film Corporation.; Pacific Western (Firm); MGM Home Entertainment Inc.;] -- In 2029, the ruling giant super-computer, Skynet, sends an indestructible cyborg, a Terminator, back in time to 1984 to kill a woman, Sarah Connor, whose unborn son will become mankinds only hope.
ID PJEL170 preliminary; circular DNA; SYN; 12500 BP. XX AC X05629; ATCC37529; XX DT 01-JUL-1993 (Rel. 7, Created) DT 01-JUL-1995 (Rel. 12, Last updated, Version 1) XX DE E. coli plasmid vector pJEL170 - incomplete. XX KW cloning vector. XX OS Cloning vector OC Artificial sequences; Cloning vehicles. XX RN [1] RC pVH7 from pBR322 & deoCABD genes RC pJEL153 from pJEL75 & pPR633 RC pJEL154 from pJEL153 & pBR322 RC pJEL170 from pJEL126 & pJEL154 RC pJEL144 from pJEL134 & pJEL170 RC pJEL147 from pVH7 & pJEL170 RC pJEL141, pJEL143, pJEL145, pJEL146 from pVH7 & pJEL144 RA Larsen J.E., Albrechtsen B., Valentin-Hansen P.; RT Analysis of the terminator region after the deoCABD operon of RT Escherichia coli K-12 using a new class of single copy number RT operon-fusion vectors; RL Nucleic Acids Res. 15:5125-5140(1987). XX CC Restriction digests of the clone give the following sizes (kb): CC BamHI--13.0; EcoRI--13.0. (ATCC staff) CC Below 37C, there is one copy per genome equivalent stabilized by the CC ...
Genetic information processingTranscriptionTranscription factorstranscription termination/antitermination factor NusG (TIGR00922; HMM-score: 203.6) ...
Camerons filming style and stock have always meant that Terminator 2 is a rather course looking film, the backgrounds have always been somewhat hazy and ill-defined while close up detail suffers with a lack of clarity; grain too has always played its part in the look and shape of the picture. This, in part, was addressed with 1080p, the greater resolution bringing out much more than was previously visible, I point to the T1000s four hands during the helicopter chase, which are now extremely well defined and visible, whereas this used to be almost guesswork. This new edition is now even clearer and more detailed and includes a reduction of grain. Backgrounds are still somewhat hazy, they always will be, but definition is definitely a little better, take a look at that beginning garage scene, the depth to the street, the grass, the drops of water from the sprinkler, look close at the texture of the tool box; these have greater clarity than before. Close up detail has also benefited, skin detail, ...
This topic is for comments and discussion about Terminator: Future Shock, The. If you have any questions, or problems with this game, let us know. Also feel free to share any insights, useful tips and tricks with us ...
The Tеrmіnаtоr Zарреr by Dоn Croft іѕ a раrаѕіtе removal dеvісе аnd mау help аіd thе body іn thе elimination оf раrаѕіtеѕ ѕuсh аѕ bасtеrіа, wоrmѕ, yeast, fungі and Viruses.Thе Terminator Zарреr consists оf a рlаѕtіс bоx mеаѕurіng 1″ x 2″ x 3″ wіth a ѕwіtсh, аn indicator lіght, аnd twо electrodes (copper dіѕсѕ) gluеd … Continue reading BENEFITS OF THE TERMINATOR ZAPPER → ...
Plasmid pBP-L1U1H08 from Dr. Paul Freemonts lab contains the insert L1U1H08 terminator and is published in ACS Synth Biol. 2016 May 2. This plasmid is available through Addgene.
Development of 10 new screening PCR assays for GMO detection targeting promoters (pFMV, pNOS, pSSuAra, pTA29, pUbi, pRice actin) and terminators (t35S, tE9, tOCS, tg7 ...
Transcription termination factor 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TTF1 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000125482 - Ensembl, May 2017 Human PubMed Reference:. Evers R, Grummt I (Aug 1995). Molecular coevolution of mammalian ribosomal gene terminator sequences and the transcription termination factor TTF-I. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 92 (13): 5827-31. doi:10.1073/pnas.92.13.5827. PMC 41594 . PMID 7597036. Entrez Gene: TTF1 transcription termination factor, RNA polymerase I. Maruyama K, Sugano S (1994). Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with oligoribonucleotides. Gene. 138 (1-2): 171-4. doi:10.1016/0378-1119(94)90802-8. PMID 8125298. Bonaldo MF, Lennon G, Soares MB (1997). Normalization and subtraction: two approaches to facilitate gene discovery. Genome Res. 6 (9): 791-806. doi:10.1101/gr.6.9.791. PMID 8889548. Suzuki Y, Yoshitomo-Nakagawa K, Maruyama K, et al. (1997). Construction and characterization of a full ...
How is Transcription Termination Factor 1 (protein) abbreviated? TTF1 stands for Transcription Termination Factor 1 (protein). TTF1 is defined as Transcription Termination Factor 1 (protein) somewhat frequently.
The key point I think here is that she is removing the bullets and cleaning the wounds. Given proper care the skin will repair itself (if it hasnt been too damaged). The Terminator in the first movie doesnt appear to be taking care of its outer appearance. Additionally, Terminators cant smell. The first Terminator may be completely oblivious to the state of its skin, being unable to detect the rotting odor. The first Terminator also sustained a lot of damage. Multiple shotgun rounds and car crashes. The second Terminator had only been pushed around a lot by the T-1000 and a number of 9mm rounds in the back.. The Terminator in the first movie also had a short term mission, find and eliminate Sarah Connor. The first Terminator didnt need to pass for human forever, because it wasnt expecting its mission to last very long. Its possible that had Sarah Connor and Kyle Reese escaped to parts unknown, it would have then taken action to maintain its appearance. The Terminator in the second movie had ...
The genes required for replication of the temperate bacteriophage P4, which are coded by the phage left operon, are expressed from a constitutive promoter (P(LE)). In the lysogenic state, repression of the P4 replication genes is achieved by premature transcription termination. The leader region of the left operon encodes all the genetic determinants required for prophage immunity, namely: (i) the P4 immunity factor, a short, stable RNA (CI RNA) that is generated by processing of the leader transcript; (ii) two specific target sequences that exhibit complementarity with the CI RNA. RNA-RNA interactions between the CI RNA and the target sites on the mRNA leader region are essential for transcription termination. To understand how transcription termination is elicited by the P4 immunity mechanism, it is relevant to identify the transcription termination site. This, however, could not be directly inferred from the 3-end of the transcription products because of the extensive and complex processing ...
Having displayed a knack for action-oriented science fiction sequels with Aliens (1986), Cameron expands upon the popular myth he created in The Terminator with Terminator II Judgment Day (1991), made a relatively long seven years after the original, which ingeniously twists the plot and characters. Picking up roughly thirteen years after the original, T2 follows the basic architecture as a cyborg is sent back from the year 2029 to assassinate future resistance leader John Connor (Edward Furlong), now a techno-savvy street-smart juvenile living in a foster home. Led to believe his mother is delusional with her stories of Terminator killing machines and a time-traveling father, John has no contact with the institutionalised Sarah Connor (Linda Hamilton). This changes when John is confronted by a T-800 (Arnold Schwarzenegger), the machine that tried to kill his mother. But this Terminator is different - it has been reprogrammed and sent back by John himself in order to protect him from the T-1000 ...
He tortures her by painfully twisting the needle in her shoulder. With his index finger, he extends another gleaming needle directly toward her eye, commanding: Call to John now. From behind him, the Terminator comes to the rescue, slicing the T-1000s body in half with a heavy steel bar. In another massive struggle, the two androids fight - the Terminator receives damaging blows from a two-ton girder repeatedly smashed into his frame. His right-eye servo is exposed, and his skull and chest are crushed. As he crawls toward his M-79, the T-1000 stabs a steel bar into his back, pinning him to the steel catwalk. The red light in his eye goes out. Sparks discharge from his body when his power cells are ruptured and discharged. Sarah reaches for her shotgun to make one final effort to protect John, now that the Terminator seems terminated. (But the Terminators eye blinks as he finds alternate power sources, removes the steel bar from his back, and retrieves the loaded M-79 gun.). John finds his ...
Co-Op gameplay information about Terminator 2: Judgment Day on Arcade [Classics]. Find co-op news, reviews, and more info about this game. Terminator 2: Judgment Day was not technically a lightgun game (as it used gun shaped joysticks), but you hardly noticed because fo all the action. Play as a T-800 model Terminator and blow away hordes of endoskeletons and even the T-1000 itself as you protect John Connor.
Terminator 2: Judgment Day is the 27th most popular Action movie and the 22nd most famous. Terminator 2: Judgment Day is described by fans as: A must-see, Good special effects, Action-packed, Entertaining and A cult hit. Explore fans of Terminator 2: Judgment Day and the popularity of other Action movies with YouGov Ratings.
Malcolm has put together a ppt that shows the latest, greatest plan for two different one pancake constructs and a four pancake construct. You may find it on the Davidson WIKI, or you can IM him and ask him to send it to you. ,br> Here is a brief description of the construct: One pancake constructs: # lac promoter, RBS, Hin CDS, double terminator, hixC, normal or reversed pBAD (arabinose promoter), hixC, RBS, Tet resistance CDS, double terminator, RE # lac promoter, RBS, Hin CDS, double terminator, normal pBAD, hixC, RBS, Tet resistance CDS, hixC, double terminator, RE ,br> Here is a description of the four pancake construct: lac promoter, RBS, Hin CDS, double terminator, hixC, (four pancakes to be flipped), double terminator, RE ,br> The four pancakes to be flipped will come from this list of eight pancakes that we will make: # pBAD - hixC # reverse pBAD - hixC # RBS - Tet resistance - hixC # reversed (RBS - Tet resistance) - hixC # Kan resistance - hixC # reversed Kan resistance - hixC # Chl ...
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We made this brick in an effort to improve an already existing biobrick. The brick we wanted to improve was BBa_K292006. The NTNU iGEM team 2011 tried to use this brick in their stress sensor, but did not get it to work. They also tried to test-cut it and investigate the fragments using gel electrophoresis, however the resulting fragments were not as expected. This is why we thought of this biobrick as a suitable candidate for improvement. Since it is a composite part, we cloned it together again from scratch, using RBS (BBa_B0030), LacI (BBa_C0012) and a double terminator (BBa_B0014). When the cloning work was done, we sent both our new biobrick and the old one (BBa_K292006) to sequencing. The sequencing results can be found here. The sequencing result shows that in the old biobrick, only the terminator is present, and no LacI or RBS. In our improved biobrick, both RBS, LacI and terminator are present. Both BBa_K822004 and BBa_K292006 was also investigated using gel electrophoresis. The gel ...
The reason that we stock plasmids that only contain one terminator is because sometimes, despite the increased versatility, researchers may not want unnecessary terminators in their plasmids, for example when size constraints are an issue. The button below takes you to the plasmids with single terminators. If you prefer to use a plasmid with triple terminator, we suggest you search using the Plasmid Seach tool since nearly all our plasmids have triple terminators. The Plasmid Search tool will give you access to our full plasmid catalogue.. Finally, please try the Design Your Own Plasmid Online button below, to see what our cloning system can do for you. And remember that, while our plasmids are designed for easy cloning modifications, we are happy to do it for you if you prefer to outsource the cloning work.. ...
Reb1 of Schizosaccharomyces pombe represents a family of multifunctional proteins that bind to specific terminator sites (Ter) and cause polar termination of transcription catalyzed by RNA polymerase I (pol I) and arrest of replication forks approaching the Ter sites from the opposite direction. However, it remains to be investigated whether the same mechanism causes arrest of both DNA transactions. Here, we present the structure of Reb1 as a complex with a Ter site at a resolution of 2.7 Å. Structure-guided molecular genetic analyses revealed that it has distinct and well-defined DNA binding and transcription termination (TTD) domains. The region of the protein involved in replication termination is distinct from the TTD. Mechanistically, the data support the conclusion that transcription termination is not caused by just high affinity Reb1-Ter protein-DNA interactions. Rather, protein-protein interactions between the TTD with the Rpa12 subunit of RNA pol I seem to be an integral part of the ...
Importantly, in experiments using the substrate in the reversed orientation, M13.SB2.GC.rev, the helicase activity of T antigen was impaired to a lesser extent when compared with the M13.SB2.GC template upon addition of TTF‐I (Figure 1B, lanes 4-6). These findings indicate that the contrahelicase activity of TTF‐I is of polar nature. The low degree of inhibition observed with the reversed template M13.SB2.GC.rev did not exceed that of a control experiment using a template lacking the RFB sequences. In experiments with this template, the effect of increasing amounts of TTF‐I on the T antigen unwinding activity in a non‐DNA binding manner is measured. In the control template the duplex region was within the lac Z operator sequence, which is not a target site for the TTF‐I protein. As expected, only a slight inhibitory effect was observed upon addition of increasing amounts of TTF‐I (data not shown). Quantitative analysis of the data shown in Figure 1A and B clearly demonstrates that ...
5 BBa_P1011 (ccdB) -- BBa_I50020 (hc ori)-- BBa_G00001 (BB suffix) -- BBa_B0044 (TOPO site) -- BBa_B0042 (translational stop sequence) -- plasmid barcode -- BBa_B0054 (terminator) -- BBa_G00102 (VR) -- BBa_B0045 (NheI) -- BBa_P1000 or BBa_P1001 or BBa_P1003 (CmR or TetR or KanR) -- BBa_B0053 (His terminator) -- BBa_P1002 (AmpR) -- BBa_B0062 (rrnC terminator) -- BBa_B0046 (NsiI) -- BBa_B0047 (MfeI) -- BBa_I50001 (F plasmid, reverse) -- BBa_B0048 (AvrII) -- BBa_G00100 (VF2) -- BBa_B0055 (terminator) -- plasmid barcode -- BBa_B0042 (translational stop sequence) -- BBa_B0043 (TOPO site) -- BBa_G00000 (BB prefix) 3 ...
The Terminator Script taken from a transcript of the screenplay and/or the James Cameron movie with Arnold Schwarzenegger, Linda Hamilton, and Michael Biehn
Bus Suppressors/ Terminators (2 Pack) Two pack of BT2.. When any short circuit happens on your DCC powered model railway, there is a rapid collapse of track voltage followed by a voltage spike that is approximately 3 times the original rail voltage... On a larger scale layout or one with some higher voltage European DCC systems, this can be as high as 65 volts! This is enough to cause incremental damage to decoders and is one of the primary reasons for spontaneous decoder failure. The BT2 stops this problem and also acts to smooth the DCC waveform in general use, ensuring better data communication and reliable running.. ...
Li-cor was designed for use with dye primer rather than dye terminator chemistry, hence Licor software is not reading the output gels correctly and is producing corrupted SCF files. Does anyone have experience or information about this? Thank you for your help Aedin ...
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Travel guide to filming locations for James Camerons Terminator 2: Judgment Day, with Arnold Schwarzenegger, around California; including Fremont; Reseda; Northridge and Santa Monica.
Linda Hamilton wrecks Terminators in Dark Fate clip; Samara Weaving joins Paramounts Snake Eyes film; and Stranger Things 4 reveals cinematic influences.
Watch the trailer for TERMINATOR 2: JUDGMENT DAY 3D, starring Arnold Schwarzenegger, Linda Hamilton, Edward Furlong, and Robert Patrick.
Podnapisi za film Terminator 2 - Judgment Day (1991) v jeziku španščina. Datoteka velikosti 30.092 bitov v ZIP obliki. Brezplačno pobiranje!
Terminator Stout is a American Stout style beer brewed by McMenamins in United States. 3.8 average with 143 ratings, reviews and opinions.
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Hey folks, Harry here with something pretty nifty - its the new poster for TERMINATOR SALVATION, but as this fun motion & music & sound effect thing. Dont you think this means itll be the greatest thing ever?
Before the second Terminator movie, I called the two ways of making reliable systems The Battleship and the Blob. In the first case, you armour-plate the software such that threats cant penetrate. You hope. But eventually, a threat will be too great for the armour to withstand, and the system will be damaged badly, possibly fatally. In the second case, even a minor threat will cause some damage. But you can fill it full of holes, and like The Blob, it keeps on coming. Even a threat big enough to shatter any armour plate in existence will just blow great chunks off, it will still advance, inexorably, just diminished a bit. The difference between Terminator I and Terminator II ...
calc:},{trackID:0,aID:47925,blockId:terminatorcontainer17,nodetype:terminator,positionX:622,positionY:1259,posW:138,posH:61,name:. Continue therapy. ,orderbody:,num:0,calc_variableID:,ev:,ab:,media:,calc:},{trackID:0,aID:47926,blockId:decisioncontainer15,nodetype:decision,positionX:636,positionY:957,posW:110,posH:110,name:. Effective symptom resolution?. ,orderbody:,num:0,calc_variableID:,ev:,ab:,media:,calc:},{trackID:0,aID:47928,blockId:terminatorcontainer13,nodetype:terminator,positionX:51,positionY:770,posW:213,posH:61,name:. Consider adjunctive therapies. ,orderbody:,num:0,calc_variableID:,ev:,ab:,media:,calc:},{trackID:0,aID:47931,blockId:terminatorcontainer11,nodetype:terminator,positionX:1204,positionY:556,posW:277,posH:83,name:. Possible secondary dysmenorrhea, consider gynecology consult, ...
1AUU: From genetic to structural characterization of a new class of RNA-binding domain within the SacY/BglG family of antiterminator proteins.
Complete information for TTF1 gene (Protein Coding), Transcription Termination Factor 1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
actually creates a new copy of $fh each time the sub is called. It still works because $fh knows which is the next line to read from the file. But your anonymous sub is not a closure; the alternative code I wrote is actually keeping its own copy of $fh, my anonymous sub actually closes on $fh. Please note that an anonymous function is not necessarily a closure, and a closure does not necessarily have to be anonymous (although is is often the case). You might want to have a look to this: Closure on Closures. ...
IGN is the T2: Judgment Day (Sega-CD) resource with reviews, wikis, videos, trailers, screenshots, cheats, walkthroughs, previews, news and release dates
The actor who played T-1000 on the 3D remaster of Terminator 2: Judgment Day, his plans to return to the role, and his memories of making the seminal sci-fi.
These types of pics, and we have quite a few, remind me of the Terminator. Alex agrees. My mom just ooed and ahhed over them thinking they were the cutest ever. Just like a grandma. She even said he looked like a cute Jack Skellington. LOL In this pic he has both of his hands up by his face ...
Give the team behind the new Terminator Genisys a time machine, and they might go back and prevent a blight from being unleashed: the last two...
The gene is then combined with other genetic elements, including a promoter and terminator region and usually a selectable ... The genetic modification is an RNA molecule that prevents the virus reproduction by mimicking the region of the flu virus ... Genetic modification of the myxoma virus has been proposed to conserve European wild rabbits in the Iberian peninsula and to ... However, the genetic material will be stored at the Canadian Agricultural Genetics Repository Program. In 2006, a pig was ...
This genetic location could suggest that DUF3268 are cis-regulatory elements. However, it is unusually for cis regulators to be ... These transcription terminators are consistent with both the hypothesis of cis-regulatory function and function as a small RNA ... DUF3268 motifs are found in Firmicutes AND Clostridia). DUF3268 RNAs are consistently found in the 3′ untranslated regions ( ... Predicted Rho-independent transcription terminators are often located nearby to (10-40) and downstream of DUF3268 RNAs. ...
Level 0 modules are the base for MoClo system, where they contain genetic elements like a promoter, a 5' untranslated region ( ... and terminators. Then, second-tier Golden Gate assembly combine several constructs made in first-tier assembly to make a ... In this process, one needs to make sure that the introduced mutation will not affect the genetic function encoded by the ... First-tier Golden Gate assembly constructs the single-gene construct by adding in genetic elements such as promoter, open ...
In the native mRNA structure, binding of preQ1 to the aptamer region in the riboswitch leads to the formation of a terminator ... The unavailability of SD sequence due to the formation of pseudoknot in presence of preQ1 shows the OFF-regulation of genetic ... In absence of preQ1, the P2 tail region is away from the P2 loop region and hence the riboswitch is observed to be in undocked ... PreQ1 mediated transcriptional attenuation is controlled by the dynamic switching of anti-terminator and terminator hairpin in ...
These include a promoter and terminator region, which initiate and end transcription. A selectable marker gene is added, which ... Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification or genetic manipulation, is the direct manipulation of an organism's ... If genetic engineering is used to remove genetic material from the target organism the resulting organism is termed a knockout ... Genetic engineering is a process that alters the genetic structure of an organism by either removing or introducing DNA. Unlike ...
... including a promoter and terminator region and a selectable marker. Then the genetic elements are inserted into the targets ... favor the use of the term genetic engineering over genetic modification as being more precise; the USDA defines genetic ... whose genetic material (DNA) has been altered using genetic engineering techniques. In some cases, the aim is to introduce a ... Genetic engineering techniques allow for the introduction of new traits as well as greater control over traits when compared to ...
Instead, the typical nucleic acid packaged into the capsid contains a promoter region, the gene of interest, and a terminator ... Adeno-associated viruses have become an important vector for gene therapy aimed at treating genetic diseases, such as those ... For VP1, the N-terminus is extended to contain regions important in the replication cycle, and it is incorporated into the ... Parvoviruses are also considered to have high rates of genetic mutations and recombinations. Parvoviruses constitute the family ...
Nahvi, A. S.; Sudarsan, N.; Ebert, M. S.; Zou, X.; Brown, K. L.; Breaker, R. R. (Sep 2002). "Genetic control by a metabolite ... The new element lacks a paired region formed by the pairing of the 5'3' ends found in canonical AdoCbl riboswitches. It also ... unlike previously characterized AdoCbl riboswitches is thought to inhibit transcription termination as transcription terminator ... This new subclass of AdoCbl riboswitches has both sequence and structural conservation with the core region of the classical ...
The Moco RNA motif is another RNA that is associated with Moco, and its complex secondary structure and genetic experiments ... Moco-II RNAs are typically followed by a predicted rho-independent transcription terminator. Weinberg Z, Wang JX, Bogue J, et ... The RNAs are potentially in the 5' untranslated regions of genes related to molybdenum cofactor (Moco), specifically a gene ...
The gene is located within the Smith-Magenis syndrome region on chromosome 17. The cDNA of mdN encodes a 25.9-kDa polypeptide, ... The protein mdN is essential to counteract dTTP accumulation, as excess dTTP has been linked to mitochondrial genetic disease. ... which then are incorporated into the DNA of the tumor cell or virus to act as DNA chain terminators. mdN can be used to ... Since the NT5M gene is located in the Smith-Magenis syndrome region of chromosome 17, mutations in this gene could contribute ...
Terminators are regions where transcription ends, and RNA Polymerase unbinds from DNA. The TFs binding sites are physical DNA ... A total of 78 GENSOR units have their four components highlighted; 119 include the genetic switch and the response, and 2 ... A TU may also include regulatory protein binding sites affecting this promoter and a terminator. A complex operon with several ... The complete repertoire of 189 genetic sensory-response units (GENSOR units) are reported, integrating their signal, regulatory ...
Uptake signal sequence Uracil Uridine V-J joining Val Variable region Variance Variate Genetic diversity Variegation Vector ... Telomerase Telomere Telophase Temperate phage Template strand Teratogen Teratogenic Teratogens Terminal redundancy Terminator ... Europe Genetic illness Genetic informatics Genetic linkage map Genetic load Genetic map Genetic marker Genetic material Genetic ... Genetic code Genetic counseling Genetic deletion Genetic determinism Genetic disorder Genetic dissection Genetic drift Genetic ...
Terminator: Terminator sequences are required for proper gene expression and are placed after the coding region of the gene of ... In genetic engineering, a gene gun or biolistic particle delivery system is a device used to deliver exogenous DNA (transgenes ... A common terminator for biolistic transformation is the NOS terminator derived from Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Due to the high ... "nopaline synthase terminator: Topics by Science.gov". www.science.gov. Retrieved 2019-11-20. Norris, M. H.; Kang, Y.; Lu, D.; ...
A patient's DNA is sequenced from a blood sample with the use of the ABI Big Dye Terminator v.3.0 kit. Since this is a genetic ... 1 in 10,000 individuals who live or are from the region of Kainuu in northern Finland have the condition.[citation needed] ... Northern epilepsy syndrome is caused by an inherited autosomal recessive mutation in the telomeric region of the short arm of ... Warrier, V; Vieirab M; Mole SE (2013). "Genetic basis and phenotypic correlations of the neuronal ceroid lipofusinoses". ...
Genetic use restriction technology, colloquially known as "terminator technology", produces plants with sterile seeds. This ... An EPA official referred to Sauget as "one of the most polluted communities in the region" and "a soup of different chemicals ... "Context of 'July 20, 1999: USDA and Delta & Pine Land Secure New Patent for Improvements in Terminator Genetic Seed ... In 2005, the Genetic Engineering Approval Committee, the Indian regulatory authority, released a study on field tests of ...
sgRNA is a chimeric noncoding RNA that can be subdivided into three regions: a 20 nt base-pairing sequence, a 42 nt dCas9- ... The ability to upregulate gene expression using dCas9-SunTag with a single sgRNA also opens the door to large-scale genetic ... binding hairpin and a 40 nt terminator (bacteria, yeast, fruit flies, zebrafish, mice). When designing a synthetic sgRNA, only ... CRISPRi could serve as a tool for genetic screening and potentially bacterial population control. CRISPRi can silence a target ...
Hu Z, Chen J, Tian T, Zhou X, Gu H, Xu L, Zeng Y, Miao R, Jin G, Ma H, Chen Y, Shen H (July 2008). "Genetic variants of miRNA ... A terminator structure forms when there is an excess of the regulatory amino acid and ribosome movement over the leader ... The best characterised variant is an A-to-G transition at nucleotide 70 that is in a loop region two bases 5' of a conserved ... These RNA elements form one of two possible structures in regions encoding very short peptide sequences that are rich in the ...
It then copies the gene sequence into a messenger RNA transcript until it reaches a region of DNA called the terminator, where ... known collectively as the genetic code. The genetic code consists of three-letter 'words' called codons formed from a sequence ... At the ends of the linear chromosomes are specialized regions of DNA called telomeres. The main function of these regions is to ... The genetic information in a genome is held within genes, and the complete set of this information in an organism is called its ...
Terminators are the DNA signal which halts transcription. No native Synechocystis terminators have been characterized. ... Type I promoters consists of a consensus -35 and -10 region (Pribnow box) upstream of the gene start site. Heidorn et al. 2011 ... PCC6803 is considered a model organism, yet there exist few synthetic parts that can be used for genetic engineering. As ... All cyanobacteria are lacking the type II system, which has been widely adapted for genetic engineering purposes across many ...
... genetic code - genetic counseling - genetic map - genetic marker - genetic screening - genetically modified mouse - genome - ... Contents: Top 0-9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 3' end - 3' flanking region - 5' end - 5' flanking region ... chain terminator - chaperone protein - chromosome - Chromosomal translocation - chromosome walking - CIS - cistron - clone ( ... terminator - tertiary structure - tet resistance - thymine - tissue-specific expression - tm - trans - transcript - ...
Genetic code Start codon Terminator gene Griffiths AJF, Miller JH, Suzuki DT, Lewontin RC, Gelbart WM (2000). "Chapter 10 ( ... Nonstop mutations cause the continued translation of an mRNA strand into what should be an untranslated region. Most ... The nuclear genetic code is flexible as illustrated by variant genetic codes that reassign standard stop codons to amino acids ... In the standard genetic code, there are three different termination codons: There are variations on the standard genetic code, ...
A genetic library can also be generated by using sonification to fragment genomic DNA. Sonification fragments DNA into similar ... This sequencing method is based on reversible dye-terminators that enable the identification of single nucleotides as they are ... It can also be used for whole-genome and region sequencing, transcriptome analysis, metagenomics, small RNA discovery, ... "Illumina - Sequencing and array-based solutions for genetic research". www.illumina.com. Meyer M, Kircher M (June 2010). " ...
The flanking untranslated regions (UTRs) contain further regulatory sequences. The 3' UTR contains a terminator sequence, which ... Jacob, F.; Monod, J. (1961-06-01). "Genetic regulatory mechanisms in the synthesis of proteins". Journal of Molecular Biology. ... Indeed, the intron regions of a gene can be considerably longer than the exon regions. Once spliced together, the exons form a ... These sequence regions can either be next to the transcribed region (the promoter) or separated by many kilobases (enhancers ...
The c4 antisense RNA has two regions, called a' and b' (see diagram), that are complementary to its targets. It has two targets ... A rho-independent transcription terminator is often found that overlaps the c4 antisense RNA structure. Although RNAs often ... April 2008). "Small RNAs encoded within genetic islands of Salmonella typhimurium show host-induced expression and role in ... the information known about c4 antisense RNAs suggest that their terminator is more likely to be constitutive. Later ...
The regions that are predicted to have conserved RNA structures and act as orphan promoters and Rho independent terminators are ... which is a rare autosomal dominant genetic condition. Because of the high level of total cholesterol (650-1000 mg/dL) and LDL ... The region responsible for this repression function was found to be a 300 base-pair locus upstream of the ompC promoter. This ... To detect asRNA transcribed from the encoding region, oligonucleotide microarrays can be used. In this method, one or both ...
This occurs after a malfunction of the RC terminator. Lastly in the FDNA model portions of genes or non-coding regions can ... LINEs are a group of genetic elements that are found in abundant quantities in eukaryotic genomes.[4] LINE-1 is the most common ... only those regions located in the 3' region of the L1 have been proven to be targeted for duplication.[citation needed] ... RC terminator. According to the RTM2 model the 3' terminus of another Helitron serves as an RC terminator of transposition. ...
It consists of three adjacent structural genes, a promoter, a terminator, and an operator. The lac operon is regulated by ... Miller JH, Suzuki DT, Griffiths AJ, Lewontin RC, Wessler SR, Gelbart WM (2005). Introduction to genetic analysis (8th ed.). San ... polycistronic mRNA precursors are processed by trans-splicing of SL2 to downstream coding regions". Cell. 73 (3): 521-32. doi: ... Evolutionary biology portal Biology portal Evolutionary developmental biology Genetic code Gene regulatory network L-arabinose ...
Benzer S (June 1955). "Fine Structure of a Genetic Region in Bacteriophage". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of ... The transcribed pre-mRNA contains untranslated regions at both ends which contain a ribosome binding site, terminator and start ... For example, regulatory regions of a gene can be far removed from its coding regions, and coding regions can be split into ... These include DNA regions that are not transcribed as well as untranslated regions of the RNA. Flanking the open reading frame ...
The Pribnow box has a 6 bp region centered around the -10 position and an 8-12 bp sequence around the -35 region that are both ... Genetic engineering[edit]. TATA box modification[edit]. Evolutionary changes have pushed plants to adapt to the changing ... One study found less than 30% of 1031 potential promoter regions contain a putative TATA box motif in humans.[9] In Drosophila, ... In bacteria, promoter regions may contain a Pribnow box, which serves an analogous purpose to the eukaryotic TATA box. ...
Woese C.R. (1967). The genetic code: The molecular basis for genetic expression. p. 186. Harper & Row ... This change in structure can result in the formation or disruption of a terminator, truncating or permitting transcription ... "Life Could be Common Across the Universe, Just Not in Our Region". Universe Today. Retrieved 15 March 2020 ... Cairns-Smith AG (1993). Genetic Takeover: And the Mineral Origins of Life. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-23312-5. ...
Lamb MJ, Jablonka E (2005). Evolution in four dimensions: genetic, epigenetic, behavioral, and symbolic variation in the ... Gene expression can be controlled through the action of repressor proteins that attach to silencer regions of the DNA. These ... These are normal genetic diseases caused by gene deletions or inactivation of the genes, but are unusually common because ... Chromosomal regions can adopt stable and heritable alternative states resulting in bistable gene expression without changes to ...
Single-cell resolution can uncover the roles of genetic mosaicism or intra-tumor genetic heterogeneity in cancer development or ... A transposase inserts sequencing adapters directly into open regions of chromatin, allowing those regions to be amplified and ... The first single-cell transcriptome analysis in a prokaryotic species was accomplished using the terminator exonuclease enzyme ... Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), which are a big part of genetic variation in the human genome, and copy number ...
Region 1 Region 2 Region 4 July 28, 2009 September 7, 2009 (DVD). October 11, 2010 (Blu-ray Disc) November 5, 2009 (South ... The premiere episode of Dollhouse helped Fox double its audience levels among women versus Terminator: The Sarah Connor ... Television series about genetic engineering. *Serial drama television series. *Television series by 20th Century Fox Television ... A complete series box set has been released in Region 2 and Region 4 alongside the Season 2 release on DVD and Blu-ray Disc. ...
... may be used to determine the sequence of individual genes, larger genetic regions (i.e. clusters of genes or ... To determine the sequence, four types of reversible terminator bases (RT-bases) are added and non-incorporated nucleotides are ... This is a form of genetic testing, though some genetic tests may not involve DNA sequencing. ... between regions and sequence information is deduced by comparing the known sequence regions to the unknown sequence regions.[ ...
"Genetic Testing". nih.gov.. *^ "Definitions of Genetic Testing". Definitions of Genetic Testing (Jorge Sequeiros and Bárbara ... in a particular region of the sequence, suggest[10] that this region has structural or functional importance. Although DNA and ... and the RNA polymerase III terminator.[16] ... Genetic testingEdit. Main article: Genetic testing. The DNA in ... The results of a genetic test can confirm or rule out a suspected genetic condition or help determine a person's chance of ...
... such as the genetic diversity of a population or whether an individual is heterozygous for a recessive inherited genetic ... The Illumina dye sequencing method is based on reversible dye-terminators and was developed in 1996 at the Geneva Biomedical ... "Phage_Finder: automated identification and classification of prophage regions in complete bacterial genome sequences". Nucleic ... Epigenomics is the study of the complete set of epigenetic modifications on the genetic material of a cell, known as the ...
The last is TAFII250 which has a Kinase domain at the N-terminus region, two bromodomains located at the C-terminus region and ... Histone modification is now considered a major regulatory mechanism that is involved in many different stages of genetic ... HDAC3 contains a non-conserved region in the C-terminal region that was found to be required for transcriptional repression as ... It also contains two regions, one called a Nuclear Localization Signal (NLS) as well as a Nuclear Export Signal (NES). The NLS ...
Griffiths AJ (2000). An introduction to genetic analysis (7th ed.). New York: W.H. Freeman. ISBN 978-0716735205. . OCLC ... Once the RNA polymerase binds to this region, it begins to "read" the template DNA strand in the 3' to 5' direction.[5] RNA ... This mRNA strand is synthesized in the 5' to 3' direction.[7] Once the RNA reaches a terminator sequence, it dissociates from ... Proteins bound to these regions can either directly halt or allow RNA polymerase to read the DNA strand or can signal other ...
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Genetic promoter regions.. *ORegAnno - Open Regulatory Annotation Database ... A promoter region is located before the -35 and -10 Consensus sequences. The closer the promoter region is to the consensus ... 42 region; consensus sequence 5'-AWWWWWTTTTT-3' when centered in the -52 region; W = A or T; R = A or G; N = any base).[6] ... In genetics, a promoter is a region of DNA that initiates transcription of a particular gene. Promoters are located near the ...
An important region for the activity of gene repression and expression found in RNA is the 3' untranslated region. This is a ... "Control of Genetic Systems in Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes". University of Illinois at Chicago. Retrieved 2 April 2013.. ... This abnormal repression occurs when the RE1/NRSE region within the BDNF promoter region is activated by the binding of REST/ ... An NRSE regulatory region is present in the 3' untranslated region of the ANP gene and acts as a mediator for its appropriate ...
Genetic engineering[edit]. Main article: Genetic engineering. See also: Genetically modified food, Genetically modified crops, ... One chapter Shang Yang titled "Reflections on the One," The Book of the Governor of the Shang Region, (p. 150). ... of these programs is questioned by ecologists and economists concerned with unsustainable GMO practices such as terminator ... Genetically modified organisms (GMO) are organisms whose genetic material has been altered by genetic engineering techniques ...
Three prime untranslated regions and microRNAs[edit]. Main article: Three prime untranslated region ... Although as early as 1951, Barbara McClintock showed interaction between two genetic loci, Activator (Ac) and Dissociator (Ds ... using collinear systems regulated by anti-terminators (lambda phage) or splicing modulators (HIV). ... The local chromatin environment of the region can be determined by ChIP-chip analysis by pulling down RNA Polymerase II, ...
Differentially methylated regions (DMRs)[edit]. Differentially methylated regions, are genomic regions with different ... The ability to evaluate other important phenomena in a DNA methylase-deficient genetic background makes Neurospora an important ... One region of the DNA that keeps its hemimethylated status for longer is the origin of replication, which has an abundance of ... Reciprocally, around 60-70% of human genes have a CpG island in their promoter region.[21][22] The majority of CpG islands are ...
A transcriptional terminator is located 69 bases downstream from the translational termination codon. The carboxy terminal ... such as the skin folds in the inguinal and axillary regions of the body.[9] Also in those areas it is possible for there to be ... "Genetic diversity in temperate bacteriophages of Streptococcus pyogenes: identification of a second attachment site for phages ...
A molecule that allows the genetic material to be realized as a protein was first hypothesized by François Jacob and Jacques ... Main article: Terminator (genetics). Bacteria use two different strategies for transcription termination - Rho-independent ... The regulatory sequence before ("upstream" from) the coding sequence is called the five prime untranslated region (5'UTR); the ... which was useful for cracking the genetic code. RNA synthesis by RNA polymerase was established in vitro by several ...
Terminator Salvation: The Machinima Series animated series (2009). Television and film. *Aliens ...
PurR binds directly to the control region of glyA and effectively turns the gene off so that glycine will not be produced by ... The loop formed by strands 2 and 3 forms an anti-terminator and translation of the his genes will continue and histidine will ... The associated enzymes are subject to regulation via feedback inhibition and/or repression at the genetic level. As is typical ...
2008). Molecular genetic pathology. Totowa, NJ: Humana. p. 96. ISBN 978-1-59745-405-6. . Retrieved 31 December 2016.. ... Located upstream of the multiple cloning site are the promoter regions and the transcription start site which regulate the ... Genetics attempts to predict how mutations, individual genes and genetic interactions can affect the expression of a phenotype ... Molecular biology arose as an attempt to answer the questions regarding the mechanisms of genetic inheritance and the structure ...
Because regions of DNA in front of RNAP are unwound, there are compensatory positive supercoils. Regions behind RNAP are ... Main article: Terminator (genetics). In bacteria, termination of RNA transcription can be rho-dependent or rho-independent. The ... An Introduction to Genetic Analysis. 7th edition. New York: W. H. Freeman; 2000. Chapter 10. ... relies on a palindromic region of DNA. Transcribing the region causes the formation of a "hairpin" structure from the RNA ...
Regulation of gene activity - Actin binds to the regulatory regions of different kinds of genes.[122][123][124][125] Actin's ... Kabaeva Z (2002). Genetic analysis in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: missense mutations in the ventricular myosin regulatory ... which could be toxic as they can act as inefficient polymerization terminators. Nevertheless, it is key to establishing the ... This region is also important because it determines whether the protein's cleft is in the "open" or "closed" conformation.[1][ ...
This occurs after a malfunction of the RC terminator. Lastly in the FDNA model portions of genes or non-coding regions can ... LINEs are a group of genetic elements that are found in abundant quantities in eukaryotic genomes.[4] LINE-1 is the most common ... The RC terminator in the new transposon is formed de novo by a terminator-like signal present in the intron following exon 3. ( ... only those regions located in the 3' region of the L1 have been proven to be targeted for duplication. Nevertheless, there is ...
Trans-Neptunian regionEdit. Main article: Colonization of trans-Neptunian objects. Freeman Dyson suggested that within a few ... as Mercury's 176-day-long day-night cycle means that the terminator travels very slowly.[30] ... genetic material and tools. ... 3.5 Trans-Neptunian region. *3.6 Beyond the Solar System *3.6.1 ... "special regions" containing water,[113][114] otherwise there is a risk of contaminating not only the life-detection experiments ...
A transcriptional terminator is located 69 bases downstream from the translational termination codon. The carboxy terminal ... McShan, W. M.; Ferretti, J. J. (1997). "Genetic diversity in temperate bacteriophages of Streptococcus pyogenes: identification ... such as the skin folds in the inguinal and axillary regions of the body. Also in those areas, Pastia's Lines may appear: ...
Helicos BioSciences used "virtual Terminators", which are unblocked terminators with a second nucleoside analogue that acts as ... Monica Heger (March 5, 2013). "PacBio Users Report Progress in Long Reads for Plant Genome Assembly, Tricky Regions of Human ... Tracy Tucker; Marco Marra & Jan M. Friedman (Aug 2009). "Massively Parallel Sequencing The Next Big Thing in Genetic Medicine ... Sequencing by reversible terminator chemistry can be a four-colour cycle such as used by Illumina/Solexa, or a one-colour cycle ...
It was released on Blu-ray and DVD on May 7, 2013 in region 1 and on May 13, 2013 in region 2. A complete series box set was ... September explains the plan is to send Michael to the year 2167, where human genetic experiments to sacrifice emotion for ... similar to leaked fellow Fox series Terminator: The Sarah Connor Chronicles. The series was renewed for a second season on May ... It was released on DVD and Blu-ray on September 14, 2010 in region 1, on September 27, 2010 in region 2, and on November 10, ...
Although a few intrinsic prokaryotic transcription terminators are used routinely, termination efficiencies have not been ... The reliable forward engineering of genetic systems remains limited by the ad hoc reuse of many types of basic genetic elements ... The reliable forward engineering of genetic systems remains limited by the ad hoc reuse of many types of basic genetic elements ... We found that structures extending beyond the core terminator stem are likely to increase terminator activity. By excluding ...
Terminator Regions, Genetic Substances * DNA, Mitochondrial * Electron Transport Complex IV Grant support * M01-RR-00039/RR/ ...
This method facilitates large-scale genetic analysis in the mouse. ... but the involvement of a time-consuming microinjection step still hampers its application for high-throughput genetic analysis ... Sequencing was performed using the BigDye terminator Cycle Sequencing Kit ver. 3.1 and ABI 3500 Genetic Analyzer (Applied ... The genomic regions flanking the gRNA target were amplified by PCR using specific primers: Fgf10 Fwd (5-CAGCAGGTCTTACCCTTCCA-3 ...
NCR, noncoding region; RBZ, antigenomic ribozyme of HDV; TERM, poly(A) signal/RNA-polII terminator. (C) Growth kinetics of ZIKV ... Zika virus spreads to new areas-region of the Americas, May 2015-January 2016. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 65:55-58. doi:10.15585 ... Mechanisms of genetic robustness in RNA viruses. EMBO Rep 7:168-173. doi:10.1038/sj.embor.7400636. ... 2B and C; see also Tables S2 and S3 in the supplemental material) support the hypothesis that high genetic diversity of the ...
Genetic organization of the mutSL region.The in silico analysis of the seven S. aureus genomic complete sequences available at ... 1A). The 302-bp intergenic region which precedes the mutS gene comprises a putative transcription terminator for the open ... Genetic organization of the mutSL region in S. aureus and results of the transcriptional analysis by RT-PCR. (A) Schematic ... A genetic analysis of the mutSL region was performed in S. aureus RN4220. Reverse transcriptase PCR experiments confirmed the ...
These include a promoter and terminator region, which initiate and end transcription. A selectable marker gene is added, which ... Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification or genetic manipulation, is the direct manipulation of an organisms ... If genetic engineering is used to remove genetic material from the target organism the resulting organism is termed a knockout ... Genetic engineering is a process that alters the genetic structure of an organism by either removing or introducing DNA. Unlike ...
Genetic organization of tol-oprL cluster andlacZ fusion constructs of the tol-oprL genes. DNA fragments of the tol-oprL region ... This terminator appears to be functional as indicated by RT-PCR analysis in that no transcripts extended beyond the terminator ... Whenorf1 and its upstream region was present, tolQ,tolR, and tolA were also expressed at high levels. But when the orf1 region ... Interestingly, apart from the terminator downstream of orf2, no typical terminators could be identified downstream of the first ...
DNA analysis for introns, terminators and enhancers of plant expressible cassettes. *Information on non-coding regions that ... Characterization of expressed genetic components in maize tissues. Toxicity of the Novel Gene Products. The toxicity of the ... In order to assess the inheritance and stability of the genetic modification the following has been submitted:. *Analysis of ... In order to assess allergenicity and toxicity of the expressed genetic components the following has been submitted:. * ...
... enzyme activity and genetic testing. In addition, the terminator codon mutation c.1567T , G (p.X523E) and a novel missense ... was found in the coding region of the GALNS gene of the 2nd patient. Conclusions: Neurogenic bladder may occur in patients with ... Clinical and genetic characteristics of concomitant Mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA and neurogenic bladder in children: two case ... Ge, Z., Mao, J., Shen, H., Xu, Y., Fu, H., Zhang, W., & Li, D. (2021). Clinical and genetic characteristics of concomitant ...
Often a promoter and terminator region was added as well as a selectable marker gene. The gene may be modified further at this ... As well as the gene to be inserted most constructs contain a promoter and terminator region as well as a selectable marker gene ... Traditional methods of genetic engineering generally insert the new genetic material randomly within the host genome. This can ... "The process of genetic modification". Nicholl ST (29 May 2008). An Introduction to Genetic Engineering. Cambridge University ...
Deltavirus genetic variability should be considered for diagnostic purposes. Clinical consequences of the diversity have yet to ... HDV-3 in the Amazonian region (9); and HDV-5, HDV-6, and HDV-7 in Africa. The eventuality of a genetic diversity extended to ... Amplicons were sequenced bidirectionally with the BigDye Terminator v3.1 Sequencing Kit (Applied Biosystems, Courtabœuf, France ... The genetic diversity of HDV is related to the geographic origin of the isolates. Apart from HDV-1, which is ubiquitous, each ...
Element type (e.g., operators, promoters, origins of replication, terminators, ribosome binding regions); ... Brief description of genetic elements function. If your letter of inquiry contains confidential business information (CBI), ... Description of vector or vector agent used to induce genetic change in the organism (e.g., biolistic delivery, disarmed ... Description of intended genetic change in final product (e.g., insertion, deletion, substitution). ...
Such terminators are found in the 3 untranslated region following the coding sequences in yeast-derived genes. ... Genetic sequences coding for alzheimer amyloid from brain. WO1989007657A1 *. Feb 10, 1989. Aug 24, 1989. The Childrens Medical ... and the 42 amino acid plaque core region including the 57 amino acid adjacent carboxy-terminal region of the beta-amyloid ... Genetic constructs containing the alzheimer brain amyloid gene. WO1989006693A1 *. Jan 13, 1989. Jul 27, 1989. The Mclean ...
Such terminators are found in the 3 untranslated region following the coding sequences in yeast-derived genes. ... Assay to Distinguish Genetic Variants of β-Amyloid-Related Protein mRNA Species. The ability to distinguish between genetic ... "Genetic predisposition to Alzheimers disease" refers to an identifiable genetic mutation or alteration found in the genomes of ... This designed sequence contains the promoter (-35 and -10 regions) and operator regions of the tryptophan operon (trp) as well ...
The 85-base intergenic region contains a putative Rho-independent terminator. It has been shown that such sequences can ... describe potential mobile genetic element "morons" that appear to be common in lambdoid phages (19). Moron genes are ... The ΦK1F endosialidase protein has an N-terminal region that is not part of the ΦK1E protein. This N-terminal region has some ... There is little sequence similarity between this region and the analogous region in ΦK1-5. ...
The gRNA was expressed under the snoRNA SNR52 promoter and contained a terminator from the 3′ region of the yeast SUP4 gene. ... Diagram of Cas9 complex and schematic of genetic constructs. (A) Illustration of Cas9 protein interacting with CRISPR gRNA to ... A) Diagram of ADE2 gene in the 5′-3′ direction displaying the gRNA genomic target regions and their respective PAM sequences. ...
Sequencing was performed using BigDye terminator chemistry (v3.1) on a Prism_3130xl genetic analyzer (Applied Biosystems, ... Forty-seven primer sets were used to amplify the 52 exons and flanking intronic regions of the VWF gene by standard techniques ... Patients carrying this genetic defect have been classified as either type 1,40 2M,42 or 2A,43,44 reflecting the wide variety of ... The genetic basis of von Willebrand disease. Blood Rev 2010;24(3):123-134. ...
S2). Analysis of cumulative GC skew shows that the inverted regions encompass replication terminators. The plots of GC skew ... Population size and standing genetic diversity affect the balance between selection and genetic drift in the evolution of ... However, all regions are homologous to at least one region in another genome sequence that GI_SVM did not identify. These three ... Those genomic regions with homology (≥75% total coverage and ≥90% identity) to a region not identified as having signatures of ...
Samples were run on an ABI 3130xl genetic analyzer. Primers and protocol used to amplify and sequence the trnK/matK region were ... using the Applied Biosystem BigDye Terminator v3.1 chemistry. ... region, which is the cp region best represented in NCBI and has ... Small regions that were difficult to align were excluded from the analysis. The final dataset consisted of 102 taxa, 83 genes, ... Studies of other desert (nonsucculent) plants from various regions have also demonstrated a similar pattern of recent radiation ...
Terminator Regions, Genetic. ... and the transcription terminator of a phage DNA-packaging gene ... The Escherichia coli retrons Ec67 and Ec86 replace DNA between the cos site and a transcription terminator of a 186-related ... These features--DNA replacement at the insertion site and the location of retron junctions near transcription terminators or ... Comparison with the recently published sequence of the 186 96-2% region indicates that the retrons have replaced approximately ...
The genetic region containing the PlnrL promoter, the promoter truncations constructs and their functional analysis are ... Rho-independent transcriptional terminator between lnrK and lnrL is indicated by a hairpin. Schematics of PlnrL promoter ... A) Genetic organization of the lnrJKLMN operon (formerly known as yfiJKLMN) (Yamamoto et al., 1996). The genes lnrJ and lnrK ( ... Popp, P. F., Dotzler, M., Radeck, J., Bartels, J., and Mascher, T. (2017). The Bacillus BioBrick Box 2.0: expanding the genetic ...
Sequence Analyses and Phylogenetic Trees. RT-PCR specific for the conserved noncoding regions of AIV was described (20). PCR ... Deep Sequencing of H7N9 Influenza A Viruses from 16 Infected Patients from 2013 to 2015 in Shanghai Reveals Genetic Diversity ... Sequencing was performed by using the Big Dye Terminator sequencing kit, version 3.0 (Amersham Biosciences) and an ABI Prism ... The following reference sequences, representing the known genetic lineages of influenza A virus, were used for phylogenic trees ...
A) Schematic representation of the arlRS region of S. aureus COL. ORFs, promoters, terminators, and the regions used as probes ... Genetic organization of the S. aureus yabJ-spoVG locus. Schematic representations of the yabJ-spoVG region of S. aureus and of ... A) Schematic representation of the asp23 region. ORFs, promoters, terminators, and the regions used as probes are indicated. ... A) Schematic representation of the yabJ-spoVG region of S. aureus COL. ORFs, promoters, terminators, and the probes used are ...
The invention relates to a method for transformation of plant chloroplasts with genetic constructs by insertion of a RUBISCO ... A "terminator, or transcription terminator" is a section of genetic sequence that marks the end of gene or operon on genomic ... The psbA promoter and a host of other promoters, 5′ UTRs, terminators and homology regions have been used to express a wide ... This invention discloses a plant cell having a genetic construct inserted in a non-RUBISCO region of the chloroplast genome ...
Genetic Analyzer 3100; Applied Biosystems, Inc. [ABI], Foster City, CA) using dye-termination chemistry (BigDye Terminator; ABI ... and the promoter region of the HTRA1 (Entrez ID: NC_000010.9; chromosomal region, nucleotides 124210211-124210782) genes were ... 16 An independent analysis of the 10q26 region indicated a strong association within a 60-kb region of high linkage ... Role of genetic factors and inflammation in age-related macular degeneration. Retina. 2007;27:269-275. [CrossRef] [PubMed] ...
A 397-bp region of the ABV N-gene was amplified from all 8 PDD brain and tissue culture samples but not those from the 4 ... DNA sequencing reactions were performed by using the ABI BigDye Terminator Cycle Sequencing Kit, and sequences were generated ... with an ABI PRISM 3100 Genetic Analyzer (Applied Biosystems). Sequences were assembled and aligned by using Geneious Pro 4.6.2 ... 14) have shown that the region between the N and X gene in ABV is shorter than that in BDV. ABV apparently lacks a 22-nt ...
The similarities between BrcI and the ORFC product do not relate to specific regions of the proteins but occur generally over ... Downstream ofbrcI is an imperfect inverted repeat that might function as a rho-independent terminator. This palindromic ... Genetic characterization of brochocin-C.Biochemical and genetic information revealed that brochocin-C was a two-peptide ... Chemical and genetic characterization of bacteriocins produced by Carnobacterium piscicola LV17B. J. Biol. Chem. 269 1994 12204 ...
Terminator Regions, Genetic. MESH. Dewey Decimal Classification:. 500 Science , 570 Life sciences. ... are read through to a second terminator downstream of slaB. The bicistronic operons including promoter and terminator regions ... PCRs experiments showed that 80-85% of the transcripts stop at an oligo-T terminator downstream of slaA while 15-20% ...
Figure 2: Genetic map around the D-phenylserine dehydrogenase gene. orf1: putative transcriptional regulator gene, orf2: ... Postulated promoter and terminator sequences are located immediately upstream of orf2 and downstream of D-phenylserine ... Gene Organization of Regions Upstream and Downstream of the D-Phenylserine Dehydrogenase Gene. To determine the nucleotide ... Six ORFs were confirmed in the sequenced region, four of which were predicted to form an operon. A homology search of each ORF ...
1). Betweenorf3 and mef(A) there is an intergenic region with a high potential for the formation of hairpins (21). Palindromes ... indicative of terminators can be detected downstream oforf1 and orf3. Terminal repeats could not be detected. ... Characterization of a Genetic Element Carrying the Macrolide Efflux Gene mef(A) in Streptococcus pneumoniae. Maria Santagati, ... mef(A) was found to be part of a chromosomal genetic element designated Tn1207.1. Tn1207.1should be considered a defective ...
  • Recent extensive analyses of HDV sequences from strains isolated from patients of African origin have shown a high genetic diversity of HDVs. (cdc.gov)
  • Full-length HDV genome sequences from isolates dFr2072 and dFr2736 were characterized to determine their genetic affiliation. (cdc.gov)
  • The core sequences of these elements contain pol III promoters but must rely on fortuitous downstream oligo(dT) tracts for terminator function. (elsevier.com)
  • The same groups were generated by sequences from the UL146-UL147 intergenic region and the UL147 ORF. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Clinical isolates from two different geographic sites cluster in the same groups based on the hypervariability of the UL146, UL147, or the intergenic sequences, which provides strong evidence for linkage and no evidence for interstrain recombination within this region. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Whereas promoter databases list up to 40,000 known and potential Pol II promoter sequences, fewer than ten Pol II terminator sequences have been described. (elsevier.com)
  • Two types of expression vectors containing the P tac or P L promoters, synthetic ribosomalbinding sequences (RBS), and a transciptional terminator (rrnBT 1 T 2 ) were constructed for the production of porcine growth hormone (pGH) in Escherichia coli. (elsevier.com)
  • abstract = "Two types of expression vectors containing the Ptacor PLpromoters, synthetic ribosomalbinding sequences (RBS), and a transciptional terminator (rrnBT1T2) were constructed for the production of porcine growth hormone (pGH) in Escherichia coli. (elsevier.com)
  • This kit was deposited by Sylvestre Marillonnet's lab and is comprised of plasmids for cloning: promoters, 5' untranslated regions, signal peptides, coding sequences, and terminators. (addgene.org)
  • The primer sequences used to amplify each coding exon and its adjacent regions of the 12 genes were referred to the previous publications [ 36 , 57 - 59 ] with modification for some primers ( Appendix 1 ). (molvis.org)
  • The nucleotide sequences of PCR products were determined with the ABI BigDye Terminator cycle sequencing kit v3.1 on a genetic analyzer (ABI Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA). Variations were identified by importing the sequencing results from patients and consensus sequences from the NCBI human genome database into the SeqManII program of the Lasergene package (DNAStar Inc., Madison, WI). (molvis.org)
  • Using these sequences, scientists have recently developed a new genetic technique called CRISPR interference (CRISPRi), which allows the suppression of genetic transcription. (news-medical.net)
  • This is particularly helping in identifying genetic sequences involved in hereditary diseases such as certain forms of cancer. (news-medical.net)
  • Ask us about reaction mixes that are optimized for reading through difficult regions, such as AT- or GT-rich sequences. (thermofisher.com)
  • Once the DNA terminator sequences are flipped, they can't return to their original state - the memory of the logic gate activation is permanently stored in the DNA sequence. (synbioproject.org)
  • To assess the genetic diversity and relationships among the sika deer populations in the Tohoku District, we analyzed the mitochondrial DNA D-loop sequences from 177 individuals. (bioone.org)
  • Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification or genetic manipulation, is the direct manipulation of an organism's genes using biotechnology. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a set of technologies used to change the genetic makeup of cells, including the transfer of genes within and across species boundaries to produce improved or novel organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • 3. The plant cell of claim 2 wherein the chloroplast insertion site locus is between the trnV and rps7 genes in the inverted repeat regions of the chloroplast genome. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 14. The method of claim 10 wherein HA1 and HA2 have homology to portions of the inverted repeat region of the chloroplast genome that reside between the trnV and rps7 genes. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • A comparison of the tail gene regions of ΦK5, ΦK1E, and ΦK1-5 shows that the genes are arranged in a modular or cassette configuration and suggests that this family of phages can broaden host range by horizontal gene transfer. (asm.org)
  • B1-Alu genes that differ only in terminator sequence context direct differential RNA 3' end formation. (elsevier.com)
  • Although, that numerous genes located in the SSC15 region of interest has been analysed for their effect on pig traits, this region is still highly curious. (springer.com)
  • Genome analysis of Bifidobacterium breve UCC 2003 revealed that the groES and groEL genes are located in different chromosomal regions. (asm.org)
  • Sequence and transcriptional analyses of the region flanking the groEL and groES genes of various bifidobacteria revealed similar groEL - cspA and groES gene units, suggesting a novel genetic organization of these chaperones. (asm.org)
  • We then analyzed by direct DNA sequencing the coding regions of CLDN16 and CLDN19 genes in these patients. (plos.org)
  • Functional and genetic analysis of regulatory regions of coliphage H-19B: location of shiga-like toxin and lysis genes suggest a role for phage fun. (nih.gov)
  • Analysis of the DNA sequence of a 17 kb region of the coli lambdoid phage H-19B genome located the genes encoding shiga-like toxin I (Stx-I) downstream of the gene encoding the analogue of the phage lambda Q transcription activator with its site of action, qut at the associated pR' late promoter, and upstream of the analogues of lambda genes encoding lysis functions. (nih.gov)
  • Genetically modified crops are generated through a process known as genetic engineering, in which genes of interest are transferred to plants without the need of natural crossing. (intechopen.com)
  • For example, loops have been demonstrated between the locus control region of the murine β-globin locus and activated genes located 40 to 60 kb away ( 72 ). (asm.org)
  • In this study, molecular genetic analysis was performed on all these 12 genes in 25 Chinese families with congenital cataract. (molvis.org)
  • 1 Over time, it has become apparent that the background for Marfan syndrome and related diseases is genetic and related to mutations in genes involved in connective tissue buildup and turnover such as, but not limited to, FBN1 2 and TGFBR2 . (ahajournals.org)
  • Here we have conducted a computational prediction of putative sRNA genes in intergenic regions (IgRs) of the symbiotic α-proteobacterium S. meliloti 1021 and experimentally confirmed the expression of dozens of these candidate loci in the closely related strain S. meliloti 2011. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Some scientists have warned that introducing terminator genes into the germplasm could result in the development of a virus that could disable all non-terminator seeds. (historycommons.org)
  • We analyzed patterns of intraspecific and interspecific genetic variation in 20 immune-related genes and 17 nonimmune genes from a wild population of A. coluzzii and asked if patterns of genetic variation in the immune genes are consistent with pathogen-driven selection shaping the evolution of defense. (g3journal.org)
  • We have investigated the role of chromatin and epigenetic information on recombination, which has revealed hotspots of recombination associated with nucleosome-free regions in gene promoters and terminators. (washington.edu)
  • Amplicons were sequenced bidirectionally with the BigDye Terminator v3.1 Sequencing Kit (Applied Biosystems, Courtabœuf, France). (cdc.gov)
  • HDV RNA extraction and cDNA synthesis were performed as previously described ( 5 ), and 4 overlapping regions of the genome were amplified ( Table 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The invention relates to a method for transformation of plant chloroplasts with genetic constructs by insertion of a RUBISCO gene in a non-RUBISCO site of the chloroplast genome to generate transformed plants that produce large amounts of a functional RUBISCO enzyme. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 1. A plant cell comprising a chloroplast genome having inserted therein a heterologous genetic construct encoding a RUBISCO enzyme, wherein the genetic construct is inserted at a non-RUBISCO locus in the genome and wherein the RUBISCO enzyme is selected from the group consisting of: a RUBISCO large subunit and a RUBISCO small subunit. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 2. The plant cell of claim 1 wherein the chloroplast insertion site locus is within the inverted repeat regions of the chloroplast genome. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • and c) transforming the plant of (a) with the vector of (b) wherein the vector inserts in the inverted repeat region of the chloroplast genome and the RBC is a genetic construct which is expressed producing a RUBISCO enzyme in soluble form. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • We propose a three-stage process that emphasizes the importance of the bacteriophage and CRISPR in the genome reduction and low genetic diversity of the R. toxicus species. (asm.org)
  • However, genome down-sizing was not the sole force operating during evolution because it has been shown that mollicutes were also able to exchange genetic material through HGT. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The region of the HCMV genome from UL146 through UL147A was analyzed in clinical strains for sequence variability, genotypic stability, and transcriptional expression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Sequence comparisons of specific ORFs in this region as well as in the remainder of the genome of HCMV clinical isolates have revealed a surprisingly high level of variability. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In order to evaluate the genetic heterogeneity of Algeria, Y-chromosome, mtDNA and autosomal genome-wide makers have been analyzed in several Berber- and Arab-speaking groups. (plos.org)
  • In addition, we have found that external sources of gene flow into North Africa have been carried more often by females than males, while the North African autochthonous component is more frequent in paternally transmitted genome regions. (plos.org)
  • The instructions for the pathways that make these molecules are stored in the genome - the complete set of genetic material - of the bacteria. (elifesciences.org)
  • This genetic perturbation technique is very promising in areas such as genome engineering and stem cell research. (news-medical.net)
  • We used past experiments and observations to define specific boundaries of functional genetic elements on the bacteriophage T7 genome. (openwetware.org)
  • Sequencing of the genome confirmed the previously constructed genetic maps (Dunn & Studier, 1983). (openwetware.org)
  • Partial pol and env gp41 regions of the HIV genome were directly sequenced from plasma viral RNA for at least one sample from each patient. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Meiosis and recombination have a profound effect on natural genetic variation and genome evolution, which in turn has strategic importance for crop breeding. (washington.edu)
  • Fifteen multiplex systems with Y-SNPs were developed using SNaPshot minisequencing assays (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA) and analyzed on an ABI3130XL Genetic Analyzer (Applied Biosystems) according to a previously published protocol [12]. (pdf-archive.com)
  • Plasmid DNA was isolated from at least 10 clones per region (Wizard Plus SV Minipreps, Promega), sequenced using vector-specific primers and the Big Dye Terminator v1.1 Cycle Sequencing Kit (Applied Biosystems), and analyzed on an ABI PRISM 310 Genetic Analyzer (Applied Biosystems). (jneurosci.org)
  • For more than 25 years, Applied Biosystems has set the standard for genetic analysis through its capillary electrophoresis-based DNA sequencing technology. (thermofisher.com)
  • Evidence for the occurrence of frequent genetic recombination strongly suggests they are transmitted between species sharing a common host or niche. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 2 ]). These bacteria present an abundance of different mobile genetic elements (MGE) and have other characteristics such as natural competence, efficient machinery for homologous recombination and numerous secretion systems that favor gene exchange. (biomedcentral.com)
  • From our maps of recombination it is clear that centromeric regions are suppressed for meiotic crossovers. (washington.edu)
  • Purification of the active compound and genetic characterization of brochocin-C revealed that it is a chromosomally encoded, two-peptide nonlantibiotic bacteriocin. (asm.org)
  • Here we report the first characterization of a mef -carrying genetic element. (asm.org)
  • The first and possibly most important aspect considered is the molecular genetic characterization provided by the industry for gaining approval. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • A Pilot Project was set up by the Biotechnology Group in the Trans-Atlantic Economic Partnership Action Plan (TEP) to compare the molecular genetic characterization that industry has to submit on both sides of the Atlantic to gain regulatory approval for release to the environment. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • The key outcome of the Workshop will be a technical annex (Annex 3) of the molecular genetic characterization required on both sides. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • A draft Annex 3 circulated for comments after the workshop was actually drawn up as the result of an earlier meeting of regulatory officials from the United States and Canada aimed at comparing and harmonizing the molecular genetic characterization of the two countries. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • The molecular genetic characterization in the draft Annex 3 does not take account of the random nature of the genetic transformation process. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • The morphometric data were analysed by means of truss analysis using tpsDig2 and PAST, whereas the genetic characterization was performed using the COI gene. (scielo.sa.cr)
  • We simulated co-transcriptional RNA folding dynamics to identify competing secondary structures that might interfere with terminator folding kinetics or impact termination activity. (nih.gov)
  • The results show that there are three major transcriptional units or operons in this region, orf1-tolQRA , tolB , and oprL-orf2 , in contrast to the E. coli tol-pal region, where there are only two operons, orf1-tolQRA and tolB-pal-orf2 . (asm.org)
  • In S. cerevisiae , evidence consistent with tracking came from experiments in which LexA binding or a transcription terminator blocked transcriptional activation ( 8 ). (asm.org)
  • Ribosomal frameshifting and transcriptional slippage: From genetic steganography & cryptography to adventitious use. (ucc.ie)
  • Six ORFs were confirmed in the sequenced region, four of which were predicted to form an operon. (hindawi.com)
  • A) Schematic representation of the yabJ-spoVG region of S. aureus COL. ORFs, promoters, terminators, and the probes used are indicated. (asm.org)
  • Interestingly, the gene encoding the S-layer precursor is present in a genetic cluster locus carrying 17 open reading frames (ORFs), 11 of which carry a similar two-domain architecture, likely to encode surface-anchored proteins ( 17 ). (asm.org)
  • The discovery of a genomic region in the Toledo strain that had been deleted from the prototype laboratory strain AD169 [ 5 ], added a new set of previously unrecognized open reading frames (ORFs). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Without genetic variation, species cannot cope with changing environments, and evolution does not proceed. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Biodiversity describes the variety of organisms sharing an ecosystem and can be measured in levels of genetic variation, the number of occurring species (species richness) or by determining species diversity when accounting for the number of species and their abundance 1 . (nature.com)
  • Abstract: Our genetic study was focused on old human populations from the Bronze and Iron Ages from Romania in order to analysed their genetic variation and their genetic kinship al mitochondrial DNA(mtDNA)level with today´s Romanian populations and other modern European populations. (blogspot.com)
  • In this type of V- GURT the repressor gene is suppressed, permitting the expression of the gene terminator. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • By excluding terminators encoding such context-confounding elements, we were able to develop a linear sequence-function model that can be used to estimate termination efficiencies (r = 0.9, n = 31) better than models trained on all terminators (r = 0.67, n = 54). (nih.gov)
  • Comparison with the recently published sequence of the 186 96-2% region indicates that the retrons have replaced approximately 180 bp of DNA between the phage cohesive end site (cos) and the transcription terminator of a phage DNA-packaging gene. (edu.au)
  • DNA sequence analysis of the region encoding the tail fiber protein showed two open reading frames encoding previously characterized hydrolytic phage tail fiber proteins. (asm.org)
  • We show that a B1-Alu gene differs markedly from a classical pol III gene (tRNA(i)/(Met) in terminator sequence requirements. (elsevier.com)
  • Gene expression refers to all the processes involved in converting genetic information from a DNA sequence, or protein . (conservapedia.com)
  • The transcript is expected to contain a wheat 5' untranslated region of the chlorophyll a/b-binding protein ( cab ) and an Oryza sativa actin 1 intron before (5') the Cry1A.105 coding sequence. (cbd.int)
  • Expression of the B. thuringiensis cry2Ab2 starts at the Figwort mosaic virus (FMV) promoter, which transcribes the Zea mays heat shock protein 70 ( hsp70 ), then the Z. mays transit peptide and the cry2Ab2 coding sequence, before terminating at the nos terminator. (cbd.int)
  • These data are consistent with the high-resolution structure of bovine rhodopsin that features three α-helical turns in this region that are interrupted by an elongated, nonhelical structure from positions 7.43 to 7.48 in the primary amino acid sequence. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Our findings support the role of genetic diversity in maintaining the replicative fitness of viral populations under changing conditions. (asm.org)
  • The genetic diversity of HDV is related to the geographic origin of the isolates. (cdc.gov)
  • The eventuality of a genetic diversity extended to more than 7 clades has been mentioned by Radjef et al. (cdc.gov)
  • A phylogenomic approach was employed to model the evolution of R. toxicus to explain the low genetic diversity observed among isolates collected during a 30-year period of sampling in three regions of Australia, gain insight into the taxonomy of Rathayibacter , and provide a framework for studying these bacteria. (asm.org)
  • The lineage has a broad distribution, but is most prominent in semiarid and arid regions, with several main centers of diversity in arid Mexico and the southwestern United States, the central Andes of Peru and Bolivia, and eastern Brazil ( 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • Genetic diversity fuels species evolution as it is necessary for coping with changing environments [ 1 ] but is often impaired in endangered species [ 2 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Examples of endangered species with low genetic diversity are widespread, ranging from coelacanths [ 3 ] to marsupials [ 4 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The adaptive potential is the capacity of populations to adapt to environmental changes and is often measured in terms of genetic diversity [ 5 - 7 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The creation of these smaller independent breeding colonies thereby depletes the adaptive potential of a population as a whole, owing to the genetic diversity being more distributed among populations rather than within populations. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Precisely, what are the roles of neutral and adaptive evolution in the maintenance of genetic diversity in endangered species? (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Low values of internal standard genetic diversity indices suggested reduced genetic variability within old human populations from the Bronze and Iron Age from Romania, in contrast to all modern European populations and also modern Romanians, which showed higher mitochondrial haplogroup diversity values. (blogspot.com)
  • Instead, HIV genetic diversity is predominately shaped by spatial and temporal factors in the demographic history ( 11 , 31 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Deltavirus genetic variability should be considered for diagnostic purposes. (cdc.gov)
  • The biotechnology revolution in the past decade made possible for plant breeders access new sources of genetic variability for the development of superior cultivars. (intechopen.com)
  • The control group was chosen to match the TGFBR2 group and to decrease genetic variability. (ahajournals.org)
  • The definition of a ribosome binding site (RBS) that we used here is a contiguous stretch of DNA that, when transcribed, produces a region of RNA that interacts with the ribosome and allows for the initiation of protein synthesis. (openwetware.org)
  • This relies on recombinant nucleic acid techniques to form new combinations of heritable genetic material followed by the incorporation of that material either indirectly through a vector system or directly through micro-injection, macro-injection or micro-encapsulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apart from providing an optimized cloning strategy that generates fully exchangeable genetic elements for multigene engineering, the GB2.0 toolkit offers an ever-growing open collection of DNA parts, including a group of functionally tested, premade genetic modules to build frequently used modules like constitutive and inducible expression cassettes, endogenous gene silencing and protein-protein interaction tools, etc. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Terminator-specific recycling of a B1-Alu transcription complex by RNA polymerase III is mediated by the RNA terminus-binding protein La'. Together they form a unique fingerprint. (elsevier.com)
  • Mammalian RNA polymerase II (Pol II) transcription termination is an essential step in protein-coding gene expression that is mediated by pre-mRNA processing activities and DNA-encoded terminator elements. (elsevier.com)
  • Bacillus thuringiensis cry1A.105 is transcribed from the Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S enhanced promoter an terminates at the Triticum aestivum (wheat) heat shock protein 17.3 terminator. (cbd.int)
  • Many of the functions are associated with translation, in which the genetic code of messenger RNA molecules is used to help the ribosomes synthesize a specific protein. (encyclopedia.com)
  • These regions, known as promoters, recruit the cellular proteins responsible for transcribing the GFP gene into messenger RNA, which then directs protein assembly. (synbioproject.org)
  • We are keen to exploit knowledge gained from recoding and related studies for the amelioration of genetic disease, to optimize protein synthesis under particular over-expression situations. (ucc.ie)
  • To calculate the genetic relationship between populations based on microsatellite data also the RST, another analogue of the FST, was used which takes the difference in repeat numbers between alleles into account [13]. (pdf-archive.com)
  • Despite the long-standing presence of human cultures in the region, it has been suggested that the present-day populations in North Africa are the result of a recent back-to-Africa migration in pre-Holocene times that replaced the first inhabitants in the region, followed by multiple migrations from neighboring areas [ 3 ]. (plos.org)
  • However, the most important event was the Arab conquest that begun during the 7th century, when North-African autochthonous Berber populations were converted to Islam and since then Arabic has became official language employed in the region. (plos.org)
  • Therefore, the North African population represents a mosaic of peoples at different levels: the spoken language, the culture and even the social organization that shows in the split observed between the urban regions representatives of the elite (Romanized and Arabicized populations, for example) and the Berber populations living in the rural areas. (plos.org)
  • These include external factors such as host population density and geographical location, and intrinsic factors such as genetic constitution, life history, and other conditions which may vary between individuals and host populations. (nature.com)
  • The ancient DNA(aDNA)was extracted from skeletal remains of 50 individuals from the Bronze and Iron Age by a phenol-chloroform DNA extraction method.MtDNA HVR I and HVR II regions were amplified by PCR and sequenced by the dideoxy chain terminator method.The aDNA data were analysed in comparison with corresponding mtDNA data of modern Romanian people and other 11 European populations. (blogspot.com)
  • Genetic organization of the S. aureus yabJ-spoVG locus. (asm.org)
  • Through extensive gene deletion, pathway-targeted molecular networking, quantitative proteomic analysis, and NMR, we show that the genetic locus affects the regulation of quorum sensing and secondary metabolic enzymes and encodes new pteridine metabolites functionalized with cis -amide acyl-side chains, termed pepteridine A ( 1 ) and B ( 2 ). (elifesciences.org)
  • These features--DNA replacement at the insertion site and the location of retron junctions near transcription terminators or DNA cleavage sites--are shared with other retrons and suggest ways in which retron transposition might have occurred. (edu.au)
  • We report the identification of 78 cotranscriptional cleavage (CoTC)-type terminator elements at endogenous gene loci. (elsevier.com)
  • Both ΦK5 and ΦK1E have a Salmonella phage SP6-like promoter upstream of their tail proteins as well as a region of homology which is just downstream of the lyase gene of ΦK5 and just upstream of the endosialidase gene of ΦK1E ( 6 ). (asm.org)
  • the genetic analysis of ligase and kinase mutants was carried out using mutant host strains that do not support the growth of ligase or kinase defective phage (Studier, 1969). (openwetware.org)
  • Although a few intrinsic prokaryotic transcription terminators are used routinely, termination efficiencies have not been studied systematically. (nih.gov)
  • PCRs experiments showed that 80-85% of the transcripts stop at an oligo-T terminator downstream of slaA while 15-20% are read through to a second terminator downstream of slaB. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • Several large cohort studies have attempted to define the genetic basis of type 1 VWD, and numerous mutations have been reported. (bloodjournal.org)
  • The aim of the present study was to analyse the effect of PLCD4, PECR, FN1 and PNKD mutations on pig productive traits and tested the usefulness of targeted enrichment DNA sequencing method as tool for preselection of genetic markers. (springer.com)
  • Results of the genetic analysis revealed CLDN19 mutations in all patients confirming the clinical diagnosis. (plos.org)
  • Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a common autosomal dominant genetic disorder caused by mutations in the NF1 gene. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Aortic dilatation, dissection, or sudden death was the index event leading to genetic diagnosis in 65% of families with TGFBR2 mutations, versus 32% with FBN1 mutations ( P =0.002). (ahajournals.org)
  • Restriction enzymes and kits for genetic manipulation were from Takara Shuzo (Kyoto, Japan), Toyobo (Osaka, Japan), and New England Biolabs (Beverly, MA). (hindawi.com)
  • These preliminary results suggest that PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism, in conjunction with DNA sequencing of the slpA variable region, could constitute an alternative typing method for determining C. difficile serotypes. (asm.org)
  • Terminator" technology, also referred to as "Suicide Seeds," are marketing terms coined by GE opponents to reframe what is technically called Genetic Use Restriction Technology , or GURT. (biofortified.org)
  • A number of agricultural biotech firms secure patents on genetic use restriction technologies (GURTs). (historycommons.org)
  • The strong backlash against "Terminator" GURTs has likely contributed to Monsanto's decision to pledge not to use GURTs in any of their seeds. (biofortified.org)
  • We then assembled a collection of 61 natural and synthetic terminators that collectively encode termination efficiencies across an ∼800-fold dynamic range within Escherichia coli. (nih.gov)
  • Phylogenetic analyses of these gene regions revealed a 99% similarity of the sample to YMTV. (scielo.org.za)
  • Our analyses assess the relation between the identified presequence-binding region of Tom40 and the intermembrane space domain of Tom22. (asm.org)
  • further analysis indicated the the 3' nos terminator was truncated during the transformation process. (cbd.int)
  • The coding region of LOC387715 (exon 1) and the promoter of HTRA1 were screened by resequencing in AMD cases and normal controls. (arvojournals.org)
  • WEBGENE was used for the prediction of CGIs, and the TESS (Transcription Element Search Software, http://www.cbil.upenn.edu/tess ) program for identification of putative transcription factor (TF) binding sites and proscan (version 1.7, http://www-bimas.cit.nih.gov/molbio/proscan/ ) were used for prediction of putative promoter regions. (jneurosci.org)
  • Several genetic polymorphisms in metabolic activation or detoxification enzymes have been associated with susceptibility to therapy-related leukemia and myelodysplastic leukemia (TRL/MDS). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Previous studies suggest that polymorphisms in the E6 gene or the long control region(LCR)of HPV16 may alter the oncogenic potential of the virus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The aims of this study were to investigate the genetic variations of HPV16 E6 gene and LCR in isolates from Chinese population and correlation of the E6 and LCR polymorphisms with disease status of infected patients. (biomedcentral.com)
  • An organism that is generated through genetic engineering is considered to be genetically modified (GM) and the resulting entity is a genetically modified organism (GMO). (wikipedia.org)
  • Our results show that the genetic heterogeneity found in Algeria is not correlated with geography or linguistics, challenging the idea of Berber groups being genetically isolated and Arab groups open to gene flow. (plos.org)
  • GURT, more commonly known as "terminator" technology, involves genetically engineering seeds to grow into sterile plants. (historycommons.org)
  • In 53 individually known CEL wolves sampled in Germany, we revealed a community of four cestode, eight nematode, one trematode and 12 potential Sarcocystis species through molecular genetic techniques. (nature.com)
  • IUPAC definition Genetic engineering: Process of inserting new genetic information into existing cells in order to modify a specific organism for the purpose of changing its characteristics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Case presentation: Both children were characterized by the presence of pectus carinatum, kyphoscoliosis, nocturnal enuresis, urinary incontinence, normal intelligence, and loss of strength in the legs, diagnosed as neurogenic bladder in association with MPS IVA through the analysis of the clinical characteristics, enzyme activity and genetic testing. (mendeley.com)
  • It is necessary to screen for the diagnosis of MPS IVA in patients with atypical enuresis and skeletal abnormalities through the analysis of the clinical characteristics, enzyme activity and genetic testing. (mendeley.com)
  • Although much is known about the role of pre-mRNA processing in termination, our understanding of the characteristics and generality of terminator elements is limited. (elsevier.com)
  • For other bacteria with limited MGE repertoire and routes of DNA transfer, the means of genetic exchange are not so obvious. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), developed by Kary Mullis in 1983, allowed small sections of DNA to be amplified (replicated) and aided identification and isolation of genetic material. (wikipedia.org)
  • The T7 RNA polymerase promoter was determined by sequencing the 23 base pair region common to the late T7 promoters (Boothroyd & Hayward, 1979). (openwetware.org)
  • Often a promoter and terminator region was added as well as a selectable marker gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Intergeneric microorganisms do not include those in which the introduced genetic material consists only of "well characterized," 2 "non-coding regulatory regions" 3 from another genus. (khlaw.com)
  • Homozygosity mapping has identified chromosomal regions linked to Mitchell-Riley syndrome, in which the regulatory factor X 6 (RFX6) gene was identified [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Southern blot analysis indicated the presence of a single bar gene flanked its regulatory genetic elements. (cbd.int)
  • The variable regions of slpA were amplified by PCR from serogroup reference strains and various clinical isolates chosen randomly. (asm.org)
  • Human-directed genetic manipulation began with the domestication of plants and animals through artificial selection in about 12,000 BC. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genetic manipulation of plants allows their adaptation to different environmental stresses, whether biotic or abiotic. (intechopen.com)
  • Genetic susceptibility to atypical scrapie is reported to be associated with different genotypes than in classical scrapie. (biomedcentral.com)
  • One of the approaches based on next-generation sequencing (NGS) is targeted enrichment of genomic DNA (TEDNA-seq) sequencing, which allows the identification of a directly selected genomic region by using hybridization probes during DNA library preparation. (springer.com)
  • Recent use of the CRISPR/Cas9 system has dramatically reduced the time required to produce mutant mice, but the involvement of a time-consuming microinjection step still hampers its application for high-throughput genetic analysis. (nature.com)
  • This method facilitates large-scale genetic analysis in the mouse. (nature.com)
  • A genetic analysis of the mutSL region was performed in S. aureus RN4220. (asm.org)
  • All FST- and RST-values were obtained by taking only one participant into account for pairs with the same family name, the same 'genealogical region' and belonging to the same subhaplogroup, to exclude the possibility of family effect in the analysis. (pdf-archive.com)
  • Bioinformatic analysis by the company of the regions flanking the bar gene suggests that no known rice gene was interrupted and that no chimeric proteins would be expressed due to the gene insertion. (cbd.int)
  • To learn more about how our genetic analysis technologies and products can help you expand your business, please contact us at [email protected] . (thermofisher.com)
  • Analysis of a phosphorylation site within one of the presequence-interacting regions revealed altered translocation kinetics along the presequence pathway. (asm.org)
  • The toxicity of the expressed genetic components on non-target species, humans and animals. (gc.ca)
  • This region contains a stretch of 7 amino acids that is repeated between 26 and 52 times (differences in the number of repeats occur in a species specific manner). (conservapedia.com)
  • The resulting systematically measured collection of terminators should improve the engineering of synthetic genetic systems and also advance quantitative modeling of transcription termination. (nih.gov)
  • Plant synthetic biology aims to apply engineering principles to plant genetic design. (plantphysiol.org)
  • One strategic requirement of plant synthetic biology is the adoption of common standardized technologies that facilitate the construction of increasingly complex multigene structures at the DNA level while enabling the exchange of genetic building blocks among plant bioengineers. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Synthetic biologists use interchangeable genetic parts to design circuits that perform a specific function, such as detecting a chemical in the environment. (synbioproject.org)
  • 2009) produced an oscillating genetic circuit synchronised by quorum sensing, confirming that this method could be used to improve synthetic biological oscillators. (igem.org)
  • To study the clinical features and to perform genetic linkage study in two large Chinese families with autosomal dominant juvenile-onset primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). (molvis.org)
  • Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) (OMIM 162200) is a progressive autosomal dominant inherited disease and is one of the most widespread genetic disorders worldwide with a prevalence of 1 in 2500- to -3000 live births ( 1 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Frederick Sanger developed a method for sequencing DNA in 1977, greatly increasing the genetic information available to researchers. (wikipedia.org)
  • The identity of the mold was confirmed by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer 1 and 4 (ITS-1 and ITS-4) and D1/D2 regions of the rRNA gene. (asm.org)
  • The potential genetic markers for pig productive traits were identified by using targeted enrichment DNA sequencing of chromosome 15 region that is QTL-rich. (springer.com)
  • Applications include sequencing infectious disease agents (including viral genomes or cDNA) to identify genetic variants. (thermofisher.com)
  • Our BigDye terminators are available for inclusion in your kit as ready-made, one-tube mixtures containing four distinct fluorescent dideoxynucleotide conjugates, a sequencing enzyme, a balanced mixture of unlabeled nucleotides, and an optimized reaction buffer. (thermofisher.com)
  • These terminators are generally used in combination with cycle sequencing for high-sensitivity detection and sequencing of low-abundance targets. (thermofisher.com)
  • Genetic Testing Panel for Marfan Syndrome and Next-Generation Sequencing. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Type 1 VWD is the most common form of the disorder 1 but can be difficult to diagnose due to heterogeneity of its clinical and laboratory phenotypes, which reflect heterogeneity in the genetic basis and pathogenic mechanisms of this disease. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Down syndrome (DS) leads to complex phenotypes and is the main genetic cause of birth defects and heart diseases. (prolekare.cz)
  • Diverse genetic ancestral components with different origins (autochthonous, European, Middle Eastern, and sub-Saharan) and genetic heterogeneity in the region have been described. (plos.org)
  • Methods and compositions are provided which allow for genetic modification of host cells including, plants and plant cells. (patents.com)
  • The reliable forward engineering of genetic systems remains limited by the ad hoc reuse of many types of basic genetic elements. (nih.gov)
  • The gene must then be isolated and incorporated, along with other genetic elements, into a suitable vector. (wikipedia.org)
  • An intergeneric microorganism is one formed by deliberate combination of certain "mobile" 1 genetic elements ( e.g . (khlaw.com)
  • The mechanisms of these gene transfers remain unclear because our knowledge of the mycoplasma mobile genetic elements is limited. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Using our knowledge of the human β-globin terminator mechanism, we have developed a selection strategy for mapping mammalian Pol II terminator elements. (elsevier.com)
  • While we annotated these additional promoters, we did not incorporate them as functional genetic elements of T7.1. (openwetware.org)
  • The polymorphism of the 5′ promoter region of CYP3A4 was not found in persons of Japanese ethnicity. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These results suggest that the NQO1 polymorphism is significantly associated with the genetic risk of TRL/MDS. (aacrjournals.org)
  • All plasmids share similar size and genetic organization, and present a mosaic structure. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here, we developed and validated a genetic architecture that enables reliable measurement of termination efficiencies. (nih.gov)
  • These CRISPR regions are originally located between regions of foreign nucleotides, derived from previous viral infections. (news-medical.net)
  • In this region, the abundance of QTLs related to meat quality traits, in particular meat texture, is the highest in comparison to other pig chromosomes. (springer.com)
  • Most recently, we have been studying the centromeres, which are some of the least understood, and typically unassembled, regions of chromosomes - despite playing a critical role in segregation and spindle attachment. (washington.edu)
  • The bicistronic operons including promoter and terminator regions are conserved in the Sulfolobales. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • Diagram of Cas9 complex and schematic of genetic constructs. (nih.gov)