Verbal Behavior: Includes both producing and responding to words, either written or spoken.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Reinforcement, Verbal: Use of word stimulus to strengthen a response during learning.Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.Memory Disorders: Disturbances in registering an impression, in the retention of an acquired impression, or in the recall of an impression. Memory impairments are associated with DEMENTIA; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ENCEPHALITIS; ALCOHOLISM (see also ALCOHOL AMNESTIC DISORDER); SCHIZOPHRENIA; and other conditions.Memory: Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Wechsler Scales: Tests designed to measure intellectual functioning in children and adults.Speech: Communication through a system of conventional vocal symbols.Mental Recall: The process whereby a representation of past experience is elicited.Intelligence: The ability to learn and to deal with new situations and to deal effectively with tasks involving abstractions.Intelligence Tests: Standardized tests that measure the present general ability or aptitude for intellectual performance.Nonverbal Communication: Transmission of emotions, ideas, and attitudes between individuals in ways other than the spoken language.Language Tests: Tests designed to assess language behavior and abilities. They include tests of vocabulary, comprehension, grammar and functional use of language, e.g., Development Sentence Scoring, Receptive-Expressive Emergent Language Scale, Parsons Language Sample, Utah Test of Language Development, Michigan Language Inventory and Verbal Language Development Scale, Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities, Northwestern Syntax Screening Test, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Ammons Full-Range Picture Vocabulary Test, and Assessment of Children's Language Comprehension.Autopsy: Postmortem examination of the body.Executive Function: A set of cognitive functions that controls complex, goal-directed thought and behavior. Executive function involves multiple domains, such as CONCEPT FORMATION, goal management, cognitive flexibility, INHIBITION control, and WORKING MEMORY. Impaired executive function is seen in a range of disorders, e.g., SCHIZOPHRENIA; and ADHD.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Language: A verbal or nonverbal means of communicating ideas or feelings.Term Birth: CHILDBIRTH at the end of a normal duration of PREGNANCY, between 37 to 40 weeks of gestation or about 280 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period.Hallucinations: Subjectively experienced sensations in the absence of an appropriate stimulus, but which are regarded by the individual as real. They may be of organic origin or associated with MENTAL DISORDERS.Semantics: The relationships between symbols and their meanings.Vocabulary: The sum or the stock of words used by a language, a group, or an individual. (From Webster, 3d ed)Attention: Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.Speech Disorders: Acquired or developmental conditions marked by an impaired ability to comprehend or generate spoken forms of language.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Language Disorders: Conditions characterized by deficiencies of comprehension or expression of written and spoken forms of language. These include acquired and developmental disorders.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Temporal Lobe: Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Retention (Psychology): The persistence to perform a learned behavior (facts or experiences) after an interval has elapsed in which there has been no performance or practice of the behavior.Schizophrenia: A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.Child Language: The language and sounds expressed by a child at a particular maturational stage in development.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Thinking: Mental activity, not predominantly perceptual, by which one apprehends some aspect of an object or situation based on past learning and experience.Frontal Lobe: The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.Problem Solving: A learning situation involving more than one alternative from which a selection is made in order to attain a specific goal.Word Association Tests: Lists of words to which individuals are asked to respond ascertaining the conceptual meaning held by the individual.Paired-Associate Learning: Learning in which the subject must respond with one word or syllable when presented with another word or syllable.Generalization (Psychology): The phenomenon of an organism's responding to all situations similar to one in which it has been conditioned.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Reinforcement, Social: The strengthening of a response with a social reward such as a nod of approval, a parent's love or attention.Language Development: The gradual expansion in complexity and meaning of symbols and sounds as perceived and interpreted by the individual through a maturational and learning process. Stages in development include babbling, cooing, word imitation with cognition, and use of short sentences.Speech Perception: The process whereby an utterance is decoded into a representation in terms of linguistic units (sequences of phonetic segments which combine to form lexical and grammatical morphemes).Schizophrenic Psychology: Study of mental processes and behavior of schizophrenics.Mental Processes: Conceptual functions or thinking in all its forms.Autistic Disorder: A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)Aphasia: A cognitive disorder marked by an impaired ability to comprehend or express language in its written or spoken form. This condition is caused by diseases which affect the language areas of the dominant hemisphere. Clinical features are used to classify the various subtypes of this condition. General categories include receptive, expressive, and mixed forms of aphasia.Comprehension: The act or fact of grasping the meaning, nature, or importance of; understanding. (American Heritage Dictionary, 4th ed) Includes understanding by a patient or research subject of information disclosed orally or in writing.Burial: The act or ceremony of putting a corpse into the ground or a vault, or into the sea; or the inurnment of CREMAINS.Serial Learning: Learning to make a series of responses in exact order.Dominance, Cerebral: Dominance of one cerebral hemisphere over the other in cerebral functions.Language Development Disorders: Conditions characterized by language abilities (comprehension and expression of speech and writing) that are below the expected level for a given age, generally in the absence of an intellectual impairment. These conditions may be associated with DEAFNESS; BRAIN DISEASES; MENTAL DISORDERS; or environmental factors.Cause of Death: Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.Learning Disorders: Conditions characterized by a significant discrepancy between an individual's perceived level of intellect and their ability to acquire new language and other cognitive skills. These disorders may result from organic or psychological conditions. Relatively common subtypes include DYSLEXIA, DYSCALCULIA, and DYSGRAPHIA.Videotape Recording: Recording of visual and sometimes sound signals on magnetic tape.ReadingTime Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Education of Intellectually Disabled: The teaching or training of those individuals with subnormal intellectual functioning.Language Therapy: Rehabilitation of persons with language disorders or training of children with language development disorders.Psychometrics: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.Communication: The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.Recognition (Psychology): The knowledge or perception that someone or something present has been previously encountered.Creativity: The ability to generate new ideas or images.Child Development: The continuous sequential physiological and psychological maturing of an individual from birth up to but not including ADOLESCENCE.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Imitative Behavior: The mimicking of the behavior of one individual by another.Psychiatric Status Rating Scales: Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.Concept Formation: A cognitive process involving the formation of ideas generalized from the knowledge of qualities, aspects, and relations of objects.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Trail Making Test: The subject's ability to connect 25 numbered and lettered circles in sequence in a specific length of time. A score of 12 or below is suggestive of organic brain damage.Aggression: Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Aptitude: The ability to acquire general or special types of knowledge or skill.Psychological Tests: Standardized tests designed to measure abilities, as in intelligence, aptitude, and achievement tests, or to evaluate personality traits.Task Performance and Analysis: The detailed examination of observable activity or behavior associated with the execution or completion of a required function or unit of work.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Epilepsy, Temporal Lobe: A localization-related (focal) form of epilepsy characterized by recurrent seizures that arise from foci within the temporal lobe, most commonly from its mesial aspect. A wide variety of psychic phenomena may be associated, including illusions, hallucinations, dyscognitive states, and affective experiences. The majority of complex partial seizures (see EPILEPSY, COMPLEX PARTIAL) originate from the temporal lobes. Temporal lobe seizures may be classified by etiology as cryptogenic, familial, or symptomatic (i.e., related to an identified disease process or lesion). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p321)Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Auditory Perception: The process whereby auditory stimuli are selected, organized, and interpreted by the organism.Anterior Temporal Lobectomy: A neurosurgical procedure that removes the anterior TEMPORAL LOBE including the medial temporal structures of CEREBRAL CORTEX; AMYGDALA; HIPPOCAMPUS; and the adjacent PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS. This procedure is generally used for the treatment of intractable temporal epilepsy (EPILEPSY, TEMPORAL LOBE).Visual Perception: The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.Amnesia: Pathologic partial or complete loss of the ability to recall past experiences (AMNESIA, RETROGRADE) or to form new memories (AMNESIA, ANTEROGRADE). This condition may be of organic or psychologic origin. Organic forms of amnesia are usually associated with dysfunction of the DIENCEPHALON or HIPPOCAMPUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp426-7)Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Phonetics: The science or study of speech sounds and their production, transmission, and reception, and their analysis, classification, and transcription. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.Space Perception: The awareness of the spatial properties of objects; includes physical space.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Mental Status Schedule: Standardized clinical interview used to assess current psychopathology by scaling patient responses to the questions.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Psychotic Disorders: Disorders in which there is a loss of ego boundaries or a gross impairment in reality testing with delusions or prominent hallucinations. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Memory, Episodic: Type of declarative memory, consisting of personal memory in contrast to general knowledge.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Individuality: Those psychological characteristics which differentiate individuals from one another.Psycholinguistics: A discipline concerned with relations between messages and the characteristics of individuals who select and interpret them; it deals directly with the processes of encoding (phonetics) and decoding (psychoacoustics) as they relate states of messages to states of communicators.Intellectual Disability: Subnormal intellectual functioning which originates during the developmental period. This has multiple potential etiologies, including genetic defects and perinatal insults. Intelligence quotient (IQ) scores are commonly used to determine whether an individual has an intellectual disability. IQ scores between 70 and 79 are in the borderline range. Scores below 67 are in the disabled range. (from Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p28)Pattern Recognition, Visual: Mental process to visually perceive a critical number of facts (the pattern), such as characters, shapes, displays, or designs.Schizotypal Personality Disorder: A personality disorder in which there are oddities of thought (magical thinking, paranoid ideation, suspiciousness), perception (illusions, depersonalization), speech (digressive, vague, overelaborate), and behavior (inappropriate affect in social interactions, frequently social isolation) that are not severe enough to characterize schizophrenia.Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Apraxias: A group of cognitive disorders characterized by the inability to perform previously learned skills that cannot be attributed to deficits of motor or sensory function. The two major subtypes of this condition are ideomotor (see APRAXIA, IDEOMOTOR) and ideational apraxia, which refers to loss of the ability to mentally formulate the processes involved with performing an action. For example, dressing apraxia may result from an inability to mentally formulate the act of placing clothes on the body. Apraxias are generally associated with lesions of the dominant PARIETAL LOBE and supramarginal gyrus. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp56-7)Echolalia: Involuntary ("parrot-like"), meaningless repetition of a recently heard word, phrase, or song. This condition may be associated with transcortical APHASIA; SCHIZOPHRENIA; or other disorders. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p485)Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Parietal Lobe: Upper central part of the cerebral hemisphere. It is located posterior to central sulcus, anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE, and superior to the TEMPORAL LOBES.Imagination: A new pattern of perceptual or ideational material derived from past experience.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Acoustic Stimulation: Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.Linguistics: The science of language, including phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, pragmatics, and historical linguistics. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Writing: The act or practice of literary composition, the occupation of writer, or producing or engaging in literary work as a profession.Speech Production Measurement: Measurement of parameters of the speech product such as vocal tone, loudness, pitch, voice quality, articulation, resonance, phonation, phonetic structure and prosody.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Dementia: An acquired organic mental disorder with loss of intellectual abilities of sufficient severity to interfere with social or occupational functioning. The dysfunction is multifaceted and involves memory, behavior, personality, judgment, attention, spatial relations, language, abstract thought, and other executive functions. The intellectual decline is usually progressive, and initially spares the level of consciousness.Brain Damage, Chronic: A condition characterized by long-standing brain dysfunction or damage, usually of three months duration or longer. Potential etiologies include BRAIN INFARCTION; certain NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ANOXIA, BRAIN; ENCEPHALITIS; certain NEUROTOXICITY SYNDROMES; metabolic disorders (see BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC); and other conditions.Developmental Disabilities: Disorders in which there is a delay in development based on that expected for a given age level or stage of development. These impairments or disabilities originate before age 18, may be expected to continue indefinitely, and constitute a substantial impairment. Biological and nonbiological factors are involved in these disorders. (From American Psychiatric Glossary, 6th ed)Behavior Therapy: The application of modern theories of learning and conditioning in the treatment of behavior disorders.Play and Playthings: Spontaneous or voluntary recreational activities pursued for enjoyment and accessories or equipment used in the activities; includes games, toys, etc.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Emotions: Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.Alzheimer Disease: A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)Communication Disorders: Disorders of verbal and nonverbal communication caused by receptive or expressive LANGUAGE DISORDERS, cognitive dysfunction (e.g., MENTAL RETARDATION), psychiatric conditions, and HEARING DISORDERS.Prefrontal Cortex: The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.Violence: Individual or group aggressive behavior which is socially non-acceptable, turbulent, and often destructive. It is precipitated by frustrations, hostility, prejudices, etc.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Statistics as Topic: The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.Child Behavior: Any observable response or action of a child from 24 months through 12 years of age. For neonates or children younger than 24 months, INFANT BEHAVIOR is available.Interpersonal Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.Role Playing: The adopting or performing the role of another significant individual in order to gain insight into the behavior of that person.Deception: The act of deceiving or the fact of being deceived.Security Measures: Regulations to assure protection of property and equipment.Mild Cognitive Impairment: A prodromal phase of cognitive decline that may precede the emergence of ALZHEIMER DISEASE and other dementias. It may include impairment of cognition, such as impairments in language, visuospatial awareness, ATTENTION and MEMORY.Behaviorism: A psychologic theory, developed by John Broadus Watson, concerned with studying and measuring behaviors that are observable.Practice (Psychology): Performance of an act one or more times, with a view to its fixation or improvement; any performance of an act or behavior that leads to learning.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Judgment: The process of discovering or asserting an objective or intrinsic relation between two objects or concepts; a faculty or power that enables a person to make judgments; the process of bringing to light and asserting the implicit meaning of a concept; a critical evaluation of a person or situation.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Affect: The feeling-tone accompaniment of an idea or mental representation. It is the most direct psychic derivative of instinct and the psychic representative of the various bodily changes by means of which instincts manifest themselves.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Behavior: The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.Token Economy: A practice whereby tokens representing money, toys, candy, etc., are given as secondary reinforcers contingent upon certain desired behaviors or performances.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Functional Neuroimaging: Methods for visualizing REGIONAL BLOOD FLOW, metabolic, electrical, or other physiological activities in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM using various imaging modalities.Auditory Perceptual Disorders: Acquired or developmental cognitive disorders of AUDITORY PERCEPTION characterized by a reduced ability to perceive information contained in auditory stimuli despite intact auditory pathways. Affected individuals have difficulty with speech perception, sound localization, and comprehending the meaning of inflections of speech.Articulation Disorders: Disorders of the quality of speech characterized by the substitution, omission, distortion, and addition of phonemes.Association Learning: The principle that items experienced together enter into a connection, so that one tends to reinstate the other.Multilingualism: The ability to speak, read, or write several languages or many languages with some facility. Bilingualism is the most common form. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Cues: Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.Delirium, Dementia, Amnestic, Cognitive Disorders: Cognitive disorders including delirium, dementia, and other cognitive disorders. These may be the result of substance use, trauma, or other causes.Teaching: The educational process of instructing.Awareness: The act of "taking account" of an object or state of affairs. It does not imply assessment of, nor attention to the qualities or nature of the object.Motor Skills: Performance of complex motor acts.Speech Intelligibility: Ability to make speech sounds that are recognizable.Social Adjustment: Adaptation of the person to the social environment. Adjustment may take place by adapting the self to the environment or by changing the environment. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 1996)Stillbirth: The event that a FETUS is born dead or stillborn.Reality Testing: The individual's objective evaluation of the external world and the ability to differentiate adequately between it and the internal world; considered to be a primary ego function.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Hostility: Tendency to feel anger toward and to seek to inflict harm upon a person or group.Gestures: Movement of a part of the body for the purpose of communication.Psychomotor Disorders: Abnormalities of motor function that are associated with organic and non-organic cognitive disorders.Proactive Inhibition: The state or process hypothesized to account for poorer learning rate for elements later in a series as compared to the learning rate for elements coming earlier in a series.Deafness: A general term for the complete loss of the ability to hear from both ears.Transfer (Psychology): Change in learning in one situation due to prior learning in another situation. The transfer can be positive (with second learning improved by first) or negative (where the reverse holds).Music: Sound that expresses emotion through rhythm, melody, and harmony.Atrophy: Decrease in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or multiple organs, associated with a variety of pathological conditions such as abnormal cellular changes, ischemia, malnutrition, or hormonal changes.Ethiopia: An independent state in eastern Africa. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan. Its capital is Addis Ababa.Remedial Teaching: Specialized instruction for students deviating from the expected norm.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Inhibition (Psychology): The interference with or prevention of a behavioral or verbal response even though the stimulus for that response is present; in psychoanalysis the unconscious restraining of an instinctual process.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Infant, Premature: A human infant born before 37 weeks of GESTATION.Agnosia: Loss of the ability to comprehend the meaning or recognize the importance of various forms of stimulation that cannot be attributed to impairment of a primary sensory modality. Tactile agnosia is characterized by an inability to perceive the shape and nature of an object by touch alone, despite unimpaired sensation to light touch, position, and other primary sensory modalities.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Models, Psychological: Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Sexual Harassment: A form of discrimination in the workplace which violates the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Sexual harassment takes two forms: quid pro quo, where the employee must submit to sexual advances in exchange for job benefits or be penalized for refusing; or a hostile environment, where the atmosphere of the workplace is offensive and affects the employee's well-being. Offensive sexual conduct may include unwelcome advances, comments, touching, questions about marital status and sex practices, etc. Both men and women may be aggressors or victims. (Slee and Slee, Health Care Terms, 2d ed, p.404). While civil rights legislation deals with sexual harassment in the workplace, the behavior is not restricted to this; it may take place outside the work environment: in schools and colleges, athletics, and other social milieus and activities.Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects: The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.Parkinson Disease: A progressive, degenerative neurologic disease characterized by a TREMOR that is maximal at rest, retropulsion (i.e. a tendency to fall backwards), rigidity, stooped posture, slowness of voluntary movements, and a masklike facial expression. Pathologic features include loss of melanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra and other pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. LEWY BODIES are present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but may also be found in a related condition (LEWY BODY DISEASE, DIFFUSE) characterized by dementia in combination with varying degrees of parkinsonism. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1059, pp1067-75)Lead Poisoning, Nervous System, Adult: Neurologic conditions in adults associated with acute or chronic exposure to lead or any of its salts. The most common lead related neurologic syndrome in adults consists of a polyneuropathy involving motor fibers. This tends to affect distal nerves and may present as wrist drop due to RADIAL NEUROPATHY. Additional features of chronic lead exposure include ANEMIA; CONSTIPATION; colicky abdominal pain; a bluish lead line of the gums; interstitial nephritis (NEPHRITIS, INTERSTITIAL); and saturnine gout. An encephalopathy may rarely occur. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1212)Tape Recording: Recording of information on magnetic or punched paper tape.Dyslexia: A cognitive disorder characterized by an impaired ability to comprehend written and printed words or phrases despite intact vision. This condition may be developmental or acquired. Developmental dyslexia is marked by reading achievement that falls substantially below that expected given the individual's chronological age, measured intelligence, and age-appropriate education. The disturbance in reading significantly interferes with academic achievement or with activities of daily living that require reading skills. (From DSM-IV)Arousal: Cortical vigilance or readiness of tone, presumed to be in response to sensory stimulation via the reticular activating system.Bipolar Disorder: A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.Evoked Potentials: Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.Event-Related Potentials, P300: A late-appearing component of the event-related potential. P300 stands for a positive deflection in the event-related voltage potential at 300 millisecond poststimulus. Its amplitude increases with unpredictable, unlikely, or highly significant stimuli and thereby constitutes an index of mental activity. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 6th ed)Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Reinforcement (Psychology): The strengthening of a conditioned response.Set (Psychology): Readiness to think or respond in a predetermined way when confronted with a problem or stimulus situation.Regression (Psychology): A return to earlier, especially to infantile, patterns of thought or behavior, or stage of functioning, e.g., feelings of helplessness and dependency in a patient with a serious physical illness. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994).Gestational Age: The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Names: Personal names, given or surname, as cultural characteristics, as ethnological or religious patterns, as indications of the geographic distribution of families and inbreeding, etc. Analysis of isonymy, the quality of having the same or similar names, is useful in the study of population genetics. NAMES is used also for the history of names or name changes of corporate bodies, such as medical societies, universities, hospitals, government agencies, etc.Asperger Syndrome: A disorder beginning in childhood whose essential features are persistent impairment in reciprocal social communication and social interaction, and restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities. These symptoms may limit or impair everyday functioning. (From DSM-5)Stroop Test: Timed test in which the subject must read a list of words or identify colors presented with varying instructions and different degrees of distraction. (Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary. 8th ed.)Symbolism: A concept that stands for or suggests something else by reason of its relationship, association, convention, or resemblance. The symbolism may be mental or a visible sign or representation. (From Webster, 3d ed)
Verbal Behavior laid out a vocabulary and theory for functional analysis of verbal behavior, and was strongly criticized in a ... And in terms of motivation, there remains strong interest in the variety of human motivational behaviour factors, e.g., indeed ... Chomsky N. Preface to the reprint of A Review of Skinner's Verbal Behavior. In: Jakobovits L.A, Miron M.S, editors. Readings in ... ISBN 0-13-171728-6. Chomsky, Noam; Skinner, B.F. (1959). "A Review of B.F. Skinner's Verbal Behavior". Language. 35 (1): 26-58 ...
... term), followed by a word (which constituted the 'B' term). The second list would consist of either the same nonsense syllable ... Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior. 1: 109-118. doi:10.1016/s0022-5371(62)80007-3. Postman, L.; Stark, K. (1969). " ... Transfer can also occur in polyglot individuals when comprehending verbal utterances or written language. For instance, German ... Porter, L. W.; Duncan, C. P. (1953). "Negative Transfer in Verbal Learning". Journal of Experimental Psychology. 46 (1): 61-64 ...
Buchanan, Rosemarie (1993). "Writing Helps Some Veterans Come to Terms with War". The Virginian-Pilot, Aug 8: pp. A1, A8. ... Leepson, Marc (1993). "Norfolk's Verbal Theme Park [Interview]". The VVA Veteran, Sep: pp. 41-42. ...
... is a comprehensive term that serves to include the concept of righteousness, good character, and the body of ... Apart from the ordinary verbal promises, fulfillment of business contracts and repayment of loans come as a special instruction ... Here, honesty serves as a umbrella term having some basic components like speaking truth; fulfilling commitments, whether ... written or verbal; remaining truthful to one's word; rendering the assigned duty sincerely and as meticulously as possible; ...
This includes the central executive, phonologic loop, episodic buffer,visuospatial sketchpad, verbal information, long term ... short-term memory, and long-term memory. An example of this is the working memory model. ... The result is verbal information storage. The next subsection is the visuospatial sketchpad which works to store visual images ... This section is capable of taking information and putting it into long-term memory. It is also able to take information from ...
Repetition and guessing factors in short-term memory". Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior. 12 (1): 64-75. doi: ... According to the Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, the Ranschburg effect is interpreted as a result of a ...
Smith, A.D. (1971). "Output interference and organized recall from long-term memory". Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal ... Murdock, Bennet B. (1 November 1963). "Short-term memory and paired-associate learning". Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal ... Recall of the organized information from long-term memory had a negative effect on the following item recalled. In long-term ... Both short and long term memories are centralized to the hippocampus and the amygdala. In both short-term ...
"Word length and the structure of short-term memory". Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior. 14: 575-589. doi:10.1016/ ... Preschoolers given short-term musical training showed improvement in their executive function and verbal memory span. Sixty to ... 1, 2-3. Jones, Gary; Macken, Bill (2015). "Questioning short-term memory and its measurement: Why digit span measures long-term ... Perfetti, C. A.; Goldman, S. R. (1976). "Discourse memory and reading comprehension skill". Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal ...
Peterson served the remainder of Evans' term. In 2011 and 2015, Peterson was re-elected to full four-year terms. On June 8, ... Peterson later apologized for her verbal attack. In the spring of 2012, Senator Peterson was elected Chair of the Louisiana ... in the mid-term election of November 2006. She, along with several other candidates, challenged incumbent Democrat Bill ...
Baddeley, A.; Warrington, E. (1970). "Amnesia and the distinction between long- and short-term memory". Journal of Verbal ... "Memory over the short term and the long term has been thought to differ in many ways in terms of capacity, the underlying ... Craik, FIM; Lockhart RS (1972). "Levels of processing: A framework for memory research". Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal ... Attributing verbal attributes to odors has similar effects. Semantic processing of odors (e.g. attributing the "mud" odor to " ...
Peterson, L. R.; Peterson, M. J. (1959). "Short-term retention of individual verbal items". Journal of Experimental Psychology ... In order to accurately calculate the duration of short-term memory using the Brown-Peterson task, such a method must be blocked ... In addition, each nonsense syllable appeared an equal amount of times; the trials were split evenly in terms of counting by ... This helps increase capacity of short-term memory as they are recalling items with the help of something meaningful to them. ...
The existence of this long-term recency effect thus raises the possibility that immediate and long-term recency effects share a ... Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior. 17: 309-324. doi:10.1016/s0022-5371(78)90201-3. Carlesimo, Giovanni; G.A. ... Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior. 11: 649-653. doi:10.1016/s0022-5371(72)80049-5. Rundus, D. "Maintenance ... Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior. 16: 185-200. doi:10.1016/s0022-5371(77)80046-7. Shteingart, Hanan; Tal Neiman; ...
Peterson, L. R.; Peterson, M. J. (1959). "Short-term retention of individual verbal items". Journal of Experimental Psychology ... "short-term store". What we now call working memory was formerly referred to variously as a "short-term store" or short-term ... Cowan, Nelson (2008). "What are the differences between long-term, short-term, and working memory?". Prog Brain Res. Progress ... in long-term memory that enable seamless access to the information relevant for everyday tasks. In this way, parts of long-term ...
For example, the verbal stem tɨk- 'to eat' can be expanded to tɨk-ilɔːɡ-ɔ-maːla 'let us go and pretend to eat'. In this word, ... Its origin is unclear, but it may be related to the noun stem tɨba- "pine nuts". The Tübatulabal term for the Tübatulabal ... The possible verbal final morphemes (class D) are shown below. Unlike the class C morphemes, only one of these final-position ... Verbs may be formed from verbal stems or from noun stems with verbalizing morphology; similarly, nouns can be formed from noun ...
Baddeley, A.D.; Thomson, N; Buchanan, M (1975). "Word length and the structure of short-term memory". Journal of Verbal ... Catherine Penney (1975). "Modality Effects in Short-Term Verbal Memory". Psychological Bulletin. 82 (1): 68-84. doi:10.1037/ ... The sketchpad consists of the spatial short-term memory and the object memory. The spatial short-term memory is how one is able ... who presumably have no ability to encode new information in long-term memory, nevertheless have good short-term recall of ...
This and other similar terms(echoic memory, phonological loop) are used to explain a specialized short-term memory system store ... Murdock, Benet B.; Walker, Keith D. (1969). "Modality Effects in Free Recall". Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior. ... Journal of Verbal Leaning and Verbal Behavior. 8: 665-676. doi:10.1016/s0022-5371(69)80120-9. Glenberg, Arthur M. (January 1984 ... However, this term is usually used to describe the improved recall of the final items of a list when that list is presented ...
One term for this role is "dispute preventer". One of the hallmarks of mediation is that the process is strictly confidential. ... Liability in Contract arises if a mediator breaches (written or verbal) contract with one or more parties. The two forms of ... The term "mediation", however, due to language as well as national legal standards and regulations is not identical in content ... The term "mediation" broadly refers to any instance in which a third party helps others reach agreement. More specifically, ...
... the term passive is applied to a wide range of grammatical structures. Linguists therefore find it difficult to define the term ... There is specific verbal morphology; a particular form of the verb indicates passive voice. The problem arises with non- ... This so-called adversative passive works like the ordinary passive voice in terms of syntactic structure-that is, a theme or ... This is called the prepositional passive or pseudo-passive (although the latter term can also be used with other meanings). The ...
Verbal slips of the unconscious mind are referred to as a Freudian slip. This is a term to explain a spoken mistake derived ... This explanation gives significance to verbal slips and dreams. They are caused by hidden reasons in the mind displayed in ...
Hence the very term phrasal verb is misleading and a source of confusion, which has motivated some to reject the term outright ... That is to say, they are more overtly verbal. That unpredictability of meaning is the defining trait of phrasal verb ... Concerning the history of the term phrasal verb, Tom McArthur writes: "...the term phrasal verb was first used by Logan ... "The term multi-word verb can be used as a cover term for phrasal verbs, prepositional verbs, prepositional phrasal verbs and ...
Elven philologists are referred to by the Quenya term Lambengolmor. In Quenya, lambe means spoken language or verbal ...
The main entrance examination takes place at the start of the term in January. Papers are taken in verbal reasoning, English ...
Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 13(1). Burgess, N., & Hitch, G. H. (1999). Memory for serial order: A network ... In short-term memory tasks, participants are given a set of items (e.g. letters, digits) one at a time and then, after varying ... As well, other variables of verbal stimuli have been found to cause acoustic errors. Examples of these variables are word ... British Journal of Psychology, 89(1). Nairne, J. S. (1992). The loss of positional certainty in long-term memory.Psychological ...
Papagno, C.; Vallar, G. (1995). "Verbal short-term memory and vocabulary learning in polyglots". The Quarterly journal of ... It can also be done after the pattern of pronunciation is stored in short-term memory or long-term memory. It automatically ... Vocalization due to this is copied in terms of the motor goals that organize it rather than the exact movements with which it ... This is done not in terms of their exact motor performance but an inference of the intended motor goals with which it is ...
Like the term "groove", which is used to describe a cohesive rhythmic "feel" in a funk or rock context, the concept of "swing" ... an irresistible gravitational buoyancy that defies mere verbal definition." Swing has been called "the most debated word in ... In music, the term swing has two main uses. Colloquially, it is used to describe the sense of propulsive rhythmic "feel" or " ... Swing has been defined in terms of formal rhythmic devices, but according to the Jimmie Lunceford tune, "T'aint whatcha do, ...
Has poor short-term memory retention or recall but excellent long-term memory skills although long-term memory recall may lack ... So preliminary HFA sub-type could be defined as those whose Performance IQ exceeds Verbal IQ by 20 points or more and AS where ... and realistic short-term and long-term goals.". There is no such animal as the normal child every child is unique and has ... It is a club for computer geeks but anyone can join provided they agree to abide by the terms of our Acceptable Use Policy ...
Terms such as semantic pragmatic disorder, non-verbal learning difficulty and developmental learning disability of the right ... Non-verbal learning disability. Non-verbal learning disability (Myklebust, 1975) is characterised by deficits in perception, ... verbal skills being significantly greater than non-verbal ones in Asperger syndrome - the opposite of the pattern reported in ... "a severe and pervasive impairment in the development of reciprocal social interaction or verbal and non-verbal communication ...
... of childhood onset that are characterised by qualitative impairments in reciprocal social interaction and verbal and non-verbal ... the term Asperger syndrome is reserved for people for whom the social interaction and restricted patterns of behaviour occur ...
Lorna Wing used the term Asperger syndrome in 1976, and popularized it to the English-speaking medical community in her ... Problems with social interaction, non-verbal communication, restricted interests, repetitive behavior. ... Staller J (June 2006). "The effect of long-term antipsychotic treatment on prolactin". Journal of Child and Adolescent ... People identifying with Asperger syndrome may refer to themselves in casual conversation as aspies (a term first used in print ...
... the businessmen.Free non-verbal communication papers, essays, and research papers. Non-verbal communication includes facial ... Below is an essay on Eye Contact from Anti Essays, your source for research papers, essays, and term paper examples.That the ... Below is an essay on Eye Contact from Anti Essays, your source for research papers, essays, and term paper examples.Learn the ... Below is an essay on Eye Contact from Anti Essays, your source for research papers, essays, and term paper examples. Good Eye ...
Average to above average verbal skills. * Trouble with nonverbal communication (body language, facial expressions) ...
Effect of amphetamine on long-term retention of verbal material.. Soetens E1, Casaer S, DHooge R, Hueting JE. ... The first experiments support the conjecture, based on animal studies, that amphetamine enhances long-term memory performance. ...
Verbal Short-Term Memory and Motor Speech Processes in Brocas Aphasia. C. Goerlich,1 I. Daum,1 I. Hertrich,2 and H. Ackermann2 ... C. Goerlich, I. Daum, I. Hertrich, and H. Ackermann, "Verbal Short-Term Memory and Motor Speech Processes in Brocas Aphasia," ...
Dissociation of long-term verbal memory and fronto-executive impairment in first-episode psychosis. V. C. Leeson,1,2,* T. W. ... Verbal memory was measured with the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Task (RAVLT; Lezak, 1995). In trials 1-5, subjects were read ... Finally, we examined the relationship between verbal memory and clinical factors that might explain impaired verbal memory in ... of verbal memory impairment and illustrates how an environmental insult in early life can be associated with specific verbal ...
Past research on short-term memory has revealed some evidence for decay and a plethora of evidence showing that short-term ... However, none of these studies has directly contrasted decay and interference in short-term memory in a task that rules out the ... The results of these studies indicate that short-term memories are subject to very small decay effects with the mere passage of ... by interrogating the operation of decay and interference in short-term memory without rehearsal confounds. ...
A positron emission tomography study of the short-term maintenance of verbal information reports a positron emission tomography ... A positron emission tomography study of the short-term maintenance of verbal information. From Brede Wiki ... A positron emission tomography study of the short-term maintenance of verbal information ... Retrieved from "http://hendrix.imm.dtu.dk/w/index.php?title=A_positron_emission_tomography_study_of_the_short-term_maintenance_ ...
Publication type, MeSH terms. Publication type. *Validation Study. MeSH terms. *Adolescent. *Adolescent Behavior*/psychology ... Exploring the relation between bullying and homophobic verbal content: the homophobic content agent target (HCAT) scale.. ...
MeSH terms * Adolescent * Adult * Autistic Disorder* / diagnostic imaging * Autistic Disorder* / genetics * Autistic Disorder ... The Number of Genomic Copies at the 16p11.2 Locus Modulates Language, Verbal Memory, and Inhibition Biol Psychiatry. 2016 Jul ... In contrast, for verbal memory and phonology, the data may suggest that duplication carriers outperform intrafamilial control ...
"We must try to educate parents about the long-term effects of verbal abuse on their children," Sachs-Ericsson said. "The old ... Related Terms. Western Diet Increases Depression In Teenagers and Fails Them Today more than ever parents want the answer to ... Verbal abuse included insults, swearing, threats of physical abuse and spiteful comments or behavior. ... of depression and anxiety for physically and sexually abused participants as it was for those who experienced verbal abuse. ...
Parrila, R., Kirby, J. R., & McQuarrie, L. (2004). Articulation rate, naming speed, verbal short-term memory, and phonological ... Parrila R, Kirby JR, McQuarrie L. Articulation rate, naming speed, verbal short-term memory, and phonological awareness: ... Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Articulation rate, naming speed, verbal short-term memory, and phonological ... Parrila, R, Kirby, JR & McQuarrie, L 2004, Articulation rate, naming speed, verbal short-term memory, and phonological ...
Repetition suppression and reactivation in auditory-verbal short-term recognition memory.. Citation:. Buchsbaum, BR, DEsposito ... Repetition suppression and reactivation in auditory-verbal short-term recognition memory., 2009 Jun. Cerebral cortex (New York ... we hypothesized that in the context of a verbal short-term recognition memory task, repetition-related "increases" should be ... also show repetition increases during short-term recognition memory. In contrast, a region in the anterior superior temporal ...
Verbal Short‐Term Memory Underlies Typical Development of "Thought Organization" Measured as Speech Connectedness *Natália B. ... In terms of referential anomalies in NP types, a Kruskal-Wallis test showed a significant group effect for anomalies that ... The neurocognitive basis of such reference has been linked to our language capacity,30,31 including its non-verbal forms (e.g ... Groups did not differ in terms of syntactic errors (Supplementary Table 2). Ratios of number of dependents and embedded clauses ...
It was found that long-term lead exposure interfered with the organisation and recall of previously learned verbal material.. ... To determine if verbal learning and memory retention is affected by lead exposure, the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT ... Differential effects of lead exposure on components of verbal memory. Bibliographic information. Mar. 2005, Vol.62, No.3, p.181 ... neurotoxic effects; lead; smelting plants; long-term exposure; disturbances of memory. Descriptors (secondary). determination ...
Terms with manual transliterations different from the automated ones/bg. *Terms with manual transliterations different from the ... Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, ... Terms with manual transliterations different from the automated ones. * ...
If you are familiar with the origin of this term, please add it to the page per etymology instructions. You can also discuss it ... Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, ... verbal adjectives daliedig. daliadwy Derived terms. *dalfa. Mutation. Welsh mutation ...
We found no interaction involving the factor sex, indicating that the positive effect of walking on verbal long-term memory is ... At the moment we can conclude that slow walking at very light intensity during vocabulary encoding improves verbal long-term ... Coles K, Tomporowski PD: Effects of acute exercise on executive processing, short-term and long-term memory. J Sports Sci. 2008 ... Labban JD, Etnier JL: Effects of acute exercise on long-term memory. Res Q Exerc Sport. 2011, 82: 712-721.View ArticlePubMed ...
"Verbal Short-term memory performance in pupils with Down syndrome",. abstract = "Research has shown that verbal short-term ... Verbal Short-term memory performance in pupils with Down syndrome. In: International Journal of Disability Development and ... Abdelhameed H, Porter J. Verbal Short-term memory performance in pupils with Down syndrome. International Journal of Disability ... The results from this study suggested that, while deficits in verbal short-term memory in Down syndrome may well be universal, ...
Deficits in verbalRetentionAuditory-verbalCognitionAbstractSpatial and verbalFluencyAutopsiesAgnosiaShort-termImprovesAutopsyUnilateralDepressionPhonologicalSchizophreniaPossess excellentEffectsEnhancesPerceptualSpokenProbabilityChildrenTemporal lobeStudyMildMeasuresSemanticAbilityApraxiaEncodesSkillsMaterialOralBilateralPhysicalDisorders
- The results from this study suggested that, while deficits in verbal short-term memory in Down syndrome may well be universal, it is important to recognise that performances may vary as a consequence of culture and educational experiences. (bath.ac.uk)
- Regression analyses controlling for estimated IQ and psychopathology severity demonstrated that magnitude of prior trauma exposure predicted performance on the memory task, suggesting that in the current sample, deficits in verbal memory may be related (in part) to the degree of accumulative stress experienced over the lifetime. (duke.edu)
- Effect of amphetamine on long-term retention of verbal material. (nih.gov)
- All measures of performance, including verbal memory retention, a memory savings score that accounted for learning impairments, were significantly impaired in the schizophrenia group. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Factor analyses showed that, in patients, all variables except verbal memory retention loaded on a single factor, whereas in controls verbal memory and fronto-executive measures were separable. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Verbal memory retention impairments, however, may have a different aetiology. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Whereas there is little doubt that schizophrenia patients demonstrate encoding deficits, manifest as poor learning, it is still unclear whether retention of verbal material is impaired (see Cirillo & Seidman, 2003 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- To determine if verbal learning and memory retention is affected by lead exposure, the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) was administered to 256 English-speaking lead smelter workers (mean age 41 years and mean employment duration 17 years). (ilo.org)
- Bilateral ECT markedly impaired delayed retention of verbal and nonverbal material. (healthyplace.com)
- Right unilateral ECT impaired delayed retention of nonverbal material without measurably affecting retention of verbal material. (healthyplace.com)
- The results, which accord with the notion that WM relies on long-term memory, indicate that monkeys perform serial DMS in audition remarkably poorly and that whatever success they had on this task depended largely, if not entirely, on the retention of stimulus traces in the passive form of short-term memory. (pnas.org)
- However, if WM, itself, is dependent on LTM, and if the animals do not have LTM, then their short-term retention cannot be attributed to WM. (pnas.org)
- Repetition suppression and reactivation in auditory-verbal short-term recognition memory. (berkeley.edu)
- In contrast, a region in the anterior superior temporal lobe showed repetition suppression effects, consistent with previous research work on perceptual adaptation in the auditory-verbal domain. (berkeley.edu)
- Auditory verbal agnosia (AVA), also known as pure word deafness, is the inability to comprehend speech. (wikipedia.org)
- Researchers have documented that in most patients exhibiting auditory verbal agnosia, the discrimination of consonants is more difficult than that of vowels, but as with most neurological disorders, there is variation among patients. (wikipedia.org)
- Auditory verbal agnosia can be referred to as a pure aphasia because it has a high degree of specificity. (wikipedia.org)
- Despite an inability to comprehend speech, patients with auditory verbal agnosia typically retain the ability to hear and process non-speech auditory information, speak, read and write. (wikipedia.org)
- If both of these criteria are met and lack of auditory verbal comprehension is apparent, a diagnosis of AVA may follow. (wikipedia.org)
- Auditory verbal agnosia is the inability to distinguish phonemes. (wikipedia.org)
- In some patients with unilateral auditory verbal agnosia, there is evidence that the ability to acoustically process speech signals is affected at the prephonemic level, preventing the conversion of these signals into phonemes. (wikipedia.org)
- It is exclusively devoted to the establishment of Gadadhara's original views on how verbal cognition or sentence-meaning is produced from sentence. (exoticindiaart.com)
- I have great pleasure in presenting 'Navya-nyaya Theory of Verbal' Cognition', A Critical Study of Gadadhara's Vyutpattivada, to the scholars and students of Indian Philosophy and linguistics. (exoticindiaart.com)
- While Gadadhara's 'Theory of Expressive Power of Words', Saktivada, deals with the individual isolated meanings of general and certain specific words, his 'Theory of Verbal Cognition', Vyutpattivada, deals with the sentence-meaning. (exoticindiaart.com)
- the highest authority on the Navya-nyaya theory of verbal cognition or sentence-meaning. (exoticindiaart.com)
- The importance of the work of Vyutpattivada cannot be emphasized too sufficiently in the context of the Indian theory of verbal cognition or sentence-meaning. (exoticindiaart.com)
- Key aspects of cognition include sensory perception, attention and concentration, immediate (or working) memory, and long-term memory. (encyclopedia.com)
- A higher score indicates better cognition (i.e. speed of processing, attention, verbal and non-verbal working memory, visual learning, reasoning, problem solving, and social cognition). (clinicaltrials.gov)
- the distinction between categorical perception and continuous, noncategorical perception, the former term implying that perception of some stimuli activates their previously stored representations sorted into categories on the basis of either their physical similarity or some more abstract factor. (pnas.org)
- Schizophrenia is characterized by deficits in neurocognitive function, including executive function, attention, and spatial and verbal memory. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Later, researchers such as Louis Thurstone and J.P. Guilford refined Spearman's notion, by adding various kinds of tests to the more basic batteries, and identifying "group factors" such as spatial and verbal ability in addition to general ability (Spearman's "g") to account for patterns of performance. (encyclopedia.com)
- verbal fluency. (nih.gov)
- Cognitive performance was examined by a categorical verbal fluency. (diabetesjournals.org)
- RESULTS The HOMA-IR was negatively correlated with verbal fluency performance, brain size, and temporal lobe gray matter volume in regions known to be involved in speech production (Brodmann areas 21 and 22, respectively). (diabetesjournals.org)
- In addition to its essential role for declarative memory (i.e., the ability to recollect facts and events) ( 2 ), the temporal lobe has also been linked to verbal fluency (VF) ( 3 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- Verbal autopsies will be conducted for all deaths of women in the reproductive age, including those who died in pregnancy, childbirth and up to 42-60 days after childbirth. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- The study involves filling of verbal autopsies for still births and deaths in women of reproductive age group. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Revealing the burden of maternal mortality: a probabilistic model for determining pregnancy-related causes of death from verbal autopsies. (biomedsearch.com)
- Is forgetting in the short term due to decay with the mere passage of time, interference from other memoranda, or both? (ed.gov)
- Past research on short-term memory has revealed some evidence for decay and a plethora of evidence showing that short-term memory is worsened by interference. (ed.gov)
- However, none of these studies has directly contrasted decay and interference in short-term memory in a task that rules out the use of rehearsal processes. (ed.gov)
- In this article the authors present a series of studies using a novel paradigm to address this problem directly, by interrogating the operation of decay and interference in short-term memory without rehearsal confounds. (ed.gov)
- The results of these studies indicate that short-term memories are subject to very small decay effects with the mere passage of time but that interference plays a much larger role in their degradation. (ed.gov)
- Articulation rate, naming speed, verbal short-term memory, and phonological awareness: longitudinal predictors of early reading development? (edu.au)
- This study examines how measures of articulation rate, verbal short-term memory (STM), naming speed, and phonological awareness tasks administered in kindergarten and again in Grade 1 jointly and uniquely predict word reading and passage comprehension variance in Grades 1, 2, and 3. (edu.au)
- Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Articulation rate, naming speed, verbal short-term memory, and phonological awareness: longitudinal predictors of early reading development? (edu.au)
- In the present study, we hypothesized that in the context of a verbal short-term recognition memory task, repetition-related "increases" should be observed in the same posterior temporal regions that have been previously associated with "persistent activity" in working memory rehearsal paradigms. (berkeley.edu)
- Results showed that, consistent with our hypothesis, the 2 posterior temporal regions consistently associated with working memory maintenance, also show repetition increases during short-term recognition memory. (berkeley.edu)
- Research has shown that verbal short-term memory span is shorter in individuals with Down syndrome than in typically developing individuals of equivalent mental age, but little attention has been given to variations within or across groups. (bath.ac.uk)
- This article explores the performance of 26 Egyptian pupils with Down syndrome and 26 Egyptian typically developing children on two verbal short-term memory tests: digit recall and non-word repetition tasks. (bath.ac.uk)
- Abdelhameed, H & Porter, J 2010, ' Verbal Short-term memory performance in pupils with Down syndrome ', International Journal of Disability Development and Education , vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 427-438. (bath.ac.uk)
- It is defined in contrast to short-term and working memory , which persist for only about 18 to 30 seconds. (wikipedia.org)
- According to Miller , whose paper in 1956 popularized the theory of the "magic number seven" , short-term memory is limited to a certain number of chunks of information, while long-term memory has a limitless store. (wikipedia.org)
- According to the dual store memory model proposed by Richard C. Atkinson and Richard Shiffrin in 1968, memories can reside in the short-term "buffer" for a limited time while they are simultaneously strengthening their associations in long-term memory. (wikipedia.org)
- When items are first presented, they enter short-term memory, but due to its limited space, as new items enter, older ones are pushed out. (wikipedia.org)
- However, each time an item in short-term memory is rehearsed, it is strengthened in long-term memory. (wikipedia.org)
- Similarly, the longer an item stays in short-term memory, the stronger its association becomes in long-term memory. (wikipedia.org)
- According to this theory, short-term memory is divided into different slave systems for different types of input items, and there is an executive control supervising what items enter and exit those systems. (wikipedia.org)
- Synaptic Consolidation is the process by which items are transferred from short-term to long-term memory. (wikipedia.org)
- The accumulative effect of trauma exposure on short-term and delayed verbal memory in a treatment-seeking sample of female rape victims. (duke.edu)
- Short-term memory is the immediate memory system which holds information 'in mind' for short periods of time and supports all learning and cognitive activity. (down-syndrome.org)
- A stimulus trace may be temporarily retained either actively [i.e., in working memory (WM)] or by the weaker mnemonic process we will call passive short-term memory, in which a given stimulus trace is highly susceptible to "overwriting" by a subsequent stimulus. (pnas.org)
- However, in the absence of the need for maintaining and manipulating the stimuli, such discriminations may be more properly described as tests of a type of short-term memory (STM) that we will call passive short-term memory (pSTM) rather than WM. (pnas.org)
- Cognitive impairment is defined as a decline in at least one of the following domains: short-term memory, attention, orientation, judgment and problem-solving skills, and visuospatial skills. (aafp.org)
- This study analyzed phonological short-term memory (PSTM) and working memory (WM) and their relationship with vocabulary and grammar learning in an artificial foreign language. (cambridge.org)
- Working memory and short-term sentence recall in young children. (springer.com)
- High school plus specialized, short-term training in EMT-Basic. (careerbuilder.com)
- Short-term music training enhances verbal intelligence and executive function. (yorku.ca)
- Verbal short term memory is measured through the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Provides cleaning for the Short Term Rehabilitation Center unit, Supportive Living Center,Assisted Living Centers, and Guest apartments daily. (aftercollege.com)
- These findings underscore the importance of developing school policies and health education initiatives to prevent school bullying and ameliorate its short-term and long-term effects on HRQOL. (aappublications.org)
- Highlighting an important role of insulin for temporal lobe-dependent functions, previous studies show that intranasal insulin, providing a direct route to the brain ( 4 ), improves declarative and verbal memory in both healthy and cognitively impaired humans ( 5 , 6 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- In addition, amphetamine improves memory consolidation, the process that leads to long-term memory storage. (encyclopedia.com)
- The memory loss associated with bilateral and nondominant unilateral ECT was assessed with verbal memory tests known to be sensitive to left temporal lobe dysfunction. (healthyplace.com)
- However, since right unilateral ECT is specifically associated with impairment in nonverbal memory (e.g., memory for spatial relationships, faces, designs and other material that is difficult to encode verbally (14,17), and since most studies of ECT and memory loss have employed verbal memory tests, the actual extent of memory loss associated with right unilateral ECT has remained somewhat unclear. (healthyplace.com)
- Only two studies have addressed this issue directly, employing verbal and nonverbal memory tests with patients receiving bilateral or right unilateral ECT. (healthyplace.com)
- In this study, we examined the relationship between hippocampal (HC) viscoelasticity and episodic memory in cognitively healthy adults aged 66-73 years ( N = 11), as measured with the verbal-paired associates (VPA) subtest from the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS-R). Given the particular dependence of verbal memory tasks on the left HC, unilateral HC MRE measurements were considered for the first time. (springer.com)
- Those who suffered parental physical abuse (6.6 percent) or sexual abuse by a relative or stepparent (4.5 percent) also were more self-critical, but the researchers determined that self-criticism may not have been as important a factor in the development of depression and anxiety for physically and sexually abused participants as it was for those who experienced verbal abuse. (emaxhealth.com)
- Difficulty in communication Absence or very little babbling during early years of infancy Better understanding of language Difficulty for others to understand them Taking breaks while speaking Speaking very slowly Difficulty to speak in depression or excitement Helping children with verbal dyspraxia A little patience and positive attitude is necessary to help child to cope with verbal dyspraxia. (indiaparenting.com)
- Last, the effects of verbal and relational bullying-victimization experiences on psychological HRQOL could be mediated and manifested through depression. (aappublications.org)
- Verbal/relational bullying-victimization experiences, mediated via depression, affected psychological HRQOL. (aappublications.org)
- We must try to educate parents about the long-term effects of verbal abuse on their children," Sachs-Ericsson said. (emaxhealth.com)
- GAO examined (1) the financial characteristics of elderly nursing home residents nationwide, (2) the demographic and financial characteristics of a sample of Medicaid nursing home applicants, (3) the extent to which these applicants transferred assets for less than FMV, and (4) the potential effects of the DRA provisions related to Medicaid eligibility for long-term care. (gao.gov)
- Other long term effects are often frequent bouts of. (thebody.com)
- The long-term effects of this program, however, have not been thoroughly explored. (physiciansweekly.com)
- Scientists have discovered that regular use of the party drug GHB, and especially unconsciousness following GHB use, is associated with brain changes including negative effects on long-term memory, working memory, IQ, and higher levels of stress and anxiety. (news-medical.net)
- Precollege bullying had long-term effects on HRQOL. (aappublications.org)
- Each will have an impact on the child and the effects can be long term. (bellaonline.com)
- Again, the effects on the child are long term. (bellaonline.com)
- There is limited evidence that verbally based and AAC interventions improve spoken and non-verbal communication in minimally verbal children with ASD. (cochrane.org)
- There is limited evidence that verbally based and ACC interventions improve spoken and non-verbal communication in minimally verbal children with ASD. (cochrane.org)
- Children with Down syndrome show specific delays in learning to use spoken language relative to their non-verbal understanding. (down-syndrome.org)
- The meaning of this result was then presented using different combinations of three different expressions of residual risk of having or developing cervical cancer over the next five years: a verbal probability of absolute risk (low risk), a numerical probability of absolute risk (1 in 5000), or a numerical probability of risk relative to an unscreened woman (five times lower). (bmj.com)
- Differences in the environment and in particular educational experiences may play a part in the relative ease or difficulty with which children remember verbal material. (bath.ac.uk)
- Are communication interventions effective for minimally verbal children with autism spectrum disorder? (cochrane.org)
- People with ASD commonly also have language difficulties, and around 25% to 30% of children are unable to use verbal language to communicate or are minimally verbal (use fewer than 30 words). (cochrane.org)
- We identified two trials involving 154 minimally verbal children who had ASD (aged 32 months to 11 years). (cochrane.org)
- Neither of the interventions resulted in improvements in verbal or non-verbal communication that were maintained over time for most children. (cochrane.org)
- There is currently limited evidence that verbally based and ACC interventions improve expressive communication skills in minimally verbal children with ASD aged 32 months to 11 years. (cochrane.org)
- A substantial number of studies have investigated communication interventions for minimally verbal children with ASD, yet only two studies met inclusion criteria for this review , and we considered the overall quality of the evidence to be very low. (cochrane.org)
- The ability of children with Down syndrome to hold and process verbal information is not as good as their ability to hold and process visual information. (down-syndrome.org)
- We studied 23 preterm children with FGR (PT-FGR), 24 matched preterm children AGA (PT-AGA), and 27 matched term AGA children (T-AGA) by measuring brain volumes with magnetic resonance imaging at early school age. (frontiersin.org)
- Verbal dyspraxia is one of the subtypes of dyslexia disorder in children. (indiaparenting.com)
- Symptoms of verbal dyspraxia Here are some of the symptoms observed in verbal dyspraxic children. (indiaparenting.com)
- Here are some tips which will make helping children with verbal dyspraxia easier. (indiaparenting.com)
- Impact of Deficit Reduction Act on Eligibility Is Uncertain: GAO-07-280: GAO Highlights: Highlights of GAO-07-280, a report to congressional requesters Why GAO Did This Study: The Medicaid program paid for nearly one-half of the nation s total long-term care expenditures in 2004. (gao.gov)
- A new study found that postmenopausal women had better improvement in verbal learning and memory after receiving treatment with testosterone gel, compared with women who received sham treatment with a placebo. (medindia.net)
- Artificial intelligence now has verbal ability of 4-year old: is that progress? (zdnet.com)
- During World War II and through the 1950s the number of abilities measured was expanded to include such constructs as verbal and quantitative ability, technical knowledge, and psychomotor abilities, the latter being particularly important for pilot and navigator selection. (encyclopedia.com)
- Ability to read, write and follow verbal and written instructions. (careerbuilder.com)
- Researchers suggest that the most advanced artificial intelligence system is now comparable to a four-year-old child in terms of verbal skills, but with absolutely no common sense. (zdnet.com)
- Verbal skills are the next step -- and we've already seen IBM's Watson computer in action. (zdnet.com)
- Though Watson did not show any skills in small talk or chat outside of figuring out the proper questions to the terms on Jeopardy. (zdnet.com)
- Infants with Down syndrome enjoy communicating and make good use of non-verbal skills including babbling and gesture in social situations. (down-syndrome.org)
- Must have good verbal and written communication skills. (aftercollege.com)