Genetics: The branch of science concerned with the means and consequences of transmission and generation of the components of biological inheritance. (Stedman, 26th ed)Genetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.Genetics, Behavioral: The experimental study of the relationship between the genotype of an organism and its behavior. The scope includes the effects of genes on simple sensory processes to complex organization of the nervous system.Molecular Biology: A discipline concerned with studying biological phenomena in terms of the chemical and physical interactions of molecules.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Term Birth: CHILDBIRTH at the end of a normal duration of PREGNANCY, between 37 to 40 weeks of gestation or about 280 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Genetic Testing: Detection of a MUTATION; GENOTYPE; KARYOTYPE; or specific ALLELES associated with genetic traits, heritable diseases, or predisposition to a disease, or that may lead to the disease in descendants. It includes prenatal genetic testing.Genetic Counseling: An educational process that provides information and advice to individuals or families about a genetic condition that may affect them. The purpose is to help individuals make informed decisions about marriage, reproduction, and other health management issues based on information about the genetic disease, the available diagnostic tests, and management programs. Psychosocial support is usually offered.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Genetic Linkage: The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.Genetic Services: Organized services to provide diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of genetic disorders.Genome-Wide Association Study: An analysis comparing the allele frequencies of all available (or a whole GENOME representative set of) polymorphic markers in unrelated patients with a specific symptom or disease condition, and those of healthy controls to identify markers associated with a specific disease or condition.Genetic Research: Research into the cause, transmission, amelioration, elimination, or enhancement of inherited disorders and traits.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Quantitative Trait Loci: Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Genetic Diseases, Inborn: Diseases that are caused by genetic mutations present during embryo or fetal development, although they may be observed later in life. The mutations may be inherited from a parent's genome or they may be acquired in utero.Eugenics: The attempt to improve the PHENOTYPES of future generations of the human population by fostering the reproduction of those with favorable phenotypes and GENOTYPES and hampering or preventing BREEDING by those with "undesirable" phenotypes and genotypes. The concept is largely discredited. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Selection, Genetic: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.Genetic Techniques: Chromosomal, biochemical, intracellular, and other methods used in the study of genetics.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Quantitative Trait, Heritable: A characteristic showing quantitative inheritance such as SKIN PIGMENTATION in humans. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Forensic Genetics: The application of genetic analyses and MOLECULAR DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES to legal matters and crime analysis.Inheritance Patterns: The different ways GENES and their ALLELES interact during the transmission of genetic traits that effect the outcome of GENE EXPRESSION.Genome, Human: The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.Genetic Loci: Specific regions that are mapped within a GENOME. Genetic loci are usually identified with a shorthand notation that indicates the chromosome number and the position of a specific band along the P or Q arm of the chromosome where they are found. For example the locus 6p21 is found within band 21 of the P-arm of CHROMOSOME 6. Many well known genetic loci are also known by common names that are associated with a genetic function or HEREDITARY DISEASE.Gene Frequency: The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Epistasis, Genetic: A form of gene interaction whereby the expression of one gene interferes with or masks the expression of a different gene or genes. Genes whose expression interferes with or masks the effects of other genes are said to be epistatic to the effected genes. Genes whose expression is affected (blocked or masked) are hypostatic to the interfering genes.Genetic Association Studies: The analysis of a sequence such as a region of a chromosome, a haplotype, a gene, or an allele for its involvement in controlling the phenotype of a specific trait, metabolic pathway, or disease.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Human Genome Project: A coordinated effort of researchers to map (CHROMOSOME MAPPING) and sequence (SEQUENCE ANALYSIS, DNA) the human GENOME.Pharmacogenetics: A branch of genetics which deals with the genetic variability in individual responses to drugs and drug metabolism (BIOTRANSFORMATION).Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Developmental Biology: The field of biology which deals with the process of the growth and differentiation of an organism.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Genetic Determinism: The theory that human CHARACTER and BEHAVIOR are shaped by the GENES that comprise the individual's GENOTYPE rather than by CULTURE; ENVIRONMENT; and individual choice.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Gene-Environment Interaction: The combined effects of genotypes and environmental factors together on phenotypic characteristics.Genetic Privacy: The protection of genetic information about an individual, family, or population group, from unauthorized disclosure.Linkage Disequilibrium: Nonrandom association of linked genes. This is the tendency of the alleles of two separate but already linked loci to be found together more frequently than would be expected by chance alone.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Genetics, Microbial: A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the genetic mechanisms and processes of microorganisms.Hybridization, Genetic: The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.Multifactorial Inheritance: A phenotypic outcome (physical characteristic or disease predisposition) that is determined by more than one gene. Polygenic refers to those determined by many genes, while oligogenic refers to those determined by a few genes.Genetic Phenomena: The processes, properties and biological objects that are involved in maintaining, expressing, and transmitting from one organism to another, genetically encoded traits.Heterozygote: An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.Gene Flow: The change in gene frequency in a population due to migration of gametes or individuals (ANIMAL MIGRATION) across population barriers. In contrast, in GENETIC DRIFT the cause of gene frequency changes are not a result of population or gamete movement.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.History, 21st Century: Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Breeding: The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Genetic Heterogeneity: The presence of apparently similar characters for which the genetic evidence indicates that different genes or different genetic mechanisms are involved in different pedigrees. In clinical settings genetic heterogeneity refers to the presence of a variety of genetic defects which cause the same disease, often due to mutations at different loci on the same gene, a finding common to many human diseases including ALZHEIMER DISEASE; CYSTIC FIBROSIS; LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE DEFICIENCY, FAMILIAL; and POLYCYSTIC KIDNEY DISEASES. (Rieger, et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed; Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Individualized Medicine: Therapeutic approach tailoring therapy for genetically defined subgroups of patients.Genetic Engineering: Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Heredity: The transmission of traits encoded in GENES from parent to offspring.Genetic Speciation: The splitting of an ancestral species into daughter species that coexist in time (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 6th ed). Causal factors may include geographic isolation, HABITAT geometry, migration, REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION, random GENETIC DRIFT and MUTATION.Inbreeding: The mating of plants or non-human animals which are closely related genetically.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.United StatesPolymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Family Health: The health status of the family as a unit including the impact of the health of one member of the family on the family as a unit and on individual family members; also, the impact of family organization or disorganization on the health status of its members.Bayes Theorem: A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.Genetic Drift: The fluctuation of the ALLELE FREQUENCY from one generation to the next.Pigmentation: Coloration or discoloration of a part by a pigment.Endophenotypes: Measurable biological (physiological, biochemical, and anatomical features), behavioral (psychometric pattern) or cognitive markers that are found more often in individuals with a disease than in the general population. Because many endophenotypes are present before the disease onset and in individuals with heritable risk for disease such as unaffected family members, they can be used to help diagnose and search for causative genes.Likelihood Functions: Functions constructed from a statistical model and a set of observed data which give the probability of that data for various values of the unknown model parameters. Those parameter values that maximize the probability are the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Nutrigenomics: The study of the relationship between NUTRITIONAL PHYSIOLOGY and genetic makeup. It includes the effect of different food components on GENE EXPRESSION and how variations in GENES effect responses to food components.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Genes, Recessive: Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE only in the homozygous state.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Diseases in Twins: Disorders affecting TWINS, one or both, at any age.Gestational Age: The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.EuropeGenes, Dominant: Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE both in the homozygous and the heterozygous state.Systems Biology: Comprehensive, methodical analysis of complex biological systems by monitoring responses to perturbations of biological processes. Large scale, computerized collection and analysis of the data are used to develop and test models of biological systems.Lod Score: The total relative probability, expressed on a logarithmic scale, that a linkage relationship exists among selected loci. Lod is an acronym for "logarithmic odds."Twins, Monozygotic: Two off-spring from the same PREGNANCY. They are from a single fertilized OVUM that split into two EMBRYOS. Such twins are usually genetically identical and of the same sex.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Family: A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.Crops, Agricultural: Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.Genes, Insect: The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Mutagenesis, Insertional: Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.Disease: A definite pathologic process with a characteristic set of signs and symptoms. It may affect the whole body or any of its parts, and its etiology, pathology, and prognosis may be known or unknown.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Syndrome: A characteristic symptom complex.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Epigenesis, Genetic: A genetic process by which the adult organism is realized via mechanisms that lead to the restriction in the possible fates of cells, eventually leading to their differentiated state. Mechanisms involved cause heritable changes to cells without changes to DNA sequence such as DNA METHYLATION; HISTONE modification; DNA REPLICATION TIMING; NUCLEOSOME positioning; and heterochromatization which result in selective gene expression or repression.Homozygote: An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Haploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented once. Symbol: N.Societies, Scientific: Societies whose membership is limited to scientists.Genotyping Techniques: Methods used to determine individuals' specific ALLELES or SNPS (single nucleotide polymorphisms).Information Storage and Retrieval: Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.Flowers: The reproductive organs of plants.Heterozygote Detection: Identification of genetic carriers for a given trait.Zebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Age of Onset: The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Chromosomes, Human: Very long DNA molecules and associated proteins, HISTONES, and non-histone chromosomal proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE). Normally 46 chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes are found in the nucleus of human cells. They carry the hereditary information of the individual.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Schizophrenia: A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Twins, Dizygotic: Two offspring from the same PREGNANCY. They are from two OVA, fertilized at about the same time by two SPERMATOZOA. Such twins are genetically distinct and can be of different sexes.Principal Component Analysis: Mathematical procedure that transforms a number of possibly correlated variables into a smaller number of uncorrelated variables called principal components.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Molecular Sequence Annotation: The addition of descriptive information about the function or structure of a molecular sequence to its MOLECULAR SEQUENCE DATA record.Curriculum: A course of study offered by an educational institution.Caenorhabditis elegans: A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.Vocabulary, Controlled: A specified list of terms with a fixed and unalterable meaning, and from which a selection is made when CATALOGING; ABSTRACTING AND INDEXING; or searching BOOKS; JOURNALS AS TOPIC; and other documents. The control is intended to avoid the scattering of related subjects under different headings (SUBJECT HEADINGS). The list may be altered or extended only by the publisher or issuing agency. (From Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed, p163)Phylogeography: A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Expressed Sequence Tags: Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Diploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented twice. Symbol: 2N or 2X.High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing: Techniques of nucleotide sequence analysis that increase the range, complexity, sensitivity, and accuracy of results by greatly increasing the scale of operations and thus the number of nucleotides, and the number of copies of each nucleotide sequenced. The sequencing may be done by analysis of the synthesis or ligation products, hybridization to preexisting sequences, etc.Alcoholism: A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)Infant, Premature: A human infant born before 37 weeks of GESTATION.Prenatal Diagnosis: Determination of the nature of a pathological condition or disease in the postimplantation EMBRYO; FETUS; or pregnant female before birth.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Gene Regulatory Networks: Interacting DNA-encoded regulatory subsystems in the GENOME that coordinate input from activator and repressor TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS during development, cell differentiation, or in response to environmental cues. The networks function to ultimately specify expression of particular sets of GENES for specific conditions, times, or locations.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Endangered Species: An animal or plant species in danger of extinction. Causes can include human activity, changing climate, or change in predator/prey ratios.Twins: Two individuals derived from two FETUSES that were fertilized at or about the same time, developed in the UTERUS simultaneously, and born to the same mother. Twins are either monozygotic (TWINS, MONOZYGOTIC) or dizygotic (TWINS, DIZYGOTIC).Chromosomes: In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Adaptation, Biological: Changes in biological features that help an organism cope with its ENVIRONMENT. These changes include physiological (ADAPTATION, PHYSIOLOGICAL), phenotypic and genetic changes.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Models, Animal: Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.Penetrance: The percent frequency with which a dominant or homozygous recessive gene or gene combination manifests itself in the phenotype of the carriers. (From Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed)MedlinePlus: NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE service for health professionals and consumers. It links extensive information from the National Institutes of Health and other reviewed sources of information on specific diseases and conditions.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Ethics, Medical: The principles of professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the physician, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the physician in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Neoplastic Syndromes, Hereditary: The condition of a pattern of malignancies within a family, but not every individual's necessarily having the same neoplasm. Characteristically the tumor tends to occur at an earlier than average age, individuals may have more than one primary tumor, the tumors may be multicentric, usually more than 25 percent of the individuals in direct lineal descent from the proband are affected, and the cancer predisposition in these families behaves as an autosomal dominant trait with about 60 percent penetrance.Genetic Enhancement: The use of genetic methodologies to improve functional capacities of an organism rather than to treat disease.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Genome, Mitochondrial: The genetic complement of MITOCHONDRIA as represented in their DNA.Neurobiology: The study of the structure, growth, activities, and functions of NEURONS and the NERVOUS SYSTEM.History, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Basis for a short-term genetic distance". Genetics. 105: 767-779. Nei, M. (1987) Genetic distance and molecular phylogeny. In: ... In Studies in Genetics VII. pp. 145−153. University of Texas Publication 7213. Austin, Texas. The Estimation of Genetic ... Genetics 144:389-399. Gillian Cooper; William Amos; Richard Bellamy; Mahveen Ruby Siddiqui; Angela Frodsham; Adrian V. S. Hill ... Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics, 116(5), 317-323. Chicago. Nei, M. (1972). "Genetic distance between populations". Am. ...
doi:10.1534/genetics.166.2.1115. ISSN 0016-6731. PMC 1470728 . PMID 15020491. Barton, N. H.; Depaulis, F; Etheridge, A. M. ( ... Her citation reads: On 1 August 2017 she begins a one-year term as president of the Institute of Mathematical Statistics, where ... Much of her recent research is concerned with mathematical models of population genetics, where she has been particularly ... subscription required) Barton, N. H. (2004). "The Effect of Selection on Genealogies". Genetics. 166 (2): 1115-1131. ...
Walsh et al., 1998 (1998). "Long-Term Effects of Sectioning the Olivocochlear Bundle in Neonatal Cats". Journal of Neuroscience ... Vetter et al.,. "Urocortin-deficient mice show hearing impairment and increased anxiety-like behavior". Nature Genetics. 31: ... termed shell neurons, which surround the LSO. Thus, LOCS class cell bodies within the LSO are referred to as intrinsic LOCS ...
Forest Genetics. 9:145-157. Kiss, G.K. 1986. Genetic improvement of white and Engelmann spruce in British Columbia 1983-85. p. ... Selection strategies have been compared for annual progress in long-term breeding at a given annual cost considering genetic ... Forest Genetics, CABI. ISBN 978-0-85199-348-5 2007 Gösta Eriksson, Inger Ekberg and David Clapham. An Introduction to Forest ... Currently, tree breeding starting to take advantage of the fast development in plant genetics and genomics. Tree breeders make ...
Students of genetics employ the term synteny to describe the situation in which two genetic loci have been assigned to the same ... Passarge, E., B. Horsthemke & R. A. Farber (1999). "Incorrect use of the term synteny". Nature Genetics. 23 (4): 387. doi: ... The term is sometimes also used to describe preservation of the precise order of genes on a chromosome passed down from a ... In classical genetics, synteny describes the physical co-localization of genetic loci on the same chromosome within an ...
A number of short- and long-term goals exist for predictive genomics. The identification of associated variants underpin all ... Thornton-Wells, T. A.; Moore, J. H.; Haines, J. L. (2004). "Genetics, statistics and human disease: Analytical retooling for ... Furthermore, ethnic specific GWA studies show that each group has varied detectability of variants in terms of: frequency, ... 2013). "Seven new loci associated with age-related macular degeneration". Nature Genetics. 45 (4): 433-9, 439e1-2. doi:10.1038/ ...
... and Frequency-Dependent Interactions in a Long-Term Evolution Experiment with Escherichia coli". Genetics. 200 (2): 619-631. ... Lenski is best known for his still ongoing 29-year-old long-term E. coli evolution experiment, which has been instrumental in ... doi:10.1534/genetics.115.176677. ISSN 0016-6731. PMC 4492384 . PMID 25911659. Lenski, R. E. (1998-12-01). "Bacterial evolution ... coli long-term evolution experiment is an ongoing study in experimental evolution led by Richard Lenski that has been tracking ...
... and Frequency Dependent Interactions in a Long Term Evolution Experiment with Escherichia coli". Genetics. 200 (2): 619-631. ... doi:10.1534/genetics.115.176677. PMC 4492384 . PMID 25911659. Muller, Hermann Joseph (1932). "Some Genetic Aspects of Sex". The ...
"Retinitis pigmentosa". Genetics Home Reference. 2016-02-15. Retrieved 2016-02-21. Effects of Alcohol on Vision Web Archive: ... Medical terms "Glaucoma: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia". www.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2016-02-21. " ...
Horses without any sooty effect are termed "clear-coated." Seal brown (horse) Dan Phillip Sponenberg. "Horse Color Genetics". " ...
... social life in molecular terms". Nature Reviews Genetics. 6 (4): 257-270. doi:10.1038/nrg1575. ISSN 1471-0056. PMID 15761469. ... The pattern of social stress-related changes in gene expression has been termed by Steve Cole and George Slavich at UCLA as a ... This process of translation, or "turning on" of a gene to its final gene products is termed gene expression. Genetic expression ... Nature Genetics. 42 (1): 62-67. doi:10.1038/ng.495. ISSN 1061-4036. PMC 2798927 . PMID 19966804. Slavich, George M.; Cole, ...
Nature Reviews Genetics. 5: 435-445. Laval, G., SanCristobal, M., Chevalet, C. (2002). Measuring genetic distances between ... breeds: use of some distances in various short term evolution models. Genet. Sel. Evol. 34: 481-507. Estoup, A., Jarne, P., & ... Molecular Genetics and Genomics, 268(3), 331-343. Ellegren, H.(2004) Microsatellites: Simple Sequences with Complex Evolution. ... Genetics. 133:3. ISSN 0016-6731. Chen, X., Cho, Y., & McCouch, S. (2002). Sequence divergence of rice microsatellites in Oryza ...
ISBN 0-582-22708-9. Rieger R. Michaelis A., Green M. M. (1976). Glossary of genetics and cytogenetics: Classical and molecular ... ISBN 0-19-509442-5. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) Lawrence E. (1999). Henderson's Dictionary of biological terms. ... Major histocompatibility complex Immune system King R. C., Stransfield W. D. (1998). Dictionary of genetics. New York, Oxford: ...
Human Molecular Genetics. 9 (7): 1101-7. doi:10.1093/hmg/9.7.1101. PMID 10767335. Brockton N, Little J, Sharp L, Cotton SC (May ... "Expression of arylamine N-acetyltransferases in pre-term placentas and in human pre-implantation embryos". ... Journal of Human Genetics. 46 (6): 314-9. doi:10.1007/s100380170065. PMID 11393533. Butler WJ, Ryan P, Roberts-Thomson IC (June ...
Reference, Genetics Home. "SDHA". Genetics Home Reference. Retrieved 2016-08-31. Online, eviQ Cancer Treatments. "eviQ Cancer ... Baysal BE, Lawrence EC, Ferrell RE (2007). "Sequence variation in human succinate dehydrogenase genes: evidence for long-term ... American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A. 120A (1): 13-8. doi:10.1002/ajmg.a.10202. PMID 12794685. Wang L, McDonnell SK, ... Human Molecular Genetics. 14 (15): 2091-8. doi:10.1093/hmg/ddi214. PMID 15961414. ...
... is involved in mGluR-dependent long term depression (LTD) and long term potentiation (LTP), both of which are important ... "fragile X syndrome". Genetics Home Reference. April 2012. Archived from the original on 9 October 2016. Retrieved 7 October ... In 1970, Frederick Hecht coined the term "fragile site". And, in 1985, Felix F. de la Cruz outlined extensively the physical, ... The main difficulties in individuals with FXS are with working and short-term memory, executive function, visual memory, visual ...
The sporophyte of a flowering plant is often described using sexual terms (e.g. "female" or "male") based on the sexuality of ... Nature Reviews Genetics. 3 (4): 274-284. doi:10.1038/nrg776. Hickey, M. & King, C. (2001). The Cambridge Illustrated Glossary ... Monoecious: In the commoner narrow sense of the term, it refers to plants with unisexual flowers which occur on the same ... Other terms used for this condition are androgynous, hermaphroditic, monoclinous and synoecious. Dichogamous: having sexes ...
Curt, Stern (1957). "The Problem of Complete Y-Linkage in Man". American Journal of Human Genetics. 9.3: 147-166 - via Google ... "Y-linked gene definition - Medical Dictionary: Definitions of Popular Terms Defined on MedTerms". Medterms.com. 2012-09-20. ... Lee, Andrew (2004). "Molecular evidence for absence of Y-linkage of the Hairy Ears trait". European Journal of Human Genetics. ... Dronameraju, K. (1960). "Hypertrichosis of the pinna of the human ear, Y-linked pedigrees". Journal of Genetics. 57: 230-243. ...
In genetics, the mutation rate is the frequency of new mutations in a single gene or organism over a various amount of time. ... This is termed error catastrophe. Looking back at the consequences, we can study mutation rates to find cures and also to see ... In Population genetics, each allele is characterized by a selection coefficient, which measures the expected change in an ... The mutation rate of an organism is an evolved characteristic and is strongly influenced by the genetics of each organism, in ...
Current Opinion in Genetics & Development 5, 249-255. Larson, K., Yan, S.J., Tsurumi, A., Liu, J., Zhou, J., Gaur, K., Guo, D ... Matsagas, K., Lim, D.B., Horwitz, M., Rizza, C.L., Mueller, L.D., Villeponteau, B., and Rose, M.R. (2009). Long-term functional ... PLoS Genetics 8, e1002473. Tsurumi, A., and Li, W.X. (2012). Global heterochromatin loss: a unifying theory of aging? ... In 2008, Villeponteau went on to serve as Vice President of Research of the aging genetics company Genescient, Inc., which uses ...
Bickham DC, Bentley DJ, Le Rossignol PF, Cameron-Smith D (April 2006). "The effects of short-term sprint training on MCT ... Molecular Genetics and Metabolism. 87 (2): 152-61. doi:10.1016/j.ymgme.2005.09.029. PMID 16403666. ... "Polarized lactate transporter activity and expression in the syncytiotrophoblast of the term human placenta". Placenta. 25 (6 ...
Reference, Genetics Home. "IPEX syndrome". Genetics Home Reference. Retrieved 2017-05-11. Reference, Genetics Home. "FOXP3 gene ... Each "type" of this condition has a different cause, in terms of IPEX syndrome is inherited in males by an x-linked recessive ... Reference, Genetics Home. "IPEX syndrome". Genetics Home Reference. Retrieved 2017-04-20. "Immunodysregulation, ... "Polyglandular Autoimmune Syndromes: Immunogenetics and Long-Term Follow-Up". Retrieved 1 July 2013. Eisenbarth GS, Gottlieb PA ...
Long term nationwide analysis of HIV and AIDS in Iceland, 1983-2012. J AIDS Clin Res. 2014;5:387. "Decreasing prevalence of ... Genetics and Evolution. 49: 157-163. doi:10.1016/j.meegid.2017.01.004. Indridason H, Gudmundsson S, Karlsdottir B, et al. ...
In April 1970, Peter Pearson and Martin Bobrow at the MRC Population Genetics Unit in Oxford and Canino Vosa at the University ... It seems quite possible that in the XYY male, exemplified by Speck, biologists are describing in genetic terms a certain type ... In December 1968, the Journal of Medical Genetics published the first XYY review article-by Michael Court Brown, director of ... In May 1997, Nature Genetics published the discovery by Ercole Rao and colleagues of the X/Y chromosome pseudoautosomal region ...
Human Molecular Genetics. 10 (4): 329-338. doi:10.1093/hmg/10.4.329. PMID 11157796. Hou L, Antion MD, Hu D, Spencer CM, Paylor ... "Dynamic Translational and Proteasomal Regulation of Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein Controls mGluR-Dependent Long-Term ... and more than 200 repeats is considered a full mutation of the FMR1 gene according to the American College of Medical Genetics ... American College of Medical Genetics. 2000-10-02. Retrieved 2013-03-29. Loomis EW, Eid JS, Peluso P, Yin J, Hickey L, Rank D, ...
... the two terms are essentially synonyms and are used interchangeably.[1] The term mathematical neuroscience is also used ... The term 'computational neuroscience' was introduced by Eric L. Schwartz, who organized a conference, held in 1985 in Carmel, ... By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia ... These attempts are primarily focusing on the formation of medium- and long-term memory, localizing in the hippocampus. Models ...
While the term eugenics remains to reflect negatively on the modern science of genetics, a more positive concept of prevention ... The term eugenics, which from its Greek roots means "good in birth," was coined by Francis Galton in 1883. A wealthy cousin of ... For example, a citizen is considered worthy in terms of what he or shecan contribute to society. A handicapped or "defective" ... German Social Darwinist Alfred Ploetz introduced the term "racial hygiene" and criticized those who helped the weak survive. ...
But of even greater practical and moral significance is the second part of the revolution in genetics: our ability to modify or ... although strikingly not for life insurance or long-term care). However, the health care reform legislation recently passed by ...
Clarifying the terms meaning and boundaries, and identifying guidelines for its clinical implementation, could help to reduce ... Majewski, J. et al., (2011). What Can Exome Sequencing Do For You? Journal of Medical Genetics. Retrieved from: http://www. ... Is "medical appropriateness" a useful term for conducting an ethical analysis of a particular case? ... was a resident of a long-term care facility, and did not have known previously expressed wishes regarding medical treatment. ...
Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Genetics Message Body (Your Name) thought you would be interested in this article ... Thank you for sharing this Genetics article.. NOTE: We request your email address only to inform the recipient that it was you ... The Genetics Society of America (GSA), founded in 1931, is the professional membership organization for scientific researchers ... The approach outlined here is most appropriate to evolutionary problems in which the long-term nature of the mating system is ...
As a result, the total amount advanced to the company from the term loan agreement with SWK Funding increased to $10 million. ... Myriad Genetics Subpoenaed by OIG for Hereditary Cancer Billing Documents in Investigation. ... 2 million remaining on the term loan commitment. ...
Other terms and conditions, in addition to these Terms and Conditions, may appear on the Site related to specific content of ... Headings used in these Terms and Conditions are for reference only and shall not affect the interpretation of these Terms and ... Your use of the Site following any changes means that you agree to follow and be bound by the terms as changed. It is the ... These Terms and Conditions represent the entire agreement between you and WKH with respect to the subject matter hereof, and ...
This resource was developed to support the comprehensive, evidence-based, peer-reviewed PDQ cancer genetics information ... A dictionary of more than 150 genetics-related terms written for healthcare professionals. ... The NCI Dictionary of Genetics Terms contains technical definitions for more than 200 terms related to genetics. These ... This term is sometimes used in somatic cell genetics where cancer cell lines are often hemizygous for certain alleles or ...
This resource was developed to support the comprehensive, evidence-based, peer-reviewed PDQ cancer genetics information ... A dictionary of more than 150 genetics-related terms written for healthcare professionals. ...
2015 Identification of genes that promote or inhibit olfactory memory formation in Drosophila. Genetics 199: 1173-1182. doi: ... Thus, in addition to LTM (48 hr), mb247-Gal4/UAS-hacd1-RNAi was tested for middle-term memory (3 hr) and short-term memory, ... Knockdown of hacd1 in the MB resulted in enhanced LTM; however, short-term or middle-term memory was not affected. vajk-1 ... While inhibiting mir-980 showed enhanced short-term and middle-term memory, mir-276a has been described to be necessary for LTM ...
Effects of Long-Term Cannabis Use. GENETICS AND BIRTH DEFECTS. Much concern about possible effects on the unborn generations ... No significant differences were, found in lymphocyte chromosomes between heavy, long-term. Jamaican ganja users and matched ...
Life sciences/Genetics/Molecular genetics/Genetic material/DNA/Chromosomes/Genes/Alleles * Life sciences/Biochemistry/ ... Life sciences/Genetics/Molecular genetics/Gene expression/Genetic code * Social sciences/Psychology/Cognitive psychology/ ... Life sciences/Genetics/Behavior genetics * Social sciences/Psychology/Clinical psychology/Psychiatric disorders/Neuroses/ ... Life sciences/Genetics/Molecular genetics/Genome dynamics/Behavioral genomics * Social sciences/Psychology/Behavioral ...
Sheep Genetics reports sheep under two brand names and their associated logos. The Merino breed group is reported under the ... When a breeder submits data to Sheep Genetics the sheep need to be separated into a group known as a Management Group. A ... In relation to data being submitted to Sheep Genetics a breeder is the person, organisation or business that is the legal ... A breeding value is used in this manual as a general term to describe either an ASBV or an FBV. ...
... 10/4/2004 4:24:13 AM ... dependence on one or two breeds of a species could pose long-term problems if other genetic material isnt available. He cited ...
Current Topics in Molecular Genetics I: Provides a review of molecular diagnosis of common hereditary or neoplastic disorders ... 415.866.92 Current Topics in Molecular Genetics I. Department:. Health Behavior and Society Term:. 3rd term. Credits:. 1 ... Home , 415.866.92 Current Topics in Molecular Genetics I, 2017 3rd term - Course Catalog - Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of ...
Genetics Terms. Selective breeding -the choosing of individuals of a single strain and spp. Hybridization -the crossing of ... USMLE STEP I Review Week 2: Genetics -Steven katz, msiv. usmle step i review week 2: genetics. genetics terms. basic terms ( ... Basic Genetic Concepts & Terms -. genetics: what is it?. what is genetics? "genetics is the study of heredity , the process in ... Introduction to Genetics, with a Focus on Human Genetics -. mendels pea plants. genetics terms. gene and alleles homozygous ...
Evolution Genetics Biostatistics Population Genetics Genetic Epidemiology Epidemiology HLA MHC Inf & Imm Homepage ... Evolution Genetics Biostatistics Population Genetics Genetic Epidemiology Epidemiology HLA MHC Inf & Imm Homepage ... Quantitative genetics: The statistical study of the genetics of quantitative characters (biometrical genetics) as opposed to ... On Line Biology Book - Glossary Glossary of Genetic Terms Talking Glossary (Genetics) ...
Long term follow up showed that facial dysmorphism was less obvious in adults and that carpal tunnel syndrome was frequent in ... Long term follow up showed that facial dysmorphism was less obvious in adults and that carpal tunnel syndrome was frequent in ... Here we describe the clinical data andx ray features of these patients, with particular emphasis on the long term outcome in 10 ... Sixteen of our 22 patients were seen at least once in the medical genetics clinic of Necker-Enfants Malades Hospital. ...
Genetics.. Cheryl Iverson. in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th edn) Print Publication Year: Feb 2020 ... Under the terms of the license agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in AMA Manual ...
Is Criminal Behavior Due to Nature and Genetics or Is it Nurtured Through the Environment? (2020) ☘ class= Researched ... Term Paper on Is Criminal Behavior Due to Nature and Genetics or Is it Nurtured Through the Environment? Assignment. He]... was ... Pages: 3 (1168 words) · Type: Term Paper · Bibliography Sources: ≈ 7. Drug Usage Term Paper … Drug Usage. The use drugs to ... Is Criminal Behavior Due to Nature and Genetics or Is it Nurtured Through the Environment? Term Paper. Pages: 24 (6507 words). ...
1. For each of the terms in the left column, choose the best ... Genetics, trp operon, z+ y-/i+ o+, oc z+ * Click to edit the ... Genetics 380: Spring, 2008 Problem Set # 10 ANSWER SHEET Ch. 11. 1. For each of the terms in the left column, choose the best ... Margaret Morales 11/27/12 Genetics Problem Set 10 1. For each of the terms in the lef ... Problem_Set10_Answers - Genetics 380 Spring 2008 Problem.... This preview shows document pages 1 - 2. Sign up to view the full ...
Long-term coffee consumption, caffeine metabolism genetics, and risk of cardiovascular disease: a prospective analysis of up to ... 13-May-2019 by THF in Healthy Eating, Hoots Corner , Comments Off on Long-term coffee consumption, caffeine metabolism ... genetics, and risk of cardiovascular disease: a prospective analysis of up to 347,077 individuals and 8368 cases ...
Clinical site type: Genetics. Performance Measure 4. The site/entity is staffed by geneticists who apply genetics in the ... Regional Genetics Network (RGN). Performance Measures 1A, 1B, 2, 3, 4, and 5. One of seven entities funded by HRSA under HRSA ... Clinical site type: Genetics. Clinical site type: Primary Care. Clinical site type: Other specialties (e.g. cardiology, ... Some of these genetic services are provided by non-genetics physicians and other non-physician geneticists.. Source: Regional ...
McGill University) will be offering training in a number of areas, assisted by members of the Program in Cancer Genetics. ... Short and Long-term Programs. Short and Long-Term Research Training Programs. The projects summarized below will allow the ... Long-term training: Trainees can obtain MSc and/or Ph.D. degrees. Those interested in short or long-term training ... The proposed project can be either short-term (rotations or small-scale projects) or long-term. 1) Roles of p53 and Blc-6 and ...
Population genetics research papers.. i need help with my math homework now. Posted on September 11, by. Tossing up doing a ... Population genetics research papers. It is clear that levels of genetic diversity vary greatly within a species as a function ... Population Genetics is the detailed study of the distributions and changes of allele frequency in a population, as it is ... The Scientist» population genetics. Most Recent. the Copper Age ice man who is helping scientists reconstruct changes in the ...
Read this essay on Mendelian Genetics, Scientific Paper. Come browse our large digital warehouse of free sample essays. Get the ... Mendelian Genetics ...MENDELIAN GENETICS DEFINITION OF TERMS * Genetics - the study of heredity and variation * Heredity - the ... Genetics Paper ...Suemin Chi November 30th, 2013 The Genetics Disease: Galactosemia There are many genetic diseases out there ... Bio 405 Genetics Mendelian Inheritance This video is talking about the Mendelian genetics. This videos starts off by telling us ...
  • Sixteen of our 22 patients were seen at least once in the medical genetics clinic of Necker-Enfants Malades Hospital. (bmj.com)
  • This book contains a collection of articles in the field of medical genetics authored by professionals in the fields of law, science, medicine, and ethics. (google.com)
  • Collaboration between staff from the University of Glasgow and the NHS West of Scotland Genetics Service enables the MSc in Medical Genetics and Genomics to provide a state-of-the-art view of the application of modern genetic and genomic technologies in medical genetics research and diagnostics, and in delivery of a high quality genetics service to patients, as well as in design of targeted therapies. (gla.ac.uk)
  • This is a fully up-to-date Medical Genetics degree delivered by dedicated, multi-award-winning teaching and clinical staff of the University, with considerable input from hospital-based Regional Genetics Service clinicians and clinical scientists. (gla.ac.uk)
  • The MSc Medical Genetics Course is based on the south side of the River Clyde in the brand new (2015) purpose built Teaching & Learning Centre, at the Queen Elizabeth University Hospitals ( we are located 4 miles from the main University Campus ). (gla.ac.uk)
  • The close collaboration between university and hospital staff ensures that the Medical Genetics MSc provides a completely up-to-date representation of the practice of medical genetics and you will have the opportunity to observe during clinics and visit the diagnostic laboratories at the new Southern General Hospital laboratory medicine building. (gla.ac.uk)
  • The Medical Genetics degree explores the effects of mutations and variants as well as the current techniques used in NHS genetics laboratory diagnostics and recent developments in diagnostics (including microarray analysis and the use of massively parallel ["next-generation"] sequencing). (gla.ac.uk)
  • New developments in medical genetics are incorporated into the lectures and interactive teaching sessions very soon after they are presented at international meetings or published, and you will gain hands-on experience and guidance in using software and online resources for genetic diagnosis and for the evaluation of pathogenesis of DNA sequence variants. (gla.ac.uk)
  • The widely used textbook " Essential Medical Genetics " is co-authored by a member of the core teaching team, Professor Edward Tobias. (gla.ac.uk)
  • For doctors: The Joint Royal Colleges of Physicians' Training Board (JRCPTB) in the UK recognises the MSc in Medical Genetics and Genomics (which was established in 1984) as counting for six months of the higher specialist training in Clinical Genetics. (gla.ac.uk)
  • The Medical Council of Hong Kong recognises the MSc in Medical Genetics and Genomics from University of Glasgow in it's list of Quotable Qualifications. (gla.ac.uk)
  • This course is designed in collaboration with the West of Scotland Regional Genetics Service to give students a working knowledge of the principles and practice of Medical Genetics and Genomics which will allow them to evaluate, choose and interpret appropriate genetic investigations for individuals and families with genetic disease. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Faculty members are board certified in Medical Genetics, Biochemical Genetics, Molecular Genetics, Cytogenetics and Genetic Counseling. (vcuhealth.org)
  • Although many genes involved in learning and memory formation have been identified, little is known about the genetic mechanisms required for changing the transcriptional program during different phases of long-term memory (LTM) formation. (genetics.org)
  • A computing biology technique that attempts to identify genes without any knowledge of their function nor of the genetics of the organism. (tripod.com)
  • In genetics you can map genes and fingerprint DNA. (lawrence.edu)
  • Chapter 7: Microbial Genetics Question Type: Multiple Choice 1) A linear sequence of DNA nucleotides which provides the genetic information for a single characteristic is a _____. a) chromosome b) plasmid c) gene d) base pair Answer: c Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective 1: LO 7.1 Explain the relationship between DNA, genes, and proteins whose structures are created from genetic instructions. (majortests.com)
  • The genetics of social behavior is an area of research that attempts to address the question of the role that genes play in modulating the neural circuits in the brain which influence social behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • Increased frequency of chromosome translocations in airline pilots with long-term flying experience. (cdc.gov)
  • Titles, URLs, and synonyms for Help Me Understand Genetics pages, and genetic condition, gene, chromosome, and mtDNA pages with summaries written for consumers, are available in XML at https://medlineplus.gov/download/TopicIndex.xml . (medlineplus.gov)
  • By integrating molecular genetics, electrophysiology, anatomy and behavioral analyses, we study functional maturation of brain circuits during normal development and in models of autism spectrum disorder. (jax.org)
  • At the Virginia Commonwealth University Department of Human and Molecular Genetics, we understand that everyone has questions about their genetic makeup. (vcuhealth.org)
  • The Department of Human and Molecular Genetics has a long standing history of providing clinical genetic, laboratory and counseling services to families in Virginia and other states. (vcuhealth.org)
  • Our retention of full commercial rights in the U.S. and Canada along with the financial terms from this agreement gives us a strong basis to begin building a commercial infrastructure for the planned launch of brentuximab vedotin. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • An examination of the basic principles of genetics in eukaryotes and prokaryotes at the level of molecules, cells, and multicellular organisms, including humans. (suffolk.edu)
  • The selective pruning and strengthening of immature synapses, termed synaptic refinement, is essential for the development of neural circuits and behaviors. (jax.org)
  • Short-term plasticity (STP) denotes changes in synaptic strength that last up to tens of seconds. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Recent evidence shows that synapse dependence holds true even for connections that originate from a single presynaptic cell, which implies that postsynaptic target cell type can determine synaptic short-term dynamics. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The first - a man whose importance in the study of genetics is comparable to that of Charles Darwin (1809-1882) in the realm of evolutionary studies - was the Austrian monk and botanist Gregor Mendel (1822-1884). (encyclopedia.com)
  • He has taught conservation genetics at the University of Montana, University of Oregon, University of Minnesota, University of Western Australia, Victoria University of Wellington, and the US National Conservation Training Center. (wiley.com)
  • Sally N. Aitken is a Professor in the Department of Forest Sciences and Director of the Centre for Forest Conservation Genetics at the University of British Columbia. (wiley.com)
  • Conservation and the Genetics of Populations gives a comprehensive overview of the essential background, concepts, and tools needed to understand how genetic information can be used to conserve species threatened with extinction, and to manage species of ecological or commercial importance. (wiley.com)
  • In the 2006 journal article, Revisiting the Legal Link between Genetics and Crime, Denno challenges the common stereotype of an individual's "genotype" or "genetic constitution" being static, that a "crime gene" that "hard-wires" particular individuals to participate in criminal behaviours. (essaytown.com)
  • From his findings, Mendel formed a distinction between genotype and phenotype that is still applied by scientists studying genetics. (encyclopedia.com)
  • This paper describes a means of estimating the long-term rate of self-fertilization from samples of alleles taken from individuals in a population. (genetics.org)
  • This term is sometimes used in somatic cell genetics where cancer cell lines are often hemizygous for certain alleles or chromosomal regions. (cancer.gov)
  • A general term for selection that results in the maintenance of different alleles. (apsnet.org)
  • Here we describe the clinical data and x ray features of these patients, with particular emphasis on the long term outcome in 10 adult patients, and provide further support for the autosomal dominant inheritance of this condition. (bmj.com)
  • A location where a medical specialist provider provides clinical specialty care other than genetics. (nccrcg.org)
  • The increasing impact of genetics in healthcare and the development of newer sophisticated technologies requires contributions from research scientists, clinical laboratory scientists and clinicians to investigate the causes of, and therefore permit optimal management for, diseases for which alterations in the genome, either at the DNA sequence level or epigenetic level, play a significant role. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Dr Rai added: "Our research focuses on a group of people with stress-related symptoms that are not considered severe enough in terms of clinical practice, research, or in policy. (healthcanal.com)
  • Learn more about Clinical Genetics Services . (vcuhealth.org)
  • Data gathered over time enables the research team to create a profile of survivor well-being and to screen for factors that may affect the clinical long-term prognosis and quality of life (QOL) for people with lung cancer. (mayo.edu)
  • The American Academy of Pediatrics published a clinical report on late-preterm (LPT) infants in 2007 that was largely based on a summary of a 2005 workshop convened by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, at which a change in terminology from "near term" to "late preterm" was proposed. (aappublications.org)
  • Understanding the current terminology, factors contributing to these early deliveries, and long-term implications for growth and development will help in prevention, clinical management, and population-based quality-improvement efforts. (aappublications.org)
  • Read the Practical A, B & C (2016) document found at http://sciences.adelaide.edu.au/current-students/enrol/continuing/ to tell you which practicals to enrol in (Practicals for Level II BIOCHEM, GENETICS and MICRO courses). (edu.au)
  • I think it would be more logical and scientific if we understand 'constitution' in terms of 'phenotypes' of individuals. (redefininghomeopathy.com)
  • Quantitative genetics in the wild, where are we now? (popgen-vienna.at)
  • This handbook was designed as a reference tool for forest geneticists, tree breeders and other tree improvement personnel, as well as a textbook for university courses and short-courses at the graduate level in quantitative genetics. (barnesandnoble.com)
  • Genetics counselor Kathy Schneider, MPH, LGC, describes what to expect from a genetic counseling visit, who should consider genetic counseling, and how it can be helpful in understanding risk for certain types of cancer based on personal and family history. (dana-farber.org)
  • Most of them crop up in the basic genetics taught at school, but just to make sure, we'll go through all the relevant ones anyway and have a look at how they are applicable to dogs. (champagnekennels.com)
  • Speaking to a group of animal scientists at the LSU AgCenter Tuesday (Nov. 4), Blackburn said his program was created by Congress because of concern that some animal industries' dependence on one or two breeds of a species could pose long-term problems if other genetic material isn't available. (lsuagcenter.com)
  • There are few data about the long-term prognosis in this group of patients, especially concerning possible adverse effects of the immunosuppressive medication. (asnjournals.org)
  • State planners play a large and important role terms will be referred to as "genomic components. (cdc.gov)
  • While for short-term memory traces, rapidly acting biochemical pathways are in place, the formation of long-lasting memories requires changes in the transcriptional program of a cell. (genetics.org)