An agent that causes the production of physical defects in the developing embryo.
A plant genus of the family LILIACEAE with roots that contain VERATRUM ALKALOIDS used as emetics, parasiticides, antihypertensives. It is the main ingredient of Boicil.
Congenital abnormalities caused by medicinal substances or drugs of abuse given to or taken by the mother, or to which she is inadvertently exposed during the manufacture of such substances. The concept excludes abnormalities resulting from exposure to non-medicinal chemicals in the environment.
Symptoms of NAUSEA and VOMITING in pregnant women that usually occur in the morning during the first 2 to 3 months of PREGNANCY. Severe persistent vomiting during pregnancy is called HYPEREMESIS GRAVIDARUM.
A plant species of the genus DATURA, family SOLANACEAE, that contains TROPANES and other SOLANACEOUS ALKALOIDS.
A species of toxic plants of the Compositae. The poisonous compounds are alkaloids which cause cattle diseases, neoplasms, and liver damage and are used to produce cancers in experimental animals.
Toxic chlorinated unsaturated hydrocarbons. Include both the 1,1- and 1,2-dichloro isomers. Both isomers are toxic, but 1,1-dichloroethylene is the more potent CNS depressant and hepatotoxin. It is used in the manufacture of thermoplastic polymers.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.

2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin alters cardiovascular and craniofacial development and function in sac fry of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). (1/690)

Hallmark signs of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) toxicity in rainbow trout sac fry, are yolk sac edema, hemorrhage, craniofacial malformation, and growth retardation culminating in mortality. Our objective was to determine the role of cardiovascular dysfunction in the development of this toxicity. An embryotoxic TCDD dose (385 pg/g egg) caused a progressive reduction in blood flow in rainbow trout sac fry manifested first and most dramatically in the 1st and 2nd branchial arches and vessels perfusing the lower jaw. Blood flow was reduced later in the infraorbital artery and occipital vein of the head as well as segmental vessels and caudal vein of the trunk. Reduced perfusion occurred last in gill branchial arteries involved with oxygen uptake and the subintestinal vein and vitelline vein involved with nutrient uptake. Although heart rate throughout sac fry development was not affected, heart size at 50 days post-fertilization (dpf) was reduced far more than body weight or length, suggesting that the progressive circulatory failure caused by TCDD is associated with reduced cardiac output. Craniofacial development was arrested near hatch, giving rise to craniofacial malformations in which the jaws and anterior nasal structures were underdeveloped. Unlike the medaka embryo, in which TCDD causes apoptosis in the medial yolk vein, endothelial cell death was not observed in rainbow trout sac fry. These findings suggest a primary role for arrested heart development and reduced perfusion of tissues with blood in the early-life stage toxicity of TCDD in trout.  (+info)

AhR, ARNT, and CYP1A1 mRNA quantitation in cultured human embryonic palates exposed to TCDD and comparison with mouse palate in vivo and in culture. (2/690)

2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is developmentally toxic in many species and induces cleft palate in the C57BL/6N mouse embryo. Palatogenesis in mouse and human embryos involves homologous processes at the morphological, cellular, and molecular levels. In organ culture, mouse and human palates respond similarly to TCDD. The present study quantitates the expression of AhR, ARNT, and CYP1A1 mRNA in human embryonic palates in organ culture. Palatal tissues were exposed to 1 x 10(-10), 1 x 10(-9), or 1 x 10(-8) M TCDD or control medium and sampled at 0, 2, 4, and 6 hours for quantitative RT-PCR using a synthetic RNA internal standard. Similar measurements of CYP1A1 gene expression were collected for mouse palates cultured in this model. In human palates, AhR expression correlated with ARNT and CYP1A1 mRNA expression. TCDD induction of CYP1A1 was time- and concentration-dependent. The expression of these genes presented a uniform and continuous distribution across the group of embryos, with no subset of either high or low expressors/responders. The ratio of AhR to ARNT was approximately 4:1. AhR mRNA increased during the culture period in both treated and control subjects; however, ARNT expression was relatively constant. TCDD did not alter either AhR or ARNT expression in a consistent dose- or time-related manner. Comparison of human and mouse data showed a high correlation across species for the induction of CYP1A1. Human embryos expressed approximately 350 times less AhR mRNA than the mouse, and in earlier studies it was shown that human palates required 200 times more TCDD to produce the same effects. When the morphological, cellular, and molecular responses to TCDD between mouse and human are compared, it seems highly unlikely that human embryos could be exposed to sufficient TCDD to achieve changes in palatal differentiation that would lead to cleft palate.  (+info)

RT-PCR quantification of AHR, ARNT, GR, and CYP1A1 mRNA in craniofacial tissues of embryonic mice exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and hydrocortisone. (3/690)

C57BL/6N mouse embryos exposed to hydrocortisone (HC) or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) develop cleft palate. An interaction between these agents produces clefts at doses which alone are not teratogenic. The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and dioxin receptor (AhR) mediated these responses and their gene expression was altered by TCDD and/or HC in palates examined on gestation day (GD) 14 by Northern blot analysis and in situ hybridization. The present study quantifies AhR, AhR nuclear translocator (ARNT), and GR mRNA at 4, 12, 24, and 48 h after exposure (time 0 = dose administration at 8 A.M. on gestation day 12) on GD12 to TCDD (24 micrograms/kg), HC (100 mg/kg) or HC (25 mg/kg) + TCDD (3 micrograms/kg). The induction of CYP1A1 mRNA was also quantified at 2, 4, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h for control and TCDD-exposed samples. Total RNA was prepared from midfacial tissue of 4-6 embryos/litter at each time and dose. An RNA internal standard (IS) for each gene was synthesized, which included the gene's primer sequences separated by a pUC19 plasmid sequence. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed on total RNA + IS using a range of 5-7 IS concentrations across a constant level of total RNA. PCR products were separated in gels (mRNA and IS-amplified sequences differed by 30-50 bases), ethidium bromide-stained, imaged (Hamamatsu Photonics Systems, Bridgewater, NJ), and quantified with NIH Image. CYP1A1 mRNA was significantly induced in the TCDD-exposed samples at all time points examined (p = 0.005 at 2 h and 0.001 after 2 h). During palatal shelf outgrowth on GD12, AhR mRNA levels increased significantly and this was not affected by treatment with TCDD or HC + TCDD. A significant increase in GR was detected at 24 h (p < 0.05) and this was unaffected by any of the exposures. Expression of ARNT increased at 12 h (p < 0.001); however, treatment with HC or HC + TCDD blocked this increase (p < 0.05). At 24 h, the TCDD-treated embryos had significantly lower ARNT mRNA compared with controls (p < 0.001). The relative overall expression level of the genes was AhR > ARNT > GR. Within individuals, expression of AhR and/or ARNT was highly correlated with GR level. In conclusion, CYP1A1 mRNA was expressed in developing craniofacial tissue and was highly induced by TCDD exposure. AhR, ARNT, and GR mRNA are upregulated in early palatogenesis, although not on the same schedule. The TCDD-induced decrease in ARNT at 24 h after dosing and the HC and HC + TCDD-induced delay in upregulation of ARNT may affect the dynamics of heterodimer formation between AhR and ARNT. The changes in ARNT mRNA level could also affect availability of this transcriptional regulator to interact with other potential partners, and these effects, separately or in combination, may be involved in disruption of normal embryonic development.  (+info)

Amelioration of TCDD-induced teratogenesis in aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-null mice. (4/690)

The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) mediates many of the biological effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and transcriptional activation of genes encoding a number of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes. Prenatal exposure of mice to TCDD causes severe alterations in embryo and fetal development, including hydronephrosis and cleft palate. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects are unclear. In this work, the teratogenicity of TCDD in AhR-null mice was evaluated to determine if this effect is mediated by the AhR. Homozygous wild-type (+/+) or AhR-null (-/-) female mice were mated with males of the same genotype overnight. On gestation day (GD)-10, mice were intubated orally with either corn oil (vehicle control) or 25 micrograms/kg TCDD. Fetuses were examined on GD18 for visceral and skeletal alterations. For non-TCDD-exposed litters, all developmental endpoints were comparable between genotypes, with the exception of a lower incidence of large interfrontal bones in (-/-) mice. For TCDD-exposed litters, (+/+) fetuses had a significantly greater incidence of cleft palate, hydronephrosis, small kidneys, tortuous ureters and greater dilation of the renal pelves and ureters compared to (-/-) fetuses. Interestingly, an increased resorption rate was observed in (-/-) fetuses exposed to TCDD. Results from this work demonstrate that fetal development per se is generally unaffected by the absence of the AhR or that other genes may have compensated for the loss of the AhR. More importantly, these data indicate that the AhR mediates TCDD-induced teratogenicity. Further, since a higher percentage of resorptions was observed in (-/-) litters from TCDD-treated dams, it is possible that AhR-independent mechanisms contribute to TCDD-induced developmental toxicity.  (+info)

Oxidized derivatives of 7-dehydrocholesterol induce growth retardation in cultured rat embryos: a model for antenatal growth retardation in the Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome. (5/690)

7-Dehydrocholesterol accumulates in fetuses affected by the Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome as a result of a deficit in the ultimate step of cholesterol synthesis catalyzed by Delta7 reductase. Rat embryos explanted at gestation day 10 and cultured for 48 h in the presence of the Delta7 reductase inhibitor AY 9944 were used as a model to discriminate between the beneficial effect of supplementation with cholesterol and the deleterious effect of supplementation with 7-dehydrocholesterol. Cholesterol supplementation in the form of mixed cholesterol/lecithin liposomes added to serum serving as the culture medium restores the growth of embryos which is markedly decreased in the presence of the inhibitor. 7-Dehydrocholesterol under identical conditions does not restore growth and impairs the beneficial effect of cholesterol added simultaneously. UV-photooxidation of 7-dehydrocholesterol-supplemented culture medium enhances its embryotoxicity, which suggests uptake by the embryo of toxic by-products formed from 7-dehydrocholesterol. By contrast photooxidation of cholesterol-supplemented culture medium does not induce embryotoxicity. alpha-Tocopherol reduces the toxicity of photooxidized 7-dehydrocholesterol supplementing the culture medium. We conclude that 7-dehydrocholesterol does not fulfill the cholesterol requirement of the developing embryos and exerts an additional embryotoxic effect probably via oxidized by-products. This could explain the antenatal growth retardation of SLOS by a blockage of the maternal compensatory cholesterol influx.  (+info)

Longitudinal limb deficiencies and the sclerotomes. An analysis of 378 dysmelic malformations induced by thalidomide. (6/690)

The pathogenesis of longitudinal reduction deformities of the limbs, or dysmelia, is still a matter of debate. Their morphological pattern was defined from a large collection of radiographs of children with dysmelia following the thalidomide disaster. We compared radiographs of 378 of these limbs with the sclerotomes which are areas of segmental sensory innervation of the limb skeleton defined by the radiation of referred pain. The pattern of dysmelia matched the sclerotomes closely in 279 limbs (73.5%). The principles of skeletal reduction in dysmelia are explained by the arrangement of the sclerotomes. The congruence between two separate and independent data sets shows that both patterns are expressions of the underlying segmental sensory innervation of the skeleton, and that the sensory nervous system is involved in the process of limb morphogenesis and teratogenesis.  (+info)

Expression cloning for arsenite-resistance resulted in isolation of tumor-suppressor fau cDNA: possible involvement of the ubiquitin system in arsenic carcinogenesis. (7/690)

Arsenic is a human carcinogen whose mechanism of action is unknown. Previously, this laboratory demonstrated that arsenite acts as a comutagen by interfering with DNA repair, although a specific DNA repair enzyme sensitive to arsenite has not been identified. A number of stable arsenite-sensitive and arsenite-resistant sublines of Chinese hamster V79 cells have now been isolated. In order to gain understanding of possible targets for arsenite's action, one arsenite-resistant subline, As/R28A, was chosen as a donor for a cDNA expression library. The library from arsenite-induced As/R28A cells was transfected into arsenite-sensitive As/S5 cells, and transfectants were selected for arsenite-resistance. Two cDNAs, asr1 and asr2, which confer arsenite resistance to arsenite-hypersensitive As/S5 cells as well as to wild-type cells, were isolated. asr1 shows almost complete homology with the rat fau gene, a tumor suppressor gene which contains a ubiquitin-like region fused to S30 ribosomal protein. Arsenite was previously shown to inhibit ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis. These results suggest that the tumor suppressor fau gene product or some other aspect of the ubiquitin system may be a target for arsenic toxicity and that disruption of the ubiquitin system may contribute to the genotoxicity and carcinogenicity of arsenite.  (+info)

Genetics of cortisone-induced cleft palate in the mouse-embryonic and maternal effects. (8/690)

Differences between mouse strains in frequency of embryonic, cortisone-induced cleft palate were examined. Probit analysis demonstrated a family of linear and parallel dose-response curves for different inbred and hybrid embryos. Since the differences between genotypes were not in the slopes of the response curves but rather in their location, it is proposed that the median effective dose (ED50) of cortisone required to induce cleft palate (or the tolerance) provides a more appropriate definition of the response trait and its difference that a frequency statement. The tolerance of C57BL/6J is dominant to that of A/J. A maternal effect of A/J relative to C57BL/6J dams caused a two-fold reduction in the embryonic tolerance of cortisone. Cortisone-induced cleft palate and mortality were separate response traits. In these and previous studies on cortisone- and other glucocorticoid-induced cleft palate in the mouse, the nature of the cleft-palate-response curve appeared to be the same for all glucocorticoids, and within-strain differences in tolerance could be used as measures of potency or bioassays for a particular effect of the glucocorticoids.  (+info)

Teratogens are substances, such as certain medications, chemicals, or infectious agents, that can cause birth defects or abnormalities in the developing fetus when a woman is exposed to them during pregnancy. They can interfere with the normal development of the fetus and lead to a range of problems, including physical deformities, intellectual disabilities, and sensory impairments. Examples of teratogens include alcohol, tobacco smoke, some prescription medications, and infections like rubella (German measles). It is important for women who are pregnant or planning to become pregnant to avoid exposure to known teratogens as much as possible.

"Veratrum" is a genus of plants that are part of the Melanthiaceae family, also known as hellebore. These plants contain various alkaloids with pharmacological properties and have been used in traditional medicine for their therapeutic effects. However, they can also be highly toxic if not used properly.

In a medical context, "Veratrum" may refer to the medicinal preparations made from these plants, which have been used historically to treat various conditions such as hypertension, heart failure, and gastrointestinal disorders. However, due to their narrow therapeutic index and potential for serious side effects, they are not commonly used in modern medicine.

It's worth noting that the term "Veratrum" is primarily a botanical designation, and its medical use is relatively limited. If you have any specific questions about the medicinal or toxicological properties of Veratrum plants, it would be best to consult with a healthcare professional or a trained medical herbalist.

"Drug-induced abnormalities" refer to physical or physiological changes that occur as a result of taking medication or drugs. These abnormalities can affect various organs and systems in the body and can range from minor symptoms, such as nausea or dizziness, to more serious conditions, such as liver damage or heart rhythm disturbances.

Drug-induced abnormalities can occur for several reasons, including:

1. Direct toxicity: Some drugs can directly damage cells and tissues in the body, leading to abnormalities.
2. Altered metabolism: Drugs can interfere with normal metabolic processes in the body, leading to the accumulation of harmful substances or the depletion of essential nutrients.
3. Hormonal imbalances: Some drugs can affect hormone levels in the body, leading to abnormalities.
4. Allergic reactions: Some people may have allergic reactions to certain drugs, which can cause a range of symptoms, including rashes, swelling, and difficulty breathing.
5. Interactions with other drugs: Taking multiple medications or drugs at the same time can increase the risk of drug-induced abnormalities.

It is important for healthcare providers to monitor patients closely for signs of drug-induced abnormalities and to adjust medication dosages or switch to alternative treatments as necessary. Patients should also inform their healthcare providers of any symptoms they experience while taking medication, as these may be related to drug-induced abnormalities.

Morning sickness is a common condition during pregnancy, typically characterized by nausea and vomiting. It usually occurs in the morning, although it can happen at any time of the day. The exact cause is not known, but it's thought to be due to the hormonal changes that occur during early pregnancy. For most women, morning sickness improves or goes away after the first trimester. However, for some, it may last longer. While it can be unpleasant and uncomfortable, morning sickness is generally not harmful to the mother or baby, unless it's severe and leads to dehydration or weight loss. In such cases, medical attention is required.

'Datura stramonium' is a plant species also known as Jimson weed or thorn apple. It belongs to the Solanaceae family, which includes other plants like nightshade and belladonna. All parts of this plant contain dangerous levels of toxic tropane alkaloids, such as scopolamine and atropine.

Here's a brief medical definition of 'Datura stramonium':

A plant species (Solanaceae family) containing toxic tropane alkaloids, including scopolamine and atropine, in all its parts. Common names include Jimson weed or thorn apple. Ingestion can lead to severe anticholinergic symptoms like delirium, tachycardia, dry mouth, blurred vision, and potentially life-threatening complications.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Senecio" is not a medical term. It is actually the name of a genus of plants in the family Asteraceae, also known as the daisy or composite family. Some species of Senecio contain pyrrolizidine alkaloids, which can be toxic to livestock and potentially harmful to humans if ingested. However, there is no direct medical relevance of "Senecio" itself in the context of medical definitions.

Dichloroethylenes are a group of chemical compounds that contain two chlorine atoms and two hydrogen atoms bonded to a pair of carbon atoms. The two carbon atoms are arranged in a double-bonded configuration, resulting in a geometric isomerism known as cis-trans isomerism.

Therefore, there are two main types of dichloroethylenes:

1. cis-1,2-Dichloroethylene (also known as (Z)-1,2-dichloroethylene): This is a colorless liquid with a mild sweet odor. It is used as a solvent and in the production of other chemicals.
2. trans-1,2-Dichloroethylene (also known as (E)-1,2-dichloroethylene): This is also a colorless liquid with a mild sweet odor. It is used as a refrigerant, solvent, and in the production of other chemicals.

Both cis- and trans-1,2-dichloroethylenes can be harmful if ingested, inhaled, or come into contact with the skin. They can cause irritation to the eyes, nose, throat, and lungs, and prolonged exposure can lead to more serious health effects such as damage to the liver and kidneys.

Pregnancy is a physiological state or condition where a fertilized egg (zygote) successfully implants and grows in the uterus of a woman, leading to the development of an embryo and finally a fetus. This process typically spans approximately 40 weeks, divided into three trimesters, and culminates in childbirth. Throughout this period, numerous hormonal and physical changes occur to support the growing offspring, including uterine enlargement, breast development, and various maternal adaptations to ensure the fetus's optimal growth and well-being.

A mammalian embryo is the developing offspring of a mammal, from the time of implantation of the fertilized egg (blastocyst) in the uterus until the end of the eighth week of gestation. During this period, the embryo undergoes rapid cell division and organ differentiation to form a complex structure with all the major organs and systems in place. This stage is followed by fetal development, which continues until birth. The study of mammalian embryos is important for understanding human development, evolution, and reproductive biology.

Teratogens are substances that may cause non-heritable birth defects via a toxic effect on an embryo or fetus. Defects include ... Understanding how a teratogen causes its effect is not only important in preventing congenital abnormalities but also has the ... Thalidomide is a teratogen known to be significantly detrimental to organ and limb development during embryogenesis. It has ... The extent to which teratogens will impact an embryo is dependent on several factors, such as how long the embryo has been ...
Landauer W (February 1977). "Cholinomimetic teratogens. V. The effect of oximes and related cholinesterase reactivators". ...
"Pharmaceutical Teratogens". Teratology Society-Birth Defects Research. 8 December 2007. Archived May 7, 2010, at the Wayback ...
The outside contributors causing disruptions are known as teratogens. Common teratogens are alcohol, retinoic acid, ionizing ... "Retinoids as Teratogens". Annual Review of Nutrition. 15 (1): 111-132. doi:10.1146/annurev.nu.15.070195.000551. ISSN 0199-9885 ...
It is listed by some sources as a teratogen. The structure and properties of several related α- and β-azabicyclane opioids was ... "Purdue University - Teratogens". Archived from the original on 2016-02-15. Retrieved 2016-03-01. Froimowitz, Mark; Salva, P; ...
Teratogen-caused birth defects are potentially preventable. Nearly 50% of pregnant women have been exposed to at least one ... During pregnancy, a woman can also be exposed to teratogens from contaminated clothing or toxins within the seminal fluid of a ... Nitrate, which is found mostly in drinking water from ground sources, is a powerful teratogen. A case-control study in rural ... This led many people in the area to develop what became known as the "Minamata disease". Because methylmercury is a teratogen, ...
Hill, John; McCreary, John (2019). "22.6 Carcinogens and Teratogens". Chemistry for Changing Times (15 ed.). Pearson. doi: ...
A teratogen is "any agent that can potentially cause a birth defect or negatively alter cognitive and behavioral outcomes." ... "Teratogens/Prenatal Substance Abuse". Understanding Genetics: A District of Columbia Guide for Patients and Health ... Dose, genetic susceptibility, and time of exposure are all factors for the extent of the effect of a teratogen on an embryo or ... and/or the fetus is exposed to teratogen(s), the child is more likely to experience health or developmental difficulties, or ...
"Specific Association of Teratogen and Toxicant Metals in Hair of Newborns with Congenital Birth Defects or Developmentally ... Teratogens are classified in four main categories: Drugs in pregnancy - in addition to environmental chemicals, includes ... "teratogen". dictionary.com. Retrieved 4 October 2013. Daftary, Shirish; Chakravarti, Sudip (2011). Manual of Obstetrics, 3rd ... Toxic substances that are capable of causing structural congenital abnormalities can be termed teratogens. They are agents ...
Anything (including drugs) that can cause permanent deformities in the fetus are labeled as teratogens. In the U.S., drugs were ... Teratology, Teratogens, and Fetotoxic Agents". William's Obstetrics. McGraw-Hill Education. ISBN 978-0-07-179893-8. Archived ... Genetic Alliance; The New England Public Health Genetics Education Collaborative (17 February 2010). "Appendix A: Teratogens/ ...
Lead compounds are also teratogens. "Lead compounds: Lead Tetrachloride". WebElements.com. Retrieved 10 October 2012. Greenwood ...
Many teratogens exert specific effects on the fetus by epigenetic mechanisms. While epigenetic effects may preserve the effect ... Bishop JB, Witt KL, Sloane RA (December 1997). "Genetic toxicities of human teratogens". Mutation Research. 396 (1-2): 9-43. ... of a teratogen such as diethylstilbestrol throughout the life of an affected child, the possibility of birth defects resulting ...
Possible teratogen. Harmful in contact with skin, and if swallowed or inhaled. Irritant. Toxicity data ORL-RAT LD50 2000 mg kg- ...
Batra, S.; Wrigley, ECW (April 2005). "Alcohol: The teratogen". Obstetrics & Gynecology. 25 (3): 308-309. doi:10.1080/ ...
The book examines carcinogens, substances which can produce cancer; teratogens, substances which can cause congenital ...
... is a teratogen; there is about a 20-35% risk for congenital defects in infants exposed to the drug in utero, and ... Isotretinoin is a teratogen highly likely to cause birth defects if taken by women during pregnancy or even a short time before ...
avoidance of teratogens (infections such as toxoplasmosis, drugs); prenatal screening by maternal serum markers in first ...
ISBN 978-0-207-14228-4. Kinghorn, A.D. (2010). "Toxins and Teratogens of the Solanaceae and Liliaceae". Toxic plants. Society ...
Research has indicated that teratogens (substances known to cause birth defects), trypan blue (a stain used to color dead ... Sulik, K; Cook, C (1988). ""Teratogens and craniofacial malformations: relationships to cell death"". Development. 103: 213-31 ...
Cerrizuela, Santiago; Vega‐Lopez, Guillermo A.; Aybar, Manuel J. (2020-01-11). "The role of teratogens in neural crest ... they arise because of genetic defects affecting the formation of neural crest and because of the action of Teratogens ...
Chemicals that cause developmental abnormalities are called teratogens; these may also cause mutations, but their effect on ...
"The role of teratogens in neural crest development". Birth Defects Research. 112 (8): 584-632. doi:10.1002/bdr2.1644. ISSN 2472 ...
Human and Food Animal Teratogens" (PDF). Food and Chemical Toxicology. 50 (6): 2049-2055. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2012.03.049. PMID ...
All known teratogens appear to act during the first eight weeks from conception, and though this does not exclude the ... Teratogens are environmental agents that cause birth defects. Some agents that are theorized to cause birth defects have also ... Dufour-Rainfray D, Vourc'h P, Tourlet S, Guilloteau D, Chalon S, Andres CR (April 2011). "Fetal exposure to teratogens: ...
Castronovo FP (August 1999). "Teratogen update: radiation and Chernobyl". Teratology. 60 (2): 100-6. doi:10.1002/(sici)1096- ...
TeO2 is a possible teratogen. Exposure to tellurium compounds produces a garlic-like odour on the breath, caused by the ...
Yacobi S; Ornoy A (2008). "Is lithium a real teratogen? What can we conclude from the prospective versus retrospective studies ...
Yacobi S, Ornoy A (2008). "Is lithium a real teratogen? What can we conclude from the prospective versus retrospective studies ...
2009) Autism: The Teratogen Fallout. Toronto: Free Press 777. Rights are needed for children with autism regarding training and ... Autism - the Teratogen Fallout Child Advocacy Documents - Worldwide Peter Higginbotham's history of the workhouse Andrew ...
Castronovo, Frank P. (1999). "Teratogen update: Radiation and chernobyl". Teratology. 60 (2): 100-106. doi:10.1002/(sici)1096- ...
... or even teratogens (substances that can cause birth defects, among other things). ...
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) defines environmental justice as
Art by Dr.Winter: Album artworks, music videos and much more!
In utero exposure to teratogens. Franceschini et al reported a boy with bilateral hypoplasia of the index fingers associated ... Also possible is an unidentified in utero exposure to teratogens in genetically predisposed individuals, allowing expression of ... Two other proposed theories are (1) in utero ischemic injury and (2) in utero exposure to teratogens. ...
2. Description of a specific teratogen.. 3. Impact of the teratogen on the physical, cognitive, social, and emotional ... Using the attached template, write a essay the short-term and long-term impact of teratogens on an individual:. 1. Definition ... 4. Explain how different physical and behavioral health roles can aid those that have been exposed to the teratogen in order to ... For this essay, you will examine the short-term and long-term impact of teratogens on an individual. ...
A teratogen may also result in the death of an unborn baby. ... Exposure to a teratogen can cause a birth defect in the unborn ... Exposure to a teratogen can cause a birth defect in the unborn baby. A teratogen may also result in the death of an unborn baby ... A teratogen is anything a woman is exposed to during pregnancy that can harm her unborn baby (fetus). Teratogens can be things ... A teratogen can cause these dividing cells to die or change. This affects the normal growth of the fetus. ...
Teratogens are substances that may cause non-heritable birth defects via a toxic effect on an embryo or fetus. Defects include ... Understanding how a teratogen causes its effect is not only important in preventing congenital abnormalities but also has the ... Thalidomide is a teratogen known to be significantly detrimental to organ and limb development during embryogenesis. It has ... The extent to which teratogens will impact an embryo is dependent on several factors, such as how long the embryo has been ...
Pregnancy and Teratogens. Medically reviewed by Janine Kelbach, RNC-OB. Teratogens are drugs, chemicals, or even infections ...
Pregnancy and Teratogens. Medically reviewed by Janine Kelbach, RNC-OB. Teratogens are drugs, chemicals, or even infections ...
Drugs as teratogens /. 1976. 6. Environmental toxicology and pharmacology of human development. 1997. ...
teratogen (biology). prenatal development: Teratology: …some prescribed medications are highly teratogenic (producing physical ... defects within the uterus). Examples of teratogens include drugs such as thalidomide and phenytoin, the synthetic hormone ...
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Teratogens * Thalidomide / pharmacology* * Thalidomide / therapeutic use* * Tunica Intima / drug effects * Tunica Intima / ...
Teratogen. A substance that causes defects in development between conception and birth. A teratogen is a substance that causes ...
Apocalypse World Names. GitHub Gist: instantly share code, notes, and snippets.
Fluoride is a #Teratogen. September 14, 2017. by Infinite #Fluoride is a #Teratogen #AusPol #Embryonics so now is the time to ...
Teratogens. Teratogens are substances that may produce physical or functional defects in the human embryo or fetus after the ... Exposure to the teratogen affects the fetus or embryo in a variety of ways, such as the duration of exposure, the amount of ... Retinoids As Teratogens. Vitamin A (retinol) is an essential vitamin in the daily functioning of human beings that helps ... A teratogen is a substance that causes malformation of a developing organism. Cohlan also identified the teratogenic effects of ...
Alcohol is a known teratogen. Prenatal alcohol exposure is a leading preventable cause of birth defects and intellectual and ...
SOCIETY FOR BIRTH DEFECTS RESEARCH & PREVENTION: HUMAN TERATOGENS COURSE. Live Virtual Course, United States ...
Actions of Piperidine Alkaloid Teratogens at Fetal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors. (Peer Reviewed Journal) (24-Jan-10) ...
Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus: emerging fetal teratogen. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2002;187:1715-6. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar ...
Teratogen: Substances that cause the production of physical defects in a developing fetus or embryo. PRECAUTIONS: Handle with ...
1986) In vitro metabolism of teratogens by differentiating rat embryo cells. Food Chem. Toxicol. 24:737-742. ... 1987) Correlations between embryotoxic and genotoxic effects of phenytoin in mice. Teratogen. Carcinogen. Mutagen. 7:159-168. ... Parman, T., Chen, G., Bray, T. M. and Wells, P. G.: Bioactivation of phenytoin, thalidomide and related teratogens to a free ... another DNA-damaging teratogen and carcinogen (Nicol et al., 1995). An equivalent enhancement in micronucleus formation and ...
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Teratogen Exposure * Twin Reversed Arterial Perfusion * Twins * Twin-Twin Transfusion * Uterine Anomaly in Pregnancy ...
Teratogen Exposure * Twin Reversed Arterial Perfusion * Twins * Twin-Twin Transfusion * Uterine Anomaly in Pregnancy ...
Illinois Teratogen Information Service (ITIS). 680 N. Lake Shore Drive, Suite 1230 Chicago, IL 60611. (312) 981-4354 or (800) ... Illinois Teratogen Information Service (ITIS). 680 N. Lake Shore Drive, Suite 1230 Chicago, IL 60611. (312) 981-4354 or (800) ...
  • Alcohol is a known teratogen. (aap.org)
  • Dasani Bottled Water Has 4 Ingredients: Tap Water, Known Teratogen, Lethal. (worldtruth.tv)
  • Brodifacoum may also be a teratogen because its chemical structure is similar to warfarin, a known teratogen. (cdc.gov)
  • It is a sub-discipline in medical genetics which focuses on the classification of congenital abnormalities in dysmorphology caused by teratogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • It enables the timely deployment of primary prevention interventions which aim to prevent teratogen-induced birth defects (including those caused by congenital syphilis and rubella), defects caused by iodine deficiency disorder, neural tube defects (and possibly other malformations), and maternal-age-related chromosomal disorders (e.g. (who.int)
  • The scientific study of congenital abnormalities caused by prenatal environmental influences is known as teratology (from the Greek word teras, meaning "marvel" or "monster"), and the environmental agents that produce abnormalities in the developing fetus are called teratogens. (jrank.org)
  • 1 This report is extracted from the Summary report on the Expert meeting on the prevention of congenital and genetic disorders in the Eastern Mediterranean Region, London, United Kingdom, 29-31 July 2016 (http://applications.emro.who.int/docs/IC_Meet_Rep_2016_EN_18989.pdf?ua=1, accessed 30 March 2017). (who.int)
  • Carcinogens, Endocrine Disruptors & Teratogens, Oh My! (momsrising.org)
  • In short, that means that every day most of us slather ourselves (and our kids) with chemicals that are known carcinogens (substances capable of causing cancer), endocrine disruptors (substances that affect hormones) or even teratogens (substances that can cause birth defects, among other things). (momsrising.org)
  • VNAs are well-established teratogens and carcinogens in animals, and are classified as probable (group 2A) or possible (group 2B) carcinogens in humans. (cdc.gov)
  • A teratogen is anything a woman is exposed to during pregnancy that can harm her unborn baby (fetus). (skprevention.ca)
  • How does a teratogen reach the fetus? (skprevention.ca)
  • However, when a mother is exposed to a teratogen, her blood can also carry bad things to the fetus. (skprevention.ca)
  • When a pregnant woman is exposed to a teratogen, the body parts of the fetus that are developing at that time may be harmed. (skprevention.ca)
  • Teratogens are substances that may cause non-heritable birth defects via a toxic effect on an embryo or fetus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Teratogens are substances that may produce physical or functional defects in the human embryo or fetus after the pregnant woman is exposed to the substance. (asu.edu)
  • Exposure to the teratogen affects the fetus or embryo in a variety of ways, such as the duration of exposure, the amount of teratogenic substance, and the stage of development the embryo or fetus is in during the exposure. (asu.edu)
  • A teratogen is an agent (such as virus, drugs and radiation) that is known to cause malformation in an embryo or fetus. (pregnancy-info.net)
  • Two other proposed theories are (1) in utero ischemic injury and (2) in utero exposure to teratogens. (medscape.com)
  • Exposure to a teratogen can cause a birth defect in the unborn baby. (skprevention.ca)
  • Several factors affect the ability of a teratogen to contact a developing conceptus, such as the nature of the agent itself, route and degree of maternal exposure, rate of placental transfer and systemic absorption, and composition of the maternal and embryonic/fetal genotypes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Provide education on avoiding exposure to tobacco, medications and environment teratogens during pregnancy. (who.int)
  • Birth defects are a diverse group of disorders of prenatal origin which can be caused by single gene defects, chromosomal disorders, multifactorial inheritance, environmental teratogens and micronutrient deficiencies. (who.int)
  • Developmental causes The causes of developmental facial paralysis are numerous and may be associated with syndromes and teratogens. (medscape.com)
  • The fetus's brain is very sensitive to teratogens as it is the only organ that is developing for all 9 months of pregnancy. (skprevention.ca)
  • The extent to which teratogens will impact an embryo is dependent on several factors, such as how long the embryo has been exposed, the stage of development the embryo was in when exposed, the genetic makeup of the embryo, and the transfer rate of the teratogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Embryofetal Toxicity: Tazarotene gel contains tazarotene, which is a teratogen. (nih.gov)
  • At least 2 systems are used to classify the risk associated with specific medications: the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) system and the automated Teratogen Information System (TERIS). (medscape.com)
  • Many medications, including diet pills, are possible teratogens. (modernmom.com)
  • The Emory University School of Medicine warns that about 4 to 5 percent of all birth defects are due to exposures to teratogens. (modernmom.com)
  • One example of this is the use of mammalian animal models to evaluate the molecular role of teratogens in the development of embryonic populations, such as the neural crest, which can lead to the development of neurocristopathies. (wikipedia.org)
  • 4. Explain how different physical and behavioral health roles can aid those that have been exposed to the teratogen in order to reduce symptoms and increase quality of life. (academicpaperexperts.com)
  • For this essay, you will examine the short-term and long-term impact of teratogens on an individual. (academicpaperexperts.com)
  • California was selected as the study site because of its large population and the availability of referrals from the California Teratogen Information Service and Clinical Research Center (CTIS). (cdc.gov)
  • Teratogens can be things that she breathes in, swallows, or touches. (skprevention.ca)
  • One example of this is the use of mammalian animal models to evaluate the molecular role of teratogens in the development of embryonic populations, such as the neural crest, which can lead to the development of neurocristopathies. (wikipedia.org)
  • 18. The role of teratogens in neural crest development. (nih.gov)
  • Editorial Note: Although the total number of exposed, pregnant women is unknown, the consistency of the laboratory and human experiences with isotretinoin exposure during pregnancy provides sufficient evidence to conclude that the drug is a human teratogen. (cdc.gov)
  • The present study suggests that HCQ treatment in pregnancy is not a major human teratogen. (nih.gov)
  • Acitretin is indicated for severe psoriasis, but it is also a potent teratogen whose use should be avoided in women of childbearing potential. (nih.gov)
  • Thalidomide, used for morning sickness more than 50 years ago was found to be a potent teratogen-- a chemical that can cause severe developmental problems. (acsh.org)
  • Two other proposed theories are (1) in utero ischemic injury and (2) in utero exposure to teratogens. (medscape.com)
  • Namely, it has been pointed out that 5-7 days of in utero exposure to higher amounts of magnesium sulfate may lead to birth defects, so the FDA recommended its classification as a Category D Teratogen. (maxdiaries.com)
  • There was no in utero exposure to known teratogens. (hindawi.com)
  • Toxic hazardous waste contains toxic components such as carcinogens, mutagens, teratogens, and heavy metals. (nsta.org)
  • Consequently, due to its human fetal risk, it has been classified as a known teratogen (Pregnancy Category D) by the FDA. (maxdiaries.com)
  • Alcohol is a teratogen (a substance that causes fetal abnormalities). (adf.org.au)
  • Magnesium sulfate is a laxative, a drying agent, and FDA Pregnancy Category D Teratogen. (maxdiaries.com)
  • The extent to which teratogens will impact an embryo is dependent on several factors, such as how long the embryo has been exposed, the stage of development the embryo was in when exposed, the genetic makeup of the embryo, and the transfer rate of the teratogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • A teratogen is a substance that can cause a birth defect. (uhhospitals.org)
  • Teratogens do not change genes and therefore have not been associated with CdLS. (cdlsusa.org)
  • Accutane, used for severe acne, is a powerful teratogen. (acsh.org)
  • It is a sub-discipline in medical genetics which focuses on the classification of congenital abnormalities in dysmorphology caused by teratogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • "Environmental Teratogens Of Man" Brit.med.Bull. . (erowid.org)
  • These three are not considered in the present paper, but a critical review is made of nine other possible environmental teratogens. (erowid.org)
  • But can you take a serious teratogen like DES or thalidomide, which were given in therapeutic quantities to pregnant women, and claim any relevance to trace chemicals found in everyday life? (acsh.org)
  • Found to be a teratogen in animals. (mfa.org)
  • Together, our data suggests that hyperglycemia acts as a major teratogen and impacts cardiac tissue growth and remodeling. (ohsu.edu)
  • Can teratogens affect chromosome 3? (cdlsusa.org)
  • Teratogens by definition in some way affect a fetus. (cdlsusa.org)