The maximum stress a material subjected to a stretching load can withstand without tearing. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p2001)
The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.
The description and measurement of the various factors that produce physical stress upon dental restorations, prostheses, or appliances, materials associated with them, or the natural oral structures.
A generic term for all substances having the properties of stretching under tension, high tensile strength, retracting rapidly, and recovering their original dimensions fully. They are generally POLYMERS.
The mechanical property of material that determines its resistance to force. HARDNESS TESTS measure this property.
The amount of force generated by MUSCLE CONTRACTION. Muscle strength can be measured during isometric, isotonic, or isokinetic contraction, either manually or using a device such as a MUSCLE STRENGTH DYNAMOMETER.
The maximum compression a material can withstand without failure. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p427)
The joining of pieces of metal through the use of an alloy which has a lower melting point, usually at least 100 degrees Celsius below the fusion temperature of the parts being soldered. In dentistry, soldering is used for joining components of a dental appliance, as in assembling a bridge, joining metals to orthodontic bands, or adding to the bulk of certain structures, such as the establishment of proper contact areas on inlays and crowns with adjacent teeth. (Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)
A material used for cementation of inlays, crowns, bridges, and orthodontic appliances and occasionally as a temporary restoration. It is prepared by mixing zinc oxide and magnesium oxide powders with a liquid consisting principally of phosphoric acid, water, and buffers. (From Bouchers' Clinical Dental Terminology, 3d ed)
Materials used in closing a surgical or traumatic wound. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The properties and processes of materials that affect their behavior under force.
Usually inert substances added to a prescription in order to provide suitable consistency to the dosage form. These include binders, matrix, base or diluent in pills, tablets, creams, salves, etc.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
A mixture of metallic elements or compounds with other metallic or metalloid elements in varying proportions for use in restorative or prosthetic dentistry.
Procedure of producing an imprint or negative likeness of the teeth and/or edentulous areas. Impressions are made in plastic material which becomes hardened or set while in contact with the tissue. They are later filled with plaster of Paris or artificial stone to produce a facsimile of the oral structures present. Impressions may be made of a full complement of teeth, of areas where some teeth have been removed, or in a mouth from which all teeth have been extracted. (Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)
Solid dosage forms, of varying weight, size, and shape, which may be molded or compressed, and which contain a medicinal substance in pure or diluted form. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Polymers of organic acids and alcohols, with ester linkages--usually polyethylene terephthalate; can be cured into hard plastic, films or tapes, or fibers which can be woven into fabrics, meshes or velours.
The outer margins of the ABDOMEN, extending from the osteocartilaginous thoracic cage to the PELVIS. Though its major part is muscular, the abdominal wall consists of at least seven layers: the SKIN, subcutaneous fat, deep FASCIA; ABDOMINAL MUSCLES, transversalis fascia, extraperitoneal fat, and the parietal PERITONEUM.
Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.
Holding a DENTAL PROSTHESIS in place by its design, or by the use of additional devices or adhesives.
Compounds that provide LUBRICATION between surfaces in order to reduce FRICTION.
A continuous protein fiber consisting primarily of FIBROINS. It is synthesized by a variety of INSECTS and ARACHNIDS.
The branch of physics which deals with the motions of material bodies, including kinematics, dynamics, and statics. When the laws of mechanics are applied to living structures, as to the locomotor system, it is referred to as BIOMECHANICAL PHENOMENA. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Substances used to bond COMPOSITE RESINS to DENTAL ENAMEL and DENTIN. These bonding or luting agents are used in restorative dentistry, ROOT CANAL THERAPY; PROSTHODONTICS; and ORTHODONTICS.
A polyester used for absorbable sutures & surgical mesh, especially in ophthalmic surgery. 2-Hydroxy-propanoic acid polymer with polymerized hydroxyacetic acid, which forms 3,6-dimethyl-1,4-dioxane-dione polymer with 1,4-dioxane-2,5-dione copolymer of molecular weight about 80,000 daltons.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
Dental cements composed either of polymethyl methacrylate or dimethacrylate, produced by mixing an acrylic monomer liquid with acrylic polymers and mineral fillers. The cement is insoluble in water and is thus resistant to fluids in the mouth, but is also irritating to the dental pulp. It is used chiefly as a luting agent for fabricated and temporary restorations. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p159)
Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.
Silicon polymers that contain alternate silicon and oxygen atoms in linear or cyclic molecular structures.
Numerical expression indicating the measure of stiffness in a material. It is defined by the ratio of stress in a unit area of substance to the resulting deformation (strain). This allows the behavior of a material under load (such as bone) to be calculated.
The quality or state of being able to be bent or creased repeatedly. (From Webster, 3d ed)
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
An adhesion procedure for orthodontic attachments, such as plastic DENTAL CROWNS. This process usually includes the application of an adhesive material (DENTAL CEMENTS) and letting it harden in-place by light or chemical curing.
The hard portion of the tooth surrounding the pulp, covered by enamel on the crown and cementum on the root, which is harder and denser than bone but softer than enamel, and is thus readily abraded when left unprotected. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
The internal resistance of a material to moving some parts of it parallel to a fixed plane, in contrast to stretching (TENSILE STRENGTH) or compression (COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH). Ionic crystals are brittle because, when subjected to shear, ions of the same charge are brought next to each other, which causes repulsion.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
Synthetic resins, containing an inert filler, that are widely used in dentistry.
Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.
A group of thermoplastic or thermosetting polymers containing polyisocyanate. They are used as ELASTOMERS, as coatings, as fibers and as foams.
Polymers of high molecular weight which at some stage are capable of being molded and then harden to form useful components.
Substances used to create an impression, or negative reproduction, of the teeth and dental arches. These materials include dental plasters and cements, metallic oxide pastes, silicone base materials, or elastomeric materials.
Techniques for securing together the edges of a wound, with loops of thread or similar materials (SUTURES).
Acrylic resins, also known as polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), are a type of synthetic resin formed from polymerized methyl methacrylate monomers, used in various medical applications such as dental restorations, orthopedic implants, and ophthalmic lenses due to their biocompatibility, durability, and transparency.
The preparation, mixing, and assembling of a drug. (From Remington, The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 19th ed, p1814)
Force exerted when gripping or grasping.
Polymers of silicone that are formed by crosslinking and treatment with amorphous silica to increase strength. They have properties similar to vulcanized natural rubber, in that they stretch under tension, retract rapidly, and fully recover to their original dimensions upon release. They are used in the encapsulation of surgical membranes and implants.
Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A polymer obtained by reacting polyacrylic acid with a special anion-leachable glass (alumino-silicate). The resulting cement is more durable and tougher than others in that the materials comprising the polymer backbone do not leach out.
Material applied to the tissue side of a denture to provide a soft lining to the parts of a denture coming in contact with soft tissue. It cushions contact of the denture with the tissues.
Arthropods of the class ARACHNIDA, order Araneae. Except for mites and ticks, spiders constitute the largest order of arachnids, with approximately 37,000 species having been described. The majority of spiders are harmless, although some species can be regarded as moderately harmful since their bites can lead to quite severe local symptoms. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, p508; Smith, Insects and Other Arthropods of Medical Importance, 1973, pp424-430)
The application of scientific knowledge or technology to pharmacy and the pharmaceutical industry. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation in the manufacture, preparation, compounding, dispensing, packaging, and storing of drugs and other preparations used in diagnostic and determinative procedures, and in the treatment of patients.
A solution used for irrigating the mouth in xerostomia and as a substitute for saliva.
The methyl esters of methacrylic acid that polymerize easily and are used as tissue cements, dental materials, and absorbent for biological substances.
The constricted part of the tooth at the junction of the crown and root or roots. It is often referred to as the cementoenamel junction (CEJ), the line at which the cementum covering the root of a tooth and the enamel of the tooth meet. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p530, p433)
Poly-2-methylpropenoic acids. Used in the manufacture of methacrylate resins and plastics in the form of pellets and granules, as absorbent for biological materials and as filters; also as biological membranes and as hydrogens. Synonyms: methylacrylate polymer; poly(methylacrylate); acrylic acid methyl ester polymer.
Materials used in the production of dental bases, restorations, impressions, prostheses, etc.
The upper part of the tooth, which joins the lower part of the tooth (TOOTH ROOT) at the cervix (TOOTH CERVIX) at a line called the cementoenamel junction. The entire surface of the crown is covered with enamel which is thicker at the extremity and becomes progressively thinner toward the cervix. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p216)
A property of the surface of an object that makes it stick to another surface.
Condition of having pores or open spaces. This often refers to bones, bone implants, or bone cements, but can refer to the porous state of any solid substance.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
Removal of minerals from bones during bone examination.
Propylene or propene polymers. Thermoplastics that can be extruded into fibers, films or solid forms. They are used as a copolymer in plastics, especially polyethylene. The fibers are used for fabrics, filters and surgical sutures.
Operative procedures performed on the SKIN.
Specific alloys not less than 85% chromium and nickel or cobalt, with traces of either nickel or cobalt, molybdenum, and other substances. They are used in partial dentures, orthopedic implants, etc.
The process of producing a form or impression made of metal or plaster using a mold.
Acrylic acids or acrylates which are substituted in the C-2 position with a methyl group.
An abnormal hardening or increased density of bone tissue.
Stainless steel. A steel containing Ni, Cr, or both. It does not tarnish on exposure and is used in corrosive environments. (Grant & Hack's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The field of dentistry involved in procedures for designing and constructing dental appliances. It includes also the application of any technology to the field of dentistry.
A test to determine the relative hardness of a metal, mineral, or other material according to one of several scales, such as Brinell, Mohs, Rockwell, Vickers, or Shore. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A dark-gray, metallic element of widespread distribution but occurring in small amounts; atomic number, 22; atomic weight, 47.90; symbol, Ti; specific gravity, 4.5; used for fixation of fractures. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The gradual destruction of a metal or alloy due to oxidation or action of a chemical agent. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Salts and esters of the 10-carbon monocarboxylic acid-decanoic acid.
Sterile collagen strands obtained from healthy mammals. They are used as absorbable surgical ligatures and are frequently impregnated with chromium or silver for increased strength. They tend to cause tissue reaction.
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
Fibrous proteins secreted by INSECTS and SPIDERS. Generally, the term refers to silkworm fibroin secreted by the silk gland cells of SILKWORMS, Bombyx mori. Spider fibroins are called spidroins or dragline silk fibroins.
Fibrous bands or cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE at the ends of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that serve to attach the MUSCLES to bones and other structures.
Cell growth support structures composed of BIOCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. They are specially designed solid support matrices for cell attachment in TISSUE ENGINEERING and GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION uses.
General or unspecified injuries involving the foot.
The hardening or polymerization of bonding agents (DENTAL CEMENTS) via chemical reactions, usually involving two components. This type of dental bonding uses a self-cure or dual-cure system.
A rare, metallic element designated by the symbol, Ga, atomic number 31, and atomic weight 69.72.
'Polyvinyls' is a term that refers to a group of polymers synthesized from vinyl chloride, including polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polyvinylidene chloride (PVDC), which are widely used in various medical applications such as manufacturing of medical devices, tubing, packaging materials, and pharmaceutical containers due to their chemical resistance, durability, and versatility.
A device that measures MUSCLE STRENGTH during muscle contraction, such as gripping, pushing, and pulling. It is used to evaluate the health status of muscle in sports medicine or physical therapy.
Cements that act through infiltration and polymerization within the dentinal matrix and are used for dental restoration. They can be adhesive resins themselves, adhesion-promoting monomers, or polymerization initiators that act in concert with other agents to form a dentin-bonding system.
A change of a substance from one form or state to another.
Metal devices for fastening together two or more parts of dental prostheses for stabilizing or retaining them by attachment to abutment teeth. For a precision attachment for a partial denture DENTURE PRECISION ATTACHMENT is available.
The behaviors of materials under force.
Wires of various dimensions and grades made of stainless steel or precious metal. They are used in orthodontic treatment.
Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Any woven or knit material of open texture used in surgery for the repair, reconstruction, or substitution of tissue. The mesh is usually a synthetic fabric made of various polymers. It is occasionally made of metal.
A band of fibrous tissue that attaches the apex of the PATELLA to the lower part of the tubercle of the TIBIA. The ligament is actually the caudal continuation of the common tendon of the QUADRICEPS FEMORIS. The patella is embedded in that tendon. As such, the patellar ligament can be thought of as connecting the quadriceps femoris tendon to the tibia, and therefore it is sometimes called the patellar tendon.
Injuries to the fibrous cords of connective tissue which attach muscles to bones or other structures.
A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.
Silicone polymers which consist of silicon atoms substituted with methyl groups and linked by oxygen atoms. They comprise a series of biocompatible materials used as liquids, gels or solids; as film for artificial membranes, gels for implants, and liquids for drug vehicles; and as antifoaming agents.
A restoration designed to remain in service for not less than 20 to 30 years, usually made of gold casting, cohesive gold, or amalgam. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
The joining of objects by means of a cement (e.g., in fracture fixation, such as in hip arthroplasty for joining of the acetabular component to the femoral component). In dentistry, it is used for the process of attaching parts of a tooth or restorative material to a natural tooth or for the attaching of orthodontic bands to teeth by means of an adhesive.
Polyester polymers formed from terephthalic acid or its esters and ethylene glycol. They can be formed into tapes, films or pulled into fibers that are pressed into meshes or woven into fabrics.
A fibrous cord that connects the muscles in the back of the calf to the HEEL BONE.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
One of the protein CROSS-LINKING REAGENTS that is used as a disinfectant for sterilization of heat-sensitive equipment and as a laboratory reagent, especially as a fixative.
Torn, ragged, mangled wounds.
Deacetylated CHITIN, a linear polysaccharide of deacetylated beta-1,4-D-glucosamine. It is used in HYDROGEL and to treat WOUNDS.
A hydroxylated form of the imino acid proline. A deficiency in ASCORBIC ACID can result in impaired hydroxyproline formation.
Prosthesis, usually heart valve, composed of biological material and whose durability depends upon the stability of the material after pretreatment, rather than regeneration by host cell ingrowth. Durability is achieved 1, mechanically by the interposition of a cloth, usually polytetrafluoroethylene, between the host and the graft, and 2, chemically by stabilization of the tissue by intermolecular linking, usually with glutaraldehyde, after removal of antigenic components, or the use of reconstituted and restructured biopolymers.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Tissue that supports and binds other tissues. It consists of CONNECTIVE TISSUE CELLS embedded in a large amount of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX.
Pathological processes consisting of the union of the opposing surfaces of a wound.
A biocompatible polymer used as a surgical suture material.
A layer of vascularized connective tissue underneath the EPIDERMIS. The surface of the dermis contains innervated papillae. Embedded in or beneath the dermis are SWEAT GLANDS; HAIR FOLLICLES; and SEBACEOUS GLANDS.
Homopolymer of tetrafluoroethylene. Nonflammable, tough, inert plastic tubing or sheeting; used to line vessels, insulate, protect or lubricate apparatus; also as filter, coating for surgical implants or as prosthetic material. Synonyms: Fluoroflex; Fluoroplast; Ftoroplast; Halon; Polyfene; PTFE; Tetron.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
Implants constructed of materials designed to be absorbed by the body without producing an immune response. They are usually composed of plastics and are frequently used in orthopedics and orthodontics.
A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)
Any of the eight frontal teeth (four maxillary and four mandibular) having a sharp incisal edge for cutting food and a single root, which occurs in man both as a deciduous and a permanent tooth. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p820)
The fibrous tissue that replaces normal tissue during the process of WOUND HEALING.
A dead body, usually a human body.
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
Relating to the size of solids.
The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.
A type of scanning probe microscopy in which a probe systematically rides across the surface of a sample being scanned in a raster pattern. The vertical position is recorded as a spring attached to the probe rises and falls in response to peaks and valleys on the surface. These deflections produce a topographic map of the sample.
'Elastin' is a highly elastic protein in connective tissue that allows many tissues in the body to resume their shape after stretching or contracting, such as the skin, lungs, and blood vessels.

Experimental assessment of proximal stent-graft (InterVascular) fixation in human cadaveric infrarenal aortas. (1/1852)

OBJECTIVES: This paper investigates the radial deformation load of an aortic endoluminal prosthesis and determines the longitudinal load required to cause migration in a human cadaveric aorta of the endoprosthesis. DESIGN AND METHODS: The endovascular prosthesis under investigation was a 24 mm diameter, nitinol, self-expanding aortoaortic device (InterVascular, Clearwater, Florida, U.S.A.). Initially, a motorised digital force gauge developed an incremental load which was applied to the ends of five stent-grafts, to a maximum of 10 mm (42%) compression. Secondly, using a simple bench model, each ends of four stent-grafts were deployed into 10 cadaveric experimental aneurysm necks and a longitudinal load applied to effect distraction. RESULTS: Increasing load produced increasing percentage deformation of the stent-grafts. The mean longitudinal distraction load for an aneurysm neck of 20 mm was 409 g (200-480 g), for 15 mm was 277 g (130-410 g) and for 10 mm was 218 g (130-340 g). The aneurysm diameter and aortic calcification had p values of 0.002 and 0.047, respectively, while the p value for aneurysm neck length was less than 0.00001. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that there is a theoretical advantage of oversizing an aortic prosthesis and that sufficient anchorage is achieved in an aortic neck of 10 mm to prevent migration when fully deployed.  (+info)

Particle-mediated gene transfer of PDGF isoforms promotes wound repair. (2/1852)

Several techniques for cutaneous gene transfer have been investigated for either in vitro or in vivo applications. In the present study, we investigated whether the direct delivery of platelet-derived growth factor cDNA into skin results in improvement in tissue repair. Cutaneous transfections were carried out in rats using a particle-bombardment device (Accell). As revealed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, transgene expression in vivo was transient, with low level expression by day 5. When compared with wounds transfected with a control cytomegalovirus-luciferase plasmid, wounds transfected with platelet-derived growth factor A or B in the MFG vector showed a significant increase in wound tensile strength 7 and 14 d after transfection. At both time points platelet-derived growth factor A transfected wounds exhibited the highest increase in tensile strength over controls, resulting in a 3.5-fold increase at day 7 and a 1.5-fold increase at day 14. The degree of stimulation was not remarkably different between wounds transfected with platelet-derived growth factor B, which is predominantly cell associated, or a truncation mutant, platelet-derived growth factor B211, which is predominantly secreted. These findings demonstrate that in vivo gene transfer by particle bombardment can be used to improve the tissue repair response. This approach provides a robust tool to assess the biologic activity of various proteins and will aid in the development of therapeutic cutaneous gene delivery.  (+info)

Coating titanium implants with bioglass and with hydroxyapatite. A comparative study in sheep. (3/1852)

This study compares the osteointegration of titanium implants coated with bioglass (Biovetro GSB formula) and with hydroxyapatite (HAP). Twenty-four bioglass-coated and 24 HAP-coated cylinders were implanted in the femoral diaphyses of sheep, and examined after 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, and 16 weeks. The HAP coating gave a stronger and earlier fixation to the bone than did bioglass. Bioglass formed a tissue interface which showed a macrophage reaction with little new bone formation activity. In contrast, HPA, showed intense new bone formation, with highly mineralised osseous trabeculae in the neighbourhood of the interface.  (+info)

In vitro comparison of the retention capacity of new aesthetic brackets. (4/1852)

Tensile bond strength and bond failure location were evaluated in vitro for two types of aesthetic brackets (non-silanated ceramic, polycarbonate) and one stainless steel bracket, using bovine teeth as the substrate and diacrylate resin as the adhesive. The results show that metallic bracket had the highest bond strength (13.21 N) followed by the new plastic bracket (12.01 N), which does not require the use of a primer. The non-silanated ceramic bracket produced the lowest bond strength (8.88 N). Bond failures occurred mainly between bracket and cement, although a small percentage occurred between the enamel-cement interface with the metal and plastic brackets and within the cement for the plastic bracket. With the ceramic bracket all the failures occurred at the bracket-cement interface. This suggests that the problems of enamel lesions produced by this type of bracket may have been eliminated. The results also show that the enamel/adhesive bond is stronger than the adhesive/bracket bond in this in vitro study.  (+info)

The crystal growth technique--a laboratory evaluation of bond strengths. (5/1852)

An ex vivo study was carried out to determine differences in the bond strengths achieved with brackets placed using a crystal growth technique compared with a conventional acid-etch technique. A solution of 37 per cent phosphoric acid was used for acid-etching and a commercially available polyacrylic acid gel, Crystal-lok for crystal growth. A heavily-filled composite resin was used for all samples to bond brackets to healthy premolar teeth extracted for orthodontic purposes. Polycrystalline ceramic and stainless steel brackets were used and tested to both tensile and shear failure using an Instron Universal Testing machine. The tensile and shear bond strengths were recorded in kgF. In view of difficulties experienced with previous authors using different units to describe their findings, the data were subsequently converted to a range of units in order to facilitate direct comparison. The crystal growth technique produced significantly lower bond strengths than the acid-etch technique for ceramic and stainless steel brackets, both in tensile and shear mode. The tensile bond strength for stainless steel brackets with crystal growth was 2.2 kg compared with 6.01 kg for acid-etch, whilst with ceramic brackets the tensile bond strengths were 3.9 kg for crystal growth and 5.55 kg for acid-etch. The mean shear bond strength for stainless steel brackets with crystal growth was 12.61 kg compared with 21.55 kg for acid-etch, whilst with ceramic brackets the shear bond strengths were 7.93 kg with crystal growth compared with 16.55 kg for acid-tech. These bond strengths were below those previously suggested as clinically acceptable.  (+info)

The role of radial elastic properties in the development of aortic dissections. (6/1852)

PURPOSE: The response of the upper and lower thoracic aorta to radial tensile stresses was compared with the response to circumferential and longitudinal stresses to understand the role of tensile stress in the tearing phase of an aortic dissection. METHODS: Square tissue samples (1.6 by 1.6 cm) were cut from the upper and lower segments of six porcine thoracic aortas and were elongated in the radial direction with a tensile testing machine. The radial extensibility of the thoracic aorta was compared with adjacent tissue samples that were tested in tension in the circumferential and longitudinal directions based on Young's modulus (ie, the ratio of tensile stress to strain). RESULTS: The elastic properties of the thoracic aorta in the radial direction were markedly different from both the circumferential and longitudinal properties. The average Young's modulus (calculated immediately before failing) was significantly lower in the radial direction for both the upper and lower thoracic segments (61.4 +/- 4.3 kPa, SEM) than the Young's modulus of corresponding segments in the circumferential and longitudinal directions that were not tested to failure (151.1 +/- 8.6 kPa and 112.7 +/- 9.2 kPa, respectively; P <. 05). Sections 7 micrometer thick were collected from four samples obtained from one upper thoracic aorta that were strained at 0, 1.0, 2.5, and 4.0 and then stained either with Movat's pentachrome or with hematoxylin and eosin. Histological analysis of the samples stressed in the radial direction revealed that smooth muscle cells were torn loose from their attachments to each other and to adjacent elastin. CONCLUSION: Although the aorta normally functions under radial compressive stresses associated with lumen blood pressure, these results show that the aorta tears radially at a much lower value of stress than would have been predicted from previous studies that have reported longitudinal and circumferential Young's modulus. This could explain why dissections propagate readily once the initial tear occurs.  (+info)

Development of calcium phosphate cement for rapid crystallization to apatite. (7/1852)

The purpose of this study was to develop an alpha-tricalcium phosphate (alpha-TCP) cement which transforms to hydroxyapatite (HAP) in a relatively short period. We used calcium and phosphate solutions as the liquid phase for the alpha-TCP cement. The alpha-TCP powder was first mixed with CaCl2 solution, and then mixed with NaH2PO4 or Na2HPO3 solution for a total powder/liquid ratio of 1.8. The setting time became shorter with the increase in the concentration of calcium and phosphate solutions, reaching 5 min, whereas the setting time was longer than 30 min when distilled water was used as the liquid phase. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the cement was mostly transformed to HAP within 24 h when kept in an incubator. We concluded that alpha-TCP should be mixed with calcium and phosphate solutions since this results in a moderate setting time and fast transformation to HAP even if the method of mixing becomes a little complex.  (+info)

Steric effects of N-acyl group in O-methacryloyl-N-acyl tyrosines on the adhesiveness of unetched human dentin. (8/1852)

We have prepared various O-methacryloyl-N-acyl tyrosines (MAATY) to reveal the relationship between molecular structure near carboxylic acid and adhesive strength of MAATY-HEMA type adhesive resin to unetched dentin. In this study, we attempted to change the steric hindrance effect without changing the HLB value, i.e., introducing an iso-acyl group instead of n-acyl group into MAATY. O-methacryloyl-N-ethylbutyryl tyrosine (MIHTY) showed significantly lower adhesive strength when compared with O-methacryloyl-N-hexanoyl tyrosine even though both MAATY have the same HLB value. The possible explanation of the significantly different adhesive strength was that the 2-ethylbutyryl group in MIHTY was bulky, resulting in inhibition of the hydrogen bonding of the carboxylic group. The HLB value is independent of the steric effect of molecular structure, and thus the steric factor should be taken into consideration for the explanation of different adhesive strengths within the adhesive monomers having the same HLB value but different molecular structures.  (+info)

Tensile strength is a material property that measures the maximum amount of tensile (pulling) stress that a material can withstand before failure, such as breaking or fracturing. It is usually measured in units of force per unit area, such as pounds per square inch (psi) or pascals (Pa). In the context of medical devices or biomaterials, tensile strength may be used to describe the mechanical properties of materials used in implants, surgical tools, or other medical equipment. High tensile strength is often desirable in these applications to ensure that the material can withstand the stresses and forces it will encounter during use.

I'm happy to help! However, I must clarify that "materials testing" is not a medical term per se. It is a term used in various fields, including engineering and materials science, to describe the process of subjecting materials to different tests to evaluate their properties and performance under various conditions.

In the context of medical devices or implants, materials testing may refer to the evaluation of the physical and mechanical properties of materials used in their construction. These tests can include assessments of strength, durability, biocompatibility, and other factors that are critical to ensuring the safety and efficacy of medical devices.

Medical device manufacturers must comply with regulatory standards for materials testing to ensure that their products meet specific requirements for performance, safety, and quality. These standards may vary depending on the type of device, its intended use, and the country or region in which it will be marketed and sold.

Dental stress analysis is a method used in dentistry to evaluate the amount and distribution of forces that act upon teeth and surrounding structures during biting, chewing, or other functional movements. This analysis helps dental professionals identify areas of excessive stress or strain that may lead to dental problems such as tooth fracture, mobility, or periodontal (gum) disease. By identifying these areas, dentists can develop treatment plans to reduce the risk of dental issues and improve overall oral health.

Dental stress analysis typically involves the use of specialized equipment, such as strain gauges, T-scan occlusal analysis systems, or finite element analysis software, to measure and analyze the forces that act upon teeth during various functional movements. The results of the analysis can help dentists determine the best course of treatment, which may include adjusting the bite, restoring damaged teeth with crowns or fillings, or fabricating custom-made oral appliances to redistribute the forces evenly across the dental arch.

Overall, dental stress analysis is an important tool in modern dentistry that helps dental professionals diagnose and treat dental problems related to occlusal (bite) forces, ensuring optimal oral health and function for their patients.

Elastomers are a type of polymeric material that exhibit elastic behavior when subjected to deforming forces. They have the ability to return to their original shape and size after being stretched or compressed, making them ideal for use in applications where flexibility, resilience, and durability are required.

Elastomers are composed of long chains of repeating molecular units called monomers, which are cross-linked together to form a three-dimensional network. This cross-linking gives elastomers their unique properties, such as high elasticity, low compression set, and resistance to heat, chemicals, and weathering.

Some common examples of elastomers include natural rubber, silicone rubber, neoprene, nitrile rubber, and polyurethane. These materials are used in a wide range of applications, from automotive parts and medical devices to footwear and clothing.

In the context of medical terminology, "hardness" is not a term that has a specific or standardized definition. It may be used in various ways to describe the firmness or consistency of a tissue, such as the hardness of an artery or tumor, but it does not have a single authoritative medical definition.

In some cases, healthcare professionals may use subjective terms like "hard," "firm," or "soft" to describe their tactile perception during a physical examination. For example, they might describe the hardness of an enlarged liver or spleen by comparing it to the feel of their knuckles when gently pressed against the abdomen.

However, in other contexts, healthcare professionals may use more objective measures of tissue stiffness or elasticity, such as palpation durometry or shear wave elastography, which provide quantitative assessments of tissue hardness. These techniques can be useful for diagnosing and monitoring conditions that affect the mechanical properties of tissues, such as liver fibrosis or cancer.

Therefore, while "hardness" may be a term used in medical contexts to describe certain physical characteristics of tissues, it does not have a single, universally accepted definition.

Muscle strength, in a medical context, refers to the amount of force a muscle or group of muscles can produce during contraction. It is the maximum amount of force that a muscle can generate through its full range of motion and is often measured in units of force such as pounds or newtons. Muscle strength is an important component of physical function and mobility, and it can be assessed through various tests, including manual muscle testing, dynamometry, and isokinetic testing. Factors that can affect muscle strength include age, sex, body composition, injury, disease, and physical activity level.

Compressive strength is a measure of the maximum compressive load that a material or structure can withstand before failure or deformation. It is typically expressed in units of pressure, such as pounds per square inch (psi) or megapascals (MPa). Compressive strength is an important property in the design and analysis of structures and materials, as it helps to ensure their safety and durability under compressive loads.

In medical terminology, compressive strength may refer to the ability of biological tissues, such as bone or cartilage, to withstand compressive forces without deforming or failing. For example, osteoporosis is a condition characterized by reduced bone density and compressive strength, which can increase the risk of fractures in affected individuals. Similarly, degenerative changes in articular cartilage can lead to decreased compressive strength and joint pain or stiffness.

Dental soldering is a procedure in which two or more metal components are joined together by melting and flowing a filler metal into the joint, creating a strong metallic bond. In dentistry, this technique is primarily used to repair or construct dental restorations such as crowns, bridges, and orthodontic appliances.

The process typically involves:

1. Cleaning and preparing the surfaces to be soldered by removing any oxides, oils, or contaminants that might interfere with the bond.
2. Applying a flux to the prepared surfaces to prevent further oxidation during heating.
3. Positioning the components accurately so they can be joined correctly.
4. Heating the parts using a soldering torch or other heat source, while simultaneously applying the filler metal (solder) to the joint.
5. Allowing the solder to cool and solidify, creating a strong metallic bond between the components.
6. Finishing and polishing the soldered area for smooth integration with the surrounding dental restoration.

Dental soldering requires precision, skill, and knowledge of various metals and alloys used in dentistry. Proper safety measures, including protective eyewear and a well-ventilated workspace, should be taken during the procedure to minimize potential hazards from heat, flames, or fumes.

Zinc phosphate cement is a type of dental cement that is created through the chemical reaction between zinc oxide and a phosphoric acid solution. It is commonly used as a base or liner under dental restorations such as crowns, bridges, and fillings. The setting process of zinc phosphate cement involves the formation of a hard, stable material that can effectively bond to tooth structure and provide a solid foundation for dental restorations.

Zinc phosphate cement has several desirable properties, including good compressive strength, resistance to dissolution in oral fluids, and low solubility in water. It is also relatively easy to manipulate and handle during dental procedures. However, it does have some limitations, such as a potential for shrinkage during setting, which can lead to marginal gaps and microleakage. Additionally, zinc phosphate cement may not be as durable or long-lasting as some newer types of dental cements.

Overall, zinc phosphate cement remains a widely used and reliable choice for many dental applications, particularly in cases where a strong, stable foundation is required for dental restorations.

In medical terms, sutures are specialized surgical threads made from various materials such as absorbable synthetic or natural fibers, or non-absorbable materials like nylon or silk. They are used to approximate and hold together the edges of a wound or incision in the skin or other tissues during the healing process. Sutures come in different sizes, types, and shapes, each designed for specific uses and techniques depending on the location and type of tissue being sutured. Properly placed sutures help to promote optimal healing, minimize scarring, and reduce the risk of infection or other complications.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "mechanical phenomena" is not a standard medical term. The term "mechanical phenomenon" is more commonly used in the fields of physics and engineering to refer to events or processes that involve physical forces and movements, such as the movement of a lever or the flow of a fluid due to pressure differences.

If you have any questions about a specific medical concept or condition, I would be happy to try to help you with that instead!

Excipients are inactive substances that serve as vehicles or mediums for the active ingredients in medications. They make up the bulk of a pharmaceutical formulation and help to stabilize, preserve, and enhance the delivery of the active drug compound. Common examples of excipients include binders, fillers, coatings, disintegrants, flavors, sweeteners, and colors. While excipients are generally considered safe and inert, they can sometimes cause allergic reactions or other adverse effects in certain individuals.

Mechanical stress, in the context of physiology and medicine, refers to any type of force that is applied to body tissues or organs, which can cause deformation or displacement of those structures. Mechanical stress can be either external, such as forces exerted on the body during physical activity or trauma, or internal, such as the pressure changes that occur within blood vessels or other hollow organs.

Mechanical stress can have a variety of effects on the body, depending on the type, duration, and magnitude of the force applied. For example, prolonged exposure to mechanical stress can lead to tissue damage, inflammation, and chronic pain. Additionally, abnormal or excessive mechanical stress can contribute to the development of various musculoskeletal disorders, such as tendinitis, osteoarthritis, and herniated discs.

In order to mitigate the negative effects of mechanical stress, the body has a number of adaptive responses that help to distribute forces more evenly across tissues and maintain structural integrity. These responses include changes in muscle tone, joint positioning, and connective tissue stiffness, as well as the remodeling of bone and other tissues over time. However, when these adaptive mechanisms are overwhelmed or impaired, mechanical stress can become a significant factor in the development of various pathological conditions.

Dental alloys are materials made by combining two or more metals to be used in dental restorations, such as crowns, bridges, fillings, and orthodontic appliances. These alloys can be classified into three main categories based on their composition:

1. Precious Alloys: Predominantly composed of precious metals like gold, platinum, palladium, and silver. They are highly corrosion-resistant, biocompatible, and durable, making them suitable for long-term use in dental restorations. Common examples include high noble (gold) alloys and noble alloys.
2. Base Metal Alloys: Contain primarily non-precious metals like nickel, chromium, cobalt, and beryllium. They are more affordable than precious alloys but may cause allergic reactions or sensitivities in some patients. Common examples include nickel-chromium alloys and cobalt-chromium alloys.
3. Castable Glass Ionomer Alloys: A combination of glass ionomer cement (GIC) powder and metal liquid, which can be cast into various dental restorations. They have the advantage of being both strong and adhesive to tooth structure but may not be as durable as other alloy types.

Each type of dental alloy has its unique properties and applications, depending on the specific clinical situation and patient needs. Dental professionals consider factors like cost, biocompatibility, mechanical properties, and esthetics when selecting an appropriate alloy for a dental restoration.

A dental impression technique is a method used in dentistry to create a detailed and accurate replica of a patient's teeth and oral structures. This is typically accomplished by using an impression material, which is inserted into a tray and then placed in the patient's mouth. The material sets or hardens, capturing every detail of the teeth, gums, and other oral tissues.

There are several types of dental impression techniques, including:

1. Irreversible Hydrocolloid Impression Material: This is a common type of impression material that is made of alginate powder mixed with water. It is poured into a tray and inserted into the patient's mouth. Once set, it is removed and used to create a cast or model of the teeth.

2. Reversible Hydrocolloid Impression Material: This type of impression material is similar to irreversible hydrocolloid, but it can be reused. It is made of agar and water and is poured into a tray and inserted into the patient's mouth. Once set, it is removed and reheated to be used again.

3. Polyvinyl Siloxane (PVS) Impression Material: This is a two-part impression material that is made of a base and a catalyst. It is poured into a tray and inserted into the patient's mouth. Once set, it is removed and used to create a cast or model of the teeth. PVS is known for its high accuracy and detail.

4. Addition Silicone Impression Material: This is another two-part impression material that is made of a base and a catalyst. It is similar to PVS, but it has a longer working time and sets slower. It is often used for full-arch impressions or when there is a need for a very detailed impression.

5. Elastomeric Impression Material: This is a type of impression material that is made of a rubber-like substance. It is poured into a tray and inserted into the patient's mouth. Once set, it is removed and used to create a cast or model of the teeth. Elastomeric impression materials are known for their high accuracy and detail.

The dental impression technique is an essential part of many dental procedures, including creating crowns, bridges, dentures, and orthodontic appliances. The accuracy and detail of the impression can significantly impact the fit and function of the final restoration or appliance.

In the context of medical terminology, tablets refer to pharmaceutical dosage forms that contain various active ingredients. They are often manufactured in a solid, compressed form and can be administered orally. Tablets may come in different shapes, sizes, colors, and flavors, depending on their intended use and the manufacturer's specifications.

Some tablets are designed to disintegrate or dissolve quickly in the mouth, making them easier to swallow, while others are formulated to release their active ingredients slowly over time, allowing for extended drug delivery. These types of tablets are known as sustained-release or controlled-release tablets.

Tablets may contain a single active ingredient or a combination of several ingredients, depending on the intended therapeutic effect. They are typically manufactured using a variety of excipients, such as binders, fillers, and disintegrants, which help to hold the tablet together and ensure that it breaks down properly when ingested.

Overall, tablets are a convenient and widely used dosage form for administering medications, offering patients an easy-to-use and often palatable option for receiving their prescribed treatments.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Polyesters" is not a medical term. It is a term used in materials science and textile industry to describe a type of synthetic fiber made from polymers characterized by the presence of ester groups in their main chain. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or concepts, I'd be happy to help with those instead!

The abdominal wall refers to the group of muscles, fascia (sheaths of connective tissue), and skin that make up the front and sides of the abdomen, extending from the thorax (chest) to the pelvis. It provides protection to the abdominal organs, supports the trunk, and allows for movement of the torso.

The main muscles of the anterior abdominal wall include:

1. Rectus sheaths (Rectus Abdominis): paired vertical muscles running from the pubic symphysis to the xiphoid process and costal cartilages of ribs 5-7.
2. External obliques: thin, irregular muscles that lie over the lower part of the abdomen and run diagonally downward and forward from the lower ribs to the iliac crest (pelvic bone) and pubic tubercle.
3. Internal obliques: thicker muscles that lie under the external obliques, running diagonally upward and forward from the iliac crest to the lower ribs.
4. Transverse abdominis: deepest of the abdominal muscles, lying horizontally across the abdomen, attaching from the lower ribs to the pelvis.

These muscles are interconnected by various layers of fascia and aponeuroses (flat, broad tendons), forming a complex structure that allows for both stability and mobility. The linea alba, a fibrous band, runs down the midline of the anterior abdominal wall, connecting the rectus sheaths.

Damage to the abdominal wall can occur due to trauma, surgery, or various medical conditions, which may require surgical intervention for repair.

Wound healing is a complex and dynamic process that occurs after tissue injury, aiming to restore the integrity and functionality of the damaged tissue. It involves a series of overlapping phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling.

1. Hemostasis: This initial phase begins immediately after injury and involves the activation of the coagulation cascade to form a clot, which stabilizes the wound and prevents excessive blood loss.
2. Inflammation: Activated inflammatory cells, such as neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages, infiltrate the wound site to eliminate pathogens, remove debris, and release growth factors that promote healing. This phase typically lasts for 2-5 days post-injury.
3. Proliferation: In this phase, various cell types, including fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and keratinocytes, proliferate and migrate to the wound site to synthesize extracellular matrix (ECM) components, form new blood vessels (angiogenesis), and re-epithelialize the wounded area. This phase can last up to several weeks depending on the size and severity of the wound.
4. Remodeling: The final phase of wound healing involves the maturation and realignment of collagen fibers, leading to the restoration of tensile strength in the healed tissue. This process can continue for months to years after injury, although the tissue may never fully regain its original structure and function.

It is important to note that wound healing can be compromised by several factors, including age, nutrition, comorbidities (e.g., diabetes, vascular disease), and infection, which can result in delayed healing or non-healing chronic wounds.

Dental prosthesis retention refers to the means by which a dental prosthesis, such as a denture, is held in place in the mouth. The retention can be achieved through several methods, including:

1. Suction: This is the most common method of retention for lower dentures, where the shape and fit of the denture base create suction against the gums to hold it in place.
2. Mechanical retention: This involves the use of mechanical components such as clasps or attachments that hook onto remaining natural teeth or dental implants to hold the prosthesis in place.
3. Adhesive retention: Dental adhesives can be used to help secure the denture to the gums, providing additional retention and stability.
4. Implant retention: Dental implants can be used to provide a more secure and stable retention of the dental prosthesis. The implant is surgically placed in the jawbone and acts as an anchor for the prosthesis.

Proper retention of a dental prosthesis is essential for optimal function, comfort, and speech. A well-retained prosthesis can help prevent sore spots, improve chewing efficiency, and enhance overall quality of life.

Medical definitions of "lubricants" refer to substances that are used to reduce friction between two surfaces in medical procedures or devices. They can be used during various medical examinations, surgeries, or when inserting medical equipment, such as catheters, to make the process smoother and more comfortable for the patient.

Lubricants used in medical settings may include water-based gels, oil-based jellies, or silicone-based lubricants. It's important to choose a lubricant that is safe and suitable for the specific medical procedure or device being used. For example, some lubricants may not be compatible with certain medical materials or may need to be sterile.

It's worth noting that while lubricants are commonly used in medical settings, they should not be used as a substitute for proper medical care or treatment. If you have any concerns about your health or medical condition, it's important to consult with a qualified healthcare professional.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Silk" is not a medical term. Silk is a natural protein fiber, mainly composed of fibroin and produced by certain insect larvae to form cocoons. It's commonly used in textiles and other industries for its softness, smoothness, and strength. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I'd be happy to help with those instead!

In the context of medicine, "mechanics" is not typically used as a standalone term with a widely accepted or specific definition. However, in certain areas such as biomechanics or orthopedic mechanics, it generally refers to the application of mechanical principles and laws to biological systems, tissues, or organs. This can include studying the forces, movements, and deformations that occur within these systems, as well as designing medical devices or treatments based on an understanding of these mechanical properties.

Dental cements are materials used in dentistry to bond or seal restorative dental materials, such as crowns, fillings, and orthodontic appliances, to natural tooth structures. They can be made from various materials including glass ionomers, resin-modified glass ionomers, zinc oxide eugenol, polycarboxylate, and composite resins. The choice of cement depends on the specific clinical situation and the properties required, such as strength, durability, biocompatibility, and esthetics.

Polyglactin 910 is a type of synthetic absorbable suture made from copolymers of lactide and glycolide. It is designed to gradually break down and be absorbed by the body over time, typically within 56 to 70 days after being used in surgical wounds. This property makes it an ideal choice for soft tissue approximation and laceration repairs.

Polyglactin 910 sutures are often used in various surgical procedures, including orthopedic, ophthalmic, cardiovascular, and general surgery. They come in different sizes and forms, such as plain, reverse cutting, and braided, to suit various surgical needs.

The gradual absorption of Polyglactin 910 sutures helps minimize scarring and reduces the need for suture removal procedures. However, it is essential to note that inflammation may occur during the degradation process, which could potentially lead to adverse reactions in some individuals. Proper wound care and follow-up with healthcare professionals are crucial to ensure optimal healing and manage any potential complications.

Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is a type of electron microscopy that uses a focused beam of electrons to scan the surface of a sample and produce a high-resolution image. In SEM, a beam of electrons is scanned across the surface of a specimen, and secondary electrons are emitted from the sample due to interactions between the electrons and the atoms in the sample. These secondary electrons are then detected by a detector and used to create an image of the sample's surface topography. SEM can provide detailed images of the surface of a wide range of materials, including metals, polymers, ceramics, and biological samples. It is commonly used in materials science, biology, and electronics for the examination and analysis of surfaces at the micro- and nanoscale.

Resin cements are dental materials used to bond or cement restorations, such as crowns, bridges, and orthodontic appliances, to natural teeth or implants. They are called "resin" cements because they are made of a type of synthetic resin material that can be cured or hardened through the use of a chemical reaction or exposure to light.

Resin cements typically consist of three components: a base, a catalyst, and a filler. The base and catalyst are mixed together to create a putty-like consistency, which is then applied to the restoration or tooth surface. Once the cement is in place, it is exposed to light or allowed to chemically cure, which causes it to harden and form a strong bond between the restoration and the tooth.

Resin cements are known for their excellent adhesive properties, as well as their ability to withstand the forces of biting and chewing. They can also be color-matched to natural teeth, making them an aesthetically pleasing option for dental restorations. However, they may not be suitable for all patients or situations, and it is important for dental professionals to carefully consider the specific needs and conditions of each patient when choosing a cement material.

Biocompatible materials are non-toxic and non-reacting substances that can be used in medical devices, tissue engineering, and drug delivery systems without causing harm or adverse reactions to living tissues or organs. These materials are designed to mimic the properties of natural tissues and are able to integrate with biological systems without being rejected by the body's immune system.

Biocompatible materials can be made from a variety of substances, including metals, ceramics, polymers, and composites. The specific properties of these materials, such as their mechanical strength, flexibility, and biodegradability, are carefully selected to meet the requirements of their intended medical application.

Examples of biocompatible materials include titanium used in dental implants and joint replacements, polyethylene used in artificial hips, and hydrogels used in contact lenses and drug delivery systems. The use of biocompatible materials has revolutionized modern medicine by enabling the development of advanced medical technologies that can improve patient outcomes and quality of life.

Siloxanes are a group of synthetic compounds that contain repeating units of silicon-oxygen-silicon (Si-O-Si) bonds, often combined with organic groups such as methyl or ethyl groups. They are widely used in various industrial and consumer products due to their unique properties, including thermal stability, low surface tension, and resistance to water and heat.

In medical terms, siloxanes have been studied for their potential use in medical devices and therapies. For example, some siloxane-based materials have been developed for use as coatings on medical implants, such as catheters and stents, due to their ability to reduce friction and prevent bacterial adhesion.

However, it's worth noting that exposure to high levels of certain types of siloxanes has been linked to potential health effects, including respiratory irritation and reproductive toxicity. Therefore, appropriate safety measures should be taken when handling these compounds in a medical or industrial setting.

The Elastic Modulus, also known as Young's modulus, is a measure of the stiffness of a material. It is defined as the ratio of stress (force per unit area) to strain (partial deformation or change in length per unit length) in the elastic range of deformation of a material. In other words, it measures how much a material will deform (change in length or size) when subjected to a given amount of force. A higher elastic modulus indicates that a material is stiffer and less likely to deform, while a lower elastic modulus indicates that a material is more flexible and will deform more easily. The elastic modulus is typically expressed in units of Pascals (Pa) or Gigapascals (GPa).

In the context of medicine, particularly in physical therapy and rehabilitation, "pliability" refers to the quality or state of being flexible or supple. It describes the ability of tissues, such as muscles or fascia (connective tissue), to stretch, deform, and adapt to forces applied upon them without resistance or injury. Improving pliability can help enhance range of motion, reduce muscle stiffness, promote circulation, and alleviate pain. Techniques like soft tissue mobilization, myofascial release, and stretching are often used to increase pliability in clinical settings.

Biomechanics is the application of mechanical laws to living structures and systems, particularly in the field of medicine and healthcare. A biomechanical phenomenon refers to a observable event or occurrence that involves the interaction of biological tissues or systems with mechanical forces. These phenomena can be studied at various levels, from the molecular and cellular level to the tissue, organ, and whole-body level.

Examples of biomechanical phenomena include:

1. The way that bones and muscles work together to produce movement (known as joint kinematics).
2. The mechanical behavior of biological tissues such as bone, cartilage, tendons, and ligaments under various loads and stresses.
3. The response of cells and tissues to mechanical stimuli, such as the way that bone tissue adapts to changes in loading conditions (known as Wolff's law).
4. The biomechanics of injury and disease processes, such as the mechanisms of joint injury or the development of osteoarthritis.
5. The use of mechanical devices and interventions to treat medical conditions, such as orthopedic implants or assistive devices for mobility impairments.

Understanding biomechanical phenomena is essential for developing effective treatments and prevention strategies for a wide range of medical conditions, from musculoskeletal injuries to neurological disorders.

Dental bonding is a cosmetic dental procedure in which a tooth-colored resin material (a type of plastic) is applied and hardened with a special light, which ultimately "bonds" the material to the tooth to improve its appearance. According to the American Dental Association (ADA), dental bonding can be used for various purposes, including:

1. Repairing chipped or cracked teeth
2. Improving the appearance of discolored teeth
3. Closing spaces between teeth
4. Protecting a portion of the tooth's root that has been exposed due to gum recession
5. Changing the shape and size of teeth

Dental bonding is generally a quick and painless procedure, often requiring little to no anesthesia. The surface of the tooth is roughened and conditioned to help the resin adhere properly. Then, the resin material is applied, molded, and smoothed to the desired shape. A special light is used to harden the material, which typically takes only a few minutes. Finally, the bonded material is trimmed, shaped, and polished to match the surrounding teeth.

While dental bonding can be an effective solution for minor cosmetic concerns, it may not be as durable or long-lasting as other dental restoration options like veneers or crowns. The lifespan of a dental bonding procedure typically ranges from 3 to 10 years, depending on factors such as oral habits, location of the bonded tooth, and proper care. Regular dental checkups and good oral hygiene practices can help extend the life of dental bonding.

Dentin is the hard, calcified tissue that lies beneath the enamel and cementum of a tooth. It forms the majority of the tooth's structure and is composed primarily of mineral salts (hydroxyapatite), collagenous proteins, and water. Dentin has a tubular structure, with microscopic channels called dentinal tubules that radiate outward from the pulp chamber (the center of the tooth containing nerves and blood vessels) to the exterior of the tooth. These tubules contain fluid and nerve endings that are responsible for the tooth's sensitivity to various stimuli such as temperature changes, pressure, or decay. Dentin plays a crucial role in protecting the dental pulp while also providing support and structure to the overlying enamel and cementum.

Shear strength is a property of a material that describes its ability to withstand forces that cause internal friction and sliding of one portion of the material relative to another. In the context of human tissues, shear strength is an important factor in understanding how tissues respond to various stresses and strains, such as those experienced during physical activities or injuries.

For example, in the case of bones, shear strength is a critical factor in determining their ability to resist fractures under different types of loading conditions. Similarly, in soft tissues like ligaments and tendons, shear strength plays a crucial role in maintaining the integrity of these structures during movement and preventing excessive deformation or injury.

It's worth noting that measuring the shear strength of human tissues can be challenging due to their complex structure and anisotropic properties. As such, researchers often use specialized techniques and equipment to quantify these properties under controlled conditions in the lab.

Surface properties in the context of medical science refer to the characteristics and features of the outermost layer or surface of a biological material or structure, such as cells, tissues, organs, or medical devices. These properties can include physical attributes like roughness, smoothness, hydrophobicity or hydrophilicity, and electrical conductivity, as well as chemical properties like charge, reactivity, and composition.

In the field of biomaterials science, understanding surface properties is crucial for designing medical implants, devices, and drug delivery systems that can interact safely and effectively with biological tissues and fluids. Surface modifications, such as coatings or chemical treatments, can be used to alter surface properties and enhance biocompatibility, improve lubricity, reduce fouling, or promote specific cellular responses like adhesion, proliferation, or differentiation.

Similarly, in the field of cell biology, understanding surface properties is essential for studying cell-cell interactions, cell signaling, and cell behavior. Cells can sense and respond to changes in their environment, including variations in surface properties, which can influence cell shape, motility, and function. Therefore, characterizing and manipulating surface properties can provide valuable insights into the mechanisms of cellular processes and offer new strategies for developing therapies and treatments for various diseases.

Composite resins, also known as dental composites or filling materials, are a type of restorative material used in dentistry to restore the function, integrity, and morphology of missing tooth structure. They are called composite resins because they are composed of a combination of materials, including a resin matrix (usually made of bisphenol A-glycidyl methacrylate or urethane dimethacrylate) and filler particles (commonly made of silica, quartz, or glass).

The composite resins are widely used in modern dentistry due to their excellent esthetic properties, ease of handling, and ability to bond directly to tooth structure. They can be used for a variety of restorative procedures, including direct and indirect fillings, veneers, inlays, onlays, and crowns.

Composite resins are available in various shades and opacities, allowing dentists to match the color and translucency of natural teeth closely. They also have good wear resistance, strength, and durability, making them a popular choice for both anterior and posterior restorations. However, composite resins may be prone to staining over time and may require more frequent replacement compared to other types of restorative materials.

In medicine, elasticity refers to the ability of a tissue or organ to return to its original shape after being stretched or deformed. This property is due to the presence of elastic fibers in the extracellular matrix of the tissue, which can stretch and recoil like rubber bands.

Elasticity is an important characteristic of many tissues, particularly those that are subjected to repeated stretching or compression, such as blood vessels, lungs, and skin. For example, the elasticity of the lungs allows them to expand and contract during breathing, while the elasticity of blood vessels helps maintain normal blood pressure by allowing them to expand and constrict in response to changes in blood flow.

In addition to its role in normal physiology, elasticity is also an important factor in the diagnosis and treatment of various medical conditions. For example, decreased elasticity in the lungs can be a sign of lung disease, while increased elasticity in the skin can be a sign of aging or certain genetic disorders. Medical professionals may use techniques such as pulmonary function tests or skin biopsies to assess elasticity and help diagnose these conditions.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Polyurethanes" are not a medical term. They are a type of polymer that is used in a variety of industrial and consumer products, including foam cushions, insulation, and packaging materials. Polyurethanes are created through a chemical reaction between diisocyanates and polyols. While they have many applications in the medical field, such as in the production of medical devices and equipment, they are not a medical term themselves.

Synthetic resins are artificially produced substances that have properties similar to natural resins. They are typically created through polymerization, a process in which small molecules called monomers chemically bind together to form larger, more complex structures known as polymers.

Synthetic resins can be classified into several categories based on their chemical composition and properties, including:

1. Thermosetting resins: These resins undergo a chemical reaction when heated, resulting in a rigid and infusible material that cannot be melted or reformed once it has cured. Examples include epoxy, phenolic, and unsaturated polyester resins.

2. Thermoplastic resins: These resins can be repeatedly softened and hardened by heating and cooling without undergoing any significant chemical changes. Examples include polyethylene, polypropylene, and polystyrene.

3. Elastomeric resins: These resins have the ability to stretch and return to their original shape when released, making them ideal for use in applications that require flexibility and durability. Examples include natural rubber, silicone rubber, and polyurethane.

Synthetic resins are widely used in various industries, including construction, automotive, electronics, and healthcare. In the medical field, they may be used to create dental restorations, medical devices, and drug delivery systems, among other applications.

Dental impression materials are substances used to create a replica or negative reproduction of the oral structures, including teeth, gums, and surrounding tissues. These materials are often used in dentistry to fabricate dental restorations, orthodontic appliances, mouthguards, and various other dental devices.

There are several types of dental impression materials available, each with its unique properties and applications:

1. Alginate: This is a common and affordable material derived from algae. It is easy to mix and handle, sets quickly, and provides a detailed impression of the oral structures. However, alginate impressions are not as durable as other materials and must be poured immediately after taking the impression.
2. Irreversible Hydrocolloid: This material is similar to alginate but offers better accuracy and durability. It requires more time to mix and set, but it can be stored for a longer period before pouring the cast.
3. Polyvinyl Siloxane (PVS): Also known as silicone impression material, PVS provides excellent detail, accuracy, and dimensional stability. It is available in two types: addition-cured and condensation-cured. Addition-cured PVS offers better accuracy but requires more time to mix and set. Condensation-cured PVS sets faster but may shrink slightly over time.
4. Polyether: This material provides high accuracy, excellent detail, and good tear resistance. It is also sensitive to moisture, making it suitable for impressions where a dry field is required. However, polyether has a strong odor and taste, which some patients find unpleasant.
5. Vinyl Polysiloxane (VPS): This material is similar to PVS but offers better tear strength and flexibility. It is also less sensitive to moisture than polyether, making it suitable for various applications.
6. Zinc Oxide Eugenol: This is a traditional impression material used primarily for temporary impressions or bite registrations. It has a low cost and is easy to mix and handle but does not provide the same level of detail as other materials.

The choice of dental impression material depends on various factors, including the type of restoration, the patient's oral condition, and the clinician's preference.

Suture techniques refer to the various methods used by surgeons to sew or stitch together tissues in the body after an injury, trauma, or surgical incision. The main goal of suturing is to approximate and hold the edges of the wound together, allowing for proper healing and minimizing scar formation.

There are several types of suture techniques, including:

1. Simple Interrupted Suture: This is one of the most basic suture techniques where the needle is passed through the tissue at a right angle, creating a loop that is then tightened to approximate the wound edges. Multiple stitches are placed along the length of the incision or wound.
2. Continuous Locking Suture: In this technique, the needle is passed continuously through the tissue in a zigzag pattern, with each stitch locking into the previous one. This creates a continuous line of sutures that provides strong tension and support to the wound edges.
3. Running Suture: Similar to the continuous locking suture, this technique involves passing the needle continuously through the tissue in a straight line. However, instead of locking each stitch, the needle is simply passed through the previous loop before being tightened. This creates a smooth and uninterrupted line of sutures that can be easily removed after healing.
4. Horizontal Mattress Suture: In this technique, two parallel stitches are placed horizontally across the wound edges, creating a "mattress" effect that provides additional support and tension to the wound. This is particularly useful in deep or irregularly shaped wounds.
5. Vertical Mattress Suture: Similar to the horizontal mattress suture, this technique involves placing two parallel stitches vertically across the wound edges. This creates a more pronounced "mattress" effect that can help reduce tension and minimize scarring.
6. Subcuticular Suture: In this technique, the needle is passed just below the surface of the skin, creating a smooth and barely visible line of sutures. This is particularly useful in cosmetic surgery or areas where minimizing scarring is important.

The choice of suture technique depends on various factors such as the location and size of the wound, the type of tissue involved, and the patient's individual needs and preferences. Proper suture placement and tension are crucial for optimal healing and aesthetic outcomes.

Acrylic resins are a type of synthetic polymer made from methacrylate monomers. They are widely used in various industrial, commercial, and medical applications due to their unique properties such as transparency, durability, resistance to breakage, and ease of coloring or molding. In the medical field, acrylic resins are often used to make dental restorations like false teeth and fillings, medical devices like intraocular lenses, and surgical instruments. They can also be found in orthopedic implants, bone cement, and other medical-grade plastics. Acrylic resins are biocompatible, meaning they do not typically cause adverse reactions when in contact with living tissue. However, they may release small amounts of potentially toxic chemicals over time, so their long-term safety in certain applications is still a subject of ongoing research.

Drug compounding is the process of combining, mixing, or altering ingredients to create a customized medication to meet the specific needs of an individual patient. This can be done for a variety of reasons, such as when a patient has an allergy to a certain ingredient in a mass-produced medication, or when a patient requires a different dosage or formulation than what is available commercially.

Compounding requires specialized training and equipment, and compounding pharmacists must follow strict guidelines to ensure the safety and efficacy of the medications they produce. Compounded medications are not approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), but the FDA does regulate the ingredients used in compounding and has oversight over the practices of compounding pharmacies.

It's important to note that while compounding can provide benefits for some patients, it also carries risks, such as the potential for contamination or incorrect dosing. Patients should only receive compounded medications from reputable pharmacies that follow proper compounding standards and procedures.

Hand strength refers to the measure of force or power that an individual can generate using the muscles of the hand and forearm. It is often assessed through various tests, such as grip strength dynamometry, which measures the maximum force exerted by the hand when squeezing a device called a handgrip dynanometer. Hand strength is important for performing daily activities, maintaining independence, and can be indicative of overall health and well-being. Reduced hand strength may be associated with conditions such as neuromuscular disorders, arthritis, or injuries.

Silicone elastomers are a type of synthetic rubber made from silicone, which is a polymer composed primarily of silicon-oxygen bonds. They are known for their durability, flexibility, and resistance to heat, cold, and moisture. Silicone elastomers can be manufactured in various forms, including liquids, gels, and solids, and they are used in a wide range of medical applications such as:

1. Breast implants: Silicone elastomer shells filled with silicone gel are commonly used for breast augmentation and reconstruction.
2. Contact lenses: Some contact lenses are made from silicone elastomers due to their high oxygen permeability, which allows for better eye health.
3. Catheters: Silicone elastomer catheters are flexible and resistant to kinking, making them suitable for long-term use in various medical procedures.
4. Implantable drug delivery systems: Silicone elastomers can be used as a matrix for controlled release of drugs, allowing for sustained and targeted medication administration.
5. Medical adhesives: Silicone elastomer adhesives are biocompatible and can be used to attach medical devices to the skin or other tissues.
6. Sealants and coatings: Silicone elastomers can be used as sealants and coatings in medical devices to prevent leakage, improve durability, and reduce infection risk.

It is important to note that while silicone elastomers are generally considered safe for medical use, there have been concerns about the potential health risks associated with breast implants, such as capsular contracture, breast pain, and immune system reactions. However, these risks vary depending on the individual's health status and the specific type of silicone elastomer used.

In the context of medical terminology, "powders" do not have a specific technical definition. However, in a general sense, powders refer to dry, finely ground or pulverized solid substances that can be dispersed in air or liquid mediums. In medicine, powders may include various forms of medications, such as crushed tablets or capsules, which are intended to be taken orally, mixed with liquids, or applied topically. Additionally, certain medical treatments and therapies may involve the use of medicated powders for various purposes, such as drying agents, abrasives, or delivery systems for active ingredients.

Glass Ionomer Cements (GICs) are a type of dental restorative material that have the ability to chemically bond to tooth structure. They are composed of a mixture of silicate glass powder and an organic acid, such as polyacrylic acid. GICs have several clinical applications in dentistry, including as a filling material for small to moderate sized cavities, as a liner or base under other restorative materials, and as a cement for securing crowns, bridges, and orthodontic appliances.

GICs are known for their biocompatibility, caries inhibition, and adhesion to tooth structure. They also have the ability to release fluoride ions, which can help protect against future decay. However, they are not as strong or wear-resistant as some other dental restorative materials, such as amalgam or composite resin, so they may not be suitable for use in high-load bearing restorations.

GICs can be classified into two main types: conventional and resin-modified. Conventional GICs have a longer setting time and are more prone to moisture sensitivity during placement, while resin-modified GICs contain additional methacrylate monomers that improve their handling properties and shorten their setting time. However, the addition of these monomers may also reduce their fluoride release capacity.

Overall, glass ionomer cements are a valuable dental restorative material due to their unique combination of adhesion, biocompatibility, and caries inhibition properties.

Denture liners are soft, flexible materials that are used to reline or temporarily repair the fitting surface of a denture. They are intended to improve the comfort and fit of the denture by filling in any spaces or irregularities between the denture and the gum tissue. Denture liners are typically made from materials such as silicone, polyphosphazine, or acrylic and can be added to the denture by a dental professional in the dental office. They may need to be replaced or re-adjusted periodically to maintain a proper fit.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "spiders" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It is a common name used to refer to arachnids of the order Araneae, characterized by having two main body parts (the cephalothorax and abdomen), eight legs, and fangs that inject venom.

However, in a medical context, "spider" or "spider bite" may be used to describe skin lesions or reactions resulting from the bite of certain spiders, particularly those with medically significant venoms. For example, necrotic arachnidism is a condition caused by the bite of some spider species, such as recluse spiders (Loxosceles spp.). The bites can cause skin necrosis and other systemic symptoms in severe cases.

If you are looking for information on a specific medical topic or condition, please provide more details so I can offer a more accurate response.

Medical technology, also known as health technology, refers to the use of medical devices, medicines, vaccines, procedures, and systems for the purpose of preventing, diagnosing, or treating disease and disability. This can include a wide range of products and services, from simple devices like tongue depressors and bandages, to complex technologies like MRI machines and artificial organs.

Pharmaceutical technology, on the other hand, specifically refers to the application of engineering and scientific principles to the development, production, and control of pharmaceutical drugs and medical devices. This can include the design and construction of manufacturing facilities, the development of new drug delivery systems, and the implementation of quality control measures to ensure the safety and efficacy of pharmaceutical products.

Both medical technology and pharmaceutical technology play crucial roles in modern healthcare, helping to improve patient outcomes, reduce healthcare costs, and enhance the overall quality of life for individuals around the world.

Artificial saliva is a synthetic solution that mimics the chemical composition and properties of natural saliva. It is often used for patients with dry mouth (xerostomia) caused by conditions such as Sjögren's syndrome, radiation therapy, or certain medications that reduce saliva production. Artificial saliva may contain ingredients like carboxymethylcellulose, mucin, and electrolytes to provide lubrication, moisture, and pH buffering capacity similar to natural saliva. It can help alleviate symptoms associated with dry mouth, such as difficulty speaking, swallowing, and chewing, as well as protect oral tissues from irritation and infection.

Methyl Methacrylates (MMA) are a family of synthetic materials that are commonly used in the medical field, particularly in orthopedic and dental applications. Medically, MMA is often used as a bone cement to fix prosthetic implants, such as artificial hips or knees, into place during surgeries.

Methyl methacrylates consist of a type of acrylic resin that hardens when mixed with a liquid catalyst. This property allows it to be easily molded and shaped before it sets, making it ideal for use in surgical procedures where precise positioning is required. Once hardened, MMA forms a strong, stable bond with the bone, helping to secure the implant in place.

It's important to note that while MMA is widely used in medical applications, there have been concerns about its safety in certain situations. For example, some studies have suggested that high levels of methyl methacrylate fumes released during the setting process may be harmful to both patients and surgical staff. Therefore, appropriate precautions should be taken when using MMA-based products in medical settings.

The term "tooth cervix" is not commonly used in medical dentistry with a specific technical definition. However, if you are referring to the "cervical region of a tooth," it generally refers to the area where the crown (the visible part of the tooth) meets the root (the portion of the tooth that is below the gum line). This region is also sometimes referred to as the "cementoenamel junction" (CEJ), where the enamel covering of the crown meets the cementum covering of the root. Dental issues such as tooth decay, receding gums, or abrasion can affect this area and may require professional dental treatment.

Polymethacrylic acids are not typically referred to as a medical term, but rather as a chemical one. They are a type of synthetic polymer made up of repeating units of methacrylic acid (MAA). These polymers have various applications in different industries, including the medical field.

In medicine, polymethacrylates are often used in the formulation of controlled-release drug delivery systems, such as beads or microspheres, due to their ability to swell and shrink in response to changes in pH or temperature. This property allows for the gradual release of drugs encapsulated within these polymers over an extended period.

Polymethacrylates are also used in dental applications, such as in the production of artificial teeth and dentures, due to their durability and resistance to wear. Additionally, they can be found in some surgical sealants and adhesives.

While polymethacrylic acids themselves may not have a specific medical definition, their various forms and applications in medical devices and drug delivery systems contribute significantly to the field of medicine.

Dental materials are substances that are used in restorative dentistry, prosthodontics, endodontics, orthodontics, and preventive dentistry to restore or replace missing tooth structure, improve the function and esthetics of teeth, and protect the oral tissues from decay and disease. These materials can be classified into various categories based on their physical and chemical properties, including metals, ceramics, polymers, composites, cements, and alloys.

Some examples of dental materials include:

1. Amalgam: a metal alloy used for dental fillings that contains silver, tin, copper, and mercury. It is strong, durable, and resistant to wear but has been controversial due to concerns about the toxicity of mercury.
2. Composite: a tooth-colored restorative material made of a mixture of glass or ceramic particles and a bonding agent. It is used for fillings, veneers, and other esthetic dental treatments.
3. Glass ionomer cement: a type of cement used for dental restorations that releases fluoride ions and helps prevent tooth decay. It is often used for fillings in children's teeth or as a base under crowns and bridges.
4. Porcelain: a ceramic material used for dental crowns, veneers, and other esthetic restorations. It is strong, durable, and resistant to staining but can be brittle and prone to fracture.
5. Gold alloy: a metal alloy used for dental restorations that contains gold, copper, and other metals. It is highly biocompatible, corrosion-resistant, and malleable but can be expensive and less esthetic than other materials.
6. Acrylic resin: a type of polymer used for dental appliances such as dentures, night guards, and orthodontic retainers. It is lightweight, flexible, and easy to modify but can be less durable than other materials.

The choice of dental material depends on various factors, including the location and extent of the restoration, the patient's oral health status, their esthetic preferences, and their budget. Dental professionals must consider these factors carefully when selecting the appropriate dental material for each individual case.

A tooth crown is a type of dental restoration that covers the entire visible portion of a tooth, restoring its shape, size, and strength. It is typically made of materials like porcelain, ceramic, or metal alloys and is custom-made to fit over the prepared tooth. The tooth crown is cemented in place and becomes the new outer surface of the tooth, protecting it from further damage or decay.

The process of getting a tooth crown usually involves two dental appointments. During the first appointment, the dentist prepares the tooth by removing any decay or damaged tissue and shaping the tooth to accommodate the crown. An impression is then taken of the prepared tooth and sent to a dental laboratory where the crown is fabricated. In the meantime, a temporary crown is placed over the prepared tooth to protect it until the permanent crown is ready. At the second appointment, the temporary crown is removed, and the permanent crown is cemented in place.

Tooth crowns are often recommended for several reasons, including:

* To restore a broken or fractured tooth
* To protect a weakened tooth from further damage or decay
* To support a large filling when there isn't enough natural tooth structure left
* To cover a dental implant
* To improve the appearance of a discolored or misshapen tooth

Overall, a tooth crown is an effective and long-lasting solution for restoring damaged or decayed teeth and improving oral health.

'Adhesiveness' is a term used in medicine and biology to describe the ability of two surfaces to stick or adhere to each other. In medical terms, it often refers to the property of tissues or cells to adhere to one another, as in the case of scar tissue formation where healing tissue adheres to adjacent structures.

In the context of microbiology, adhesiveness can refer to the ability of bacteria or other microorganisms to attach themselves to surfaces, such as medical devices or human tissues, which can lead to infection and other health problems. Adhesives used in medical devices, such as bandages or wound dressings, also have adhesiveness properties that allow them to stick to the skin or other surfaces.

Overall, adhesiveness is an important property in many areas of medicine and biology, with implications for wound healing, infection control, and the design and function of medical devices.

In the context of medical terminology, "porosity" is not a term that is frequently used to describe human tissues or organs. However, in dermatology and cosmetics, porosity refers to the ability of the skin to absorb and retain moisture or topical treatments.

A skin with high porosity has larger pores and can absorb more products, while a skin with low porosity has smaller pores and may have difficulty absorbing products. It is important to note that this definition of porosity is not a medical one but is instead used in the beauty industry.

Collagen is the most abundant protein in the human body, and it is a major component of connective tissues such as tendons, ligaments, skin, and bones. Collagen provides structure and strength to these tissues and helps them to withstand stretching and tension. It is made up of long chains of amino acids, primarily glycine, proline, and hydroxyproline, which are arranged in a triple helix structure. There are at least 16 different types of collagen found in the body, each with slightly different structures and functions. Collagen is important for maintaining the integrity and health of tissues throughout the body, and it has been studied for its potential therapeutic uses in various medical conditions.

I'm not able to provide a specific medical definition for the term "Decalcification Technique" as it is not a standard term in medical or scientific literature. However, decalcification is a process that is commonly used in histology (the study of the microscopic structure of tissues) to prepare calcium-containing tissue samples for sectioning and staining.

Decalcification involves removing the calcium salts from the tissue using a weak acid solution, such as formic acid or acetic acid. This process makes it possible to cut thin sections of the tissue with a microtome (a tool used to cut thin slices of tissue for examination under a microscope).

The decalcification technique may refer to the specific method or protocol used to decalcify tissue samples, including the type and concentration of acid used, the duration of decalcification, and the temperature at which the process is carried out. The choice of decalcification technique will depend on the type and size of the tissue sample being prepared, as well as the specific research or diagnostic questions being addressed.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Polypropylenes" does not have a medical definition as it is not a medical term. Polypropylene is a type of plastic that is used in various medical and non-medical applications. It is a thermoplastic polymer resin that is produced by the polymerization of propylene.

In the medical field, polypropylene is sometimes used to make single-use surgical instruments, sutures, and medical devices due to its resistance to heat, chemicals, and electricity. It is also biocompatible, meaning it can be safely used in the body without causing adverse reactions. However, "Polypropylenes" as a medical term is not recognized or used in the medical community.

Dermatologic surgical procedures refer to various types of surgeries performed by dermatologists, which are aimed at treating and managing conditions related to the skin, hair, nails, and mucous membranes. These procedures can be divided into several categories, including:

1. Excisional surgery: This involves removing a lesion or growth by cutting it out with a scalpel. The resulting wound is then closed with stitches, sutures, or left to heal on its own.
2. Incisional biopsy: This is a type of excisional surgery where only a portion of the lesion is removed for diagnostic purposes.
3. Cryosurgery: This involves using extreme cold (usually liquid nitrogen) to destroy abnormal tissue, such as warts or precancerous growths.
4. Electrosurgical procedures: These use heat generated by an electric current to remove or destroy skin lesions. Examples include electrodessication and curettage (ED&C), which involves scraping away the affected tissue with a sharp instrument and then applying heat to seal the wound.
5. Laser surgery: Dermatologic surgeons use various types of lasers to treat a wide range of conditions, such as removing tattoos, reducing wrinkles, or treating vascular lesions.
6. Mohs micrographic surgery: This is a specialized surgical technique used to treat certain types of skin cancer, particularly basal cell carcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas. It involves removing the tumor in thin layers and examining each layer under a microscope until no cancer cells remain.
7. Scar revision surgery: Dermatologic surgeons can perform procedures to improve the appearance of scars, such as excising the scar and reclosing the wound or using laser therapy to minimize redness and thickness.
8. Hair transplantation: This involves removing hair follicles from one area of the body (usually the back of the head) and transplanting them to another area where hair is thinning or absent, such as the scalp or eyebrows.
9. Flap surgery: In this procedure, a piece of tissue with its own blood supply is moved from one part of the body to another and then reattached. This can be used for reconstructive purposes after skin cancer removal or trauma.
10. Liposuction: Dermatologic surgeons may perform liposuction to remove excess fat from various areas of the body, such as the abdomen, thighs, or chin.

Chromium alloys are materials made by combining chromium with other metals, such as nickel, cobalt, or iron. The addition of chromium to these alloys enhances their properties, making them resistant to corrosion and high temperatures. These alloys have a wide range of applications in various industries, including automotive, aerospace, and medical devices.

Chromium alloys can be classified into two main categories: stainless steels and superalloys. Stainless steels are alloys that contain at least 10.5% chromium by weight, which forms a passive oxide layer on the surface of the material, protecting it from corrosion. Superalloys, on the other hand, are high-performance alloys designed to operate in extreme environments, such as jet engines and gas turbines. They contain significant amounts of chromium, along with other elements like nickel, cobalt, and molybdenum.

Chromium alloys have several medical applications due to their excellent properties. For instance, they are used in surgical instruments, dental implants, and orthopedic devices because of their resistance to corrosion and biocompatibility. Additionally, some chromium alloys exhibit superelasticity, a property that allows them to return to their original shape after being deformed, making them suitable for use in stents and other medical devices that require flexibility and durability.

The dental casting technique is a method used in dentistry to create accurate replicas or reproductions of teeth and oral structures. This process typically involves the following steps:

1. Making an impression: A dental professional takes an impression of the patient's teeth and oral structures using a special material, such as alginate or polyvinyl siloxane. The impression material captures the precise shape and contours of the teeth and surrounding tissues.
2. Pouring the cast: The impression is then filled with a casting material, such as gypsum-based stone, which hardens to form a positive model or replica of the teeth and oral structures. This model is called a dental cast or die.
3. Examining and modifying the cast: The dental cast can be used for various purposes, such as analyzing the patient's bite, planning treatment, fabricating dental appliances, or creating study models for teaching or research purposes. Dental professionals may also modify the cast to simulate various conditions or treatments.
4. Replicating the process: In some cases, multiple casts may be made from a single impression, allowing dental professionals to create identical replicas of the patient's teeth and oral structures. This can be useful for comparing changes over time, creating duplicate appliances, or sharing information with other dental professionals involved in the patient's care.

The dental casting technique is an essential part of many dental procedures, as it enables dentists to accurately assess, plan, and implement treatments based on the unique characteristics of each patient's oral structures.

Methacrylates are a group of chemical compounds that contain the methacrylate functional group, which is a vinyl group (CH2=CH-) with a carbonyl group (C=O) at the β-position. This structure gives them unique chemical and physical properties, such as low viscosity, high reactivity, and resistance to heat and chemicals.

In medical terms, methacrylates are used in various biomedical applications, such as dental restorative materials, bone cements, and drug delivery systems. For example, methacrylate-based resins are commonly used in dentistry for fillings, crowns, and bridges due to their excellent mechanical properties and adhesion to tooth structures.

However, there have been concerns about the potential toxicity of methacrylates, particularly their ability to release monomers that can cause allergic reactions, irritation, or even mutagenic effects in some individuals. Therefore, it is essential to use these materials with caution and follow proper handling and safety protocols.

Osteosclerosis is a medical term that refers to an abnormal thickening and increased density of bone tissue. This condition can occur as a result of various diseases or conditions, such as certain types of bone cancer, Paget's disease of bone, fluoride poisoning, or chronic infection of the bone. Osteosclerosis can also be seen in some benign conditions, such as osteopetrosis, which is a rare genetic disorder characterized by an excessively hard and dense skeleton.

In some cases, osteosclerosis may not cause any symptoms and may only be discovered on X-rays or other imaging studies. However, in other cases, it can lead to complications such as bone pain, fractures, or deformities. Treatment for osteosclerosis depends on the underlying cause of the condition and may include medications, surgery, or other therapies.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Stainless Steel" is not a medical term. It is a type of steel that contains at least 10.5% chromium content by mass, and usually contains nickel as well. The chromium forms a passive film that protects the metal from corrosion and staining. Stainless steel is widely used in various industries including medicine, for example, in medical equipment and surgical instruments due to its resistance to rust and corrosion.

Dental technology refers to the application of science and engineering in dentistry to prevent, diagnose, and treat dental diseases and conditions. It involves the use of various equipment, materials, and techniques to improve oral health and enhance the delivery of dental care. Some examples of dental technology include:

1. Digital radiography: This technology uses digital sensors instead of traditional X-ray films to produce images of the teeth and supporting structures. It provides higher quality images, reduces radiation exposure, and allows for easier storage and sharing of images.
2. CAD/CAM dentistry: Computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology is used to design and fabricate dental restorations such as crowns, bridges, and veneers in a single appointment. This technology allows for more precise and efficient production of dental restorations.
3. Dental implants: These are artificial tooth roots that are placed into the jawbone to replace missing teeth. They provide a stable foundation for dental restorations such as crowns, bridges, and dentures.
4. Intraoral cameras: These are small cameras that can be inserted into the mouth to capture detailed images of the teeth and gums. These images can be used for diagnosis, treatment planning, and patient education.
5. Laser dentistry: Dental lasers are used to perform a variety of procedures such as cavity preparation, gum contouring, and tooth whitening. They provide more precise and less invasive treatments compared to traditional dental tools.
6. 3D printing: This technology is used to create dental models, surgical guides, and custom-made dental restorations. It allows for more accurate and efficient production of dental products.

Overall, dental technology plays a crucial role in modern dentistry by improving the accuracy, efficiency, and quality of dental care.

A hardness test is a quantitative measure of a material's resistance to deformation, typically defined as the penetration of an indenter with a specific shape and load into the surface of the material being tested. There are several types of hardness tests, including Rockwell, Vickers, Brinell, and Knoop, each with their own specific methods and applications. The resulting hardness value is used to evaluate the material's properties, such as wear resistance, durability, and suitability for various industrial or manufacturing processes. Hardness tests are widely used in materials science, engineering, and quality control to ensure the consistency and reliability of materials and components.

Titanium is not a medical term, but rather a chemical element (symbol Ti, atomic number 22) that is widely used in the medical field due to its unique properties. Medically, it is often referred to as a biocompatible material used in various medical applications such as:

1. Orthopedic implants: Titanium and its alloys are used for making joint replacements (hips, knees, shoulders), bone plates, screws, and rods due to their high strength-to-weight ratio, excellent corrosion resistance, and biocompatibility.
2. Dental implants: Titanium is also commonly used in dental applications like implants, crowns, and bridges because of its ability to osseointegrate, or fuse directly with bone tissue, providing a stable foundation for replacement teeth.
3. Cardiovascular devices: Titanium alloys are used in the construction of heart valves, pacemakers, and other cardiovascular implants due to their non-magnetic properties, which prevent interference with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans.
4. Medical instruments: Due to its resistance to corrosion and high strength, titanium is used in the manufacturing of various medical instruments such as surgical tools, needles, and catheters.

In summary, Titanium is a chemical element with unique properties that make it an ideal material for various medical applications, including orthopedic and dental implants, cardiovascular devices, and medical instruments.

Corrosion is a process of deterioration or damage to a material, usually a metal, caused by chemical reactions with its environment. In the medical context, corrosion may refer to the breakdown and destruction of living tissue due to exposure to harsh substances or environmental conditions. This can occur in various parts of the body, such as the skin, mouth, or gastrointestinal tract, and can be caused by factors like acid reflux, infection, or exposure to chemicals.

In the case of medical devices made of metal, corrosion can also refer to the degradation of the device due to chemical reactions with bodily fluids or tissues. This can compromise the function and safety of the device, potentially leading to complications or failure. Therefore, understanding and preventing corrosion is an important consideration in the design and use of medical devices made of metal.

Pharmaceutical chemistry is a branch of chemistry that deals with the design, synthesis, and development of chemical entities used as medications. It involves the study of drugs' physical, chemical, and biological properties, as well as their interactions with living organisms. This field also encompasses understanding the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) of drugs in the body, which are critical factors in drug design and development. Pharmaceutical chemists often work closely with biologists, medical professionals, and engineers to develop new medications and improve existing ones.

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is a statistical technique used to compare the means of two or more groups and determine whether there are any significant differences between them. It is a way to analyze the variance in a dataset to determine whether the variability between groups is greater than the variability within groups, which can indicate that the groups are significantly different from one another.

ANOVA is based on the concept of partitioning the total variance in a dataset into two components: variance due to differences between group means (also known as "between-group variance") and variance due to differences within each group (also known as "within-group variance"). By comparing these two sources of variance, ANOVA can help researchers determine whether any observed differences between groups are statistically significant, or whether they could have occurred by chance.

ANOVA is a widely used technique in many areas of research, including biology, psychology, engineering, and business. It is often used to compare the means of two or more experimental groups, such as a treatment group and a control group, to determine whether the treatment had a significant effect. ANOVA can also be used to compare the means of different populations or subgroups within a population, to identify any differences that may exist between them.

Decanoates are a type of esterified form of certain drugs or medications, particularly in the case of testosterone. The decanoate ester is attached to the testosterone molecule to create a longer-acting formulation. Testosterone decanoate is a slow-release form of testosterone that is used as a replacement therapy for individuals who have low levels of natural testosterone. It is administered through intramuscular injection and has a duration of action of approximately 2-3 weeks.

Other medications may also be available in decanoate ester form, but testosterone decanoate is one of the most commonly used. As with any medication or treatment plan, it's important to consult with a healthcare provider to determine the best course of action based on individual needs and medical history.

Catgut is a type of surgical suture that is made from the natural fibrous collagen tissue found in the walls of sheep or goat intestines. Despite its name, catgut sutures do not contain any material from cats. The term "catgut" is believed to have originated due to the similarity in texture and handling between these surgical sutures and actual cat gut.

The process of creating catgut sutures involves cleaning, disinfecting, and treating the intestinal tissue with various chemicals to make it stronger, more flexible, and less likely to cause an immune response when implanted in the body. Catgut sutures are absorbable, which means that they gradually break down and are absorbed by the body over time. This makes them ideal for use in soft tissues where a permanent suture is not necessary.

Catgut sutures have been used in surgical procedures for many years, but their popularity has declined in recent decades due to the development of synthetic absorbable sutures that are more consistent in strength and duration of absorption. However, catgut sutures are still used in some medical applications today, particularly in ophthalmic surgery and certain types of orthopedic procedures.

In the context of medical definitions, polymers are large molecules composed of repeating subunits called monomers. These long chains of monomers can have various structures and properties, depending on the type of monomer units and how they are linked together. In medicine, polymers are used in a wide range of applications, including drug delivery systems, medical devices, and tissue engineering scaffolds. Some examples of polymers used in medicine include polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and biodegradable polymers such as polylactic acid (PLA) and polycaprolactone (PCL).

Fibroins are a type of protein that make up the structural component of silk fibers produced by certain insects and arachnids, such as silkworms and spiders. These proteins are characterized by their repetitive amino acid sequences, which give silk its unique properties of strength, flexibility, and toughness. Fibroins have been studied for their potential applications in biomedicine, including tissue engineering, drug delivery, and medical textiles.

A tendon is the strong, flexible band of tissue that connects muscle to bone. It helps transfer the force produced by the muscle to allow various movements of our body parts. Tendons are made up of collagen fibers arranged in parallel bundles and have a poor blood supply, making them prone to injuries and slow to heal. Examples include the Achilles tendon, which connects the calf muscle to the heel bone, and the patellar tendon, which connects the kneecap to the shinbone.

Tissue scaffolds, also known as bioactive scaffolds or synthetic extracellular matrices, refer to three-dimensional structures that serve as templates for the growth and organization of cells in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. These scaffolds are designed to mimic the natural extracellular matrix (ECM) found in biological tissues, providing a supportive environment for cell attachment, proliferation, differentiation, and migration.

Tissue scaffolds can be made from various materials, including naturally derived biopolymers (e.g., collagen, alginate, chitosan, hyaluronic acid), synthetic polymers (e.g., polycaprolactone, polylactic acid, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)), or a combination of both. The choice of material depends on the specific application and desired properties, such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, mechanical strength, and porosity.

The primary functions of tissue scaffolds include:

1. Cell attachment: Providing surfaces for cells to adhere, spread, and form stable focal adhesions.
2. Mechanical support: Offering a structural framework that maintains the desired shape and mechanical properties of the engineered tissue.
3. Nutrient diffusion: Ensuring adequate transport of nutrients, oxygen, and waste products throughout the scaffold to support cell survival and function.
4. Guided tissue growth: Directing the organization and differentiation of cells through spatial cues and biochemical signals.
5. Biodegradation: Gradually degrading at a rate that matches tissue regeneration, allowing for the replacement of the scaffold with native ECM produced by the cells.

Tissue scaffolds have been used in various applications, such as wound healing, bone and cartilage repair, cardiovascular tissue engineering, and neural tissue regeneration. The design and fabrication of tissue scaffolds are critical aspects of tissue engineering, aiming to create functional substitutes for damaged or diseased tissues and organs.

Foot injuries refer to any damage or trauma caused to the various structures of the foot, including the bones, muscles, tendons, ligaments, blood vessels, and nerves. These injuries can result from various causes such as accidents, sports activities, falls, or repetitive stress. Common types of foot injuries include fractures, sprains, strains, contusions, dislocations, and overuse injuries like plantar fasciitis or Achilles tendonitis. Symptoms may vary depending on the type and severity of the injury but often include pain, swelling, bruising, difficulty walking, and reduced range of motion. Proper diagnosis and treatment are crucial to ensure optimal healing and prevent long-term complications.

Self-curing of dental resins, also known as auto-curing or self-cure, refers to the ability of certain dental materials to undergo polymerization and harden without the need for external light activation. This process is typically achieved through a chemical reaction between two components within the material that generates heat and causes the resin to solidify.

Self-curing dental resins are commonly used in dentistry for various applications, such as filling cavities or creating dental restorations like crowns and bridges. These materials offer several advantages over light-cured resins, including easier placement in hard-to-reach areas and reduced dependence on specialized equipment.

However, self-curing resins may have some limitations compared to light-cured alternatives, such as longer setting times, potential for overheating during the curing process, and less precise control over the degree of polymerization.

Gallium is not a medical term, but it's a chemical element with the symbol Ga and atomic number 31. It is a soft, silvery-blue metal that melts at a temperature just above room temperature. In medicine, gallium compounds such as gallium nitrate and gallium citrate are used as radiopharmaceuticals for diagnostic purposes in nuclear medicine imaging studies, particularly in the detection of inflammation, infection, and some types of cancer.

For example, Gallium-67 is a radioactive isotope that can be injected into the body to produce images of various diseases such as abscesses, osteomyelitis (bone infection), and tumors using a gamma camera. The way gallium distributes in the body can provide valuable information about the presence and extent of disease.

Therefore, while gallium is not a medical term itself, it has important medical applications as a diagnostic tool in nuclear medicine.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Polyvinyls" is not a medical term. It is a chemical term that refers to polymers made from vinyl chloride, which is used in the production of various plastics and resins. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I'd be happy to help with those!

A muscle strength dynamometer is a medical device used to measure the force or strength of a muscle or group of muscles. It typically consists of a handheld handle connected to a spring scale or digital force gauge, which measures the amount of force applied by the individual being tested. The person being tested pushes or pulls against the handle with as much force as possible, and the dynamometer provides an objective measurement of their muscle strength in units such as pounds or kilograms.

Muscle strength dynamometers are commonly used in clinical settings to assess muscle weakness or dysfunction, monitor changes in muscle strength over time, and evaluate the effectiveness of rehabilitation interventions. They can be used to test various muscle groups, including the handgrip, quadriceps, hamstrings, biceps, triceps, and shoulder muscles.

When using a muscle strength dynamometer, it is important to follow standardized testing protocols to ensure accurate and reliable measurements. This may include positioning the individual in a specific way, providing standardized instructions, and averaging multiple trials to obtain an accurate measure of their muscle strength.

Dentin-bonding agents are substances used in dentistry to create a strong and durable bond between the dental restoration material (such as composite resin, glass ionomer cement, or crowns) and the dentin surface of a tooth. Dentin is the hard tissue that lies beneath the enamel and consists of microscopic tubules filled with fluid.

The primary function of dentin-bonding agents is to improve the adhesion of restorative materials to the tooth structure, enhancing the retention and durability of dental fillings, crowns, veneers, and other types of restorations. These agents typically contain one or more types of bonding resins, such as hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), 4-methacryloxyethyl trimellitate anhydride (4-META), and/or phosphoric acid ester monomers.

The application process for dentin-bonding agents usually involves several steps, including:

1. Etching the dentin surface with a mild acid to remove the smear layer and expose the collagen network within the dentin tubules.
2. Applying a primer that penetrates into the etched dentin and promotes the infiltration of bonding resins into the dentinal tubules.
3. Applying an adhesive, which is typically a mixture of hydrophilic and hydrophobic monomers, to form a stable bond between the tooth structure and the restoration material.
4. Light-curing the adhesive to polymerize the resin and create a strong mechanical bond with the dentin surface.

Dentin-bonding agents have significantly improved the clinical success of various dental restorations by enhancing their retention, reducing microleakage, and minimizing postoperative sensitivity. However, they may still be susceptible to degradation over time due to factors such as moisture contamination, enzymatic degradation, or hydrolysis, which can lead to the failure of dental restorations. Therefore, continuous advancements in dentin-bonding technology are essential for improving the long-term success and durability of dental restorations.

A phase transition in the context of medicine and physiology often refers to the transformation of a substance or matter from one state to another within the body, typically in relation to temperature or pressure changes. However, I couldn't find a widely accepted medical definition for "phase transition."

In physics and chemistry, a phase transition is a process where a thermodynamic system changes from one phase or state of matter to another, such as:

1. Solid to liquid (melting)
2. Liquid to gas (vaporization)
3. Gas to liquid (condensation)
4. Solid to gas (sublimation)
5. Changes between different crystalline structures of the same substance (polymorphic phase transitions)

While not a direct medical definition, these concepts are relevant in various biochemical and physiological processes, such as protein folding, cell membrane fluidity, and temperature regulation in the body.

Dental clasps are a component of dental restorations, such as removable partial dentures (RPDs), that help to retain and stabilize the appliance in the mouth. They are typically made of metal wires or plastic materials and are designed to fit around specific teeth to hold the denture securely in place.

There are several types of dental clasps, including:

1. Adams clasp: A wire clasp that wraps around a tooth and has a circular loop that fits over the crown of the tooth.
2. Akers clasp: A wire clasp that hooks around the back of a molar tooth and has a flexible arm that extends forward to engage with another tooth.
3. C-clasp: A wire clasp that forms a "C" shape and wraps around the side of a tooth, with the open end facing away from the RPD.
4. I-bar clasp: A plastic or metal clasp that is shaped like an "I" and fits over the front of a tooth, with the two ends extending backward to engage with other teeth.
5. Ring clasp: A wire clasp that forms a complete circle around a tooth and has a small gap where it can be hooked onto the RPD.

Dental clasps are designed to be strong enough to hold the RPD in place, but flexible enough to allow for easy removal when necessary. They should fit comfortably and securely without causing damage to the teeth or gums. Regular dental check-ups and adjustments can help ensure that dental clasps continue to function properly over time.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "mechanical processes" is not a specific medical term. However, in a broader scientific context, mechanical processes refer to actions or events that involve forces and the movement or conversion of energy. This could include physical movements or manipulations of the body or bodily systems, such as surgical procedures, or the functioning of mechanical medical devices like pacemakers. If you have a more specific context in mind, I'd be happy to help further!

Orthodontic wires are typically made of stainless steel, nickel-titanium alloy, or other shape memory alloys, and are used in orthodontics to move teeth into the desired position. They are attached to brackets bonded to the teeth and exert a continuous force to align the teeth and correct malocclusions (bites that do not fit together correctly). The wires come in various sizes, shapes, and materials, each with specific properties that make them suitable for different stages of treatment. Some wires are flexible and used during the initial alignment phase, while others are more rigid and used during the finishing phase to achieve precise tooth movements.

Tissue engineering is a branch of biomedical engineering that combines the principles of engineering, materials science, and biological sciences to develop functional substitutes for damaged or diseased tissues and organs. It involves the creation of living, three-dimensional structures that can restore, maintain, or improve tissue function. This is typically accomplished through the use of cells, scaffolds (biodegradable matrices), and biologically active molecules. The goal of tissue engineering is to develop biological substitutes that can ultimately restore normal function and structure in damaged tissues or organs.

Solubility is a fundamental concept in pharmaceutical sciences and medicine, which refers to the maximum amount of a substance (solute) that can be dissolved in a given quantity of solvent (usually water) at a specific temperature and pressure. Solubility is typically expressed as mass of solute per volume or mass of solvent (e.g., grams per liter, milligrams per milliliter). The process of dissolving a solute in a solvent results in a homogeneous solution where the solute particles are dispersed uniformly throughout the solvent.

Understanding the solubility of drugs is crucial for their formulation, administration, and therapeutic effectiveness. Drugs with low solubility may not dissolve sufficiently to produce the desired pharmacological effect, while those with high solubility might lead to rapid absorption and short duration of action. Therefore, optimizing drug solubility through various techniques like particle size reduction, salt formation, or solubilization is an essential aspect of drug development and delivery.

Surgical mesh is a medical device that is used in various surgical procedures, particularly in reconstructive surgery, to provide additional support to weakened or damaged tissues. It is typically made from synthetic materials such as polypropylene or polyester, or from biological materials such as animal tissue or human cadaveric tissue.

The mesh is designed to be implanted into the body, where it can help to reinforce and repair damaged tissues. For example, it may be used in hernia repairs to support the weakened abdominal wall, or in pelvic floor reconstruction surgery to treat conditions such as pelvic organ prolapse or stress urinary incontinence.

Surgical mesh can come in different forms, including sheets, plugs, and patches, and may be either absorbable or non-absorbable. The choice of mesh material and type will depend on the specific surgical indication and the patient's individual needs. It is important for patients to discuss the risks and benefits of surgical mesh with their healthcare provider before undergoing any surgical procedure that involves its use.

The patellar ligament, also known as the patellar tendon, is a strong band of tissue that connects the bottom part of the kneecap (patella) to the top part of the shinbone (tibia). This ligament plays a crucial role in enabling the extension and straightening of the leg during activities such as walking, running, and jumping. Injuries to the patellar ligament, such as tendonitis or tears, can cause pain and difficulty with mobility.

Tendon injuries, also known as tendinopathies, refer to the damage or injury of tendons, which are strong bands of tissue that connect muscles to bones. Tendon injuries typically occur due to overuse or repetitive motion, causing micro-tears in the tendon fibers. The most common types of tendon injuries include tendinitis, which is inflammation of the tendon, and tendinosis, which is degeneration of the tendon's collagen.

Tendon injuries can cause pain, swelling, stiffness, and limited mobility in the affected area. The severity of the injury can vary from mild discomfort to severe pain that makes it difficult to move the affected joint. Treatment for tendon injuries may include rest, ice, compression, elevation (RICE) therapy, physical therapy, medication, or in some cases, surgery. Preventing tendon injuries involves warming up properly before exercise, using proper form and technique during physical activity, gradually increasing the intensity and duration of workouts, and taking regular breaks to rest and recover.

Cellulose is a complex carbohydrate that is the main structural component of the cell walls of green plants, many algae, and some fungi. It is a polysaccharide consisting of long chains of beta-glucose molecules linked together by beta-1,4 glycosidic bonds. Cellulose is insoluble in water and most organic solvents, and it is resistant to digestion by humans and non-ruminant animals due to the lack of cellulase enzymes in their digestive systems. However, ruminants such as cows and sheep can digest cellulose with the help of microbes in their rumen that produce cellulase.

Cellulose has many industrial applications, including the production of paper, textiles, and building materials. It is also used as a source of dietary fiber in human food and animal feed. Cellulose-based materials are being explored for use in biomedical applications such as tissue engineering and drug delivery due to their biocompatibility and mechanical properties.

Dimethylpolysiloxanes are a type of silicone-based compound that are often used as lubricants, coatings, and fluid ingredients in various industrial and consumer products. In medical terms, they can be found in some pharmaceutical and medical device formulations as inactive ingredients. They are typically included as anti-foaming agents or to improve the texture and consistency of a product.

Dimethylpolysiloxanes are made up of long chains of silicon and oxygen atoms, with methyl groups (CH3) attached to the silicon atoms. This gives them unique properties such as low toxicity, thermal stability, and resistance to oxidation and water absorption. However, some people may have allergic reactions or sensitivities to dimethylpolysiloxanes, so they should be used with caution in medical applications.

A dental restoration, permanent, is a type of dental treatment that involves the use of materials such as gold, silver amalgam, porcelain, or composite resin to repair and restore the function, form, and aesthetics of a damaged or decayed tooth. Unlike temporary restorations, which are meant to be replaced with a permanent solution, permanent restorations are designed to last for many years, if not a lifetime.

Examples of permanent dental restorations include:

1. Dental fillings: These are used to fill cavities caused by tooth decay. The decayed portion of the tooth is removed, and the resulting space is filled with a material such as amalgam, composite resin, or gold.
2. Inlays and onlays: These are similar to dental fillings but are made in a laboratory and then bonded to the tooth. They are used when there is not enough tooth structure left to support a filling.
3. Dental crowns: Also known as caps, these are used to cover and protect a tooth that has been damaged or weakened by decay, injury, or wear. The crown fits over the entire tooth, restoring its shape, size, and strength.
4. Dental bridges: These are used to replace one or more missing teeth. A bridge consists of one or more artificial teeth (pontics) that are held in place by crowns on either side.
5. Dental implants: These are used to replace missing teeth. An implant is a small titanium post that is surgically placed in the jawbone, where it functions as an anchor for a replacement tooth or bridge.

Permanent dental restorations are custom-made for each patient and require careful planning and preparation. They are designed to blend in with the surrounding teeth and provide a natural-looking appearance. With proper care and maintenance, these restorations can last for many years and help preserve the health and function of the teeth and mouth.

In the medical field, cementation refers to the process of using a type of dental cement or bonding agent to attach a dental restoration (such as a crown, bridge, or false tooth) to a natural tooth or implant. The cement helps to create a strong and secure attachment, while also helping to seal the restoration and prevent the entry of bacteria and saliva.

Dental cement can be made from various materials, including glass ionomers, resin-modified glass ionomers, zinc phosphate, and polycarboxylate cements. The choice of cement depends on several factors, such as the type of restoration being attached, the location in the mouth, and the patient's individual needs and preferences.

Cementation is an important step in many dental procedures, as it helps to ensure the longevity and success of the restoration. Proper technique and material selection are crucial for achieving a successful cementation that will last for years to come.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Polyethylene Terephthalates" is not a medical term. It is a type of polymer used in the manufacturing of various products, such as plastic bottles and textile fibers. Medically, you might encounter the abbreviation "PET" or "PET scan," which stands for "Positron Emission Tomography." A PET scan is a type of medical imaging that provides detailed pictures of the body's interior. If you have any medical terms you would like defined, I'd be happy to help!

The Achilles tendon, also known as the calcaneal tendon, is a strong band of tissue that connects the calf muscles to the heel bone (calcaneus). It plays a crucial role in enabling activities such as walking, running, and jumping by facilitating the movement of the foot downward, which is called plantar flexion. Injuries to the Achilles tendon, such as tendinitis or ruptures, can be quite painful and impact mobility.

Medical definitions of water generally describe it as a colorless, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for all forms of life. It is a universal solvent, making it an excellent medium for transporting nutrients and waste products within the body. Water constitutes about 50-70% of an individual's body weight, depending on factors such as age, sex, and muscle mass.

In medical terms, water has several important functions in the human body:

1. Regulation of body temperature through perspiration and respiration.
2. Acting as a lubricant for joints and tissues.
3. Facilitating digestion by helping to break down food particles.
4. Transporting nutrients, oxygen, and waste products throughout the body.
5. Helping to maintain healthy skin and mucous membranes.
6. Assisting in the regulation of various bodily functions, such as blood pressure and heart rate.

Dehydration can occur when an individual does not consume enough water or loses too much fluid due to illness, exercise, or other factors. This can lead to a variety of symptoms, including dry mouth, fatigue, dizziness, and confusion. Severe dehydration can be life-threatening if left untreated.

I believe there might be a misunderstanding in your question. "Glutaral" does not seem to be a recognized medical term or abbreviation in healthcare and biomedical sciences. It is possible that you may be looking for information on "glutaraldehyde," which is a disinfectant and sterilizing agent used in medical settings.

Glutaraldehyde is a chemical compound with the formula C5H8O2, and it's often used as a 2% solution. It's an effective agent against bacteria, viruses, and fungi, making it useful for sterilizing medical equipment. However, glutaraldehyde can cause respiratory issues and skin irritation in some individuals, so proper handling and use are essential to minimize exposure.

If you meant to ask about a different term or if this answer does not address your question, please provide more context or clarify your request, and I will be happy to help further.

A laceration is a type of injury that results in a tear or ragged cut in the skin or mucous membrane, often caused by some form of trauma. This can include cuts from sharp objects, blunt force trauma, or accidents. Lacerations can vary greatly in severity, from minor injuries that only affect the top layer of skin to more serious wounds that penetrate deeper into underlying tissues and structures.

Lacerations are typically irregular in shape and may have jagged edges, unlike clean incisions caused by sharp objects. They can also be accompanied by bruising, swelling, and bleeding, depending on the severity of the injury. In some cases, lacerations may require medical attention to properly clean, close, and manage the wound to prevent infection and promote healing.

It is essential to assess the depth, location, and extent of a laceration to determine the appropriate course of action. Deeper lacerations that expose underlying tissues or structures, such as muscles, tendons, nerves, or blood vessels, may require sutures (stitches), staples, or adhesive strips to close the wound. In some instances, surgical intervention might be necessary to repair damaged tissues properly. Always consult a healthcare professional for proper evaluation and treatment of lacerations.

Chitosan is a complex carbohydrate that is derived from the exoskeletons of crustaceans, such as shrimp and crabs. It is made up of chains of N-acetyl-d-glucosamine and d-glucosamine units. Chitosan has been studied for its potential medical and health benefits, including its ability to lower cholesterol levels, promote weight loss, and help control blood sugar levels. It is also used in wound care products due to its antibacterial and absorbent properties. However, more research is needed to confirm these potential benefits and establish recommended dosages and safety guidelines.

Hydroxyproline is not a medical term per se, but it is a significant component in the medical field, particularly in the study of connective tissues and collagen. Here's a scientific definition:

Hydroxyproline is a modified amino acid that is formed by the post-translational modification of the amino acid proline in collagen and some other proteins. This process involves the addition of a hydroxyl group (-OH) to the proline residue, which alters its chemical properties and contributes to the stability and structure of collagen fibers. Collagen is the most abundant protein in the human body and is a crucial component of connective tissues such as tendons, ligaments, skin, and bones. The presence and quantity of hydroxyproline can serve as a marker for collagen turnover and degradation, making it relevant to various medical and research contexts, including the study of diseases affecting connective tissues like osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.

A bioprosthesis is a type of medical implant that is made from biological materials, such as heart valves or tendons taken from animals (xenografts) or humans (allografts). These materials are processed and sterilized to be used in surgical procedures to replace damaged or diseased tissues in the body.

Bioprosthetic implants are often used in cardiac surgery, such as heart valve replacement, because they are less likely to cause an immune response than synthetic materials. However, they may have a limited lifespan due to calcification and degeneration of the biological tissue over time. Therefore, bioprosthetic implants may need to be replaced after several years.

Bioprostheses can also be used in other types of surgical procedures, such as ligament or tendon repair, where natural tissue is needed to restore function and mobility. These prostheses are designed to mimic the properties of native tissues and provide a more physiological solution than synthetic materials.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Connective tissue is a type of biological tissue that provides support, strength, and protection to various structures in the body. It is composed of cells called fibroblasts, which produce extracellular matrix components such as collagen, elastin, and proteoglycans. These components give connective tissue its unique properties, including tensile strength, elasticity, and resistance to compression.

There are several types of connective tissue in the body, each with its own specific functions and characteristics. Some examples include:

1. Loose or Areolar Connective Tissue: This type of connective tissue is found throughout the body and provides cushioning and support to organs and other structures. It contains a large amount of ground substance, which allows for the movement and gliding of adjacent tissues.
2. Dense Connective Tissue: This type of connective tissue has a higher concentration of collagen fibers than loose connective tissue, making it stronger and less flexible. Dense connective tissue can be further divided into two categories: regular (or parallel) and irregular. Regular dense connective tissue, such as tendons and ligaments, has collagen fibers that run parallel to each other, providing great tensile strength. Irregular dense connective tissue, such as the dermis of the skin, has collagen fibers arranged in a more haphazard pattern, providing support and flexibility.
3. Adipose Tissue: This type of connective tissue is primarily composed of fat cells called adipocytes. Adipose tissue serves as an energy storage reservoir and provides insulation and cushioning to the body.
4. Cartilage: A firm, flexible type of connective tissue that contains chondrocytes within a matrix of collagen and proteoglycans. Cartilage is found in various parts of the body, including the joints, nose, ears, and trachea.
5. Bone: A specialized form of connective tissue that consists of an organic matrix (mainly collagen) and an inorganic mineral component (hydroxyapatite). Bone provides structural support to the body and serves as a reservoir for calcium and phosphate ions.
6. Blood: Although not traditionally considered connective tissue, blood does contain elements of connective tissue, such as plasma proteins and leukocytes (white blood cells). Blood transports nutrients, oxygen, hormones, and waste products throughout the body.

Tissue adhesions, also known as scar tissue adhesions, are abnormal bands of fibrous tissue that form between two or more internal organs, or between organs and the walls of the chest or abdominal cavity. These adhesions can develop after surgery, infection, injury, radiation, or prolonged inflammation. The fibrous bands can cause pain, restrict movement of the organs, and potentially lead to complications such as bowel obstruction. Treatment options for tissue adhesions may include medication, physical therapy, or surgical intervention to remove the adhesions.

Polyglycolic acid (PGA) is a synthetic polymer of glycolic acid, which is commonly used in surgical sutures. It is a biodegradable material that degrades in the body through hydrolysis into glycolic acid, which can be metabolized and eliminated from the body. PGA sutures are often used for approximating tissue during surgical procedures due to their strength, handling properties, and predictable rate of absorption. The degradation time of PGA sutures is typically around 60-90 days, depending on factors such as the size and location of the suture.

The dermis is the layer of skin located beneath the epidermis, which is the outermost layer of the skin. It is composed of connective tissue and provides structure and support to the skin. The dermis contains blood vessels, nerves, hair follicles, sweat glands, and oil glands. It is also responsible for the production of collagen and elastin, which give the skin its strength and flexibility. The dermis can be further divided into two layers: the papillary dermis, which is the upper layer and contains finger-like projections called papillae that extend upwards into the epidermis, and the reticular dermis, which is the lower layer and contains thicker collagen bundles. Together, the epidermis and dermis make up the true skin.

Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is not inherently a medical term, but it is a chemical compound with significant uses in the medical field. Medically, PTFE is often referred to by its brand name, Teflon. It is a synthetic fluoropolymer used in various medical applications due to its unique properties such as high resistance to heat, electrical and chemical interaction, and exceptional non-reactivity with body tissues.

PTFE can be found in medical devices like catheters, where it reduces friction, making insertion easier and minimizing trauma. It is also used in orthopedic and dental implants, drug delivery systems, and sutures due to its biocompatibility and non-adhesive nature.

In medical terms, the skin is the largest organ of the human body. It consists of two main layers: the epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (inner layer), as well as accessory structures like hair follicles, sweat glands, and oil glands. The skin plays a crucial role in protecting us from external factors such as bacteria, viruses, and environmental hazards, while also regulating body temperature and enabling the sense of touch.

Absorbable implants are medical devices that are designed to be placed inside the body during a surgical procedure, where they provide support, stabilization, or other functions, and then gradually break down and are absorbed by the body over time. These implants are typically made from materials such as polymers, proteins, or ceramics that have been engineered to degrade at a controlled rate, allowing them to be resorbed and eliminated from the body without the need for a second surgical procedure to remove them.

Absorbable implants are often used in orthopedic, dental, and plastic surgery applications, where they can help promote healing and support tissue regeneration. For example, absorbable screws or pins may be used to stabilize fractured bones during the healing process, after which they will gradually dissolve and be absorbed by the body. Similarly, absorbable membranes may be used in dental surgery to help guide the growth of new bone and gum tissue around an implant, and then be resorbed over time.

It's important to note that while absorbable implants offer several advantages over non-absorbable materials, such as reduced risk of infection and improved patient comfort, they may also have some limitations. For example, the mechanical properties of absorbable materials may not be as strong as those of non-absorbable materials, which could affect their performance in certain applications. Additionally, the degradation products of absorbable implants may cause local inflammation or other adverse reactions in some patients. As with any medical device, the use of absorbable implants should be carefully considered and discussed with a qualified healthcare professional.

Nonparametric statistics is a branch of statistics that does not rely on assumptions about the distribution of variables in the population from which the sample is drawn. In contrast to parametric methods, nonparametric techniques make fewer assumptions about the data and are therefore more flexible in their application. Nonparametric tests are often used when the data do not meet the assumptions required for parametric tests, such as normality or equal variances.

Nonparametric statistical methods include tests such as the Wilcoxon rank-sum test (also known as the Mann-Whitney U test) for comparing two independent groups, the Wilcoxon signed-rank test for comparing two related groups, and the Kruskal-Wallis test for comparing more than two independent groups. These tests use the ranks of the data rather than the actual values to make comparisons, which allows them to be used with ordinal or continuous data that do not meet the assumptions of parametric tests.

Overall, nonparametric statistics provide a useful set of tools for analyzing data in situations where the assumptions of parametric methods are not met, and can help researchers draw valid conclusions from their data even when the data are not normally distributed or have other characteristics that violate the assumptions of parametric tests.

An incisor is a type of tooth that is primarily designed for biting off food pieces rather than chewing or grinding. They are typically chisel-shaped, flat, and have a sharp cutting edge. In humans, there are eight incisors - four on the upper jaw and four on the lower jaw, located at the front of the mouth. Other animals such as dogs, cats, and rodents also have incisors that they use for different purposes like tearing or gnawing.

A cicatrix is a medical term that refers to a scar or the process of scar formation. It is the result of the healing process following damage to body tissues, such as from an injury, wound, or surgery. During the healing process, specialized cells called fibroblasts produce collagen, which helps to reconnect and strengthen the damaged tissue. The resulting scar tissue may have a different texture, color, or appearance compared to the surrounding healthy tissue.

Cicatrix formation is a natural part of the body's healing response, but excessive scarring can sometimes cause functional impairment, pain, or cosmetic concerns. In such cases, various treatments may be used to minimize or improve the appearance of scars, including topical creams, steroid injections, laser therapy, and surgical revision.

A cadaver is a deceased body that is used for medical research or education. In the field of medicine, cadavers are often used in anatomy lessons, surgical training, and other forms of medical research. The use of cadavers allows medical professionals to gain a deeper understanding of the human body and its various systems without causing harm to living subjects. Cadavers may be donated to medical schools or obtained through other means, such as through consent of the deceased or their next of kin. It is important to handle and treat cadavers with respect and dignity, as they were once living individuals who deserve to be treated with care even in death.

Osmolar concentration is a measure of the total number of solute particles (such as ions or molecules) dissolved in a solution per liter of solvent (usually water), which affects the osmotic pressure. It is expressed in units of osmoles per liter (osmol/L). Osmolarity and osmolality are related concepts, with osmolarity referring to the number of osmoles per unit volume of solution, typically measured in liters, while osmolality refers to the number of osmoles per kilogram of solvent. In clinical contexts, osmolar concentration is often used to describe the solute concentration of bodily fluids such as blood or urine.

In the context of medical and health sciences, particle size generally refers to the diameter or dimension of particles, which can be in the form of solid particles, droplets, or aerosols. These particles may include airborne pollutants, pharmaceutical drugs, or medical devices such as nanoparticles used in drug delivery systems.

Particle size is an important factor to consider in various medical applications because it can affect the behavior and interactions of particles with biological systems. For example, smaller particle sizes can lead to greater absorption and distribution throughout the body, while larger particle sizes may be filtered out by the body's natural defense mechanisms. Therefore, understanding particle size and its implications is crucial for optimizing the safety and efficacy of medical treatments and interventions.

Equipment Failure Analysis is a process of identifying the cause of failure in medical equipment or devices. This involves a systematic examination and evaluation of the equipment, its components, and operational history to determine why it failed. The analysis may include physical inspection, chemical testing, and review of maintenance records, as well as assessment of design, manufacturing, and usage factors that may have contributed to the failure.

The goal of Equipment Failure Analysis is to identify the root cause of the failure, so that corrective actions can be taken to prevent similar failures in the future. This is important in medical settings to ensure patient safety and maintain the reliability and effectiveness of medical equipment.

Temperature, in a medical context, is a measure of the degree of hotness or coldness of a body or environment. It is usually measured using a thermometer and reported in degrees Celsius (°C), degrees Fahrenheit (°F), or kelvin (K). In the human body, normal core temperature ranges from about 36.5-37.5°C (97.7-99.5°F) when measured rectally, and can vary slightly depending on factors such as time of day, physical activity, and menstrual cycle. Elevated body temperature is a common sign of infection or inflammation, while abnormally low body temperature can indicate hypothermia or other medical conditions.

Viscosity is a physical property of a fluid that describes its resistance to flow. In medical terms, viscosity is often discussed in relation to bodily fluids such as blood or synovial fluid (found in joints). The unit of measurement for viscosity is the poise, although it is more commonly expressed in millipascals-second (mPa.s) in SI units. Highly viscous fluids flow more slowly than less viscous fluids. Changes in the viscosity of bodily fluids can have significant implications for health and disease; for example, increased blood viscosity has been associated with cardiovascular diseases, while decreased synovial fluid viscosity can contribute to joint pain and inflammation in conditions like osteoarthritis.

In a medical context, "hot temperature" is not a standard medical term with a specific definition. However, it is often used in relation to fever, which is a common symptom of illness. A fever is typically defined as a body temperature that is higher than normal, usually above 38°C (100.4°F) for adults and above 37.5-38°C (99.5-101.3°F) for children, depending on the source.

Therefore, when a medical professional talks about "hot temperature," they may be referring to a body temperature that is higher than normal due to fever or other causes. It's important to note that a high environmental temperature can also contribute to an elevated body temperature, so it's essential to consider both the body temperature and the environmental temperature when assessing a patient's condition.

In medical terms, pressure is defined as the force applied per unit area on an object or body surface. It is often measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg) in clinical settings. For example, blood pressure is the force exerted by circulating blood on the walls of the arteries and is recorded as two numbers: systolic pressure (when the heart beats and pushes blood out) and diastolic pressure (when the heart rests between beats).

Pressure can also refer to the pressure exerted on a wound or incision to help control bleeding, or the pressure inside the skull or spinal canal. High or low pressure in different body systems can indicate various medical conditions and require appropriate treatment.

"Cattle" is a term used in the agricultural and veterinary fields to refer to domesticated animals of the genus *Bos*, primarily *Bos taurus* (European cattle) and *Bos indicus* (Zebu). These animals are often raised for meat, milk, leather, and labor. They are also known as bovines or cows (for females), bulls (intact males), and steers/bullocks (castrated males). However, in a strict medical definition, "cattle" does not apply to humans or other animals.

I couldn't find a medical definition specifically for "delayed-action preparations." However, in the context of pharmacology, it may refer to medications or treatments that have a delayed onset of action. These are designed to release the active drug slowly over an extended period, which can help to maintain a consistent level of the medication in the body and reduce the frequency of dosing.

Examples of delayed-action preparations include:

1. Extended-release (ER) or controlled-release (CR) formulations: These are designed to release the drug slowly over several hours, reducing the need for frequent dosing. Examples include extended-release tablets and capsules.
2. Transdermal patches: These deliver medication through the skin and can provide a steady rate of drug delivery over several days. Examples include nicotine patches for smoking cessation or fentanyl patches for pain management.
3. Injectable depots: These are long-acting injectable formulations that slowly release the drug into the body over weeks to months. An example is the use of long-acting antipsychotic injections for the treatment of schizophrenia.
4. Implantable devices: These are small, biocompatible devices placed under the skin or within a body cavity that release a steady dose of medication over an extended period. Examples include hormonal implants for birth control or drug-eluting stents used in cardiovascular procedures.

Delayed-action preparations can improve patient compliance and quality of life by reducing dosing frequency, minimizing side effects, and maintaining consistent therapeutic levels.

Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) is a type of microscopy that allows visualization and measurement of surfaces at the atomic level. It works by using a sharp probe, called a tip, that is mounted on a flexible cantilever. The tip is brought very close to the surface of the sample and as the sample is scanned, the forces between the tip and the sample cause the cantilever to deflect. This deflection is measured and used to generate a topographic map of the surface with extremely high resolution, often on the order of fractions of a nanometer. AFM can be used to study both conductive and non-conductive samples, and can operate in various environments, including air and liquid. It has applications in fields such as materials science, biology, and chemistry.

Elastin is a protein that provides elasticity to tissues and organs, allowing them to resume their shape after stretching or contracting. It is a major component of the extracellular matrix in many tissues, including the skin, lungs, blood vessels, and ligaments. Elastin fibers can stretch up to 1.5 times their original length and then return to their original shape due to the unique properties of this protein. The elastin molecule is made up of cross-linked chains of the protein tropoelastin, which are produced by cells called fibroblasts and then assembled into larger elastin fibers by enzymes called lysyl oxidases. Elastin has a very long half-life, with some estimates suggesting that it can remain in the body for up to 70 years or more.

... (also called UTS, tensile strength, TS, ultimate strength or F tu {\displaystyle F_{\text{tu}}} in ... d Human hair strength varies by ethnicity and chemical treatments. Flexural strength Strength of materials Tensile structure ... whereas in ductile materials the ultimate tensile strength can be higher. The ultimate tensile strength is usually found by ... The first nanotube ropes (20 mm in length) whose tensile strength was published (in 2000) had a strength of 3.6 GPa. The ...
The notch tensile strength (NTS) of a material is the value given by performing a standard tensile strength test on a notched ... The ratio between the NTS and the tensile strength is called the notch strength ratio (NSR). Charpy impact test Fracture ...
... and shear strengths: USS: Ultimate Shear Strength, UTS: Ultimate Tensile Strength, SYS: Shear Yield Stress, TYS: Tensile Yield ... Shear modulus Shear stress Shear strain Shear strength (soil) Shear strength (Discontinuity) Strength of materials Tensile ... Instead, it is common for it to be estimated as 60% of the ultimate tensile strength. Shear strength can be measured by a ... See tensile strength. To calculate: Given total force at failure (F) and the force-resisting area (e.g. the cross-section of a ...
Lancet, 1 6512, 936-9 Douglas, D.M. (1949). Tensile strength of sutures; loss when implanted in living tissue.Lancet, 2 6577, ...
Spider dragline silk has a tensile strength of roughly 1.3 GPa. The tensile strength listed for steel might be slightly higher ... A dragline silk's tensile strength is comparable to that of high-grade alloy steel (450−2000 MPa), and about half as strong as ... They exhibit a unique combination of high tensile strength and extensibility (ductility). This enables a silk fibre to absorb a ... Ganio Mego, Paolo (c. 2002). "Material Tensile Strength Comparison". Archived from the original on 26 October 2009. Retrieved 3 ...
It has high tensile strength. The grammage is normally 40-135 g/m2. Sack kraft paper, or just sack paper, is a porous kraft ... The long fibers provide the paper its strength and wet strength chemicals are added to even further improve the strength. Both ... This paper needs a high tensile strength in the machine direction, which is the axial direction of the cartridges. In the cross ... "strength" in this context, due to the strength of the paper produced using this process. Paulapuro, Hannu (2000). "5". Paper ...
Refining thus increases tensile strength. For example, tissue paper is relatively unrefined whereas packaging paper is more ... ENPs densify the sheet, thus increasing tensile strength and some other physical properties. The dryer section of the paper ... The pH is controlled and various fillers, such as whitening agents, size and wet strength or dry strength are added if ... lower consistency promotes higher tensile and some other strength properties and also improves formation (uniformity). Many ...
Rubenstein, Edward (1967). "Studies on Clot Tensile Strength". Thromb Diath Haemorrh. 17 (3/04): 552-60. doi:10.1055/s-0038- ...
Its tensile strength is 1.6 GPa. The species was named in honour of the naturalist Charles Darwin on November 24, 2009- ...
Tensile strength of glass-reinforced plastics" (1969, with David W. Levi) "Prediction of Lifetimes of Nylon Samples at Various ... Tensile strength of glass-reinforced plastics". Journal of Applied Polymer Science. 13 (9): 1899-1908. doi:10.1002/app. ... "High-Rate Tensile Properties of Plastics" (1961, with Mitchel Chmura) "Effect of Testing Rate and Type of Machine on Tensile ... McAbee, Elise; Chmura, Mitchel (October 1, 1964). "Effect of Temperature and Rate of Loading on the Tensile Properties of Glass ...
... no tensile strength is permitted etc.) Wedge failure -> three-dimensional analysis enables modelling of the wedge sliding on ... The most commonly used variation is Terzaghi's theory of shear strength which states that τ = σ ′ tan ⁡ ϕ ′ + c ′ {\ ... Simulation of joint bounded blocks may be realized through specified bond strengths. Law of motion is repeatedly applied to ... All limit equilibrium methods assume that the shear strengths of the materials along the potential failure surface are governed ...
Mechanical properties include elasticity, plasticity, tensile strength, compressive strength, shear strength, fracture ... A plant polymer named cellulose provided the tensile strength for natural fibers and ropes, and by the early 19th century ... Brittle materials may exhibit significant tensile strength by supporting a static load. Toughness indicates how much energy a ... mechanical or tensile strength, abrasion resistance, heat resistance, transparency, color, etc.. In proteins, these differences ...
Properties that are directly measured via a tensile test are ultimate tensile strength, breaking strength, maximum elongation ... The ASTM D638 measures plastics tensile properties including ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, elongation and ... Video on the tensile test Learn more about the ASTM D638 Tensile Test admet.com: Tensile Testing Basics Quality Magazine ( ... Tensile testing is most often carried out at a material testing laboratory. The ASTM D638 is among the most common tensile ...
Tensile yield strength, 345 MPa (50 ksi); tensile ultimate strength, 450 MPa (65 ksi); strain to rupture (sometimes called ... Material ductility is well defined since a maximum yield-to-tensile strength ratio of 0.85 is specified. Additionally, ...
Soil stability depends on root tensile strength. Root tensile strength increases with decreasing root diameter, so fine roots ...
High-strength steel parts (such as bolts of strength category > 10.9 and nuts of > 9) and components with tensile strength of ... high-strength nuts (strength category 10 and above) and structural parts with tensile strength of > 1000 N/mm2 or > 320 HV ... Zinc flake coatings are particularly well suited to high-strength bolts (strength category 10.9 and above), ... and in the case of galvanic zinc coatings on high-strength steel (e.g. category 10.9 and 12.9 high-strength bolts) there is a ...
Tensile strength Composition: bleached versus unbleached cotton; cotton versus synthetic fibers versus a blend of both. Rigid ... A higher thread count is synonymous with a higher quality including higher tensile strength, better adhesive, easier removal, ...
... when tensile strength, flexural strength, transparency, polishability, and UV tolerance are more important than impact strength ... Tensile strength decreases with increased water absorption. Its coefficient of thermal expansion is relatively high at (5-10)× ... The strength of the material is higher than molding grades owing to its extremely high molecular mass. Rubber toughening has ... Comonomers such as butyl acrylate are often added to improve impact strength. Comonomers such as methacrylic acid can be added ...
A metal's yield strength and ultimate tensile strength values are expressed in tons per square inch, pounds per square inch or ... For example, a tensile strength of a steel that can withstand 40,000 pounds of force per square inch may be expressed as 40,000 ... They are mostly used in materials science, where the tensile strength of a material is measured as a large number of psi. The ... "Tensile Strength of Steel and Other Metals". All Metals & Forge Group. 18 April 2013. Retrieved 2016-07-26. ...
Their tensile strength is 1.57 kN/mm². Due to their relative high strength they are less susceptible to press forces exerted by ...
Aogami/Blue-Num-1 A steel with higher tensile strength and sharpening ability than blue-2. Aogami/Blue-Num-2 A steel with ... Carbon (C) increases edge retention and raises tensile strength. increases hardness and improves resistance to wear and ... Chromium (Cr) increases hardness, tensile strength, and toughness. increases resistance to corrosion, heat and wear. more than ... Manganese (Mn) increases hardenability, wear resistance, and tensile strength. deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from ...
... was also tested for its tensile strength. Fuller noted that a papercrete block was the equivalent of hundred of ... However, its strength in model structures has been proven, and homes and small commercial buildings are being constructed. ... Papercrete has very good shear strength as a block. Lateral load involves sideways force - the wind load on the entire area of ... Dried papercrete has very low strength, but fails by slow compression (due to the large air content and hence compressibility) ...
Carbon fiber has more tensile strength, higher stiffness and lower density than glass fiber. An ideal candidate for these ... This increases the stiffness, tensile and compression strength. A promising composite material is glass fiber with modified ... This trend may grow if fatigue and strength properties can be improved. Pre-stressed concrete has been increasingly used for ... shear or compressive strength, and fracture toughness of the composites by 30% to 80%. Research has also shown that ...
Many people underestimate the tensile strength of hair. A single strand can potentially carry a weight of up to 100 grams (3.5 ...
Stripwound hoses have a high mechanical strength (e.g. tensile strength and tear strength). Corrugated hoses can withstand high ... Their flexibility lends them tensile and tear strength. Also, they are characterised by their corrosion and pressure resistance ... Stripwound hoses exhibit enormous tensile and transversal pressure resistance, a high torsional strength and excellent chemical ... The result was a permanently flexible, leak-tight steel body of any length and diameter with a high mechanical strength. In ...
The first nanotube ropes (20 mm long) whose tensile strength was published (in 2000) had a strength of 3.6 GPa, still well ... It is also known as the strength-to-weight ratio or strength/weight ratio or strength-to-mass ratio. In fiber or textile ... Li, F.; Cheng, H. M.; Bai, S.; Su, G.; Dresselhaus, M. S. (2000). "Tensile strength of single-walled carbon nanotubes directly ... Note: Multiwalled carbon nanotubes have the highest tensile strength of any material yet measured, with labs producing them at ...
ISBN 978-0-412-29050-3. Reinhardt, Hans-Wolf (1982). Concrete under impact loading tensile strength and bond. Delft: Delft ... The failure corresponds to the tensile break-out of steel as in case of tensile testing. In this case, concrete base material ... At failure conditions, the level of bearing pressure can be higher than 10 times the concrete compressive strength, if a pure ...
It has a tensile strength of 350 kg. Iliofemoral ligament is a thickening of the anterior capsule extending from anterior ...
... has great tensile strength, and is the main component of fascia, cartilage, ligaments, tendons, bone and skin. Along ... Type I collagen gives bone its tensile strength. Collagen-related diseases most commonly arise from genetic defects or ... it is vital that it maintains its strength, even after breaks and injuries. Collagen is used in bone grafting as it has a ... with elastin and soft keratin, it is responsible for skin strength and elasticity, and its degradation leads to wrinkles that ...
However, the tensile strength of laponite/PAAS is much stronger than laponite/PEO blend hydrogels. The reason for this ... When the ions were added, tensile strength increased. The optimal amounts for each ion are as follows: Ca2+ (0.003 mol/g), Fe3+ ... showing an increase in the elastic modulus and the tensile strength of clay-polymer hydrogels. In general, combining inorganic ... As a result, CPG had smart responsive properties to different situations and exhibited high compressive strength, good ...
Ultimate tensile strength (also called UTS, tensile strength, TS, ultimate strength or F tu {\displaystyle F_{\text{tu}}} in ... d Human hair strength varies by ethnicity and chemical treatments. Flexural strength Strength of materials Tensile structure ... whereas in ductile materials the ultimate tensile strength can be higher. The ultimate tensile strength is usually found by ... The first nanotube ropes (20 mm in length) whose tensile strength was published (in 2000) had a strength of 3.6 GPa. The ...
The ability of a material to withstand tensile stress, i.e. a force attempting to lengthen the material, divided by the ... The ability of a material to withstand tensile stress, i.e. a force attempting to lengthen the material, divided by the ...
Thermal spraying - Determination of tensile adhesive strength
... coupons and in cross-ply specimens are examined with a goal towards improving the methods for determining the axial strengths ... On the Determination of Tensile and Compressive Strengths of Unidirectional Fiber Composites. Source ... coupons and in cross-ply specimens are examined with a goal towards improving the methods for determining the axial strengths ...
Tensile Specimen Photo, Tensile Strength, Tensile Strength Increase, Yield Strength, Yield Strength Increase1 Comment Three ... Estimate Hardness From Tensile Strength, Estimate Tensile Strength From Hardness, Hardness Increase, Hardness Tensile Strength ... Tensile Strength, Yield Strength, and the Yield Strength / Tensile Strength ratio. ... Tensile strength and yield strength are increased by the cold work while ductility (as measured by % elongation and % reduction ...
... tensile strength values for the ZP cement groups than for the RC groups. Core preparation and post-cementation waiting time for ... At the appropriate time, the specimens were subjected to a tensile load test (0.5 mm/min) until failure. Two-way ANOVA ( ... core recontouring did not influence the retention strength. ZP was the best material for intraradicular metal post cementation. ... The tensile strength values were obtained in Kgf.. 3. Results. Table 2 shows the results of the tensile strength test (mean and ...
This study validates the porosity method against the widely accepted method of tensile strength for determining the hair damage ... Correlating Porosity and Tensile Strength of Chemically Modified Hair. Jul 23rd, 2009 ... The most commonly employed method to quantify this damage is the measurement of change in tensile properties of the hair. This ...
For ME and iC, tensile bond strength was significantly lower than for RX and PF. For RX and PF, tensile bond strength was ... CSA showed the highest values for tensile bond strength.. Conclusions: The newly developed procedure for tensile bond strength ... tensile bond strength was considered to be 0 MPa. Regarding the restoration material, no significant influence on tensile bond ... 633 Tensile Bond Strength of Different Luting Agents at the Cement-Restoration-Interface Friday, March 23, 2012: 8 a.m. - 9:30 ...
Fraunhofer IVV development of a device for measuring the tensile strenght required to open peelable packaging ► See here for ... Fraunhofer Institute for Process Engineering and Packaging IVV - Intelligent tensile strength measurement of peelable packaging ... Pack Peel Scan enables direct comparison of the recorded process data with the defined quality parameters for the peel strength ...
About Metal Aloy 9.6g/cm3 Molybdenum Peering Mandrel High Tensile strength: Manufacturing process molybdenum/molybdenum powder ... Big Molybdenum Piercing Mandrel 9.6g/cm3 Molybdenum Piercing Mandrel High Tensile Strength Pierced Mandrels ... High Tensile Strength Pierced Mandrels About Metal Aloy 9.6g/cm3 Molybdenum Peering Mandrel High Tensile strength: ... High tensile strengths at high temperatures. Applications: It is used to perforate seamless steel tubes like stainless steel, ...
... on the tensile strength. The Tukey test revealed that in the absence of autoclaving, the average tensile strength was not ... Tensile strength test. All samples were subjected to tensile testing in a universal testing machine (DL2000, EMIC, São José dos ... Effect of Steam Autoclaving on the Tensile Strength of Resin Cements Used for Bonding Two-Piece Zirconia Abutments Marcos ... The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of steam autoclave sterilization on the tensile strength of two types of ...
Tensile strength and fiber diameter. Large fiber diameter resulted in a low tensile modulus of fiber (Fig. 2). Inacio et al. ( ... The tensile strength determination was focused on the gauge length, in which one grip keeps the sample in place, while the ... Tensile strength and fiber diameter. Fiber diameter was significantly different among H. cannabinus accessions, including the ... The test was conducted according to ASTM D885 (1995). The tensile test was done at the Strength Material Laboratory, Faculty of ...
Determine the tensile design strength for W16x89 and two connected 1/4x12 in plates, with two lines of 7/8-in diameter bolts ... Determine the tensile design strength for W16x89 and two connected 1/4″x12 in plates, with two lines of 7/8-in diameter bolts ...
... Form. Thickness/. Bar Diameter. Test. Temperature. 0.2% Offset. Yield Strength. Ultimate ...
We will also see the factors on which tensile strength of a product depends upon and when to use which yarns for different ... This experiment is done to see how same count of different types of yarns has different strength and CLSP. ... The tensile strength of the leas was determined one by one on the lea tensile testing machine. ... To Compare the tensile strength of 100 % pure cotton and its blends, also calculating their CLSP values.. This experiment is ...
Mechanical testing results show that while β-modification decreases the tensile strength a little, it does enhance the ... including dielectric breakdown strength, space charge suppression, and internal field distortion under a high external field (− ... 3.4.1. Tensile Strength. As shown in Figure 6, the tensile behavior of iPP samples with NAs are quite different from each other ... a) Relationship between tensile stress and displacement, (b) tensile strength and elongation at break, (c) relationship between ...
If defined simply, tensile strength is the force applied to the last point at which the material elongates before breaking. ... The tensile strength, which is characteristically important for the use of materials in design, varies considerably in polymers ... In general, tensile testing is the extension of the test sample by placing its both ends between the test jaws and moving the ... Tensile test values vary depending on some factors, such as temperature during sample preparation or production by molding or ...
Ultimate tensile strength (UTS), yield strength (YS), percent elongation (%EL) were calculated and are summarized on subsequent ... Tensile Testing. *Tensile testing was conducted per ASTM E8 and ASTM E370. ...
Cap Screw Diameter Course Thread Fine Thread Threads Per Inch Tensile Strength Min. Lb. Proof Load Min. Lb. Threads Per Inch ... Tensile Strength Min. Lb.. Proof Load Min. Lb.. Threads Per Inch. Tensile Strength Min. Lb.. Proof Load Min. Lb.. ... Tensile Strength Min. Lb.. Proof Load Min. Lb.. Threads Per Inch. Tensile Strength Min. Lb.. Proof Load Min. Lb.. ... MPA & Tensile Strengths.. Grade 2. Cap Screw Diameter. Course Thread. Fine Thread. ...
ASTM A992 steel beam is the most popular beam section in construction for its premium weight-to-strength ratio and high ... A992 high strength i beam mechanical property. Steel grade. Styles. Tensile strength, ksi. Yield point, min, ksi. ... On one hand, it is similar to A572-50 in low ratio of weight-to-strength. on the other hand, the alloy elements optimize the ... ASTM A992 Steel I beam is the prime alternative for bridge construction and building frames for its yield strength reaches 65 ...
Before you buy a tensile strength testing machine, you should consider the type of test required. Equipment Model WEW-FTL-8900- ... Tensile Strength Testing Machine for Telephone Cords, Spring Cords. March 8, 2023. admin ... Choosing the right tensile strength testing machine for telephone cords and spring cords is a complex process. At first glance ... Wewons tensile strength testing machine comply with GB/T 15279 standard. It adopts Japanese Japanese SMC or Taiwan pneumatic ...
Articles by keywords "tensile strength" Effect of Mechanical Properties of AL7075/Mica Powder Hybrid Metal Matrix Composite. ... Evaluation of fracture incubation time from quasistatic tensile strength experiment. N.A. Kazarinov V.A. Bratov Yu.V. Petrov G. ... Additional steel fibers in concrete mixture: studies of compressive and tensile strength of concrete. Budi Witjaksana ...
ultimate tensile strength or peak stress; modulus of elasticity, offset yield strength, which represents a point just beyond ... The offset yield strength is reported as a stress (psi, MPa, etc) and is defined as the point where a line drawn parallel to ... Tensile tests sometimes produce stress-strain curves that do not follow the "classic" shape shown in Figure 1. As a result, the ... Reasons for invalid offset yield strength values:. *Non-linearities and or discontinuities in the linear elastic region of the ...
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  • Tensile strength and yield strength are increased by the cold work while ductility (as measured by % elongation and % reduction in area decrease. (pmpa.org)
  • As can be seen by the yield strength increase compared to hardness increase by cold drawing, the yield strength picks up about a 4 times multiple compared to hardness. (pmpa.org)
  • Ultimate tensile strength (UTS), yield strength (YS), percent elongation (%EL) were calculated and are summarized on subsequent pages. (spiralbanding.com)
  • ASTM A992 Steel I beam is the prime alternative for bridge construction and building frames for its yield strength reaches 65 ksi. (steel-sections.com)
  • The offset yield strength is reported as a stress (psi, MPa, etc) and is defined as the point where a line drawn parallel to the modulus line intersects the stress-strain curve (see point B and line XB - Figure 1). (admet.com)
  • leading to an invalid offset yield strength. (admet.com)
  • But before that, let's talk about how this highly dependable testing instrument makes it easy to measure the materials' tensile forces, yield strength, and ultimate tensile strength. (magazetty.com)
  • The ultimate tensile strength is usually found by performing a tensile test and recording the engineering stress versus strain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Compressive and diametral tensile strength of titanium-reinforced composites. (docksci.com)
  • Compressive and Diametral Tensile Strength of TitaniumReinforced Composites Brett I . Cohen, Ph.D.,* Allan S. Deutsch, D.M.D.,' Spyridon Condos, D.D.S.,' Barry Lee Musikant, D.M.D.: and Warren Scherer, D.D.S. (docksci.com)
  • This article determines the compressive and diametral tensile strength of two titanium-reinforced composites (Bis-GMA-based),Ti-Core and Flexi-Flow cem with titanium and compares their strengths to dentin and commercially available core materials and cements. (docksci.com)
  • Studies of fatigue associated with composite resins have shown that there is a strong correlation between fatigue and the compressive and diametral tensile strength of dental compositeresin materials. (docksci.com)
  • This study determined the compressive and diametral tensile strength of two titanium-reinforced composite systems and compared their strengths to commercially available core materials, cements and dentin. (docksci.com)
  • Influence of powder/liquid ratio on the radiodensity and diametral tensile strength of glass ionomer cements. (bvsalud.org)
  • To determine the influence of P/L ratio on the radiodensity and diametral tensile strength (DTS) of glass ionomer cements . (bvsalud.org)
  • Describes the bands for conversion of hardness to tensile strength established to hardness scales of Brinell and Vickers as well as rules for their use. (iso.org)
  • b Multiwalled carbon nanotubes have the highest tensile strength of any material yet measured, with one measurement of 63 GPa, still well below one theoretical value of 300 GPa. (wikipedia.org)
  • The highest tensile stress found within the restored models was on NOR with IL (19,1 MPa). (bvsalud.org)
  • Ti-Core and Flexi-Flow cem with titanium were measured to have compressive strengths of 41,132 and 41,876 psi and tensile strengths of 5219 and 4930 psi, respectively. (docksci.com)
  • Dual-activated cements provide long working time until they are exposed to light activation, and, due to the chemical polymerization process, their bond strength continues to increase over time [ 13 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • For such cements, a newly developed procedure for shear bond strength testing could be applied. (umich.edu)
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of steam autoclave sterilization on the tensile strength of two types of resin cements used to bond customized CAD/CAM zirconia abutments onto titanium bases. (allenpress.com)
  • α = 0.05) that in the absence of steam autoclaving, no difference was observed in tensile strength between the cements tested: ML: 344.87 (93.79) and U200: 280 (92.42) ( P = .314). (allenpress.com)
  • When testing some metals, indentation hardness correlates linearly with tensile strength. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hardness correlates well with tensile strength in most steels. (pmpa.org)
  • What is the importance of using a tensile strength tester? (magazetty.com)
  • Thus, you can apply the tensile strength tester to calculate the tensile strength of different equipment easily. (magazetty.com)
  • Thus, if you are looking for a bursting strength tester to test the power of documents, materials, and other equipment, we suggest you buy it from a testing tool. (magazetty.com)
  • We recommend determining the various testing standards before using a bursting strength tester. (magazetty.com)
  • The bursting strength tester will be available with either pneumatic or manual clamping on the modern market. (magazetty.com)
  • Snap Button Pull Tester used to determine the holding or breaking strength of prong-ring attached snap fasteners onto garments or toys. (avenotester.com)
  • The newly developed procedure for tensile bond strength testing offers the major benefit of a real tensile test without a component of shear bond strength. (umich.edu)
  • Tensile strength testing machine is mainly applied to test the metallic and non-metallic materials in tension, compression, bending, shear, peel, tear or two-points extensions and others. (geospacegeophones.com)
  • Aluminium tensile test samples after breakage Typically, the testing involves taking a small sample with a fixed cross-sectional area, and then pulling it with a tensometer at a constant strain (change in gauge length divided by initial gauge length) rate until the sample breaks. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the appropriate time, the specimens were subjected to a tensile load test (0.5 mm/min) until failure. (hindawi.com)
  • In general, tensile testing is the extension of the test sample by placing its both ends between the test jaws and moving the jaws at different speeds. (yapraksanmasterbatch.com)
  • Tensile test values vary depending on some factors, such as temperature during sample preparation or production by molding or machining. (yapraksanmasterbatch.com)
  • Tensile strength testing machine is specially designed to test the service life of various winding wires such as telephone wires and spring wires. (wewontech.com)
  • Before you buy a tensile strength testing machine, you should consider the type of test required. (wewontech.com)
  • Wewon's tensile testing machine for telephone cords, spring cords are equipped to test three or five handset lines at the same time. (wewontech.com)
  • The tensile test results supplied by the manufacturer are processed under the conditions necessary for AWS classification. (magazetty.com)
  • Why use the tensile test? (magazetty.com)
  • Tensile Testing is a destructive engineering and material test in which a sample is held in a steady state of tension until it completely fails. (magazetty.com)
  • The fundamental motivation behind directing a tensile test is to decide the malleable properties of materials. (magazetty.com)
  • Specimens for tensile test. (crimsonpublishers.com)
  • Flame Retardancy: To assess how flame-retardant a material is, the defined test method is to measure the Limiting Oxygen Index (LOI) according to BS EN ISO 4589-2, which determines the percentage of oxygen that needs to be present to support combustion. (engineerlive.com)
  • Tensile test was performed on a tensile testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min (strain rate of 2.8×10 −4 /s), using base metal and spot-welded specimens with or without hydrogen charging. (go.jp)
  • A test to determine the material strength and ductility. (wartsila.com)
  • Tensile testing is a fundamental materials science and engineering test in which a sample is subjected to a controlled tension until failure. (wartsila.com)
  • When strength is not necessarily a design consideration, an alternative test method may be used for acceptance testing. (astm.org)
  • In any event, the procedure described in Section 10 of this test method for obtaining wide-width strip tensile strength must be maintained. (astm.org)
  • 5.4 The use of tensile strength test methods that restrict the clamped width dimension to 50 mm [2 in. (astm.org)
  • or less, such as the ravel, cut strip, and grab test procedures, have been found less suitable than this test method for determining design strength parameters for some geotextiles. (astm.org)
  • 5.4.1 This test method may not be suited for some woven fabrics used in geotextile applications that exhibit strengths approximately 100 kN/m or 600 lbf/in. (astm.org)
  • 1.1 This test method covers the measurement of tensile properties of geotextiles using a wide-width strip specimen tensile method. (astm.org)
  • Strength test for pre-ROPS tractor axle housings. (cdc.gov)
  • including a rugged, portable direct tensile test system for measuring shotcrete adhesion strength. (cdc.gov)
  • Stress fields in tabbed unidirectional composite coupons and in cross-ply specimens are examined with a goal towards improving the methods for determining the axial strengths of the unidirectional material. (astm.org)
  • Six months after the surgical intervention, the animals were killed and the specimens were collected for tensile strength tests in a Universal Vitrodyne machine, model V1000 (Liveco Inc., Burlington, VT). (bvsalud.org)
  • The tensile strength of the bone specimens of group G4 was significantly higher than that of G3. (bvsalud.org)
  • Ultimate tensile strength (also called UTS, tensile strength, TS, ultimate strength or F tu {\displaystyle F_{\text{tu}}} in notation) is the maximum stress that a material can withstand while being stretched or pulled before breaking. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ability of a material to withstand tensile stress, i.e. a force attempting to lengthen the material, divided by the material area. (wartsila.com)
  • 12.13 The relationship between fatigue and compressive and tensile strength seems to indicate that composite resins with higher compressive and tensile strength will withstand fatigue better and longer.I2Therefore, a possible way for reducing failure associated with dental composite resins due to age and function is to improve the existing compressive and tensile strengths for these dental restorative materials. (docksci.com)
  • 0.05) tensile strength values for the ZP cement groups than for the RC groups. (hindawi.com)
  • This study aimed to assess the tensile strength and the elastic modulus of newly formed bone after grafting with two biomaterials: inorganic bovine bone and castor bean polymer. (bvsalud.org)
  • The authors concluded that steam autoclaving increases the mean tensile strength of the chemically activated cement compared to the dual-cure self-adhesive cement. (allenpress.com)
  • The most commonly employed method to quantify this damage is the measurement of change in tensile properties of the hair. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • Tensile strength testing machine is an intelligent testing machine that combined with the electronic technology and mechanical transmission.it has accurate load speed, range of force measurement, high accuracy and sensitivity for the load, displacement measurement and control, it also can be tested the constant-velocity loading, constant- velocity displacement. (geospacegeophones.com)
  • Tensile strength testing machine adopt photoelectric encoder to measure the displacement, the controller uses the embedded single-chip microcomputer structure with multi-function software, which combined with measurement, control, circulation and storage. (geospacegeophones.com)
  • The ratio of the actual Ultimate Tensile Strength to the actual Yield strenght must not be less than 1.25 ratio to impart ductility 1. (aluminum-alloy.com)
  • If you have trouble choosing tensile strength testing apparatus for telephone cords and spring cords, Please contact us, then we will help you! (wewontech.com)
  • Compressive and tensile loading was performed on a modifled universal testing apparatus. (docksci.com)
  • The fiber tensile modulus, however, was found to be inversely correlated with fiber diameter. (ncsu.edu)
  • Tensile tests were performed on this composite at liquid nitrogen temperature (77 K), 100 K, room temperature and 373 K. Mechanical load was applied along both the axial and transverse directions, and the effects of temperature and loading direction on the fracture load were discussed. (crimsonpublishers.com)
  • What is the ultimate Tensile strength of aluminium. (aluminum-alloy.com)
  • The properties of aluminium include corrosion resistance, durability, low weight and high strength. (aluminum-alloy.com)
  • As the nylon and polyester are the synthetic fibers and they have high tensile strength properties, so when blended with cotton fibers they provide the strength to the yarns produced by them. (textiletrendz.com)
  • Collagen deposition is essentially complete in 1 month, but collagen fiber strength builds more slowly as fibers undergo crosslinking. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Kilopounds per square inch (ksi, or sometimes kpsi) is equal to 1000 psi, and is commonly used in the United States, when measuring tensile strengths. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molybdenum foil, 99.95% purity High Purity Metal Molybdenum Foil - Properties: Very low thermal expansivity, high temperature of use, excellent corrosion resistance, high strength and low electrical resistivity Electrodes for glass fiber. (cookingmamacookoff.com)
  • The tensile properties of various testing materials have been the focus of this laboratory testing equipment's design. (magazetty.com)
  • Tensile Strength Properties of Aluminum and. (aluminum-alloy.com)
  • Effect of hydrogen on spot-welded tensile properties in ultrahigh-strength TRIP-aided martensitic steel (TM steel) sheet was investigated for automotive applications. (go.jp)
  • The Pack Peel Scan enables direct comparison of the recorded process data with the defined quality parameters for the peel strength of the sealed seam. (fraunhofer.de)
  • In this experiment, different types of yarns were studied under the parameters of tensile strength and CLSP. (textiletrendz.com)
  • Statistically (ANOVA,one-way analysis of variance), these titanium-reinforced composites are stronger in compressive and tensile strength than Ketac-Silver, Flecks zinc cement, Durelon, Ketac-Cem, and GC Miracle Mix. (docksci.com)
  • One of the aims of this experiment was to see if the addition of titanium with conventional fillers to a BisGMA-based dental resin resulted in significantincreases in the compressiveand tensile strength. (docksci.com)
  • The samples were subjected to tensile strength testing in a universal testing machine (200 Kgf, 0.5 mm/min), from which the means and standard deviations were obtained in Newtons. (allenpress.com)
  • Lea Tensile Testing Machine. (textiletrendz.com)
  • The tensile strength of the leas was determined one by one on the lea tensile testing machine. (textiletrendz.com)
  • The tensile testing machine is designed to evaluate the damaged parts and stretching times of earphone cables after N times of certain stretching stroke fatigue tests, so as to achieve the purpose of improving the quality of newly developed products. (wewontech.com)
  • Choosing the right tensile strength testing machine for telephone cords and spring cords is a complex process. (wewontech.com)
  • Wewon's tensile strength testing machine comply with GB/T 15279 standard. (wewontech.com)
  • UTMs are hydraulic and electromechanical systems that can be used to conduct several static tests, such as bend, tear, peel, compression, and tensile testing, on a single machine. (testmachinesaustralia.com.au)
  • We are all aware that a bursting strength testing machine is utilized to evaluate the strength of fabrics, paper, and other materials subjected to a hydraulic load while bursting a diaphragm. (magazetty.com)
  • Tensile Strength Chart for Aluminum and Stainless Steel from American Machine Tools Corporation. (aluminum-alloy.com)
  • High tensile strengths at high temperatures. (cookingmamacookoff.com)
  • This work is the first to demonstrate the tensile property of triaxial woven CFRP from low to high temperatures. (crimsonpublishers.com)
  • The purpose of this work is to evaluate the tensile strength of triaxial woven CFRP from low to high temperatures. (crimsonpublishers.com)
  • IP tests to EN IEC 60529 give an indication of system performance, but are short tests conducted in ideal laboratory conditions, at room temperatures and in straight lengths. (engineerlive.com)
  • The reversal point is the maximum stress on the engineering stress-strain curve, and the engineering stress coordinate of this point is the ultimate tensile strength, given by point 1. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ultimate tensile strength is a common engineering parameter to design members made of brittle material because such materials have no yield point. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regarding the restoration material, no significant influence on tensile bond strength could be detected. (umich.edu)
  • If defined simply, tensile strength is the force applied to the last point at which the material elongates before breaking. (yapraksanmasterbatch.com)
  • Castor bean polymer proved to be a promising material for bone grafting, since it presented a higher tensile strength than bovine bone. (bvsalud.org)
  • Specimen clamping may be modified as required at the discretion of the individual laboratory, provided a representative tensile strength is obtained. (astm.org)
  • The present study suggests the selection of control, V4383, HC2, and FH952 accessions for a breeding line as they possess high fiber yield, fiber strength, and photosynthetic efficiency. (ncsu.edu)
  • Testing and analysis have necessitated the creation of high tensile forces. (magazetty.com)
  • We make filters and screens for a variety of applications in the petrochemical, food, medical, and automotive industries where complexity and precision are often combined with a need for high tensile strength. (ctemag.com)
  • Xtanium-Reinforced Composites and in part two, diametral tensile strengths were tested for each group. (docksci.com)
  • In brittle materials the ultimate tensile strength is close to the yield point, whereas in ductile materials the ultimate tensile strength can be higher. (wikipedia.org)
  • The highest point of the stress-strain curve is the ultimate tensile strength and has units of stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ultimate tensile strength is not used in the design of ductile static members because design practices dictate the use of the yield stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ultimate tensile strength - Wikipedia, the free. (aluminum-alloy.com)
  • 2011-T3 Aluminum Ultimate Tensile Strength, psi. (aluminum-alloy.com)
  • Minimum ultimate tensile and proof loads for metric bolts with coarse or fine threads. (engineeringtoolbox.com)
  • When starting your search for the tensile strength testers, compare specs, features, and prices of different machines to determine which ones suit your needs. (wewontech.com)
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the tensile bond strength at the cement-restoration interface of different luting agents bonded to different restoration materials by using a newly developed testing procedure. (umich.edu)
  • NJ 07606 8 1992 Decker Periodicals Inc. such as increases in compressive and tensile strength.1e1e For example, fillers such as quartz glass, barium glass, zirconia-silica, amorphous silica, micas, glass powders, alumino silicates, silicon dioxide, and many others have all been used to enhance the physical characteristics of a given dental resin. (docksci.com)
  • Tensile testing is regarded as an essential testing procedure utilized in various production verticals to assess the elongation strength and extreme durability of products. (magazetty.com)
  • Determine the tensile design strength for W16x89 and two connected 1/4″x12 in plates, with two lines of 7/8-in diameter bolts in each flange using A 572 Grade steel with Fy=50 ksi and Fu=65 ksi as shown in Figure. (essaytyperplus.com)
  • This communication gives a short overview of the effect of temperature on the tensile strength of triaxial woven CFRP. (crimsonpublishers.com)
  • Tensile tests sometimes produce stress-strain curves that do not follow the "classic" shape shown in Figure 1. (admet.com)
  • Tensile tests were carried out at 100 K, room temperature and 373 K in thermostatic chamber (Figure 2). (crimsonpublishers.com)
  • 1) The difference between the tensile strength ( TS ) of 1532 MPa for base metal specimen without hydrogen charging and the maximum stress ( TS - H ) of 1126 MPa for the base metal specimen with hydrogen charging (Δ TS - H = TS − TS - H ) in the TM steel was smaller than that of hot stampted steel (HS1 steel) and superior to that of HS1 steel. (go.jp)
  • It is considered that this was because the retained austenite suppressed the strength reduction due to the hydrogen embrittlement of the TM steel. (go.jp)
  • ASTM steel bolts - proof and tensile strength. (engineeringtoolbox.com)
  • SAE steel bolts - grades ranging grade 1 to 8.2 - proof and tensile strength. (engineeringtoolbox.com)
  • The tensile strength, which is characteristically important for the use of materials in design, varies considerably in polymers. (yapraksanmasterbatch.com)
  • Both titaniumreinforced composite materials approach the compressive and diametral tensile strengths of dentin (43,100 and 6000 psi). (docksci.com)
  • CSA showed the highest values for tensile bond strength. (umich.edu)
  • To Compare the tensile strength of 100 % pure cotton and its blends, also calculating their CLSP values. (textiletrendz.com)
  • How to understand the strength values? (magazetty.com)
  • The tensile testing results of an operation might differ significantly from the values the filler metal manufacturer reported. (magazetty.com)
  • On one hand, it is similar to A572-50 in low ratio of weight-to-strength. (steel-sections.com)
  • The equivalent point for the case of compression, instead of tension, is called the compressive strength. (wikipedia.org)
  • Results shows us that the nylon/cotton yarns has the highest strength. (textiletrendz.com)