A localization-related (focal) form of epilepsy characterized by recurrent seizures that arise from foci within the temporal lobe, most commonly from its mesial aspect. A wide variety of psychic phenomena may be associated, including illusions, hallucinations, dyscognitive states, and affective experiences. The majority of complex partial seizures (see EPILEPSY, COMPLEX PARTIAL) originate from the temporal lobes. Temporal lobe seizures may be classified by etiology as cryptogenic, familial, or symptomatic (i.e., related to an identified disease process or lesion). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p321)
Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.
A pathological process consisting of hardening or fibrosis of an anatomical structure, often a vessel or a nerve.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
A neurosurgical procedure that removes the anterior TEMPORAL LOBE including the medial temporal structures of CEREBRAL CORTEX; AMYGDALA; HIPPOCAMPUS; and the adjacent PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS. This procedure is generally used for the treatment of intractable temporal epilepsy (EPILEPSY, TEMPORAL LOBE).
Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.
A slowly hydrolyzed muscarinic agonist with no nicotinic effects. Pilocarpine is used as a miotic and in the treatment of glaucoma.
Treatment of chronic, severe and intractable psychiatric disorders by surgical removal or interruption of certain areas or pathways in the brain, especially in the prefrontal lobes.
Decrease in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or multiple organs, associated with a variety of pathological conditions such as abnormal cellular changes, ischemia, malnutrition, or hormonal changes.
A convolution on the inferior surface of each cerebral hemisphere, lying between the hippocampal and collateral sulci.
A disorder characterized by recurrent partial seizures marked by impairment of cognition. During the seizure the individual may experience a wide variety of psychic phenomenon including formed hallucinations, illusions, deja vu, intense emotional feelings, confusion, and spatial disorientation. Focal motor activity, sensory alterations and AUTOMATISM may also occur. Complex partial seizures often originate from foci in one or both temporal lobes. The etiology may be idiopathic (cryptogenic partial complex epilepsy) or occur as a secondary manifestation of a focal cortical lesion (symptomatic partial complex epilepsy). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp317-8)
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.
Dominance of one cerebral hemisphere over the other in cerebral functions.
Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.
Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.
Pathologic partial or complete loss of the ability to recall past experiences (AMNESIA, RETROGRADE) or to form new memories (AMNESIA, ANTEROGRADE). This condition may be of organic or psychologic origin. Organic forms of amnesia are usually associated with dysfunction of the DIENCEPHALON or HIPPOCAMPUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp426-7)
Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
Disturbances in registering an impression, in the retention of an acquired impression, or in the recall of an impression. Memory impairments are associated with DEMENTIA; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ENCEPHALITIS; ALCOHOLISM (see also ALCOHOL AMNESTIC DISORDER); SCHIZOPHRENIA; and other conditions.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of paroxysmal brain dysfunction due to a sudden, disorderly, and excessive neuronal discharge. Epilepsy classification systems are generally based upon: (1) clinical features of the seizure episodes (e.g., motor seizure), (2) etiology (e.g., post-traumatic), (3) anatomic site of seizure origin (e.g., frontal lobe seizure), (4) tendency to spread to other structures in the brain, and (5) temporal patterns (e.g., nocturnal epilepsy). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p313)
Cerebral cortex region on the medial aspect of the PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS, immediately caudal to the OLFACTORY CORTEX of the uncus. The entorhinal cortex is the origin of the major neural fiber system afferent to the HIPPOCAMPAL FORMATION, the so-called PERFORANT PATHWAY.
A localization-related (focal) form of epilepsy characterized by seizures which arise in the FRONTAL LOBE. A variety of clinical syndromes exist depending on the exact location of the seizure focus. Frontal lobe seizures may be idiopathic (cryptogenic) or caused by an identifiable disease process such as traumatic injuries, neoplasms, or other macroscopic or microscopic lesions of the frontal lobes (symptomatic frontal lobe seizures). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp318-9)
A prolonged seizure or seizures repeated frequently enough to prevent recovery between episodes occurring over a period of 20-30 minutes. The most common subtype is generalized tonic-clonic status epilepticus, a potentially fatal condition associated with neuronal injury and respiratory and metabolic dysfunction. Nonconvulsive forms include petit mal status and complex partial status, which may manifest as behavioral disturbances. Simple partial status epilepticus consists of persistent motor, sensory, or autonomic seizures that do not impair cognition (see also EPILEPSIA PARTIALIS CONTINUA). Subclinical status epilepticus generally refers to seizures occurring in an unresponsive or comatose individual in the absence of overt signs of seizure activity. (From N Engl J Med 1998 Apr 2;338(14):970-6; Neurologia 1997 Dec;12 Suppl 6:25-30)
A language dysfunction characterized by the inability to name people and objects that are correctly perceived. The individual is able to describe the object in question, but cannot provide the name. This condition is associated with lesions of the dominant hemisphere involving the language areas, in particular the TEMPORAL LOBE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p484)
Automatic, mechanical, and apparently undirected behavior which is outside of conscious control.
Upper central part of the cerebral hemisphere. It is located posterior to central sulcus, anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE, and superior to the TEMPORAL LOBES.
The process whereby a representation of past experience is elicited.
The knowledge or perception that someone or something present has been previously encountered.
Posterior portion of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES responsible for processing visual sensory information. It is located posterior to the parieto-occipital sulcus and extends to the preoccipital notch.
Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.
GRAY MATTER situated above the GYRUS HIPPOCAMPI. It is composed of three layers. The molecular layer is continuous with the HIPPOCAMPUS in the hippocampal fissure. The granular layer consists of closely arranged spherical or oval neurons, called GRANULE CELLS, whose AXONS pass through the polymorphic layer ending on the DENDRITES of PYRAMIDAL CELLS in the hippocampus.
Conditions characterized by recurrent paroxysmal neuronal discharges which arise from a focal region of the brain. Partial seizures are divided into simple and complex, depending on whether consciousness is unaltered (simple partial seizure) or disturbed (complex partial seizure). Both types may feature a wide variety of motor, sensory, and autonomic symptoms. Partial seizures may be classified by associated clinical features or anatomic location of the seizure focus. A secondary generalized seizure refers to a partial seizure that spreads to involve the brain diffusely. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp317)
Seizures that occur during a febrile episode. It is a common condition, affecting 2-5% of children aged 3 months to five years. An autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance has been identified in some families. The majority are simple febrile seizures (generally defined as generalized onset, single seizures with a duration of less than 30 minutes). Complex febrile seizures are characterized by focal onset, duration greater than 30 minutes, and/or more than one seizure in a 24 hour period. The likelihood of developing epilepsy (i.e., a nonfebrile seizure disorder) following simple febrile seizures is low. Complex febrile seizures are associated with a moderately increased incidence of epilepsy. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p784)
Surgery performed on the nervous system or its parts.
In invertebrate zoology, a lateral lobe of the FOREBRAIN in certain ARTHROPODS. In vertebrate zoology, either of the corpora bigemina of non-mammalian VERTEBRATES. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1329)
Drugs used to prevent SEIZURES or reduce their severity.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.
Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
Axons of certain cells in the DENTATE GYRUS. They project to the polymorphic layer of the dentate gyrus and to the proximal dendrites of PYRAMIDAL CELLS of the HIPPOCAMPUS. These mossy fibers should not be confused with mossy fibers that are cerebellar afferents (see NERVE FIBERS).
A set of forebrain structures common to all mammals that is defined functionally and anatomically. It is implicated in the higher integration of visceral, olfactory, and somatic information as well as homeostatic responses including fundamental survival behaviors (feeding, mating, emotion). For most authors, it includes the AMYGDALA; EPITHALAMUS; GYRUS CINGULI; hippocampal formation (see HIPPOCAMPUS); HYPOTHALAMUS; PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS; SEPTAL NUCLEI; anterior nuclear group of thalamus, and portions of the basal ganglia. (Parent, Carpenter's Human Neuroanatomy, 9th ed, p744; NeuroNames, http://rprcsgi.rprc.washington.edu/neuronames/index.html (September 2, 1998)).
Personal names, given or surname, as cultural characteristics, as ethnological or religious patterns, as indications of the geographic distribution of families and inbreeding, etc. Analysis of isonymy, the quality of having the same or similar names, is useful in the study of population genetics. NAMES is used also for the history of names or name changes of corporate bodies, such as medical societies, universities, hospitals, government agencies, etc.
Tomography using radioactive emissions from injected RADIONUCLIDES and computer ALGORITHMS to reconstruct an image.
The relationships between symbols and their meanings.
Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.
A method of computed tomography that uses radionuclides which emit a single photon of a given energy. The camera is rotated 180 or 360 degrees around the patient to capture images at multiple positions along the arc. The computer is then used to reconstruct the transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images from the 3-dimensional distribution of radionuclides in the organ. The advantages of SPECT are that it can be used to observe biochemical and physiological processes as well as size and volume of the organ. The disadvantage is that, unlike positron-emission tomography where the positron-electron annihilation results in the emission of 2 photons at 180 degrees from each other, SPECT requires physical collimation to line up the photons, which results in the loss of many available photons and hence degrades the image.
(2S-(2 alpha,3 beta,4 beta))-2-Carboxy-4-(1-methylethenyl)-3-pyrrolidineacetic acid. Ascaricide obtained from the red alga Digenea simplex. It is a potent excitatory amino acid agonist at some types of excitatory amino acid receptors and has been used to discriminate among receptor types. Like many excitatory amino acid agonists it can cause neurotoxicity and has been used experimentally for that purpose.
Surgically placed electric conductors through which ELECTRIC STIMULATION is delivered to or electrical activity is recorded from a specific point inside the body.
Type of declarative memory, consisting of personal memory in contrast to general knowledge.
A gamma-emitting RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING agent used in the evaluation of regional cerebral blood flow and in non-invasive dynamic biodistribution studies and MYOCARDIAL PERFUSION IMAGING. It has also been used to label leukocytes in the investigation of INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASES.
The life of a person written by himself or herself. (Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed)
A barbiturate with hypnotic and sedative properties (but not antianxiety). Adverse effects are mainly a consequence of dose-related CNS depression and the risk of dependence with continued use is high. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p565)
A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)
Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
The inability to recognize a familiar face or to learn to recognize new faces. This visual agnosia is most often associated with lesions involving the junctional regions between the temporal and occipital lobes. The majority of cases are associated with bilateral lesions, however unilateral damage to the right occipito-temporal cortex has also been associated with this condition. (From Cortex 1995 Jun;31(2):317-29)
Loss of the ability to recall information that had been previously encoded in memory prior to a specified or approximate point in time. This process may be organic or psychogenic in origin. Organic forms may be associated with CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENTS; SEIZURES; DEMENTIA; and a wide variety of other conditions that impair cerebral function. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp426-9)
Heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by frontal and temporal lobe atrophy associated with neuronal loss, gliosis, and dementia. Patients exhibit progressive changes in social, behavioral, and/or language function. Multiple subtypes or forms are recognized based on presence or absence of TAU PROTEIN inclusions. FTLD includes three clinical syndromes: FRONTOTEMPORAL DEMENTIA, semantic dementia, and PRIMARY PROGRESSIVE NONFLUENT APHASIA.
Learning to respond verbally to a verbal stimulus cue.
A verbal or nonverbal means of communicating ideas or feelings.
A generalized seizure disorder characterized by recurrent major motor seizures. The initial brief tonic phase is marked by trunk flexion followed by diffuse extension of the trunk and extremities. The clonic phase features rhythmic flexor contractions of the trunk and limbs, pupillary dilation, elevations of blood pressure and pulse, urinary incontinence, and tongue biting. This is followed by a profound state of depressed consciousness (post-ictal state) which gradually improves over minutes to hours. The disorder may be cryptogenic, familial, or symptomatic (caused by an identified disease process). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p329)
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The storing or preserving of video signals for television to be played back later via a transmitter or receiver. Recordings may be made on magnetic tape or discs (VIDEODISC RECORDING).
Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.
Rare indolent tumors comprised of neoplastic glial and neuronal cells which occur primarily in children and young adults. Benign lesions tend to be associated with long survival unless the tumor degenerates into a histologically malignant form. They tend to occur in the optic nerve and white matter of the brain and spinal cord.
Cognitive disorders including delirium, dementia, and other cognitive disorders. These may be the result of substance use, trauma, or other causes.
The anterior portion of the head that includes the skin, muscles, and structures of the forehead, eyes, nose, mouth, cheeks, and jaw.
Substances that act in the brain stem or spinal cord to produce tonic or clonic convulsions, often by removing normal inhibitory tone. They were formerly used to stimulate respiration or as antidotes to barbiturate overdose. They are now most commonly used as experimental tools.
The use of diffusion ANISOTROPY data from diffusion magnetic resonance imaging results to construct images based on the direction of the faster diffusing molecules.
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
A paraneoplastic syndrome marked by degeneration of neurons in the LIMBIC SYSTEM. Clinical features include HALLUCINATIONS, loss of EPISODIC MEMORY; ANOSMIA; AGEUSIA; TEMPORAL LOBE EPILEPSY; DEMENTIA; and affective disturbance (depression). Circulating anti-neuronal antibodies (e.g., anti-Hu; anti-Yo; anti-Ri; and anti-Ma2) and small cell lung carcinomas or testicular carcinoma are frequently associated with this syndrome.
Mental process to visually perceive a critical number of facts (the pattern), such as characters, shapes, displays, or designs.
Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.
A neurobehavioral syndrome associated with bilateral medial temporal lobe dysfunction. Clinical manifestations include oral exploratory behavior; tactile exploratory behavior; hypersexuality; BULIMIA; MEMORY DISORDERS; placidity; and an inability to recognize objects or faces. This disorder may result from a variety of conditions, including CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; infections; ALZHEIMER DISEASE; PICK DISEASE OF THE BRAIN; and CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS.
A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.
Loss of the ability to form new memories beyond a certain point in time. This condition may be organic or psychogenic in origin. Organically induced anterograde amnesia may follow CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; SEIZURES; ANOXIA; and other conditions which adversely affect neural structures associated with memory formation (e.g., the HIPPOCAMPUS; FORNIX (BRAIN); MAMMILLARY BODIES; and ANTERIOR THALAMIC NUCLEI). (From Memory 1997 Jan-Mar;5(1-2):49-71)
A physical property showing different values in relation to the direction in or along which the measurement is made. The physical property may be with regard to thermal or electric conductivity or light refraction. In crystallography, it describes crystals whose index of refraction varies with the direction of the incident light. It is also called acolotropy and colotropy. The opposite of anisotropy is isotropy wherein the same values characterize the object when measured along axes in all directions.
A condition characterized by long-standing brain dysfunction or damage, usually of three months duration or longer. Potential etiologies include BRAIN INFARCTION; certain NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ANOXIA, BRAIN; ENCEPHALITIS; certain NEUROTOXICITY SYNDROMES; metabolic disorders (see BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC); and other conditions.
A cognitive disorder marked by an impaired ability to comprehend or express language in its written or spoken form. This condition is caused by diseases which affect the language areas of the dominant hemisphere. Clinical features are used to classify the various subtypes of this condition. General categories include receptive, expressive, and mixed forms of aphasia.
The principle that items experienced together enter into a connection, so that one tends to reinstate the other.
Includes both producing and responding to words, either written or spoken.
An amino acid that occurs in vertebrate tissues and in urine. In muscle tissue, creatine generally occurs as phosphocreatine. Creatine is excreted as CREATININE in the urine.
Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.
Compounds that contain the radical R2C=N.OH derived from condensation of ALDEHYDES or KETONES with HYDROXYLAMINE. Members of this group are CHOLINESTERASE REACTIVATORS.
Remembrance of information for a few seconds to hours.
The repeated weak excitation of brain structures, that progressively increases sensitivity to the same stimulation. Over time, this can lower the threshold required to trigger seizures.
A diagnostic technique that incorporates the measurement of molecular diffusion (such as water or metabolites) for tissue assessment by MRI. The degree of molecular movement can be measured by changes of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) with time, as reflected by tissue microstructure. Diffusion MRI has been used to study BRAIN ISCHEMIA and tumor response to treatment.
The compound is given by intravenous injection to do POSITRON-EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY for the assessment of cerebral and myocardial glucose metabolism in various physiological or pathological states including stroke and myocardial ischemia. It is also employed for the detection of malignant tumors including those of the brain, liver, and thyroid gland. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1162)
Tests designed to assess language behavior and abilities. They include tests of vocabulary, comprehension, grammar and functional use of language, e.g., Development Sentence Scoring, Receptive-Expressive Emergent Language Scale, Parsons Language Sample, Utah Test of Language Development, Michigan Language Inventory and Verbal Language Development Scale, Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities, Northwestern Syntax Screening Test, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Ammons Full-Range Picture Vocabulary Test, and Assessment of Children's Language Comprehension.
Conditions characterized by deficiencies of comprehension or expression of written and spoken forms of language. These include acquired and developmental disorders.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Communication through a system of conventional vocal symbols.
An acquired organic mental disorder with loss of intellectual abilities of sufficient severity to interfere with social or occupational functioning. The dysfunction is multifaceted and involves memory, behavior, personality, judgment, attention, spatial relations, language, abstract thought, and other executive functions. The intellectual decline is usually progressive, and initially spares the level of consciousness.
Recurrent conditions characterized by epileptic seizures which arise diffusely and simultaneously from both hemispheres of the brain. Classification is generally based upon motor manifestations of the seizure (e.g., convulsive, nonconvulsive, akinetic, atonic, etc.) or etiology (e.g., idiopathic, cryptogenic, and symptomatic). (From Mayo Clin Proc, 1996 Apr;71(4):405-14)
A class of nerve fibers as defined by their structure, specifically the nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the myelinated nerve fibers are completely encased in a MYELIN SHEATH. They are fibers of relatively large and varied diameters. Their NEURAL CONDUCTION rates are faster than those of the unmyelinated nerve fibers (NERVE FIBERS, UNMYELINATED). Myelinated nerve fibers are present in somatic and autonomic nerves.
The largest portion of the CEREBRAL CORTEX in which the NEURONS are arranged in six layers in the mammalian brain: molecular, external granular, external pyramidal, internal granular, internal pyramidal and multiform layers.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.
The measurement of magnetic fields over the head generated by electric currents in the brain. As in any electrical conductor, electric fields in the brain are accompanied by orthogonal magnetic fields. The measurement of these fields provides information about the localization of brain activity which is complementary to that provided by ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY. Magnetoencephalography may be used alone or together with electroencephalography, for measurement of spontaneous or evoked activity, and for research or clinical purposes.
Drugs that bind to and activate muscarinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, MUSCARINIC). Muscarinic agonists are most commonly used when it is desirable to increase smooth muscle tone, especially in the GI tract, urinary bladder and the eye. They may also be used to reduce heart rate.
Organic compounds that contain technetium as an integral part of the molecule. These compounds are often used as radionuclide imaging agents.
Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
A prodromal phase of cognitive decline that may precede the emergence of ALZHEIMER DISEASE and other dementias. It may include impairment of cognition, such as impairments in language, visuospatial awareness, ATTENTION and MEMORY.
Tests designed to measure intellectual functioning in children and adults.
Heavily myelinated fiber bundle of the TELENCEPHALON projecting from the hippocampal formation to the HYPOTHALAMUS. Some authorities consider the fornix part of the LIMBIC SYSTEM. The fimbria starts as a flattened band of axons arising from the subiculum and HIPPOCAMPUS, which then thickens to form the fornix.
Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.
Signs and symptoms of higher cortical dysfunction caused by organic conditions. These include certain behavioral alterations and impairments of skills involved in the acquisition, processing, and utilization of knowledge or information.
Care given during the period prior to undergoing surgery when psychological and physical preparations are made according to the special needs of the individual patient. This period spans the time between admission to the hospital to the time the surgery begins. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
The process whereby auditory stimuli are selected, organized, and interpreted by the organism.
The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.
Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)
The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.
Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.
Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.
The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.
A pair of nuclei and associated gray matter in the interpeduncular space rostral to the posterior perforated substance in the posterior hypothalamus.
A mental disorder associated with chronic ethanol abuse (ALCOHOLISM) and nutritional deficiencies characterized by short term memory loss, confabulations, and disturbances of attention. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1139)
The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.
A subsection of the hippocampus, described by Lorente de No, that is located between the HIPPOCAMPUS CA2 FIELD and the DENTATE GYRUS.
Subjectively experienced sensations in the absence of an appropriate stimulus, but which are regarded by the individual as real. They may be of organic origin or associated with MENTAL DISORDERS.
A potent benzodiazepine receptor antagonist. Since it reverses the sedative and other actions of benzodiazepines, it has been suggested as an antidote to benzodiazepine overdoses.
The process whereby an utterance is decoded into a representation in terms of linguistic units (sequences of phonetic segments which combine to form lexical and grammatical morphemes).
Chronic mental disorders in which there has been an insidious development of a permanent and unshakeable delusional system (persecutory delusions or delusions of jealousy), accompanied by preservation of clear and orderly thinking. Emotional responses and behavior are consistent with the delusional state.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Brain waves seen on EEG characterized by a high amplitude and a frequency of 4 Hz and below. They are considered the "deep sleep waves" observed during sleep in dreamless states, infancy, and in some brain disorders.
Organic mental disorders in which there is impairment of the ability to maintain awareness of self and environment and to respond to environmental stimuli. Dysfunction of the cerebral hemispheres or brain stem RETICULAR FORMATION may result in this condition.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.
Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.
The awareness of the spatial properties of objects; includes physical space.
The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.
Sound that expresses emotion through rhythm, melody, and harmony.
The period following a surgical operation.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Derived from TELENCEPHALON, cerebrum is composed of a right and a left hemisphere. Each contains an outer cerebral cortex and a subcortical basal ganglia. The cerebrum includes all parts within the skull except the MEDULLA OBLONGATA, the PONS, and the CEREBELLUM. Cerebral functions include sensorimotor, emotional, and intellectual activities.
A cognitive process involving the formation of ideas generalized from the knowledge of qualities, aspects, and relations of objects.
The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.
Broad plate of dense myelinated fibers that reciprocally interconnect regions of the cortex in all lobes with corresponding regions of the opposite hemisphere. The corpus callosum is located deep in the longitudinal fissure.
Study of the anatomy of the nervous system as a specialty or discipline.
A basic constituent of lecithin that is found in many plants and animal organs. It is important as a precursor of acetylcholine, as a methyl donor in various metabolic processes, and in lipid metabolism.
Lists of words to which individuals are asked to respond ascertaining the conceptual meaning held by the individual.
Wave-like oscillations of electric potential between parts of the brain recorded by EEG.
A visual image which is recalled in accurate detail. It is a sort of projection of an image on a mental screen.
Conceptual functions or thinking in all its forms.
The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by ACOUSTIC STIMULATION or stimulation of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS.
The ability to learn and to deal with new situations and to deal effectively with tasks involving abstractions.
Impairment in the comprehension of speech and meaning of words, both spoken and written, and of the meanings conveyed by their grammatical relationships in sentences. It is caused by lesions that primarily affect Wernicke's area, which lies in the posterior perisylvian region of the temporal lobe of the dominant hemisphere. (From Brain & Bannister, Clinical Neurology, 7th ed, p141; Kandel et al., Principles of Neural Science, 3d ed, p846)
Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.
One of the convolutions on the medial surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES. It surrounds the rostral part of the brain and CORPUS CALLOSUM and forms part of the LIMBIC SYSTEM.
Most generally any NEURONS which are not motor or sensory. Interneurons may also refer to neurons whose AXONS remain within a particular brain region in contrast to projection neurons, which have axons projecting to other brain regions.
The act or fact of grasping the meaning, nature, or importance of; understanding. (American Heritage Dictionary, 4th ed) Includes understanding by a patient or research subject of information disclosed orally or in writing.
Acquired or developmental cognitive disorders of AUDITORY PERCEPTION characterized by a reduced ability to perceive information contained in auditory stimuli despite intact auditory pathways. Affected individuals have difficulty with speech perception, sound localization, and comprehending the meaning of inflections of speech.
An anticonvulsant used to control grand mal and psychomotor or focal seizures. Its mode of action is not fully understood, but some of its actions resemble those of PHENYTOIN; although there is little chemical resemblance between the two compounds, their three-dimensional structure is similar.
Disorders in which the essential feature is a severe disturbance in mood (depression, anxiety, elation, and excitement) accompanied by psychotic symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations, gross impairment in reality testing, etc.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A rare central nervous system demyelinating condition affecting children and young adults. Pathologic findings include a large, sharply defined, asymmetric focus of myelin destruction that may involve an entire lobe or cerebral hemisphere. The clinical course tends to be progressive and includes dementia, cortical blindness, cortical deafness, spastic hemiplegia, and pseudobulbar palsy. Concentric sclerosis of Balo is differentiated from diffuse cerebral sclerosis of Schilder by the pathologic finding of alternating bands of destruction and preservation of myelin in concentric rings. Alpers' Syndrome refers to a heterogeneous group of diseases that feature progressive cerebral deterioration and liver disease. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p914; Dev Neurosci 1991;13(4-5):267-73)
Disorders in which there is a loss of ego boundaries or a gross impairment in reality testing with delusions or prominent hallucinations. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
The persistence to perform a learned behavior (facts or experiences) after an interval has elapsed in which there has been no performance or practice of the behavior.
The most common clinical form of FRONTOTEMPORAL LOBAR DEGENERATION, this dementia presents with personality and behavioral changes often associated with disinhibition, apathy, and lack of insight.
Non-invasive methods of visualizing the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the brain, by various imaging modalities.
A discipline concerned with relations between messages and the characteristics of individuals who select and interpret them; it deals directly with the processes of encoding (phonetics) and decoding (psychoacoustics) as they relate states of messages to states of communicators.
Unstable isotopes of fluorine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. F atoms with atomic weights 17, 18, and 20-22 are radioactive fluorine isotopes.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
An acute (or rarely chronic) inflammatory process of the brain caused by SIMPLEXVIRUS infections which may be fatal. The majority of infections are caused by human herpesvirus 1 (HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN) and less often by human herpesvirus 2 (HERPESVIRUS 2, HUMAN). Clinical manifestations include FEVER; HEADACHE; SEIZURES; HALLUCINATIONS; behavioral alterations; APHASIA; hemiparesis; and COMA. Pathologically, the condition is marked by a hemorrhagic necrosis involving the medial and inferior TEMPORAL LOBE and orbital regions of the FRONTAL LOBE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp751-4)
The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.
Narrow channel in the MESENCEPHALON that connects the third and fourth CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.
Abnormalities in the development of the CEREBRAL CORTEX. These include malformations arising from abnormal neuronal and glial CELL PROLIFERATION or APOPTOSIS (Group I); abnormal neuronal migration (Group II); and abnormal establishment of cortical organization (Group III). Many INBORN METABOLIC BRAIN DISORDERS affecting CNS formation are often associated with cortical malformations. They are common causes of EPILEPSY and developmental delay.
Large subcortical nuclear masses derived from the telencephalon and located in the basal regions of the cerebral hemispheres.
The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.
A progressive form of dementia characterized by the global loss of language abilities and initial preservation of other cognitive functions. Fluent and nonfluent subtypes have been described. Eventually a pattern of global cognitive dysfunction, similar to ALZHEIMER DISEASE, emerges. Pathologically, there are no Alzheimer or PICK DISEASE like changes, however, spongiform changes of cortical layers II and III are present in the TEMPORAL LOBE and FRONTAL LOBE. (From Brain 1998 Jan;121(Pt 1):115-26)
Loss of the ability to comprehend the meaning or recognize the importance of various forms of stimulation that cannot be attributed to impairment of a primary sensory modality. Tactile agnosia is characterized by an inability to perceive the shape and nature of an object by touch alone, despite unimpaired sensation to light touch, position, and other primary sensory modalities.
A new pattern of perceptual or ideational material derived from past experience.
The region of the cerebral cortex that receives the auditory radiation from the MEDIAL GENICULATE BODY.
A subtype of epilepsy characterized by seizures that are consistently provoked by a certain specific stimulus. Auditory, visual, and somatosensory stimuli as well as the acts of writing, reading, eating, and decision making are examples of events or activities that may induce seizure activity in affected individuals. (From Neurol Clin 1994 Feb;12(1):57-8)
Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.
The paired caudal parts of the PROSENCEPHALON from which the THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; EPITHALAMUS; and SUBTHALAMUS are derived.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
A surgical specialty concerned with the treatment of diseases and disorders of the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral and sympathetic nervous system.
Analogs and derivatives of atropine.
An acquired cognitive disorder characterized by inattentiveness and the inability to form short term memories. This disorder is frequently associated with chronic ALCOHOLISM; but it may also result from dietary deficiencies; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; NEOPLASMS; CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS; ENCEPHALITIS; EPILEPSY; and other conditions. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1139)
An interdisciplinary science concerned with studies of the biological bases of behavior - biochemical, genetic, physiological, and neurological - and applying these to the understanding and treatment of mental illness.
The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)
Brain waves characterized by a frequency of 4-7 Hz, usually observed in the temporal lobes when the individual is awake, but relaxed and sleepy.
Neoplasms composed of neuroepithelial cells, which have the capacity to differentiate into NEURONS, oligodendrocytes, and ASTROCYTES. The majority of craniospinal tumors are of neuroepithelial origin. (From Dev Biol 1998 Aug 1;200(1):1-5)
An involuntary expression of merriment and pleasure; it includes the patterned motor responses as well as the inarticulate vocalization.
The sum or the stock of words used by a language, a group, or an individual. (From Webster, 3d ed)
Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and contain an integral membrane chloride channel. Each receptor is assembled as a pentamer from a pool of at least 19 different possible subunits. The receptors belong to a superfamily that share a common CYSTEINE loop.

Differential spatial memory impairment after right temporal lobectomy demonstrated using temporal titration. (1/3458)

In this study a temporal titration method to explore the extent to which spatial memory is differentially impaired following right temporal lobectomy was employed. The spatial and non-spatial memory of 19 left and 19 right temporal lobectomy (TL) patients was compared with that of 16 normal controls. The subjects studied an array of 16 toy objects and were subsequently tested for object recall, object recognition and memory for the location of the objects. By systematically varying the retention intervals for each group, it was possible to match all three groups on object recall at sub-ceiling levels. When memory for the position of the objects was assessed at equivalent delays, the right TL group revealed disrupted spatial memory, compared with both left TL and control groups (P < 0.05). MRI was used to quantify the extent of temporal lobe resection in the two groups and a significant correlation between hippocampal removal and both recall of spatial location and object name recall in the right TL group only was shown. These data support the notion of a selective (but not exclusive) spatial memory impairment associated with right temporal lobe damage that is related to the integrity of the hippocampal functioning.  (+info)

Disrupted temporal lobe connections in semantic dementia. (2/3458)

Semantic dementia refers to the variant of frontotemporal dementia in which there is progressive semantic deterioration and anomia in the face of relative preservation of other language and cognitive functions. Structural imaging and SPECT studies of such patients have suggested that the site of damage, and by inference the region critical to semantic processing, is the anterolateral temporal lobe, especially on the left. Recent functional imaging studies of normal participants have revealed a network of areas involved in semantic tasks. The present study used PET to examine the consequences of focal damage to the anterolateral temporal cortex for the operation of this semantic network. We measured PET activation associated with a semantic decision task relative to a visual decision task in four patients with semantic dementia compared with six age-matched normal controls. Normals activated a network of regions consistent with previous studies. The patients activated some areas consistently with the normals, including some regions of significant atrophy, but showed substantially reduced activity particularly in the left posterior inferior temporal gyrus (iTG) (Brodmann area 37/19). Voxel-based morphometry, used to identify the regions of structural deficit, revealed significant anterolateral temporal atrophy (especially on the left), but no significant structural damage to the posterior inferior temporal lobe. Other evidence suggests that the left posterior iTG is critically involved in lexical-phonological retrieval: the lack of activation here is consistent with the observation that these patients are all anomic. We conclude that changes in activity in regions distant from the patients' structural damage support the argument that their prominent anomia is due to disrupted temporal lobe connections.  (+info)

The predictive value of changes in effective connectivity for human learning. (3/3458)

During learning, neural responses decrease over repeated exposure to identical stimuli. This repetition suppression is thought to reflect a progressive optimization of neuronal responses elicited by the task. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to study the neural basis of associative learning of visual objects and their locations. As expected, activation in specialized cortical areas decreased with time. However, with path analysis it was shown that, in parallel to this adaptation, increases in effective connectivity occurred between distinct cortical systems specialized for spatial and object processing. The time course of these plastic changes was highly correlated with individual learning performance, suggesting that interactions between brain areas underlie associative learning.  (+info)

Kleine-Levin and Munchausen syndromes in a patient with recurrent acromegaly. (4/3458)

Hypothalamic disease often affects the patients' personality and this also applies to pituitary tumors with suprasellar extension. We report on a patient with a 12-year history of recurrent acromegaly, treated with three transphenoidal operations, single field radiation therapy and bromocriptine/octreotide administration. During the course of follow-up she presented with self-inflicted anemia and Kleine-Levin syndrome (hypersomnia, hyperphagia and hypersexuality). Furthermore, she developed post-radiation necrosis within the right temporal lobe. Whether her neurological and personality disorders result - at least partially - from the acromegaly or the temporal lobe necrosis remains unclear.  (+info)

Increased poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of nuclear proteins in Alzheimer's disease. (5/3458)

Experimental studies indicate that overactivation of the DNA repair protein poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) in response to oxidative damage to DNA can cause cell death due to depletion of NAD+. Oxidative damage to DNA and other macromolecules has been reported to be increased in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease. In the present study we sought evidence of PARP activation in Alzheimer's disease by immunostaining sections of frontal and temporal lobe from autopsy material of 20 patients and 10 controls, both for PARP itself and for its end-product, poly(ADP-ribose). All of the brains had previously been subjected to detailed neuropathological examination to confirm the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease or, in the controls, to exclude Alzheimer's disease-type pathology. Double immunolabelling for poly(ADP-ribose) and microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2), glial fibrillary-acidic protein (GFAP), CD68, A beta-protein or tau was used to assess the identity of the cells with poly(ADP-ribose) accumulation and their relationship to plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. Both PARP- and poly(ADP-ribose)-immunolabelled cells were detected in a much higher proportion of Alzheimer's disease (20 out of 20) brains than of control brains (5 out of 10) (P = 0.0018). Double-immunolabelling for poly(ADP-ribose) and markers of neuronal, astrocytic and microglial differentiation (MAP2, GFAP and CD68, respectively) showed many of the cells containing poly(ADP-ribose) to be neurons. Most of these were small pyramidal neurons in cortical laminae 3 and 5. A few of the cells containing poly(ADP-ribose) were astrocytes. No poly(ADP-ribose) accumulation was detected in microglia. Double-immunolabelling for poly(ADP-ribose) and tau or A beta-protein indicated that the cells with accumulation of poly(ADP-ribose) did not contain tangles and relatively few occurred within plaques. Our findings indicate that there is enhanced PARP activity in Alzheimer's disease and suggest that pharmacological interventions aimed at inhibiting PARP may have a role in slowing the progression of the disease.  (+info)

Evaluation of the NINCDS-ADRDA criteria in the differentiation of Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal dementia. (6/3458)

OBJECTIVES: The diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is now reliant on the use of NINCDS-ADRDA criteria. Other diseases causing dementia are being increasingly recognised--for example, frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Historically, these disorders have not been clearly demarcated from AD. This study assesses the capability of the NINCDS-ADRDA criteria to accurately distinguish AD from FTD in a series of pathologically proved cases. METHODS: The case records of 56 patients (30 with AD, 26 with FTD) who had undergone neuropsychological evaluation, brain imaging, and ultimately postmortem, were assessed in terms of whether at initial diagnosis the NINCDS-ADRDA criteria were successful in diagnosing those patients who had AD and excluding those who did not. RESULTS: (1) The overall sensitivity of the NINCDS-ADRDA criteria in diagnosing "probable" AD from 56 patients with cortical dementia (AD and FTD) was 0.93. However, the specificity was only 0.23; most patients with FTD also fulfilled NINCDS-ADRDA criteria for AD. (2) Cognitive deficits in the realms of orientation and praxis significantly increased the odds of a patient having AD compared with FTD, whereas deficits in problem solving significantly decreased the odds. Neuropsychological impairments in the domains of attention, language, perception, and memory as defined in the NINCDS-ADRDA statement did not contribute to the clinical differentiation of AD and FTD. CONCLUSION: NINCDS-ADRDA criteria fail accurately to differentiate AD from FTD. Suggestions to improve the diagnostic specificity of the current criteria are made.  (+info)

Structural maturation of neural pathways in children and adolescents: in vivo study. (7/3458)

Structural maturation of fiber tracts in the human brain, including an increase in the diameter and myelination of axons, may play a role in cognitive development during childhood and adolescence. A computational analysis of structural magnetic resonance images obtained in 111 children and adolescents revealed age-related increases in white matter density in fiber tracts constituting putative corticospinal and frontotemporal pathways. The maturation of the corticospinal tract was bilateral, whereas that of the frontotemporal pathway was found predominantly in the left (speech-dominant) hemisphere. These findings provide evidence for a gradual maturation, during late childhood and adolescence, of fiber pathways presumably supporting motor and speech functions.  (+info)

Conduction aphasia elicited by stimulation of the left posterior superior temporal gyrus. (8/3458)

OBJECTIVE: Disruption of fascicular tracts that connect Wernicke's to Broca's areas is the classic mechanism of conduction aphasia. Later work has emphasised cortical mechanisms. METHODS: To determine the distribution of language on dominant cortex, electrical cortical stimulation was performed using implanted subdural electrodes during brain mapping before epilepsy surgery. RESULTS: A transient, isolated deficit in repetition was elicited with stimulation of the posterior portion of the dominant superior temporal gyrus. CONCLUSION: This finding suggests that cortical dysfunction, not just white matter disruption, can induce conduction aphasia.  (+info)

The functional contribution of medial temporal lobe has been studied in the human brain for over half a century. Insight into the nature of this extraordinary structure was discovered when epileptic patient H.M. had an experimental operation to surgically resect his bilateral medial temporal lobes. The procedure resulted in profound anterograde amnesia, demonstrating the critical role of medial temporal lobe in forming new long-term memories; yet a variety of other capacities remained intact (e.g., intelligence, personality, and skills). The notion that medial temporal lobe function was isolated to the formation of new long-term memories persisted for several decades until the development of new methodologies. It has been the endeavor of cognitive neuroscience to further our understanding of the structural organization of complex cognition and behavior. The focus of this dissertation is to provide evidence supporting the functional contribution of medial temporal lobe sub-regions, namely ...
Medial temporal lobe damage in humans is typically thought to produce a circumscribed impairment in the acquisition of new enduring memories, but recent reports have documented deficits even in short-term maintenance. We examined possible maintenance deficits in a population of medial temporal lobe amnesics, with the goal of characterizing their impairments as either representational drift or outright loss of representation over time. Patients and healthy comparisons performed a visual search task in which the similarity of various lures to a target was varied parametrically. Stimuli were simple shapes varying along one of several visual dimensions. The task was performed in two conditions, one presenting a sample target simultaneously with the search array and the other imposing a delay between sample and array. Eye-movement data collected during search revealed that the duration of fixations to items varied with lure-target similarity for all participants, i.e., fixations were longer for items
While it is commonly accepted that structures in the medial temporal lobe play a critical role in memory, current theories disagree on three fundamental issues: (a) the extent to which different regions within the medial temporal lobe can be functionally dissociated; (b) whether structures within the medial temporal lobe are specialised for memory processing or play an additional role in perception; and (c) whether there is support for functional homology across species. To address these controversial questions, this Special Issue brings together researchers working on memory and perception in the medial temporal lobe and asks whether there is evidence for similar functional dissociations across species. The papers reported here include lesion and early gene imaging in rats, electrophysiological and lesion studies in nonhuman primates, lesion and functional neuroimaging in human participants, as well as touching on computational modelling approaches. Pulling together these methodological diverse
The temporal lobe is a region of the cerebral cortex that is under the Sylvian fissure on both cerebral hemispheres of the mammalian brain.[3] The temporal lobe is involved in auditory perception and is home to the primary auditory cortex. It is also important for the processing of semantics (meaning) in both speech and vision. The temporal lobe contains the hippocampus and plays a key role in the formation of long-term memory. An area in the Sylvian fissure is the first place where auditory signals from the cochlea reach the cerebral cortex. This part of the cortex (primary auditory cortex) is involved in hearing. Other areas of the temporal lobes are involved in high-level auditory processing. In humans this includes speech, for which the left temporal lobe in particular seems to be specialized. Wernickes area, which spans the region between temporal and parietal lobes, plays a key role (with Brocas area, which is in the frontal lobe). The functions of the left temporal lobe extends to ...
The right temporal lobe variant of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is an uncommon progressive neurodegenerative disorder. We present the case of a 77-year-old right-handed man who presented with altered behaviour and problems with interpersonal relationships. He had no decline in cognitive function but brain perfusion single-photon emission CT demonstrated distinct hypoperfusion in the right temporal pole. At 2-year follow-up, he could not recognise his wifes relatives; and at 3-year follow-up, he had semantic aphasia. Decreased brain perfusion extended from the right temporal lobe into the contralateral temporal and both frontal lobes. These findings suggest that the right temporal lobe variant of FTD should be considered in elderly patients with altered behaviour and problems with interpersonal relationships, even if dementia is not suspected. The right anterior temporal lobe may play a key role in the onset of the early symptoms of this disease. ...
The top (superior or dorsal) part of the temporal lobe includes an area (within the Sylvian fissure) where auditory signals from the cochlea (relayed via several subcortical nuclei) first reach the cerebral cortex. This part of the cortex (primary auditory cortex) is involved in hearing. Adjacent areas in the superior, posterior and lateral parts of the temporal lobe are involved in high-level auditory processing. In humans this includes speech, for which the left temporal lobe in particular seems to be specialized. Wernickes area which spans the region between temporal and parietal lobes plays a key role (in tandem with Brocas area, which is in the frontal lobe). The functions of the left temporal lobe are not limited to low-level perception but extend to comprehension, naming, verbal memory and other language functions. The underside (ventral) part of the temporal cortex appears to be involved in high-level visual processing of complex stimuli such as faces (fusiform gyrus) and scenes ...
Where do you know who you know? There are faces that are instantly recognizable and nameable. Conversely, there are names that automatically bring up an associated face. Some neurons are likely to respond to both the name and the face of these familiar individuals - in fact, such neurons with an invariant, explicit and selective response to both famous and familiar individuals, e.g. Jennifer Aniston, are routinely found with the aid of implanted microelectrodes in the medial temporal lobes of human patients (Quian Quiroga, Reddy, Kreiman, Koch, & Fried, 2005). We set out to investigate such modality-independent, conceptual representations with fMRI. We conducted an event-related fMRI study in which subjects were asked to recognize and name three famous actors (Brad Pitt, Matt Damon and Tom Cruise) from various pictures or to read their written name, on separate trials within each run. We used high resolution fMRI (2x2x2mm voxels) with 30 axial slices covering the occipital and temporal lobes. ...
RADIOLOGY: HEAD: Case# 33666: HYPOMETABOLIC SEIZURE FOCUS LEFT ANTERIOR TEMPORAL LOBE. Patient is a 17 y.o. young man with a history of complex partial seizures. Selected axial and coronal images from an interictal18-FDG PET study reveal hypometabolism of the left anterior temporal lobe. MRI T2 weighted image through the temporal lobes reveals an area of increased signal intensity in the left hippocampus. 18-FDG is a glucose analoge that competes with glucose for uptake. Once it is actively transported, it is then phosphorylated but not further metabolized. Consequently its accumulation within a cell is a function of the cells metabolic rate. Preoperative planning for epilepsy surgery often includes an interictal PET study to localize the epilepsy site. Focal hypometabolism relative to the contralateral structures suggests a seizure focus. PET will demonstrate interictal temporal lobe hypometabolism in 70% of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (1). Proper interpretation requires knowledge of any
TY - JOUR. T1 - Selectivity of pyramidal cells and interneurons in the human medial temporal lobe. AU - Ison, Matias J.. AU - Mormann, Florian. AU - Cerf, Moran. AU - Koch, Christof. AU - Fried, Itzhak. AU - Quiroga, Rodrigo Quian. PY - 2011/10. Y1 - 2011/10. N2 - Neurons in the medial temporal lobe (MTL) respond selectively to pictures of specific individuals, objects, and places. However, the underlying mechanisms leading to such degree of stimulus selectivity are largely unknown. A necessary step to move forward in this direction involves the identification and characterization of the different neuron types present in MTL circuitry. We show that putative principal cells recorded in vivo from the human MTL are more selective than putative interneurons. Furthermore, we report that putative hippocampal pyramidal cells exhibit the highest degree of selectivity within the MTL, reflecting the hierarchical processing of visual information. We interpret these differences in selectivity as a plausible ...
There have been few quantitative characterizations of the morphological, biophysical, and cable properties of neurons in the human neocortex. We employed feature-based statistical methods on a rare data set of 60 3D reconstructed pyramidal neurons from L2 and L3 in the human temporal cortex (HL2/L3 PCs) removed after brain surgery. Of these cells, 25 neurons were also characterized physiologically. Thirty-two morphological features were analyzed (e.g., dendritic surface area, 36 333 +/- 18 157 mu m(2); number of basal trees, 5.55 +/- 1.47; dendritic diameter, 0.76 +/- 0.28 mu m). Eighteen features showed a significant gradual increase with depth from the pia (e.g., dendritic length and soma radius). The other features showed weak or no correlation with depth (e.g., dendritic diameter). The basal dendritic terminals in HL2/L3 PCs are particularly elongated, enabling multiple nonlinear processing units in these dendrites. Unlike the morphological features, the active biophysical features (e.g., spike
Neurons in the human medial temporal lobe (MTL) that are selective for the identity of specific people are classically thought to encode identity invariant to
Studies of primates and of patients with brain lesions have shown that the visual system represents the external world in regions and pathways specialized to compute visual features and attributes. For example, object recognition is performed by a ventral pathway located in the inferior portion of the temporal lobe. We studied visual processing of words and word-like stimuli (letter-strings) by recording field potentials directly from the human inferior temporal lobe. Our results showed that two discrete portions of the fusiform gyrus responded preferentially to letter-strings. A region of the posterior fusiform gyrus responded equally to words and non-words, and was unaffected by the semantic context in which words were presented. In contrast, a region of the anterior fusiform gyrus was sensitive to these stimulus dimensions. These regions were distinct from areas that responded to other types of complex visual stimuli, including faces and coloured patterns, and thus form a functionally specialized
TY - JOUR. T1 - Material-specific lateralization in the medial temporal lobe and prefrontal cortex during memory encoding. AU - Golby, Alexandra J.. AU - Poldrack, Russell A.. AU - Brewer, James B.. AU - Spencer, David. AU - Desmond, John E.. AU - Aron, Arthur P.. AU - Gabrieli, John D.E.. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. N2 - Numerous observations in patients with unilateral lesions of the medial temporal lobe (MTL) and the prefrontal cortex indicate that memory processes are lateralized according to content. Left-sided lesions interfere with verbal memory processes, whereas right-sided lesions interfere with visuospatial (non-verbal) memory processes. However, functional imaging studies have resulted in contradictory data, some studies showing lateralization in the prefrontal cortex determined by stage of processing (encoding versus retrieval) and others suggesting that lateralization is dependent on the type of material. Few studies have examined this issue in the MTL. In order to test the hypothesis ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Automatic temporal lobe atrophy assessment in prodromal AD: Data from the DESCRIPA study. AU - Chincarini, Andrea. AU - Bosco, Paolo. AU - Gemme, Gianluca. AU - Esposito, Mario. AU - Rei, Luca. AU - Squarcia, Sandro. AU - Bellotti, Roberto. AU - Minthon, Lennart. AU - Frisoni, Giovanni. AU - Scheltens, Philip. AU - Froelich, Lutz. AU - Soininen, Hilkka. AU - Visser, Pieter-Jelle. AU - Nobili, Flavio. PY - 2014/7. Y1 - 2014/7. KW - MRI. KW - Image analysis. KW - Memory clinics. KW - Naturalistic population. KW - Alzheimers disease. KW - Medial temporal lobe. KW - Hippocampus. U2 - 10.1016/j.jalz.2013.05.1774. DO - 10.1016/j.jalz.2013.05.1774. M3 - Article. C2 - 24035058. VL - 10. SP - 456. EP - 467. JO - Alzheimers & Dementia. JF - Alzheimers & Dementia. SN - 1552-5260. IS - 4. ER - ...
The distribution of beta-amyloid protein (beta A4) was examined in the medial temporal lobes from cases of Alzheimers disease (AD) (n = 13), senile dementia of Lewy body type (SDLT) (n = 12) and age matched controls (n = 9). Using a previously described image analysis technique the extent of beta A4 pathology was determined in ten distinct anatomical sites within the medial temporal lobe. AD and SDLT cases contained very similar amounts of beta A4 in the areas sampled and both contained significantly more beta A4 than the age matched controls, particularly in the dentate and parahippocampal gyri. The similarity of the beta A4 load in the two conditions is in contrast to reported differences in the number of neurofibrillary tangles which can be observed. It is suggested that AD and SDLT represent a spectrum of pathology which centres around the aberrant processing of the beta A4 precursor protein.. ...
Recent research has demonstrated (a) that the perirhinal cortex (PRC) encodes complex object-level configurations of features, and (b) these representations participate in discriminating familiar versus novel configurations. The ventral visual stream is able to identify familiar object parts as such even in the face of PRC damage, although it cannot identify their configuration as correct or incorrect Barense et al. (2011). Here, we use fMRI to investigate whether extrastriate cortex in the intact brain a). is sensitive to the configuration of parts of familiar objects and b). covaries with activation in the PRC. Participants viewed peripherally presented silhouettes (nearest edge 4°) that portrayed familiar or novel objects. There were 3 types of silhouettes: familiar configurations (objects that exist in the real world); part-rearranged novel configurations (rearranged parts of the familiar configurations); and novel configurations created by (inverted part-rearranged novel configurations) ...
If we can access a non-local reality, then paranormal abilities could be analyzed as being based on normal right temporal lobe function. For example, remote viewing is well documented in the laboratory and is shown to be independent of time and distance(Dunne 1987,Utts 1996) . If we are able to access non-local reality, remote viewing would not only be possible, but expected to be independent of time and space. Sheldrake has already proposed a model of morphic forms. These are patterns of energy in nature which correspond to the physical bodies, memories, and behaviors of living organisms. I am adding to this model the speculation that our right temporal lobe is the mediator of morphic resonance, the postulated interaction between our brains and morphic forms. Becker(1985,1990) presents evidence that biological resonance and absorption and even transfer of energy occurs at the specific frequency range at which the hydrogen atom proton is effected by nuclear magnetic resonance. He ...
Optimal perceptual decisions require sensory signals to be combined with prior information about stimulus probability. Although several theories propose that probabilistic information about stimulus occurrence is encoded in sensory cortex, evidence from neuronal recordings has not yet fully supported this view. We recorded activity from single neurons in inferior temporal cortex (IT) while monkeys performed a task that involved discriminating degraded images of faces and fruit. The relative probability of the cue being a face versus a fruit was manipulated by a latent variable that was not revealed to the monkeys and that changed unpredictably over the course of each recording session. In addition to responding to stimulus identity (face or fruit), population responses in IT encoded the long-term stimulus probability of whether a face or a fruit stimulus was more likely to occur. Face-responsive neurons showed reduced firing rates to expected faces, an effect consistent with expectation suppression,
High intakes of fat have been linked to greater cognitive decline in old age, but such associations may already occur in younger adults. We tested memory and learning in 38 women (25-45 years old), recruited for a larger observational study in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. These women varied in health status, though not significantly between cases (n=23) and controls (n=15). Performance on tests sensitive to medial temporal lobe function (CANTABeclipse, Cambridge Cognition Ltd.), i.e. verbal memory, visuo-spatial learning and delayed pattern matching, were compared with intakes of macronutrients from 7-day diet diaries and physiological indices of metabolic syndrome. Partial correlations were adjusted for age, activity and verbal IQ (National Adult Reading Test). Greater intakes of saturated and trans fats, and higher saturated to unsaturated fat ratio (Sat:UFA), were associated with more errors on the visuo-spatial task and with poorer word recall and recognition. Unexpectedly, higher UFA
3H-Spiroperidol labels multiple high affinity states with serotonergic selectivity in human prefrontal cortex and with dopaminergic selectivity in human caudate and putamen. The characteristics of...
Autor: Qin, Shaozheng et al.; Genre: Zeitschriftenartikel; Im Druck veröffentlicht: 2009; Open Access; Keywords: Episodic memory|br/|Hippocampus|br/|Parahippocampal cortex|br/|Perirhinal cortex|br/|Prefrontal cortex; Titel: Dissecting medial temporal lobe contributions to item and associative|br/|memory formation
I got an CT scan yesterday and the nurse gave me the results to day. They want to do an MRI of my head. My symptoms have been blurred vision for the past 6 or 7 months and some medium to severe pain ...
Visual search is a fundamental human behavior, providing a gateway to understanding other sensory domains as well as the role of search in higher-order cognition. Search has been proposed to include two component processes: inefficient search (search) and efficient search (pop-out). According to extant research, these two processes map onto two separable neural systems located in the frontal and parietal association cortices. In this study, we use intracranial recordings from 23 participants to delineate the neural correlates of search and pop-out with an unprecedented combination of spatiotemporal resolution and coverage across cortical and subcortical structures. First, we demonstrate a role for the medial temporal lobe in visual search, on par with engagement in frontal and parietal association cortex. Second, we show a gradient of increasing engagement over anatomical space from dorsal to ventral lateral frontal cortex. Third, we confirm previous intracranial work demonstrating nearly ...
This safe, noninvasive technique can be used to manipulate the competition between the left and right hemispheres of the brain by inhibiting and/or activating certain networks, they explained. According to Chi and Snyder, the right anterior temporal lobe is associated with insight or finding new meaning, and the inhibition of activity in the left anterior temporal lobe can lead to thinking that is less likely to be influenced by preconceptions. However, the authors noted that more research is needed ...
It is widely assumed that incipient protein pathology in the medial temporal lobe instigates the loss of episodic memory in Alzheimers disease, one of the earliest cognitive deficits in this type of dementia. Within this region, the hippocampus is seen as the most vital for episodic memory. Consequ …
The medial temporal lobe (MTL) plays a critical role in the rapid formation of episodic memories in human and nonhuman primates, while research performed in fre...
Field potentials were recorded from intracranial electrodes in humans to study language-related processing. Subjects viewed sentences in which each word was presented successively in the center of a video monitor. Half of the sentences ended normally, while the other half ended with a semantically anomalous word. The anomalous sentence-ending words elicited a large negative field potential with a peak latency near 400 msec, which was focally distributed bilaterally in the anterior medial temporal lobe (AMTL), anterior to the hippocampus and near the amygdala. Subdural electrodes positioned near the collateral sulcus just inferior and lateral to the amygdala recorded a positive field potential at the same latency. This spatial distribution of voltage suggested that this language-sensitive field potential was generated in the neocortex near the collateral sulcus and anterior fusiform gyrus. Additional task-related field potentials were recorded in the hippocampus. The AMTL field potential at 400 msec
Wilson MA, Joubert S, Ferré P, Belleville S, Ansaldo AI, Joanette Y, et al. The role of the left anterior temporal lobe in exception word reading: reconciling patient and neuroimaging findings. Neuroimage. 2012;60(4):2000-7. ...
The middle temporal gyrus is one of three gyri on the lateral surface of the temporal lobe. Gross anatomy The middle temporal gyrus is bounded dorsally by the superior temporal sulcus and superior temporal gyrus and ventrally by the inferior te...
There has been considerable debate as to whether the hippocampus and perirhinal cortex may subserve both memory and perception. We administered a series of oddity tasks, in which subjects selected the odd stimulus from a visual array, to amnesic patients with either selective hippocampal damage (HC group) or more extensive medial temporal damage, including the perirhinal cortex (MTL group). All patients performed normally when the stimuli could be discriminated using simple visual features, even if faces or complex virtual reality scenes were presented. Both patient groups were, however, severely impaired at scene discrimination when a significant demand was placed on processing spatial information across viewpoint independent representations, while only the MTL group showed a significant deficit in oddity judgments of faces and objects when object viewpoint independent perception was emphasized. These observations provide compelling evidence that the human hippocampus and perirhinal cortex are critical
Sasikumar, D., Emeric, E., Stuphorn, V., & Connor, C.E. (2018). First-pass processing of value cues in the ventral visual pathway. Current Biology 28: 538-548.. Connor, C.E., & Knierim, J.J. (2017). Integration of objects and space in perception and memory. Nature Neuroscience 20: 1493-1503.. Vaziri, S., & Connor, C. E. (2016). Representation of Gravity-Aligned Scene Structure in Ventral Pathway Visual Cortex. Current Biology 26: 766-774.. Connor, C. E., & Stuphorn, V. (2015). The Decision Path Not Taken. Neuron 87: 1128-1130.. Vaziri, S., Carlson, E.T., Wang, Z., & Connor, C.E. (2014). A channel for 3D environmental shape in anterior inferotemporal cortex. Neuron 84: 55-62. PMCID: PMC4247160.. Connor, C. E. (2014). Cortical geography is destiny. Nature Neuroscience 17: 1631-1632.. Yau, J.M., Connor, C.E., & Hsiao, S.S. (2013). Representation of tactile curvature in macaque somatosensory area 2. Journal of Neurophysiology 109: 2999--3012.. Hung, C.-C., Carlson, E.T., Connor, C.E. (2012) Medial ...
We studied the responses of single neurons in the human medial temporal lobe while subjects viewed familiar faces, animals, and landmarks. By progressively shortening the duration of stimulus presentation, coupled with backward masking, we show two striking properties of these neurons. (i) Their responses are not statistically different for the 33-ms, 66-ms, and 132-ms stimulus durations, and only for the 264-ms presentations there is a significantly higher firing. (ii) These responses follow conscious perception, as indicated by the subjects recognition report. Remarkably, when recognized, a single snapshot as brief as 33 ms was sufficient to trigger strong single-unit responses far outlasting stimulus presentation. These results suggest that neurons in the medial temporal lobe can reflect conscious recognition by all-or-none responses ...
Axmacher:2008dk. Ripples in the medial temporal lobe are relevant for human memory consolidation. N. Axmacher and C. E. Elger and J. Fell. Brain 131 1806-17 (2008). http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/awn103. High-frequency oscillations (ripples) have been described in the hippocampus and rhinal cortex of both animals and human subjects and have been linked to replay and consolidation of previously acquired information. More specifically, studies in rodents suggested that ripples are generated in the hippocampus and are then transferred into the rhinal cortex, and that they occur predominantly during negative half waves of neocortical slow oscillations. Recordings in human epilepsy patients used either microelectrodes or foramen ovale electrodes; it is thus unclear whether macroelectrodes, which are routinely used for pre-surgical investigations, allow the recording of ripples as well. Furthermore, no direct link between ripples and behavioural performance has yet been established. Here, we recorded ...
Caveat: for researchers interested in differentiating the pathologies associated with the various forms of frontotemporal dementia, AD, and related diseases, the ATL pathology in SD may very well be considered to be focal in the sense that the bulk of the atrophy and hypometabolism, at least in early stages of the disease, is in the anterior half of the temporal lobes. So if claims about the ATL being a semantic hub (or some similar concept) are willing to include in their definition of ATL a number of different anatomical structures and cytoarchitectonic fields, including both neocortex and limbic structures (hippocampus, amygdala), with posterior involvement including roughly half of the temporal lobe ventro-laterally, then I think SD can provide reasonable support for this idea. My own interest in the link between SD and the ATL came out of claims that used SD to argue that the lateral anterior temporal lobe (i.e., those regions corresponding to sentence-specific activations, and ...
In a RT-PCR approach using human postmortem cerebral tissue from different brain regions several EPB41 (erythrocyte protein band 4.1) spliceforms could be generated. The amplificates were cloned and two of the highmolecular EPB41 spliceforms Klon 9 and Klon 13 were characterized. Klon 9 is a new spliceform, Klon13 is identical with EPB41 (accesion number AF156225). In an in situ hybridization study the EPB41 spliceforms were detected in almost all neurons of the temporal cortex and the hippocampus. Immunhistochemical localization of the p4.1R immunreactive proteins in human temporal cortex using p4.1R specific peptide antibodies, confirmed these results. The stning pattern of soma and dendrites of the neurones was punctuated. In Western Blot experiments a 110 kDa and 120 kDa p4.1R immunreactive proteinband was detected. A regulation of the protein 4.1R immunreactive proteins as well as the mRNA of protein 4.1 was found in experiments in which the functional pool of Rho GTPases in hippocampal ...
Occipital lobe -- The occipital lobe receives and processes visual information directly from the eyes and relates this information to the parietal lobe (Wernickes area) and motor cortex (frontal lobe). One of the things it must do is interpret the upside-down images of the world that are projected onto the retina by the lens of the eye.. Temporal lobe -- The temporal lobe processes auditory information from the ears and relates it to Wernickes area of the parietal lobe and the motor cortex of the frontal lobe.. ...
The ability to recognize a previously experienced stimulus is supported by two processes: recollection of the stimulus in the context of other information associated with the experience, and a sense of familiarity with the features of the stimulus. Although familiarity and recollection are functiona …
To me, one of the most interesting results of this exciting study is the clear initial appearance of tau in the medial temporal lobe without notable neocortical tau. Although the medial temporal lobe has long been recognized as the initial site of tau pathology in sporadic AD (Braak and Braak, 1991), this does not necessarily have to translate to genetically determined forms of the disease. While there is accumulating evidence that genetically determined and sporadic forms of AD follow similar pathogenetic trajectories when observed on global biomarker levels (i.e., amyloid then tau then neurodegeneration), there may be important regional differences in the onset and evolution of the different types of pathology. For example, studies analyzing amyloid-PET data on a regional level have reported a very early striatal amyloid deposition in autosomal-dominant AD that appears before the occurrence of neocortical amyloid (Klunk et al., 2007). This is in striking contrast to the late-stage striatal ...
MUTATIONS PSEN1 73637540 GRCh37 (105) A T Exon 4 Point, Missense Coding Unknown. Unknown, but in one patient, MRI showed moderate frontal cortex atrophy, PiB-PET no amyloid deposition, FDG-PET mild hypometabolism in the lateral temporal lobe. CSF Aβ and tau were .... ...
My wife had a seizure Thursday afternoon. It appeared she was having a stroke and after many hours, many tests and two hospitals we found out she has a malignant brain tumor. While bad, there is a lot of optimistic news with it. It is operable and the location of the tumor means there wont be any lasting issues from the surgery. The tumor is very near the surface in the right temporal lobe. They think its a primary tumor meaning it didnt come from some place else. The surgeon said it would
New research shows that people who behave more altruistically have more gray matter at the junction between the parietal and temporal lobes. This shows, for the
The main underlying idea I keep coming back to is hierarchy (both in terms of sensation and action). It makes so much sense. Low-level sensory inputs are combined into higher-level representations. In the cerebral cortex this occurs within modalities at first. Higher up in the hierarchy it occurs across modalities. So the highest levels of the sensory hierarchy represent very abstract states, combining all sensory input. Most of this seems to occur in the occipital, parietal, and temporal lobes ...
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അനുമസ്തിഷ്കത്തിലെ കേന്ദ്രബിന്ദുക്കളിൽനിന്നും പുറപ്പെടുന്ന നാഡികൾ നാരുകളായി മാറുക, അനുമസ്തിഷ്കത്തിലെ രക്തക്കുഴലിൽ രക്തം കട്ടപിടിക്കുക, രക്തക്കുഴൽ പൊട്ടി രക്തം ചിതറുക എന്നീ ക്രമക്കേടുകൾകൊണ്ട് അനുമസ്തിഷ്കത്തിന്റെ പ്രവർത്തനത്തിൽ മാറ്റം സംഭവിക്കുന്നു. പലതരം രോഗങ്ങൾ അനുമസ്തിഷ്കത്തെ ബാധിക്കാറുണ്ട്.പ്രമസ്തിഷ്കപർവകപാളി(floculo-nodular lobe)യെ ബാധിക്കുന്ന ഒരു പ്രധാന രോഗമാണ് ...
Mesial versus lateral. Temporal lobe epilepsy is the most common seizure disorder in adults. While mesial temporal lobe epilepsy can be associated with olfactory hallucinations, deja vu and epigastric auras, temporal lobe seizures arising from the lateral cortex rather than the hippocampus may present with auditory hallucinations as the initial seizure symptoms. While the genetics of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy remains poorly understood, the genetics of the far less common lateral temporal lobe epilepsies had major breakthrough when mutations in LGI1 were discovered in familial cases. LGI1, a secreted presynaptic protein, has mystified the field for over a decade, given that we have problems understanding how a highly localized form of epilepsy can be caused by a global genetic defect. In their recent study in AJHG, Dazzo and collaborators add another confusing piece to the puzzle. They identify RELN (reelin) mutations in families with autosomal dominant lateral temporal lobe epilepsy ...
Define temporal lobe epilepsy. temporal lobe epilepsy synonyms, temporal lobe epilepsy pronunciation, temporal lobe epilepsy translation, English dictionary definition of temporal lobe epilepsy. Noun 1. temporal lobe epilepsy - epilepsy characterized clinically by impairment of consciousness and amnesia for the episode; often involves purposeful...
Introduction: Weight loss has been described in 20% to 45% of patients with Alzheimers disease (AD) and has been associated with adverse outcomes. Various mechanisms for weight loss in AD patients have been proposed, though none has been proven. This study aimed to elucidate a mechanism of weight loss in AD patients by examining the hypothesis that weight loss is associated with medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA). Methods: Patients from the Frisian Alzheimers disease cohort study (a retrospective, longitudinal study of 576 community-dwelling AD patients) were included when a brain MRI was performed on which MTA could be assessed. To investigate the hypothesis that weight loss is associated with MTA, we investigated whether the trajectory of body weight change depends on the severity of MTA at the time of diagnosis (that is baseline). We hypothesized that patients with more severe MTA at baseline would have a lower body weight at baseline and a faster decrease in body weight during the course of ...
temporal lobe - MedHelps temporal lobe Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for temporal lobe. Find temporal lobe information, treatments for temporal lobe and temporal lobe symptoms.
Methods Serum and CSF levels of anti-Aβ autoantibodies and CSF biomarkers were evaluated in 68 patients with cognitive impairment, comprising 44 patients with AD, 19 patients with amnestic MCI and five patients with non-Alzheimers dementia. The degree of brain atrophy was assessed using the voxel-based specific regional analysis system for AD, which targets the volume of interest (VOI) in medial temporal structures, including the whole hippocampus, entorhinal cortex and amygdala. ...
Find the best temporal lobe epilepsy doctors in Delhi NCR. Get guidance from medical experts to select temporal lobe epilepsy specialist in Delhi NCR from trusted hospitals - credihealth.com
Medial temporal lobe structures such as the hippocampus have been shown to play a critical role in mnemonic processes, with additional recruitment of the amygdala when memories contain emotional content. Thus far, studies that have examined the relationship between amygdala activity and memory have typically relied on emotional content of the kind that is rarely encountered in day-to-day interactions. The present event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging study investigates whether amygdala activity supports emotional memory during the more subtle social interactions that punctuate everyday life. Across four training sessions, subjects learned common first names for unfamiliar faces in the presence or absence of additional contextual information that was positive, negative, and neutral in valence (e.g., Emily helps the homeless, Bob is a deadbeat dad, Eric likes carrots). During scanning, subjects performed a yes/no recognition memory test on studied and novel faces. Results ...
BRÁZDIL, Milan, Pavel CHLEBUS, Michal MIKL, Marta PAŽOURKOVÁ, Petr KRUPA a Ivan REKTOR. \textit{Reorganization of language-related neuronal networks in patients with left temporal lobe epilepsy - an fMRI study.}. \textit{European Journal of Neurology}, 2005, roč.~12, č.~12, s.~268-275. ISSN~1351-5101 ...
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Because there is no clear, identifiable stimulus that elicits a déjà vu experience (it is a retrospective report from an individual), it is very difficult to study déjà vu in a laboratory, said Michelle Hook, Ph.D., assistant professor in the Department of Neuroscience and Experimental Therapeutics, at the Texas A&M Health Science Center College of Medicine. Episodes of déjà vu may be closely related to how memory is stored in the brain. Retention of long-term memories, events and facts are stored in the temporal lobes, and, specific parts of the temporal lobe are also integral for the detection of familiarity, and the recognition of certain events. The takeaway: The temporal lobe is where you make and store your memories.. While déjà vus connection to the temporal lobe and memory retention is still relatively unknown, clues about the condition were derived from people who suffer from temporal lobe epilepsy (a condition in which nerve cell activity in the brain is disturbed-causing ...
Kids with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) have seizures that start in one of the temporal lobes of the brain. Seizures usually get better with medicine.
Kids with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) have seizures that start in one of the temporal lobes of the brain. Seizures usually get better with medicine.
Schizophrenia has been hypothesized to be associated with an underlying brain developmental anomaly, specifically affecting normal brain asymmetries. The most pronounced asymmetries are present on the superior surface of the temporal lobes, the left plane, as measured along the sylvian fissure (planum temporale) being longer than the right in the majority of normal individuals. These asymmetries encompass Wernickes area, the anatomical substrate for language, and have been found to be less pronounced in individuals with developmental language problems, i.e. dyslexia. Since disordered language is one of the hallmarks of schizophrenia, the present study focuses on the planum temporale and related superior temporal gyrus. Eighty-five first-episode schizophrenic patients and 40 controls had measurements of the sylvian fissure taken from coronal slices. The pattern of asymmetry in controls was for the right length to be longer than the left in anterior slices, and for left to be longer than right in ...
Brain lobar volumes are heritable but genetic studies are limited. We performed genome-wide association studies of frontal, occipital, parietal and temporal lobe volumes in 16,016 individuals, and replicated our findings in 8,789 individuals. We identified six genetic loci associated with specific lobar volumes independent of intracranial volume. Two loci, associated with occipital (6q22.32) and temporal lobe volume (12q14.3), were previously reported to associate with intracranial and hippocampal volume, respectively. We identified four loci previously unknown to affect brain volumes: 3q24 for parietal lobe volume, and 1q22, 4p16.3 and 14q23.1 for occipital lobe volume. The associated variants were located in regions enriched for histone modifications (DAAM1 and THBS3), or close to genes causing Mendelian brain-related diseases (ZIC4 and FGFRL1). No genetic overlap between lobar volumes and neurological or psychiatric diseases was observed. Our findings reveal part of the complex genetics ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Decreased fronto-temporal interaction during fixation after memory retrieval. AU - Katsura, Masaki. AU - Hirose, Satoshi. AU - Sasaki, Hiroki. AU - Mori, Harushi. AU - Kunimatsu, Akira. AU - Ohtomo, Kuni. AU - Jimura, Koji. AU - Konishi, Seiki. PY - 2014/10/23. Y1 - 2014/10/23. N2 - Previous studies have revealed top-down control during memory retrieval from the prefrontal cortex to the temporal cortex. In the present functional MRI study, we investigated whether the fronto-temporal functional interaction occurs even during fixation periods after memory retrieval trials. During recency judgments, subjects judged the temporal order of two items in a study list. The task used in the present study consisted of memory trials of recency judgments and non-memory trials of counting dots, and post-trial fixation periods. By comparing the brain activity during the fixation periods after the memory trials with that during the fixation periods after the non-memory trials, we detected ...
tumors present considerable challenges from the point of view of diagnosis and therapeutic management. temporoparietal region 15 years previously was referred to our outpatient clinic. He presented with a tumor that had CP-673451 increased in size over the previous four years in that area (Fig. 1A). A biopsy of the tumor revealed a cutaneous meningioma. An imaging study using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed encephalomalacia with discrete foci of reactive gliosis in the frontal medium and temporal left gyrus. A left temporoparietal fracture which may have been old was identified as well as a 24×38×39-mm mass of extracranial soft tissue reaching the skin CP-673451 (Fig. 1B). No infiltrations of the underlying bone or intracranial components were observed. Fig. 1 (A) Skin tumor in the temporoparietal region. (B) T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. The tumor is hyperintense relative to the gray matter. A bloc resection was performed including a skin segment infiltrated by the tumor the ...
Brain lesions in the diencephalon produce an acquisition or learning deficit but do not affect the forgetting rate on recognition testing, once learning had been accomplished.1 On the other hand, it has been claimed that temporal lobe lesions do indeed produce accelerated forgetting between delays from 10 minutes to 1 week after presentation of test stimuli.2 3 This finding was based originally on findings in one patient, HM,2 in whom the results were not replicated when he was tested on different occasions.4 Moreover, when the original test procedure1 2 was used in various groups of patients with actual or presumed temporal lobe pathology-including patients with Alzheimers disease,5 6 patients with head injury (out of the period of post-traumatic amnesia),3 and patients with anoxic brain damage7-the findings failed to substantiate the original hypothesis. In general, patients with temporal lobe lesions do not forget faster than either healthy controls or other groups of amnesic patients, once ...
One of the most common types of epilepsy - mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) - is characterized by spontaneous and recurrent partial seizures. Furthermore, m...
Reduced D2-D3 Receptor Binding of Extrastriatal and Striatal Regions in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Teams of researchers from Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin and the Medical University of Innsbruck have developed a new therapeutic concept for the treatment of temporal lobe epilepsy.
Temporal Lobe Epilepsy by Candi Wernz Im an 18-year-old starting my second year of college. I was given a scholarship for one full year instead of going...
We describe corticosteroid-responsive focal granulomatous encephalitis as a manifestation of herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 disease in the brain: something easily missed and easily treated. Two adult cases presented with cognitive symptoms progressing over weeks, despite aciclovir treatment. Brain imaging showed temporal lobe abnormalities, with gadolinium enhancement but no abnormal diffusion restriction. HSV-1 PCR analysis was negative in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) but positive in brain biopsies, which showed vasocentric granulomatous inflammation. Paired blood and CSF samples showed intrathecal synthesis of HSV-1 type-specific IgG. The patients improved clinically only after immunosuppression. Despite profound cognitive impairment at their clinical nadir, both patients recovered fully. We suggest that, at least in a subset of patients with HSV-1 encephalitis, adjunctive corticosteroid treatment is critical to improve the outcome of the disease. ...
File:PET Alzheimer.jpg,thumbnail,250px,right,A PET scan of the brain of an individual with Alzheimers disease reveals a loss of function in the [[Temporal lobes,temporal lobe]].]] [[Alzheimers disease]] is characterised by loss of neurons and synapses in the [[cerebral cortex]] and certain subcortical regions. This loss results in gross atrophy of the affected regions, including degeneration in the [[temporal lobes,temporal lobe]] and [[parietal lobe]], and parts of the frontal cortex and cingulate gyrus.,ref>[http://www.news-medical.net/health/Neurodegeneration-in-Alzheimers-and-Parkinsons.aspx Neurodegeneration in Alzheimers and Parkinsons],/ref> Some of the primary symptoms of Alzheimers disease are: memory problems, mood swings, emotional outbursts, brain stem damage which impairs function in the heart, lungs plus causes disruption of various other bodily processes.,ref>[http://www.dementiacarecentral.com/node/559 Alzheimers disease],/ref> The current global [[Atheist ...
Phillips and her team are the first to use high-resolution, whole-brain MRI data and sophisticated analysis techniques to measure cortical thickness and tissue density within specific brain areas. Namely, they investigated language and cognition control areas in the frontal regions of the brain, and medial temporal lobe structures that are important for memory, and are brain areas known to atrophy in MCI and AD patients.. Previous studies used CT scans, which are a much less sensitive measure, says Phillips, founding director of Concordias Cognition, Aging and Psychophysiology (CAP) Lab.. The study looked at MRIs from participating patients from the Jewish General Hospital Memory Clinic in Montreal.. Their sample included 34 monolingual MCI patients, 34 multilingual MCI patients, 13 monolingual AD patients and 13 multilingual AD patients.. Phillips believes their study is the first to assess the structure of MCI and AD patients language and cognition control regions. It is also the first to ...
So he decided to take a MRI Scan of my brain, And it reported that I have an infract on right temporal lobe, because of that I got an unusual mild stroke in youg age. I used Asprin for 3 months to improve blood circulation to brain as per doctors suggetion. I find a very little change after 9 months ...
First and most importantly, you should know why this happens. The part that is responsible for our speech and communication is the cerebrum. Since its the largest part of the brain, the cerebrum further divides into two parts, the hemispheres. A bundle of nerves known as corpus callosum connects the two halves. The left side of the cerebrum is primarily responsible for our speech.. The cerebrum is the center of processing, learning, and forming speech. The whole process of speaking, forming sentences, and understanding our thoughts before speaking out loud, is done with the help of other parts of the brain.. From cerebrum to Brocas area, Wernickes area, cerebellum, and motor cortex, all parts perform a different role. The cerebrum, which is most of the brain, comprises of the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes. The frontal and temporal lobes are mainly in charge of understanding and speech formation.. Brocas and Wernickes areas work with converting the thought into articulated ...
Working with the #Imagenetics @SanfordHealth to provide real world evidence about genetic testing as an elective service in primary care. Proud of the first of many reports to come about the program and its impact! https://bit.ly/31CDzXM @PROMoTeR_DPM @CHeRP_DPM @ ...
Insulin sensitivity as indexed by the HOMA value in our community-based data shows strong links to deficits in speech production. We are the first to demonstrate this in a negative association between the HOMA value and VF scores in cognitively healthy, nondiabetic elderly men and women. Furthermore, we found that HOMA is negatively coupled with gray matter volume in the temporal lobe (specifically BAs 21 and 22) brain regions that support language ability (3,28,29). Corroborating previous findings (27), we show that the HOMA value is negatively correlated with total brain size as well. In contrast, separate analyses in the cognitively impaired and diabetic subgroups did not produce significant associations. These results provide evidence that fluctuations in insulin sensitivity in cognitively healthy, nondiabetic elderly men and women (independent of sex effects) are linked to changes in cognitive performance and brain volume.. Both impaired glucose tolerance and increased HOMA values have been ...
We found that almost all ACC neurons increased their activity just before hippocampal ripple activity during SWS. This observation is consistent with recent animal and human studies showing that cortical slow waves typically begin in the cortex and only later reach medial temporal lobe structures and the hippocampus (Isomura et al., 2006; Nir et al., 2011). Moreover, we observed that ripple activity increased during ACC up states, and decreased during the down state. This is in line with a number of studies showing that hippocampal ripple activity occurs preferentially during the depolarized up states of cortical slow oscillation (Sirota et al., 2003; Isomura et al., 2006; Mölle et al., 2006; Nir et al., 2011; but see Battaglia et al., 2004; Hahn et al., 2007). These observations led to the hypothesis that the cortex initiates or modulates hippocampal activity to supervise the signal transduction and memory consolidation process (Sirota et al., 2003; Ji and Wilson, 2007). In other words, ...
The argument that temporal lobe epilepsy is the cause of hallucinations mistakenly viewed as paranormal, is not a new one having being announced and concluded a grea...
1) Neocortex - the whole large sheet of brain cells on the brains outer surface, folded up into the skull giving it the appearance of a walnut.. 2) Frontal lobe - the region of the neocortex at the front of the brain, behind the forehead, which is much larger in humans than our monkey cousins and enables us to do all those complex functions that other primates cannot.. 3) Brainstem - the part of the brain that ninja assasins aim for with their deadly chop where neck meets skull, it is involved in coordinating all the vital bodily functions that keep us alive e.g. breathing and heart rates.. 4) Hippocampus - key brain area at the core of the temporal lobes (which run horizontally down the sides of the head from the temple to behind the ears) which is heavily involved in not just creating, but also retrieving memories. It also creates new brain cells in response to exercise!. 5) Neural node - erm, I think they just needed something sciency sounding to rhyme with the other lines. The image THE ...
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Despite a strong correlation to severity of AD pathology, the measurement of medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) is not being widely used in daily clinical practice as a criterion in the diagnosis of prodromal and probable AD. This is mainly because the methods available to date are sophisticated and difficult to implement for routine use in most hospitals-volumetric methods-or lack objectivity-visual rating scales. In this pilot study we aim to describe a new, simple and objective method for measuring the rate of MTA in relation to the global atrophy using clinically available neuroimaging and describe the rationale behind this method ...
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How young adults remember events may occur in a different part of the brain to older adults, meaning that perhaps a developmental change takes place in the brain in older adulthood, according to new research.. The research, by Gates Scholar Elect Brielle Stark, has been accepted for publication in the Yale Review for Undergraduate Research in Psychology next year. The Review is an annual publication that chooses only six articles a year to publish.. There has been a lot of research on how older adults recollect events (whether they remember events with detail or without), and it is thought that these processes occur in the frontal and medial temporal lobes of the brain. However, research on young adults is much more rare. Brielle, who will start a PhD in Clinical Neurosciences this autumn, wanted to see if the same general brain regions were associated with how events are recollected in young adults as in older adults.. Her research found that the medial temporal lobe, at least in young ...
Hyperplasia of Intermediate Lobe may be related to mutation in the Aryl Hydrocarbon Protein Gene in a Context of Familial Isolated Pituitary Adenoma (FIPA ...
Medical journal Epilepsy and Behavior has a curious case study of a female patient who had the experience of changing sex when she had a seizure. The patient in question had a small tumour near the right amygdala and showed abnormal right temporal lobe activity on an EEG. Interestingly, when she had the experience of…
Multimodal assessment of language and memory reorganization. A proof of concept in two patients with temporal lobe epilepsy.: Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) accou
Brain lobes and their functions pdf, Worksheet for grade 3 grammar pdf, The area or lobe of the brain in which they occur can determine how they will affect a persons body. Here are some of the ways that seizures in different lobes can.
Frontal lobe Brain: Frontal lobe Frontal lobe Temporal lobe Parietal lobe Occipitallobe Principal fissures and lobes of the cerebrum viewed laterally. (Frontal
Gyrus or gyri in the temporal lobe on the inferior bank of lateral sulcus. It might said to be a part of the superior temporal gyrus and sometimes referred to as Herchls gyrus/gyri. ...
One of 4 well-defined portions (i.e. lobes) of each of the cerebral hemisphere that is located lateral and below the occipital and frontal lobes; controls the senses of hearing and smell and...
Question - Infant has not yet attained head holding, fixing gaze. MRI shows mild pre-frontal lobe atrophy. Will he have normal development? . Ask a Doctor about when and why MRI is advised, Ask a Pediatrician
I would like to read newly released papers on the matter. are there any opposing views on this? some says yes ,others says no? I need it for my BA. I need to have 2 papers that contradict each other
Build: Wed Jun 21 18:33:50 EDT 2017 (commit: 4a3b2dc). National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS), 6701 Democracy Boulevard, Bethesda MD 20892-4874 • 301-435-0888. ...
For other uses, see Hippocampus (disambiguation). Brain: Hippocampus The hippocampus is located in the medial temporal lobe of the brain. In this lateral view of the human brain, the frontal lobe is at le
Extra-hippocampal medial temporal lobe (ehMTL) structures, which consists of entorhinal (ERC) and perirhinal (PRC) cortices, receives increasing attention because they are amongst the earliest sites affected by Alzheimer`s Disease (AD) pathology and due to their important and complex role in episodic … Continue reading →. ...
The resection included the right IOG and portions of surrounding gyri, sulci, and white matter (Figs. 1, 3, 4). We aligned data from all fMRI sessions to the presurgical anatomy after defining the locus of the resected tissue (Figs. 1, 4). This approach revealed that all of IOG-faces and the posterior 23.3% of pFus-faces were surgically removed.. Surprisingly, after resection, the cortical topology and extent of pFus-faces in ventral temporal cortex (VTC) remained stable. Even the posterior portion of pFus-faces, which abutted the resection, was similar to its presurgery location. Regions along the STS displayed more variability after resection than regions in VTC (Fig. 4A, bottom). For example, 1 month after surgery, pSTS-faces and mSTS-faces were less activated than before surgery. However, 8 months after surgery, both regions were activated to a similar extent before surgery.. In contrast to the general stability of pFus-faces, pSTS-faces, and mSTS-faces in the resected hemisphere, we ...
Temporal lobe[edit]. This section provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject. Please help improve the ... Jul 1990). "The ipsilateral cortico-cortical connections of area 7b, PF, in the parietal and temporal lobes of the monkey". ... In contrast, the dorsal auditory pathway, projecting from the temporal lobe is largely concerned with processing spatial ... Neurons in the SC also adhere to the 'temporal rule', in which stimulation must occur within close temporal proximity to excite ...
Temporal lobe[edit]. Functions of the temporal lobe are related to many of the deficits observed in individuals with ASDs, such ... The temporal lobe also contains the superior temporal sulcus (STS) and the fusiform face area (FFA), which may mediate facial ... including the frontal lobe, the mirror neuron system, the limbic system, the temporal lobe, and the corpus callosum.[66][67] ...
Williams, D. (1966). "Temporal Lobe Epilepsy". British Medical Journal. 1 (5501): 1439-1442. doi:10.1136/bmj.1.5501.1439. PMC ...
Approximately 80% of temporal lobe seizures produce auras that may lead to micropsia or macropsia. They are a common feature of ... Micropsia often occurs as an aura signalling a seizure in patients with medial temporal lobe epilepsy. Most auras last for a ... It has also been suggested that Carroll may have suffered from temporal lobe epilepsy.[citation needed] Micropsia has also been ... The most frequent neurological origin of micropsia is a result of temporal lobe seizures. These seizures affect the entire ...
Temporal lobe seizures appeared particularly responsive to sultiame. Doubts subsequently arose as to whether sultiame has ... temporal lobe epilepsy; myoclonic seizures; grand mal attacks; and Jacksonian seizures. In contrast to other sulfonamide drugs ...
The development of the Medial Temporal Lobe (MTL), which contains the hippocampus, has been found to specifically have a ... Squire, Larry; Craig Stark; Robert Clark (2004). "The Medial Temporal Lobe". Annual Review of Neuroscience. 27: 279-306. doi: ...
The medial temporal lobes are commonly associated with memory. More specifically, the lobes have been linked to episodic/ ... Thus, the medial temporal lobe, precuneus, superior parietal lobe and posterior cingulate gyrus have all been implicated in ... The medial temporal lobes, the precuneus, the posterior cingulate gyrus and the prefrontal cortex are the most typically ... Psychiatrists suggest that temporal lobe seizures may also have some relation. Conversely, several ideas have been discounted ...
... since strokes can involve the temporal lobe in the temporal cortex, and the temporal cortex houses the hippocampus. Anterograde ... Initially, it is present in the limbic cortices; it may then spread to the adjacent frontal and temporal lobes. Damage to ... In stark contrast, a woman whose temporal lobes were damaged in the front due to encephalitis lost her semantic memory; she ... The most well-described regions indicated in this disorder are the medial temporal lobe (MTL), basal forebrain, and fornix. ...
The ability to encode and retrieve past experiences relies on the circuitry of the medial temporal lobe, a brain structure that ... Many similarities have been found including the role of the medial temporal lobe, a structure including the hippocampus. ... Squire, L.; Stark, C.; Clark, R. (2004). "The Medial Temporal Lobe". Annual Review of Neuroscience. 27: 279-306. doi:10.1146/ ... largely conserved across mammalian species as are the major pathways that information travels between the medial temporal lobe ...
Squire, L. R., Stark, C. E. L., & R. E. Clark (2004). The medial temporal lobe. Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 27:279-306. Bracha, ... As learning proceeds, the olive becomes inhibited and it has been shown that this inhibition has temporal properties that makes ... and the anterior lobe ((ANT) Garcia, Steele, and Mauk, 1999). The importance of cerebellar cortex in EBC, relative to INP, is a ... INP cells discharge prior to CR execution and fire in a pattern of increased frequency of response that predicts the temporal ...
... and the inferior part of the temporal lobe.. *Superior division supplies lateroinferior frontal lobe (location of Broca's area ... Temporal lobe[edit]. *Temporopolar: The artery extends from the sphenoidal segment of the MCA via the inferior surface of the ... This vessel supplies posterior portion of the temporal lobe and is the origin of several perforating arteries that irrigate the ... It also supplies blood to the anterior temporal lobes and the insular cortices. ...
... a neurological disorder resulting from degeneration of the frontal lobes and/or anterior temporal lobes. There are a range of ... Epileptic foci can be found on the temporal lobe, near the amygdala. It has been postulated that there is an increased ... Baird, A.D., Wilson, S.J., Bladin, P.F., Saling, M.M., & Reutens, D.C. (2002). Hypersexuality after temporal lobe resection. ... Previous human studies have shown an association between temporal lobe dysfunction and altered sexual behavior. There has also ...
... temporal lobe with uncus. Anteriorly: superior orbital fissure and the apex of the orbit. Posteriorly: apex of petrous temporal ... human head is one of the dural venous sinuses creating a cavity called the lateral sellar compartment bordered by the temporal ...
Britton W. B., Bootzin R. R. "Near-death experiences and the temporal lobe". Psychol. Sci. 15, 254-58, 2004 Ruttimann, ... temporal lobe dysfunction or seizures; the NMDA receptor; activation of the limbic system; drugs; retinal ischemia; and ...
It is located in the inner part of the temporal lobe, which is found near the division of the left and right hemisphere. The ... The medial temporal lobe is essential for declarative memory, and consists of different regions that contribute towards its ... ISBN 978-1-4419-1427-9. Squire, L. R.; Stark, C. E.; Clark, R. E. (2004). "The medial temporal lobe" (PDF). Annual Review of ... A patient with semantic amnesia would have damage to the temporal lobe. Memory has two classifications-short-term memory and ...
Failure of the temporal lobe is thought to be the cause of this phenomenon because the circuits that connect to memories get ... Temporal lobe epilepsy affects the hippocampus. Patients that suffer from this medical diagnosis are said to have a misfiring ... In Ray Loriga's 1999 novel Tokio ya no nos quiere, Penfield's method of stimulating the temporal lobes is described and ... Of his 520 patients, 40 reported that while their temporal lobe was stimulated with an electrode they would recall dreams, ...
The hippocampus is a structure located in the medial temporal lobe. It is thought to be involved in the encoding, consolidation ... It is generally located on the fusiform gyrus in the temporal lobe, but its precise location varies between individuals. The ... Milner, B. (1966). Amnesia following operation on the temporal lobes. In C.W.M. Whitty & O.L. Zangwill(Eds), Amnesia, (109-133 ... Squire, L.R.; Zola-Morgan, S. (1991). "The medial temporal lobe memory system". Science. 253 (5026): 1380-1386. CiteSeerX 10.1. ...
Efron found that the brain's sorting of incoming signals is done in the temporal lobe of the brain's left hemisphere. However, ... doi:10.1046/j.1474-7766.2003.11136.x. Illman NA, Butler CR, Souchay C, Moulin CJ (2012). "Déjà experiences in temporal lobe ... Déjà vu is associated with temporal lobe epilepsy.[medical citation needed] This experience is a neurological anomaly related ... signals enter the temporal lobe twice before processing, once from each hemisphere of the brain, normally with a slight delay ...
Gu W, Brodtkorb E, Steinlein OK (September 2002). "LGI1 is mutated in familial temporal lobe epilepsy characterized by aphasic ... "LGI1 mutations in temporal lobe epilepsies". Neurology. 62 (7): 1115-9. doi:10.1212/01.wnl.0000118213.94650.81. PMID 15079010. ... adrenergic receptor gene in a heritable form of temporal lobe epilepsy". Neurology. 51 (6): 1730-1. doi:10.1212/wnl.51.6.1730. ... Hedera P, Abou-Khalil B, Crunk AE, Taylor KA, Haines JL, Sutcliffe JS (March 2004). "Autosomal dominant lateral temporal ...
Most patients have temporal lobe epilepsy. Listening, probably also thinking or playing, of usually very specific music with an ... Although musicality is at least in non-musicians predominantly located in the right temporal lobe, the seizure onset may also ... Of the approximately 100 patients reported in the literature so far, about 75% had temporal lobe epilepsy, women were slightly ... Musicogenic seizures can arise from multiple temporal lobe foci: intracranial EEG analyses of three patients. Epilepsia 2006; ...
Lobes in this cortex are more closely associated with memory and in particular autobiographical memory. The temporal lobes are ... The temporal lobes are a region of the cerebral cortex that is located beneath the Sylvian fissure on both the left and right ... It is part of the limbic system, and lies next to the medial temporal lobe. It is made up of two structures, the Ammon's Horn, ... The basal ganglia are a group of nuclei which are located in the medial temporal lobe, above the thalamus and connected to the ...
533-539). Squire, L.R, Zola-Morgan, S. (1991). The medial temporal lobe memory system. In Science (Vol 253, pp. 1380-1386) ... which itself is contained in the medial temporal lobe with close proximity to the hippocampus. Its name comes from the ... One study that used single unit recordings in macaque monkeys found that neurons in middle temporal visual area, also known as ... Maunsell, J. H., & Van Essen, D. C. (1983). Functional properties of neurons in middle temporal visual area of the macaque ...
"It is likely that the earlier accounts of temporal lobe epilepsy and temporal lobe pathology and the relation to mystic and ... and it has been speculated that many religious figures had temporal lobe epilepsy. The temporal lobes generate the feeling of " ... The temporal lobes and adjacent anterior insular cortex seem to be involved in mystical experiences, and in the change in ... Murai T, Hanakawa T, Sengoku A, Ban T, Yoneda Y, Fujita H, Fujita N (1998). "Temporal lobe epilepsy in a genius of natural ...
Morton, N., Gray, N.S., Mellers, J., Toone, B., Lishman, W.A., & Gray, J.A. (1994). Prepulse inhibition in temporal lobe ... 1996). According to one study, people who have temporal lobe epilepsy with psychosis also show decreases in PPI, unlike those ...
Gloor, P. (1997). The Temporal Lobe and Limbic System. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509272-4. v t e. ... In the brain, the angular bundle is a composite fiber tract within the ventrolateral aspect of the lateral ventricle's temporal ...
Seizures in temporal lobe epilepsy can affect the normal development of new neurons and can cause tissue damage. Hippocampal ... This ridge can also be seen as an inward fold of the archicortex into the medial temporal lobe. The hippocampus can only be ... Diana RA, Yonelinas AP, Ranganath C (Sep 2007). "Imaging recollection and familiarity in the medial temporal lobe: a three- ... Some researchers regard the hippocampus as part of a larger medial temporal lobe memory system responsible for general ...
When data from studies of the electrophysiology and neuropathy vis-à-vis temporal lobe epilepsy determines this area to be the ... Of 376 patients who had the amygdalohippocampectomy procedure performed, compared to other types of temporal lobe resections, ... Olivier A (2000). "Transcortical selective amygdalohippocampectomy in temporal lobe epilepsy". Can J Neurol Sci. 27 Suppl 1: ... 25 February 2003). "Practice parameter: Temporal lobe and localized neocortical resections for epilepsy". Neurology. 60 (4): ...
Temporal lobe epilepsy Fyodor Dostoevsky Pope Pius IX Saint Teresa of Ávila Vincent van Gogh Devinsky, J.; Schachter, S. (2009 ... Temporal lobe epilepsy causes chronic, mild, interictal (i.e. between seizures) changes in personality, which slowly intensify ... Only some people with epilepsy or temporal lobe epilepsy show features of Geschwind syndrome. Hypergraphia is the tendency for ... Studies that claim to show no difference in emotional makeup between temporal lobe and other epileptic patients (Guerrant et. ...
He had temporal lobe epilepsy and diabetes. He was eulogized in The New Yorker magazine, by Joyce Carol Oates. In 1973, Jones ...
The temporal lobe seems to be involved in mystical experiences, and in the change in personality that may result from such ... There is a long-standing notion that epilepsy and religion are linked, and some religious figures may have had temporal lobe ... such as temporal lobe epilepsy. The theoretical study of mystical experience has shifted from an experiential, privatized and ... "Sudden religious conversions in temporal lobe epilepsy. 1970" (PDF). Epilepsy & Behavior. 4 (1): 78-87. doi:10.1016/S1525-5050( ...
The frontal lobe and parietal lobe function as integrators of information from multiple sensory modalities. There are some ... neuroscience are useful since they capture the essential features of the biological system at multiple spatial-temporal scales ...
Since then, both techniques have been applied to numerous disorders of frontal and prefrontal lobe function. Sherrill, R. (2004 ... Cannot be used as a temporal measure because changes in blood oxygenation level are not instantaneous ...
A comparison of beta-amyloid deposition in the medial temporal lobe in sporadic Alzheimer's disease, Down's syndrome and normal ...
Thus, kindling has been suggested as a model for temporal lobe epilepsy in humans, where stimulation of a repetitive type ( ... flickering lights for instance) can cause epileptic seizures.[8] Often, people suffering from temporal lobe epilepsy report ...
The earliest amphibians evolved in the Devonian from lobe-finned fish which had jointed leg-like fins with digits. They could ... Temporal range: late Devonian-present, fossil range 370 mya to present. Clockwise from top right: Seymouria, Mexican burrowing ...
Temporal lobe epilepsy. Frontal lobe epilepsy. Rolandic epilepsy. Nocturnal epilepsy. Panayiotopoulos syndrome. Vertiginous ... However, between 5-20% of people with PNES also have epilepsy.[15] Frontal lobe seizures can be mistaken for PNES, though these ...
Temporal lobe: Tumors in this lobe may contribute to poor memory, loss of hearing,[15] difficulty in language comprehension ( ... The brain is divided into 4 lobes and each lobe or area has its own function.[14][15] A tumor in any of these lobes may affect ... Since the frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes[11] control inhibition, emotions, mood, judgement, reasoning, and behavior, a ... Occipital lobe: Damage to this lobe may result in poor or loss of vision.[17] ...
... temporal lobe of the brain), spatial (occipital lobe of the brain) or quantitative information (parietal lobe of the brain).[5] ...
... local neurons and projection neurons reformats the information input from the sensory neurons into a spatio-temporal code ... The antennal lobe is the deutocerebral neuropil of insects which receives the input from the olfactory sensory neurons on the ... Reviews of antennal lobe anatomy[edit]. *. U. Homberg, T. A. Christensen & J. G. Hildebrand (1989). "Structure and function of ... There are 43 glomeruli in the Drosophila antennal lobe; in Aedes aegypti there are 32;[1] locusts and social wasps may have ...
Assert differences in non-temporal knowledge (space-time independence), an approach taken for example by Boethius,[99] Thomas ... In particular, the supplementary motor complex on the medial surface of the frontal lobe appears to activate prior to primary ... Circular causality departs so strongly from the classical tenets of necessity, invariance, and precise temporal order that the ... Using functional magnetic resonance imaging with specialized multivariate analyses to study the temporal dimension in the ...
Fleshy lobe-fins supported on bones seem to have been an ancestral trait of all bony fishes (Osteichthyes). The ancestors of ... Devonian fishes, including an early shark Cladoselache, Eusthenopteron and other lobe-finned fishes, and the placoderm ... Tetrapods evolved from early bony fishes (Osteichthyes), specifically from the tetrapodomorph branch of lobe-finned fishes ( ... The Tetrapodomorph ancestors of the Tetrapods further developed their lobe fins. The paired fins had bones distinctly ...
Temporal lobe. Superolateral. *Transverse temporal gyrus/Auditory cortex *41. *42. *Superior temporal gyrus *38 ... in EEG since the magnetic counterpart N400m measured using MEG has been consistently localized to the superior temporal cortex. ...
In the fictional case of a patient with a cherry-sized tumor pressing on the temporal lobe of his brain, he temporarily ...
Temporal range: Wenlock[1]-Late Devonian, 433-359 Ma PreЄ. Є ... Lobe-finned. *†Onychodontida. *Actinistia *Coelacanth. * ...
The auditory area is located in the temporal lobe. The temporal lobe deals with the recognition and perception of auditory ... a patient with bilateral damage of the amygdala with the rest of the temporal lobe undamaged and found that S.M. was impaired ... This temporal preservation is one way to argue directly for the temporal theory of pitch perception, and to argue indirectly ... the superior temporal sulci of both hemispheres and the superior temporal gyri (which has a skew towards the right hemisphere). ...
... there is less brain volume in the frontal cortex and temporal lobes, and problems within the corpus callosum, the band of nerve ...
... of the frontal lobe.[38] It has also been found that decreased OFC metabolism was correlated with headaches.[38] People ... There is also a temporal relationship between development of depression and initiation of isotretinoin treatment, with most ...
পার্শ্বকরোটি খণ্ডক (Parietal lobe). *পশ্চাৎকরোটি খণ্ডক (Occipital lobe). *রগাঞ্চলীয় খণ্ডক (Temporal lobe) ...
They also have a smaller brain than comparably sized simians, large olfactory lobes for smell, a vomeronasal organ to detect ...
Though Gage is considered the "index case for personality change due to frontal lobe damage"[3][28][29][17] his scientific ... estimated that although "extensive damage occurred to left frontal, left temporal polar, and insular cortex, the best fit rod ... Stuss, D.T.; Gow, C.A.; Hetherington, C.R. (1992). "'No longer Gage': Frontal lobe dysfunction and emotional changes". Journal ... Debate as to whether the trauma and subsequent infection had damaged both of Gage's frontal lobes, or only the left, began ...
... neurons throughout the frontal and temporal lobes of the brain die as well.[35] The pathological hallmark of ALS is the ... "Disruption of ER-mitochondria signalling in fronto-temporal dementia and related amyotrophic lateral sclerosis". Cell Death & ...
The anterior commissure (also known as the precommissure) is a tract that connects the two temporal lobes of the cerebral ... compensatory mechanisms are found in other areas of the corpus callosum and frontal lobe. These compensatory mechanisms, ...
There was bipolar electroencephalographic activity over the occipital, temporal and frontal lobes. Persinger concluded that ...
Rogers, D.J.; Hay, S.I.; Packer, M.J. (1996). "Predicting the distribution of tsetse flies in West Africa using temporal ... dark lobes at the tail (breathing) end. Tsetse pupae are under 1.0 cm long.[9] Within the puparial shell, tsetse complete the ...
It is the second most common type of epilepsy after temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), and is related to the temporal form by the ... On occasion encephalitis can cause frontal lobe seizures but it is most often associated with temporal lobe affliction. The ... and can be further divided into temporal and frontal lobe epilepsy. Although the exact number of cases of frontal lobe epilepsy ... This area receives direct inputs from the primary motor area as well as Wernicke's area located in the temporal lobe.[8] ...
The hind toe also has a small lobe. Recent experimental work has shown that these lobes work like the hydrofoil blades of a ... Temporal range: Oligocene-Holocene, 25-0 Ma PreЄ. Є. O. S ... The feet are always large, with broad lobes on the toes and ...
Klüver, H; Bucy, PC (1939). "Preliminary analysis of functions of the temporal lobes in monkeys". Archives of Neurology and ... parietal and temporal lobes. The term is ambiguous, with some authors[who?] including the paraterminal gyrus, the subcallosal ... The limbic lobe is an arc-shaped region of cortex on the medial surface of each cerebral hemisphere of the mammalian brain, ... Broca named the limbic lobe in 1878, identifying it with the cingulate and parahippocampal gyri, and associating it with the ...
1)-cerebrum (1a)-temporal lobe and (2)-cerebellum. ಐದು ಕಿಲೋಗ್ರಾಂಗಳಷ್ಟು ತೂಕವಿರುವ ಆನೆಯ ಮೆದುಳು ನೆಲದ ಮೇಲಿನ ಯಾವುದೇ ಪ್ರಾಣಿಯ ...
Temporal lobe epilepsy. References[edit]. *^ a b "A Study of Man: The Varieties of Religious Experience". The New York Times. ...
Kids with temporal lobe epilepsy have seizures that start in one of the temporal lobes of the brain. Seizures usually get ... Kids with temporal lobe epilepsy have seizures that start in one of the temporal lobes of the brain. The temporal lobes are on ... What Happens in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy?. The seizures in temporal lobe epilsepsy are focal seizures. Focal seizures begin on ... Epilepsia de lóbulo temporal. What Is Temporal Lobe Epilepsy?. ... Kids with temporal lobe epilepsy can lead a normal life. To ...
In some children the epileptic area is restricted to one discrete area of the brain, for example the temporal lobe; in other ... Of particular importance is the surgery that is performed in or near the temporal lobe which, among other functions, is ... The complex partial seizures (sometimes called temporal lobe seizures or psychomotor seizures), in which consciousness is ... For example, in children with mesial temporal sclerosis, a condition in which there is a well-localized lesion in the temporal ...
In fact, 90% of patients with temporal interictal epileptiform abnormalities on their electroencephalograms (EEGs) have a ... The temporal lobe is the most epileptogenic region of the brain. ... Seizure outcome after temporal lobectomy for temporal lobe ... encoded search term (Temporal%20Lobe%20Epilepsy) and Temporal Lobe Epilepsy What to Read Next on Medscape. Medscape Consult. ... Trans-middle temporal gyrus selective amygdalohippocampectomy for medically intractable mesial temporal lobe epilepsy in adults ...
... A N Nagy annagy at hsc.vcu.edu Fri Jan 14 20:58:43 EST 2000 *Previous message: temporal lobe atrophy ... In our population-based study, we found a strong , correlation between temporal lobe atrophy and impaired lower limb mobility. ... The temporal, , parietal, frontal and temporal atrophy were rated as normal, mild, moderate , and severe. Central atrophy were ... In temporal lobe atrophy it is feasible that adjacent structures may expand or be slightly pulled over to fill the space that ...
Location of temporal lobe. The temporal lobe is located along the sides of your brain. ...
... was diagnosed with a temporal lobe tumour yesterday(size of tangerine). We are seeing a neuro surgeon today for treatment ... Temporal Lobe Tumour langersp Hi My father(57) was diagnosed with a temporal lobe tumour yesterday(size of tangerine). We are ...
It causes seizures that stem from the medial or lateral temporal lobes of the brain. ... Temporal lobe epilepsy is one of 20 different kinds of epilepsy. ... region of the temporal lobe. The brains temporal lobes handle ... Temporal lobe epilepsy is one of 20 different kinds of epilepsy. There are two types of temporal lobe epilepsy. Each is defined ... How is temporal lobe epilepsy diagnosed?. A doctor can diagnose temporal lobe seizures from a detailed description of how the ...
... so my right temporal lobe never developed. In 2003 I had brain surgery to remove my right temporal lobe. I was having about 10 ... I have Temporal Lobe Epilepsy, and have had Grand Mal seizures since I was 17 years old. I am 55 years old right now. I have ... But this Temporal Lobe Epilepsy... its its own monster. I know I sound like a broken record to my family because they just ... Yes I know what you are going through my seizures start in the front temporal lobe and yes they are a monster all on its own. ...
Temporal lobe epilepsy can develop in dogs of any breed and at any age. It occurs in dogs that suffer from thyroid conditions, ... Temporal lobe epilepsy is the most common form of epilepsy in dogs. It may arise idiopathically, or for unknown reasons, or it ... Many veterinarians believe that there is a genetic link to temporal lobe epilepsy, and that offspring of at least one epileptic ...
... temporal lobe epilepsy remains a mystery regarding cause and effective seizure treatment methods. Learn more at the Epilepsy ... What is temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE)?. Temporal lobe epilepsy is the most common form of focal epilepsy. About 6 out of 10 ... Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) involves the medial or internal structures of the temporal lobe. Seizures often begin in a ... MTLE accounts for almost 80% of all temporal lobe seizures.. *Neocortical or lateral temporal lobe epilepsy involves the outer ...
... in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Specifically, we wanted to see whether the olfactory deficit typically found in ... Eskenazi B, Cain WS, Novelly RA, Mattson R (1986) Odor perception in temporal lobe epilepsy patients with and without temporal ... West SE, Doty RL (1995) Influence of epilepsy and temporal lobe resection on olfactory function. Epilepsia 36:531-542PubMed ... Yousem DM, Geckle RJ, Bilker WB, Doty RL (1998) Olfactory bulb and tract and temporal lobe volumes. Normative data across ...
Temporal lobe seizures may stem from an anatomical defect or scar in your temporal lobe, but the cause is often unknown. ... Temporal lobe seizures originate in the temporal lobes of your brain, which process emotions and are important for short-term ... A temporal lobe seizure is a partial seizure that originates in one of the temporal lobes. ... An unusual sensation (aura) may precede a temporal lobe seizure, acting as a warning. Not everyone who has temporal lobe ...
J. J. Lin, J. D. Riley, J. Juranek, and S. C. Cramer, "Vulnerability of the frontal-temporal connections in temporal lobe ... J. R. Manns and L. R. Squire, "The medial temporal lobe and memory for facts and events," in Handbook of Memory Disorders, A. ... L. R. Squire, C. E. L. Stark, and R. E. Clark, "The medial temporal lobe," Annual Review of Neuroscience, vol. 27, pp. 279-306 ... L. M. Selwa, "Disturbances of learning and memory in temporal lobe epilepsy," in Psychological Disturbances in Epilepsy, J. C. ...
Extratemporal lobe circuits in temporal lobe epilepsy.. Bertram EH1.. Author information. 1. Department of Neurology, ... In this article, we will review the basic functional anatomy of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy and its primary subcortical ...
Treatments and Tools for temporal lobe. Find temporal lobe information, treatments for temporal lobe and temporal lobe symptoms ... MedHelps temporal lobe Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, ... Hey, so I am 22 and have a temporal lobe epilepsy all my life. The past two years its bee... ... I need to know about the right temporal lobe? I need to learn everything about what that si... ...
P. Ryvlin and P. Kahane, "The hidden causes of surgery-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy: extratemporal or temporal plus?" ... "Ictal clinical and scalp-EEG findings differentiating temporal lobe epilepsies from temporal "plus" epilepsies," Brain, vol. ... Somatosensory and Pharyngolaryngeal Auras in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Surgeries. Alexander G. Weil,1 Werner Surbeck,1 Ralph Rahme ... J. Isnard, M. Guenot, K. Ostrowsky, M. Sindou, and F. Mauguiere, "The role of the insular cortex in temporal lobe epilepsy," ...
... Frontal lobe Temporal lobe Parietal lobe Occipitallobe Lobes of the human brain (the temporal lobe is shown in ... Temporal+Lobe The temporal lobes are part of the cerebrum. They lie at the sides of the brain, beneath the lateral or Sylvian ... The temporal lobes are where the thumbs would be. The temporal lobe is involved in auditory processing and is home to the ... Temporal lobe. Primary auditory cortex (41, 42), Superior temporal gyrus (38, 22), Middle temporal gyrus (21), Inferior ...
Temporal Lobe Epilepsy. Temporal lobe epilepsy occurs when neurons in the temporal lobes become hyperactive and start firing ... Temporal Lobe Stroke. A stroke or other similar damage in the temporal lobes of the brain can impair abilities to identify ... The fat thumbs on each side are the temporal lobes. The temporal lobes are crucial sites for language, speech, memory, object ... "temporal lobe abnormalities,memory problems,altzheimers,temporal lobe]"} Get the latest tips on diet, exercise ...
... (https://www.healthboards.com/boards/mental-health/132535-anxiety-temporal-lobe- ... Anxiety or Temporal Lobe Epilepsy? Deja vu.... I was diagnosed by one doctor as having an inner ear disorder, yet it is still ... Re: Anxiety or Temporal Lobe Epilepsy? Deja vu.... Good question. My shrink thinks Im having symptoms of TLE but my neuro says ... Re: Anxiety or Temporal Lobe Epilepsy? Deja vu.... My son too experienced deja vu for entire days. This also made him extremely ...
... The right temporal lobe and associated limbic lobe structures as the biological ... "temporal lobe lability", meaning that they had an increased number of minor symptoms associated with temporal lobe epilepsy, ... lobes and associated limbic lobe structures.(Morse 1989) THE TEMPORAL LOBE AS LINK TO NON-LOCAL REALITY In the aforementioned ... studies of temporal lobe pathology, direct electrical stimulation studies, studies of temporal lobe epileptics, experimental ...
temporal lobe epilepsy synonyms, temporal lobe epilepsy pronunciation, temporal lobe epilepsy translation, English dictionary ... definition of temporal lobe epilepsy. Noun 1. temporal lobe epilepsy - epilepsy characterized clinically by impairment of ... Temporal lobe epilepsy - definition of temporal lobe epilepsy by The Free Dictionary https://www.thefreedictionary.com/temporal ... temporal lobe epilepsy patients as representatives of focal epilepsy or differentiated between temporal lobe and frontal lobe ...
Role of BDNF Val66Met functional polymorphism in temporal lobe epilepsy.. Shen N1, Zhu X1, Lin H2, Li J1, Li L2, Niu F1, Liu A2 ... In our study, we tried to investigate the effects of this functional polymorphism on the occurrence of temporal lobe epilepsy ( ...
Epilepsy, temporal lobe synonyms, Epilepsy, temporal lobe pronunciation, Epilepsy, temporal lobe translation, English ... temporal lobe. Noun 1. temporal lobe epilepsy - epilepsy characterized clinically by impairment of consciousness and amnesia ... temporal lobe epilepsy. (redirected from Epilepsy, temporal lobe). Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical. ThesaurusAntonymsRelated ... Epilepsy, temporal lobe - definition of Epilepsy, temporal lobe by The Free Dictionary https://www.thefreedictionary.com/ ...
... conceptually driven word retrieval involves the activation of a set of candidate words in left temporal cortex and... ... tightly related to the left temporal lobe.. In conclusion, the left temporal lobe is a necessary structure for lexical ... in the left temporal lobe (Roelofs, 2014). In the two-step model of lexical access (Dell, Schwartz, Martin, Saffran, & Gagnon, ... In the temporal patients, the damage was centered on the middle temporal gyrus (MTG, 100% overlap).. Open image in new window. ...
... which is in the frontal lobe). The functions of the left temporal lobe extends to comprehension, naming, verbal memory and ... The temporal lobe is a region of the cerebral cortex that is under the Sylvian fissure on both cerebral hemispheres of the ... The temporal lobe is involved in auditory perception and is home to the primary auditory cortex. It is also important for the ... The temporal lobe contains the hippocampus and plays a key role in the formation of long-term memory. ...
We studied electrical expression of spontaneous temporal lobe ictal activity in hippocampus and entorhinal cortex in 9 ... studies suggest important interactions between hippocampus and entorhinal cerebral cortex in generation of temporal lobe ... Entorhinal-hippocampal interactions in medial temporal lobe epilepsy Epilepsia. Jul-Aug 1994;35(4):721-7. doi: 10.1111/j.1528- ... We studied electrical expression of spontaneous temporal lobe ictal activity in hippocampus and entorhinal cortex in 9 ...
The temporal lobe is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain of mammals. The temporal lobe is located ... The medial temporal lobe memory system H. M.s Medial Temporal Lobe Lesion: Findings from Magnetic Resonance Imaging. ... and lateral parts of the temporal lobes are involved in high-level auditory processing. The temporal lobe is involved in ... "Lóbulo temporal: anatomía, funciones y características" [Temporal lobe: anatomy, functions and characteristics]. MedSalud (in ...
... have seizures that start in one of the temporal lobes of the brain. Seizures usually get better with medicine. ... Kids with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) have seizures that start in one of the temporal lobes of the brain. The temporal lobes ... en españolEpilepsia de lóbulo temporal. What Is Temporal Lobe Epilepsy?. ... Kids with temporal lobe epilepsy can lead a normal life. To help your child:. *Make sure your child takes medicines as ...
temporal-lobes. Brain Teaser: Ready to stimulate those neurons in your temporal lobes?. November 3, 2018. by Dr. Pascale ... temporal-lobes, usa. #19. Exercise your memory and reasoning skills with these proverbs. January 23, 2009. by Dr. Pascale ... temporal-lobes. Test your memory and reasoning skills with these American and international proverbs. March 10, 2016. by Dr. ... temporal-lobes, The-Complete-Lawyer, traveler-IQ, UCLA ... temporal-lobes, usa. Better science and data for eldercare and ...
Our group is involved in a subproject of analysis of DTI and fMRI in both adults and children with temporal lobe epilepsy. ... Epilepsy - DTI and fMRI in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy. This project will develop new collaborative scientific teams at the ... Epilepsy - DTI and fMRI in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy. *Epilepsy - Early-Life Seizures and Development of Gabaergic Inhibition in ... Brain Imaging - DTI in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy. *Brain Imaging - Human Cerebellar Malformations and genetic syndromes of brain ...
  • This symptom may raise the possibility of a lesion or tumor in the hippocampus of the temporal lobe. (epilepsy.com)
  • Over time, repeated temporal lobe seizures can cause the part of the brain that's responsible for learning and memory (hippocampus) to shrink. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Medial temporal lobe structures that are critical for long-term memory include the hippocampus, along with the surrounding hippocampal region consisting of the perirhinal, parahippocampal, and entorhinal neocortical regions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The hippocampus is critical for memory formation, and the surrounding medial temporal cortex is currently theorized to be critical for memory storage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research has shown that lesions in the hippocampus of monkeys results in limited impairment of function, whereas extensive lesions that include the hippocampus and the medial temporal cortex result in severe impairment. (wikipedia.org)
  • The temporal lobe communicates with the hippocampus and plays a key role in the formation of explicit long-term memory modulated by the amygdala. (wikipedia.org)
  • The temporal lobe contains the hippocampus and is therefore involved in memory formation as well. (bionity.com)
  • Alzheimer's occurs when amyloid-beta protein forms plaques in the temporal lobe's hippocampus, a center crucial to memory. (livestrong.com)
  • The mesial right temporal lobe, hippocampus, and associated limbic lobe structures are implicated as the biological substrates of out of body and religious experiences. (meta-religion.com)
  • The temporal lobe contains the hippocampus and plays a key role in the formation of long-term memory . (wikipedia.org)
  • Deep inside the medial temporal lobes lie the hippocampus , which is essential for memory function - particularly the transfer from short to long term memory and control of spatial memory and behaviour. (wikipedia.org)
  • Experimental studies suggest important interactions between hippocampus and entorhinal cerebral cortex in generation of temporal lobe seizure activity. (nih.gov)
  • We studied electrical expression of spontaneous temporal lobe ictal activity in hippocampus and entorhinal cortex in 9 medically refractory epileptic patients who had intracranial depth and subdural electrodes implanted during surgical evaluation. (nih.gov)
  • Because our patients with hippocampal lesions, as well as our patients with large MTL lesions, performed normally on the AMI, patients who perform poorly on the same test presumably have damage beyond the hippocampus and related structures in the medial temporal lobe. (jneurosci.org)
  • Many patients with severe medial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) experience intractable seizures and degenerative changes in the temporal lobes of the brain, particularly the hippocampus [ 1 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • Coherence between the hippocampus and anterior thalamic nucleus as a tool to improve the effect of neurostimulation in temporal lobe epilepsy: An experimental study. (harvard.edu)
  • In line with the findings from the rat model, expression of astrocytic ADK was also found to be increased in the hippocampus and temporal cortex of patients with TLE. (uva.nl)
  • Spontaneous activity was rarely evident in the CA3 or CA1 regions or in the dentate gyrus ( Fig. 1 , B and C). However, we always detected large extracellular spikes in records from the subiculum, an output region of the hippocampus projecting to the temporal cortex and normally innervated by CA1 pyramidal cell axons ( 16 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • We directly recorded the responses of individual neurons during flash suppression in the human amygdala, entorhinal cortex, hippocampus, and parahippocampal gyrus, allowing us to explore the neuronal responses in untrained subjects at a high spatial and temporal resolution in the medial temporal lobe. (harvard.edu)
  • However, in a previous study [1] in temporal lobe resected patients with and without hippocampectomy we found significant memory deterioration after surgery in both groups, stronger decline was observed after hippocampus resection. (uniklinik-freiburg.de)
  • To determine the annual rates of volumetric change of the hippocampus and temporal horn in cognitively normal elderly control subjects and individually matched patients with AD, and to test the hypothesis that these rates were different. (neurology.org)
  • We found above baseline activity in the perirhinal cortex and hippocampus for all object and face discriminations and above baseline activity in the temporal pole for all face discriminations. (mit.edu)
  • Mesial temporal lobe structures with a sclerotic hippocampus have been considered the site of seizure onset for most TLE patients, and hippocampal sclerosis (HS) has been considered essential for MTS diagnosis. (scielo.br)
  • Tailored resections of temporal neocortex and mesial temporal structures, including hippocampus and amygdala, are an established epilepsy treatment modality and offer a favorable outcome in approximately two-thirds of patients 4,5 . (scielo.br)
  • After early cases resulted in profound amnesia, the critical role of the hippocampus and associated medial temporal lobe (MTL) structures to declarative memory became evident. (cureepilepsy.org)
  • The Relationships Between Quantitative MR Parameters in Hippocampus in Healthy Subjects and Patients With Temporal Lobe Epilepsy. (ebscohost.com)
  • An area in the temporal lobe consisting of the hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus and perirhinal and entorhinal cortices. (dtu.dk)
  • Rarely, people who experience a temporal lobe seizure will go on to experience a generalized tonic-clonic (grand mal) seizure , which causes convulsions and a loss of consciousness. (healthline.com)
  • The most common risk factor for temporal lobe epilepsy is having had a seizure, especially an unusually long-lasting seizure, with a fever at some point in life. (healthline.com)
  • Some symptoms of a temporal lobe seizure may be related to these functions, including having odd feelings - such as euphoria, deja vu or fear. (mayoclinic.org)
  • During a temporal lobe seizure, you may remain aware of what's happening. (mayoclinic.org)
  • An unusual sensation (aura) may precede a temporal lobe seizure, acting as a warning. (mayoclinic.org)
  • This type of temporal lobe seizure usually lasts 30 seconds to two minutes. (mayoclinic.org)
  • In extreme cases, what starts as a temporal lobe seizure evolves into a generalized tonic-clonic (grand mal) seizure - featuring convulsions and loss of consciousness. (mayoclinic.org)
  • A temporal lobe seizure is a partial seizure that originates in one of the temporal lobes. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Structured cueing on a semantic fluency task differentiates patients with temporal versus frontal lobe seizure onset," Epilepsy and Behavior , vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 339-344, 2006. (hindawi.com)
  • Our data suggest that preictal spikes and low-voltage fast seizure discharges have anatomically distinct origins, and that some syndromes of medial temporal lobe epilepsy involve interactions between entorhinal and hippocampal regions that act together to produce and propagate the seizures in such patients. (nih.gov)
  • Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) is the most common form of focal epilepsy in adults, and it is the most common therapy-resistant seizure disorder ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • Ictal recordings from patients with typical temporal lobe epilepsy usually exhibit 5-7 Hz, rhythmic, sharp theta activity, maximal in the sphenoidal and the basal temporal electrodes on the side of seizure origin. (medscape.com)
  • A temporal lobe seizure starts in the temporal lobe of the brain. (drugs.com)
  • A temporal lobe seizure is called a focal seizure because it starts in one part of your child's brain. (drugs.com)
  • The bottom line is that more than 85 percent of people with temporal lobe epilepsy who undergo temporal lobe resection surgery see significant improvement in their seizures, many without even needing to take anti-seizure medications afterwards. (everydayhealth.com)
  • The temporal lobe seizure is type of seizure involves a temporary movement disturbances, unusual sensations, or various other symptoms. (dreddyclinic.com)
  • A temporal lobe seizure is a type of seizure that primarily involves the temporal lobes of your brain. (dreddyclinic.com)
  • Temporal lobe seizures are a common example of a seizure type known as a complex partial seizure. (dreddyclinic.com)
  • During a temporal lobe seizure, you may smack your lips, swallow repeatedly or pick at things with your fingers. (dreddyclinic.com)
  • After a temporal lobe seizure, you may be confused for a few minutes and may have difficulty speaking. (dreddyclinic.com)
  • Many people have no memory of the events that occurred during their temporal lobe seizure. (dreddyclinic.com)
  • Your behavior during a temporal lobe seizure may appear to be deliberate to onlookers. (dreddyclinic.com)
  • PURPOSE: To estimate the value of neuropsychological measurements in determining the side of seizure onset for presurgical assessment in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. (biomedsearch.com)
  • RESULTS: Combinations of noninvasive neuropsychological tests and Wada subscores showed the highest lateralising values: 80.8% for all patients, 79.4% in seizure-free patients, 86.0% in patients not rendered seizure free, 85.7% in left speech patients, 77.8% in non-left speech patients, 89.3% in patients with mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS), 78.1% in non-MTS patients, 80.3% in patients who underwent intracranial EEG recordings, and 77.3% in those who did not. (biomedsearch.com)
  • To study long-term postoperative course and identify predictors for postoperative seizure control in patients with medically intractable temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) associated with hippocampal sclerosis (HS), diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and ascertained histopathologically. (wiley.com)
  • Patients with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy that are transplanted with autologous bone marrow stem cells in order to provide seizure control. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Furthermore, the results seem to indicate that nonlesional paroxysmal activity in the posterior temporal lobe can cause chronic dysfunctions of the visual system, which may be reversible with effective seizure control. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Can anyone describe their symptoms of a simple partial, temporal lobe seizure? (healingwell.com)
  • Postictal phenomena such as nose-wiping, coughing and hypersalivation are believed to reflect a purposeful reaction to hypersecretion after regaining consciousness following a complex partial seizure, and are very common in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy, particularly in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. (jle.com)
  • Our patient illustrates an unusual, exaggerated postictal behaviour consisting of long-lasting nose-wiping, coughing and guttural sounds following a complex partial seizure due to right mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. (jle.com)
  • Seizure outcome after mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) surgery is complex and diverse, even across patients with homogeneous presurgical clinical profiles. (thejns.org)
  • A multicenter, prospective pilot study of gamma knife radiosurgery for mesial temporal lobe epilepsy: Seizure response, adverse events, and verbal memory. (ovid.com)
  • Cognitive decline in temporal lobe epilepsy due to unilateral hippocampal sclerosis," Epilepsy and Behavior , vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 477-485, 2007. (hindawi.com)
  • Memory in patients with drug-responsive mesial temporal lobe epilepsy and hippocampal sclerosis," Epilepsia , vol. 45, no. 11, pp. 1392-1396, 2004. (hindawi.com)
  • Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy and hippocampal sclerosis: cognitive function assessment in Hispanic patients," Epilepsy & Behavior , vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 717-722, 2003. (hindawi.com)
  • Neuronal autoantibodies in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) is one of the most common forms of epilepsy, characterized by hippocampal sclerosis and memory deficits. (pnas.org)
  • Surgical treatment for mesial temporal lobe epilepsy associated with hippocampal sclerosis. (inria.fr)
  • The aim of this article is to review and evaluate the published literature related to the outcome of the surgical treatment of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) associated with hippocampal sclerosis (HS) and to describe the future prospects in this field. (inria.fr)
  • N2 - To investigate the inter- and intrahemispheric reorganization of the language cortex in left temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with left-sided hippocampal sclerosis. (muni.cz)
  • To analyze retrospectively a series of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS), and the association of patterns of hippocampal sclerosis with clinical data and surgical prognosis. (scielo.br)
  • Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) involves the medial or internal structures of the temporal lobe. (epilepsy.com)
  • MTLE accounts for almost 80% of all temporal lobe seizures. (epilepsy.com)
  • Kainic acid (KA) causes an epileptic syndrome similar to human mTLE, with sclerosis and structural reorganization in the mesial temporal lobe, spontaneous seizures, and significant deficits in spatial learning and memory ( 5 - 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • The study is designed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the Visualase MRI-guided laser ablation system for mesial temporal epilepsy (MTLE). (mayo.edu)
  • Severe medial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) is often associated with pharmacoresistant seizures, impaired memory and mood disorders. (intechopen.com)
  • The main objective of this paper is to analyze the influence of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) on the morphology of the corpus callosum (CC) and its relation to cognitive abilities. (frontiersin.org)
  • The findings support recent findings of detrimental effects of early onset mTLE on anterior brain regions and of a distinct effect particularly of left mTLE on frontal lobe functioning and structure. (frontiersin.org)
  • Prior studies related CC and IQ measures in quite heterogeneous groups of subjects with different and quite diffuse pathologies, but our present study evaluated this relation in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE). (frontiersin.org)
  • The goal of this proposed project is to develop a new approach to curing mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE), one of the most commonly recognized forms of childhood-onset epilepsy. (cureepilepsy.org)
  • The article presents a case study of men with an average age of 24.5 years with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) who were treated with amygadalo hippocampectomy and recovered following a antiepileptic drug therapy. (ebscohost.com)
  • Twenty patients with drug-refractory unilateral mTLE (5 left side, 10 female, age 39.3 ± 13.5 years) who underwent either selective amygdalohippocampectomy (n = 13) or temporal lobectomy (n = 7) were included in the study. (thejns.org)
  • In the present study, five patients with left prefrontal cortex lesions (overlapping in ventral and dorsal lateral cortex), eight patients with left lateral temporal cortex lesions (overlapping in middle temporal gyrus), and 13 matched controls performed a picture-word interference task. (springer.com)
  • We propose that left middle temporal lesions affect the lexical activation component, making lexical selection more susceptible to errors. (springer.com)
  • The magnitude of this effect was correlated with measures of conscious, declarative memory, was absent when declarative memory was minimized, and was diminished in memory-impaired patients with medial temporal lobe lesions. (pnas.org)
  • In experiment 2, five memory-impaired patients with medial temporal lobe lesions exhibited a diminished preferential viewing effect. (pnas.org)
  • We assessed retrograde amnesia with the Autobiographical Memory Interview (AMI) and with a news events test in six patients with damage limited primarily to the hippocampal region (H group) and two patients with large medial temporal lobe lesions (MTL group). (jneurosci.org)
  • but after much larger medial temporal lobe lesions, retrograde amnesia is temporally extended ( Reed and Squire, 1998 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • Our current investigations aim to describe the neuroanatomical changes that occur in the monkey medial temporal lobe following neonatal selective hippocampal lesions. (unil.ch)
  • We are currently investigating the effects of these neonatal selective hippocampal lesions on other medial temporal lobe structures. (unil.ch)
  • Recent studies indicate that medial-temporal lobe (MTL) damage, either from focal lesions or neurodegenerative disease (e.g., semantic dementia), impairs perception as well as long-term declarative memory. (mit.edu)
  • Kids with temporal lobe epilepsy have seizures that start in one of the temporal lobes of the brain . (kidshealth.org)
  • The temporal lobes are on the sides of the brain, behind the temples. (kidshealth.org)
  • Infections, brain injury, a tumor , genetic mutations , or changes in brain structure all can cause temporal lobe epilsepsy. (kidshealth.org)
  • The temporal lobe is located along the sides of your brain. (mayoclinic.org)
  • The standard radiological procedure used to diagnose temporal lobe epilepsy is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which is performed on the brain. (healthline.com)
  • Doctors look for characteristic brain abnormalities associated with temporal lobe epilepsy. (healthline.com)
  • Seizures in TLE start or involve in one or both temporal lobes in the brain. (epilepsy.com)
  • Temporal lobe seizures originate in the temporal lobes of your brain, which process emotions and are important for short-term memory. (mayoclinic.org)
  • The temporal lobe is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain of mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • The temporal lobe is located beneath the lateral fissure on both cerebral hemispheres of the mammalian brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • These areas of the brain are active in children's language acquisition whether accessed via hearing a spoken language, watching a signed language, or via hand-over-hand tactile versions of a signed language The functions of the left temporal lobe are not limited to low-level perception but extend to comprehension, naming, and verbal memory. (wikipedia.org)
  • Medial temporal lobe activation during semantic language processing: fMRI findings in healthy left- and right-handers," Cognitive Brain Research , vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 339-346, 2003. (hindawi.com)
  • Section of brain showing upper surface of temporal lobe. (bionity.com)
  • The temporal lobes are located on the sides of the brain. (livestrong.com)
  • A stroke or other similar damage in the temporal lobes of the brain can impair abilities to identify sounds. (livestrong.com)
  • Despite the severe consequences of removing a large portion of the brain, temporal lobectomy is still performed in the United States when drug therapeutic approaches fail. (livestrong.com)
  • The evidence for this includes studies of temporal lobe pathology, direct electrical stimulation studies, studies of temporal lobe epileptics, experimental studies of near death experiences(NDEs), and clinical studies comparing ketamine and LSD experiences and the actions of associated neurotransmitters within the human brain. (meta-religion.com)
  • Previous neuroimaging studies have provided converging evidence for the involvement of two brain areas in the semantic interference effect from distractors: left temporal and frontal cortex. (springer.com)
  • The temporal lobe is a region of the cerebral cortex that is under the Sylvian fissure on both cerebral hemispheres of the mammalian brain . (wikipedia.org)
  • Brain Teaser: Ready to stimulate those neurons in your temporal lobes? (sharpbrains.com)
  • Lan-guage is processed in the tem-po-ral lobes, on the sides of your brain, next to you temples. (sharpbrains.com)
  • Mem-o-ry relies most-ly on the tem-po-ral (in green) and frontal (in red) lobes of the brain. (sharpbrains.com)
  • Most brain MRI scans do not include coronal images, but for temporal lobe epilepsy this sequence is more informative than are the axial and sagittal cuts. (medscape.com)
  • One temporal lobe is on each side of the brain, near the temples. (drugs.com)
  • Although we have been told much about the symptoms, there are few known causes of what causes epilepsy in this lobe other than brain injury, infection, stroke or a tumour on the brain, often the agency remains completely unknown. (unexplained-mysteries.com)
  • Altered expression of brain monocarboxylate transporter 1 in models of temporal lobe epilepsy. (uio.no)
  • Diffusion tensor imaging has detected that alterations in brain connections among patients with temporal lobe epilepsy are more widespread than thought. (diagnosticimaging.com)
  • Diffusion tensor imaging detects alterations in brain connections in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) beyond the temporal lobe, according to a study published online in the journal Radiology . (diagnosticimaging.com)
  • This lobe, which is located above your ears, controls your memory, as well as language and emotions, and it's one of the most frequent locations in the brain for seizures to occur. (everydayhealth.com)
  • It arises from abnormal electrical activity in the temporal lobe on one or both sides of the brain. (dreddyclinic.com)
  • The temporal lobes are the portions of your brain that extend from the temples to just past your ears. (dreddyclinic.com)
  • People with epilepsy that affects the temporal lobe of the brain often have an epileptic focus. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • At this time, doctors understand behavioral viscosity as connected to the Frontal Lobe, or the forehead part of the brain. (hubpages.com)
  • Trajectories of brain remodeling in temporal lobe epilepsy. (harvard.edu)
  • Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), one of the most prevalent neurological syndromes, is the episodes of abnormal excessive and synchronous electrical discharges occurring in temporal lobe of the brain. (omicsonline.org)
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain revealed an abnormal development of the cerebral cortex in the left temporal lobe, which showed a simplified gyral pattern, and increased cortical thickness. (nature.com)
  • Medial temporal lobe volumetrics in traumatic brain injury. (ajnr.org)
  • Several lines of experimental evidence support a critical role of ADK in different types of brain injury associated with astrogliosis, which is also a prominent morphologic feature of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). (uva.nl)
  • Simultaneous detection of reduced NAA in hippocampal and other brain regions in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy using multislice proton MRSI. (ajnr.org)
  • These findings suggest that, after temporal lobe epileptic seizures in rats, swimming exercise may improve neural plasticity in areas of the brain involved with emotional regulation and motor coordination, even if the exercise treatment is delayed. (hindawi.com)
  • Strokes affecting gray matter (cortex) of one or more lobes of the brain are described as cortical strokes . (verywellhealth.com)
  • The different types of cortical strokes have very different effects on physical function and behavior because the different lobes of the brain each have unique functions. (verywellhealth.com)
  • The frontal lobe is the largest lobe of the brain and is involved in controlling the movement of the body. (verywellhealth.com)
  • Therefore, a temporal lobe stroke is more likely to produce aphasia if it occurs on the dominant side of the brain. (verywellhealth.com)
  • The parietal lobes are important regions of the brain that are critical in the perception of self, and the ability to feel our surroundings. (verywellhealth.com)
  • A parietal lobe stroke on the dominant side of the brain can also cause Wernicke's aphasia, due to the fact that the affected area is located in the part of the brain where the temporal and parietal lobes meet. (verywellhealth.com)
  • RESULTS The HOMA-IR was negatively correlated with verbal fluency performance, brain size, and temporal lobe gray matter volume in regions known to be involved in speech production (Brodmann areas 21 and 22, respectively). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • A high density of insulin receptors occurs in the temporal lobe, a brain region associated with memory functions ( 1 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Highlighting an important role of insulin for temporal lobe-dependent functions, previous studies show that intranasal insulin, providing a direct route to the brain ( 4 ), improves declarative and verbal memory in both healthy and cognitively impaired humans ( 5 , 6 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The temporal lobe is one of the four lobes of the brain (along with the frontal lobe , parietal lobe , and occipital lobe ), and largely occupies the middle cranial fossa . (radiopaedia.org)
  • Complex partial seizures, as in psychomotor (temporal lobe) epilepsy, usually, but not always, originate in the temporal lobe of the brain, often with a preceding aura. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The remaining columns are arranged according to lobes of the brain, separated by thick black lines . (thejns.org)
  • 2004. "Amygdalohippocampal Deep Brain Stimulation for Refractory Temporal Lobe Epilepsy. (ugent.be)
  • Van Roost D, Boon P, Vonck K, Caemaert J, Claeys P, Achten E. Amygdalohippocampal deep brain stimulation for refractory temporal lobe epilepsy. (ugent.be)
  • A temporal lobe resection can remove the portion of the temporal lobe where seizures strike. (everydayhealth.com)
  • If this happens, the person could be a candidate for a type of epilepsy surgery called temporal lobe resection. (everydayhealth.com)
  • While not without its risks, temporal lobe resection is often effective in managing seizures when medications fail. (everydayhealth.com)
  • Temporal lobe resection, also called a temporal lobectomy, is a type of epilepsy surgery that involves the removal of a section of the temporal lobe. (everydayhealth.com)
  • Who Should Have a Temporal Lobe Resection? (everydayhealth.com)
  • Patients who have a confirmed diagnosis of epilepsy with seizures originating in the temporal lobe are candidates for temporal lobe resection. (everydayhealth.com)
  • The good news about temporal lobe resection surgery for epilepsy is that the risks, side effects, and potential complications are extremely low, and the success rates are extremely high. (everydayhealth.com)
  • This is the most common complication of temporal lobe resection and happens in less than 25 percent of people who have the surgery. (everydayhealth.com)
  • This occurs in less than 10 percent of temporal lobe resection surgeries, and when it does happen, it most often resolves after a short time. (everydayhealth.com)
  • As many as 70 percent of patients who have temporal lobe resection surgery no longer experience seizures that leave them unconscious or cause jerking or convulsions. (everydayhealth.com)
  • Up to 20 percent of people still experience some seizures after temporal lobe resection, but find improvement in symptoms and frequency - an 85 percent reduction in seizures after surgery. (everydayhealth.com)
  • Neuropsychological studies following unilateral temporal lobe resection (TLR) have challenged early models, which simplified the lateralization of verbal and visual memory function. (cureepilepsy.org)
  • The Risk-Benefit Ratio for Temporal Lobe Resection in Patients with Bilateral Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy. (ebscohost.com)
  • The superior temporal gyrus includes an area (within the lateral fissure) where auditory signals from the cochlea first reach the cerebral cortex and are processed by the primary auditory cortex in the left temporal lobe. (wikipedia.org)
  • Damage specifically to the anterior portion of the left temporal lobe can cause savant syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • He had a left temporal. (medhelp.org)
  • In humans this includes speech, for which the left temporal lobe in particular seems to be specialized. (bionity.com)
  • The functions of the left temporal lobe are not limited to low-level perception but extend to comprehension, naming, verbal memory and other language functions. (bionity.com)
  • According to the competition account of lexical selection in word production, conceptually driven word retrieval involves the activation of a set of candidate words in left temporal cortex and competitive selection of the intended word from this set, regulated by frontal cortical mechanisms. (springer.com)
  • An overall semantic interference effect was observed for the control and left-temporal groups separately. (springer.com)
  • The left-temporal patients had increased semantic interference in the error rates relative to controls. (springer.com)
  • The functions of the left temporal lobe extends to comprehension , naming , verbal memory and other language functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eskenazi B, Cain WS, Novelly RA, Friend KB (1983) Olfactory functioning in temporal lobectomy patients. (springer.com)
  • Eskenazi B, Cain WS, Novelly RA, Mattson R (1986) Odor perception in temporal lobe epilepsy patients with and without temporal lobectomy. (springer.com)
  • Temporal lobectomy is a surgical procedure that removes the anterior and medial parts of the temporal lobe. (livestrong.com)
  • In a classical review in the "Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine", C. E. Polkey reports that a temporal lobectomy can lead to numerous neurological conditions ranging from visual field deficits to psychotic disorders. (livestrong.com)
  • Preoperative MRI predicts outcome of temporal lobectomy: an actuarial analysis. (ajnr.org)
  • Sixty-six patients with medically refractory TLE with unilateral MTS after anterior temporal lobectomy were included. (scielo.br)
  • Presurgical impairment of the contralateral precuneus to contralateral temporal lobe connectivity was associated with those who underwent selective amygdalohippocampectomy compared to those who had temporal lobectomy. (thejns.org)
  • This pilot study reports on the long-term efficacy, safety, and adverse events of focused radiosurgery as an alternative to temporal lobectomy for mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. (ovid.com)
  • Analisar retrospectivamente uma série de pacientes com epilepsia do lobo temporal (ELT) e esclerose mesial temporal (EMT), bem como correlacionar os padrões de esclerose hipocampal com os dados clínicos e o prognóstico cirúrgico. (scielo.br)
  • In temporal lobe atrophy it is feasible that adjacent structures may expand or be slightly pulled over to fill the space that had been occupied by the temporal lobe. (bio.net)
  • The temporal lobe consists of structures that are vital for declarative or long-term memory. (wikipedia.org)
  • Deep right temporal lobe and associated limbic lobe structures are clearly linked to human religious experiences of all types, including conversion experiences and near death experiences. (meta-religion.com)
  • Damage to the hippocampal region and related medial temporal lobe structures (perirhinal, entorhinal, and parahippocampal cortices) impairs new learning (anterograde amnesia) as well as memory for information that was acquired before the damage occurred (retrograde amnesia). (jneurosci.org)
  • 1-12 Particular interest has arisen in MRI-based quantitative measures of the medial temporal lobe limbic structures because of the central role they play in memory function, and because these areas are involved first and most severely by the neurofibrillary pathology of AD. (neurology.org)
  • Recent researches, mainly pursued on signal recorded on depth electrodes, showed an evolution of the synchronizations between cerebral structures, allowing a characterization of the temporal lobe seizures dynamic. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Des travaux récents validés en stéréoélectroencéphalographie (SEEG) ont démontré une évolution des synchronisations entre structures cérébrales permettant une caractérisation de la dynamique des crises du lobe temporal. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Teams of researchers from Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin and the Medical University of Innsbruck have developed a new therapeutic concept for the treatment of temporal lobe epilepsy. (news-medical.net)
  • The temporal lobe is involved in primary auditory perception, such as hearing, and holds the primary auditory cortex. (wikipedia.org)
  • The temporal lobe holds the primary auditory cortex, which is important for the processing of semantics in both language and vision in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • The temporal lobe is involved in auditory processing and is home to the primary auditory cortex . (bionity.com)
  • The superior temporal gyrus includes an area (within the Sylvian fissure) where auditory signals from the cochlea (relayed via several subcortical nuclei) first reach the cerebral cortex . (bionity.com)
  • Both auditory streams begin in the auditory cortex in the temporal lobes. (livestrong.com)
  • According to the competition view, conceptually driven word retrieval involves the activation of a set of candidate words in left middle temporal cortex. (springer.com)
  • The temporal lobe is located roughly below the ears and at the back of the head and is one of four major lobes of the cerebral cortex. (unexplained-mysteries.com)
  • The cerebral cortex is divided into several lobes, and these different lobes have different functions and receive their blood supply from different arteries. (verywellhealth.com)
  • Each side (hemisphere) of the cerebral cortex has a frontal lobe, a temporal lobe, a parietal lobe, and an occipital lobe. (verywellhealth.com)
  • There are a lot of older names for seizures that occur in TLE, including "psychomotor seizures," "limbic seizures," "temporal lobe seizures," "complex partial," and "simple partial. (epilepsy.com)
  • PURPOSE: To investigate lateralized differences in limbic system functional connectivity between left and right temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) using graph theory. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Methods: Using immunocytochemistry and Western blot analysis, we investigated ADK protein expression in a rat model of TLE during epileptogenesis and the chronic epileptic phase and compared those findings with tissue resected from TLE patients with mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS). (uva.nl)
  • Mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) is the most common pathological finding in drug refractory, chronic temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) 1 . (scielo.br)
  • Temporal lobe epilepsy occurs when neurons in the temporal lobes become hyperactive and start firing uncontrollably. (livestrong.com)
  • Kumar, "Diversity and excitability of deep-layer entorhinal cortical neurons in a model of temporal lobe epilepsy ," Journal of Neurophysiology, vol. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The dentate granule cell (DGC) layer is often abnormal in human and experimental temporal lobe epilepsy, with dispersion of the layer and the appearance of ectopic granule neurons in the hilus. (umich.edu)
  • Therefore, the activity of most individual neurons in the medial temporal lobe of naive human subjects directly correlates with the phenomenal visual experience. (harvard.edu)
  • This study will investigate the transfer of progenitor cells to replace inhibitory neurons lost in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy as a means of re-establishing normal function. (cureepilepsy.org)
  • The argument that temporal lobe epilepsy is the cause of hallucinations mistakenly viewed as paranormal, is not a new one having being announced and concluded a great many times over the last decade, closing the book on ghostly apparitions, UFO s and their abductees, Near-Death and Out-of- body experiences dismissed as quirks in neurology producing mere fantasy. (unexplained-mysteries.com)
  • HealthDay)-Patients with epilepsy undergoing medial temporal lobe (MTL) surgery have increased prevalence of tinnitus compared with controls and participants with self-reported epilepsy (SRE), according to a research letter published online Oct. 9 in JAMA Neurology . (medicalxpress.com)
  • Behavioral viscosity associated with the Frontal and Temporal Lobes refer to a patient's awareness of another person's personal space. (hubpages.com)
  • Recognition and identification of famous faces in patients with unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy," Neuropsychologia , vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 446-456, 2002. (hindawi.com)
  • Foram incluídos neste estudo 66 pacientes com ELT refratária a tratamento medicamentoso e com EMT unilateral submetidos à lobectomia temporal anterior. (scielo.br)
  • Temporal lobe epilepsy with amygdala enlargement: a subtype of temporal lobe epilepsy. (ebscohost.com)
  • Background Some recent studies suggest that some imaging-negative temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) had significant amygdala enlargement (AE). (ebscohost.com)
  • What's wrong with the amygdala in temporal lobe epilepsy? (ebscohost.com)
  • Temporal lobe epileptic seizures are further classified. (healthline.com)
  • Contralateral Preoperative Resting-State Functional MRI Network Integration Is Associated with Surgical Outcome in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy. (harvard.edu)
  • Neocortical or lateral temporal lobe epilepsy involves the outer part of the temporal lobe. (epilepsy.com)
  • Seizures in neocortical or lateral temporal lobe epilepsy often start with an auditory aura, such as buzzing or hearing a specific sound. (epilepsy.com)
  • Interictal deficits include reduced glucose metabolism in the medial and lateral temporal lobe. (medscape.com)
  • The characteristic pattern is hyperperfusion of the medial and lateral temporal lobe. (medscape.com)
  • It is bounded dorsally by the lateral fissure and posteriorly by an arbitrary border shared with the occipital lobe. (bioontology.org)
  • the lateral parietotemporal line , which separates the temporal lobe from the inferior parietal lobule of the parietal lobe superiorly and the occipital lobe inferiorly. (radiopaedia.org)
  • Contralateral homonymous upper quadrantanopia (sector anopsia) Complex hallucinations (smell, sound, vision, memory) Receptive aphasia Wernicke's aphasia Anomic aphasia Dyslexia Impaired verbal memory Word agnosia, word deafness Impaired non-verbal memory Impaired musical skills Deafness Apathy (affective indifference) Impaired learning and memory Amnesia, Korsakoff syndrome, Klüver-Bucy syndrome Individuals who suffer from medial temporal lobe damage have a difficult time recalling visual stimuli. (wikipedia.org)
  • Second, after medial temporal lobe damage, what is the status of memory for remote autobiographical events? (jneurosci.org)
  • The medial temporal lobes (near the Sagittal plane that divides left and right cerebral hemispheres ) are thought to be involved in episodic / declarative memory . (bionity.com)
  • Temporal lobe is the ventrolateral lobe of five lobes comprising each cerebral hemisphere. (bioontology.org)
  • Anatomy of the middle cerebral artery: the temporal branches. (radiopaedia.org)
  • In the case of temporal lobe atrophy, the force pressing/pulling the brainstem into the tentorium on the side of the atrophy is much less than the force pushing the brainstem during uncal herniation, but it still may be enough to compress the more lateral tracts in the crus, affecting those providing motor innervation to the legs before the tracts providing motor innervation to the arms. (bio.net)
  • I have not read this anywhere, nor have I ever heard of a correlation between temporal atrophy and lower extremity weakness, but the phenomenon associated with Kernahan's notch is well established. (bio.net)
  • correlation between temporal lobe atrophy and impaired lower limb mobility. (bio.net)
  • Pick's disease, also known as frontotemporal amnesia, is caused by atrophy of the frontotemporal lobe. (wikipedia.org)
  • High-resolution MRI shows hippocampal atrophy in many patients with temporal lobe epilepsy by visual analysis alone, and, although volumetric studies can be performed, they are labor intensive. (medscape.com)
  • The first study examined the appropriateness of four routinely used learning and reproduction visuo-spatial memory tests as an identification method for right mesial temporal lobe dysfunctions. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • It turns out to originate in an abnormality in the temporal lobes, the centers for speech and language, reports Tulane University neuroscientist Dr. Anne Foundas in Science Daily. (livestrong.com)
  • Sometimes these seizures are caused by an abnormality in the temporal lobe, such as a tiny scar or tumor, but often no identifiable cause is found. (dreddyclinic.com)
  • Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy is often associated with changes or abnormal findings on MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) . (epilepsy.com)
  • One of the most common findings is scarring in the temporal lobe. (epilepsy.com)
  • The findings support the link between medial temporal lobe function and declarative memory. (pnas.org)
  • Attention should be paid to neuropsychological results, particularly from the Wada test, during presurgical assessment of temporal lobe epilepsy, as they can provide strong support for findings from other lateralising tests, particularly in patients with presumed MTS or in left-speech patients. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Pathological findings underlying focal temporal lobe hypometabolism in partial epilepsy. (ajnr.org)
  • Similar results were observed in both Fischer-344 and Wistar rats as well as in the rat pilocarpine preparation of temporal lobe epilepsy. (jneurosci.org)
  • Bromodeoxyuridine labeling, in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemistry were used to identify proliferating progenitors and mature DGCs in the adult rat pilocarpine temporal lobe epilepsy model. (umich.edu)
  • In most cases, people remain conscious during temporal lobe seizures, making them simple partial seizures. (healthline.com)
  • Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common form of focal (partial) epilepsy. (epilepsy.com)
  • Sometimes temporal lobe seizures impair your ability to respond to others (partial complex or focal dyscognitive seizures). (mayoclinic.org)
  • The majority of complex partial seizures (see EPILEPSY, COMPLEX PARTIAL) originate from the temporal lobes. (harvard.edu)
  • Partial-onset epilepsies account for about 60% of all adult epilepsy cases, and temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common type of partial epilepsy referred for epilepsy surgery and often refractory to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). (ebscohost.com)
  • Interictal abnormalities, consisting of spike/sharp and slow complexes, usually are located in the anterior temporal region (F7/F8 and T3/T4 electrodes) or basal temporal electrodes (most commonly T1/T2 and in research settings, T9/T10 and F9/F10). (medscape.com)
  • Implication of Anterior Nucleus of the Thalamus in Mesial Temporal Lobe Seizures. (harvard.edu)
  • Studies of semantic dementia and repetitive TMS have suggested that the bilateral anterior temporal lobes (ATLs) underpin a modality-invariant representational hub within the semantic system. (mit.edu)
  • The medial temporal lobes (near the sagittal plane) are thought to be involved in encoding declarative long term memory. (wikipedia.org)
  • We propose that the preferential viewing effect is a phenomenon of conscious, declarative memory and is dependent on the medial temporal lobe. (pnas.org)
  • The medial temporal lobe (MTL) supports the ability to learn about facts and events (declarative memory), and the acquired knowledge is thought to be accessible to conscious awareness ( 4 , 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • In addition to its essential role for declarative memory (i.e., the ability to recollect facts and events) ( 2 ), the temporal lobe has also been linked to verbal fluency (VF) ( 3 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Most people with temporal lobe epilepsy respond well to anti-epilepsy drugs . (healthline.com)
  • At least one-third of people with temporal lobe epilepsy do not respond to medication alone and require other medical interventions to treat their disorder. (healthline.com)
  • The aim of the present thesis was to advance the knowledge of diagnostic procedures for lateralizing visual memory deficits and to study the characteristics of perception in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • The medial temporal lobes include the hippocampi, which are essential for memory storage, therefore damage to this area can result in impairment in new memory formation leading to permanent or temporary anterograde amnesia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Deep inside the medial temporal lobes, the hippocampi seem to be particularly important for memory function - particularly transference from short to long term memory and control of spatial memory and behavior. (bionity.com)
  • MRI-based volumetric measurements of the hippocampi and temporal horns were performed in 24 cognitively normal subjects aged 70 to 89 years who were individually matched with respect to gender and age with 24 patients with AD. (neurology.org)
  • The most common form of epilepsy is known as temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), which is characterized by seizures originating in the temporal lobes. (news-medical.net)
  • One third of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy have bilaterally independent, temporal interictal epileptiform abnormalities. (medscape.com)
  • Quantifying interictal metabolic activity in human temporal lobe epilepsy. (ajnr.org)
  • This research investigates the use of autologous bone marrow stem cells for the treatment of medically refractory temporal lobe epilepsy patients. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Wernicke's area, which spans the region between temporal and parietal lobes, plays a key role (in tandem with Broca's area in the frontal lobe) in language comprehension, whether spoken language or signed language. (wikipedia.org)
  • Medial temporal lobe (MTL) damage in humans is typically thought to produce a circumscribed impairment in the acquisition of new enduring memories, but recent reports have documented deficits even in short-term maintenance. (frontiersin.org)
  • When stroke affects the frontal lobe, symptoms can include language deficits, weakness, and/or sensory loss on the other part of the body. (verywellhealth.com)
  • Not all people who experience temporal lobe seizures experience auras. (healthline.com)
  • Many patients who experience temporal lobe necrosis are asymptomatic. (wikipedia.org)
  • For this particular group of patients, surgical removal of the temporal lobe frequently remains the only treatment alternative. (news-medical.net)
  • To describe surgical experience and long-term outcome in pediatric temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) at a single institution. (ovid.com)
  • Temporal lobe epilepsy: bilateral hippocampal metabolite changes revealed at proton MR spectroscopic imaging. (ajnr.org)
  • The previous studies used JME patients as representatives of generalized epilepsy and either temporal lobe epilepsy patients as representatives of focal epilepsy or differentiated between temporal lobe and frontal lobe epilepsy patients. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The aim of this study is to evaluate autologous bone marrow stem cells transplantation as a safe and potentially beneficial treatment for patients with temporal lobe refractory epilepsy. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Prolonged seizures trigger significant neuroinflammatory responses in experimental and human temporal lobe epilepsy, which have been speculated to be mediating the epileptogenesis. (omicsonline.org)
  • Neuron loss localizes human temporal lobe epilepsy by in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging. (ajnr.org)