A localization-related (focal) form of epilepsy characterized by recurrent seizures that arise from foci within the temporal lobe, most commonly from its mesial aspect. A wide variety of psychic phenomena may be associated, including illusions, hallucinations, dyscognitive states, and affective experiences. The majority of complex partial seizures (see EPILEPSY, COMPLEX PARTIAL) originate from the temporal lobes. Temporal lobe seizures may be classified by etiology as cryptogenic, familial, or symptomatic (i.e., related to an identified disease process or lesion). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p321)
Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.
A pathological process consisting of hardening or fibrosis of an anatomical structure, often a vessel or a nerve.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
A neurosurgical procedure that removes the anterior TEMPORAL LOBE including the medial temporal structures of CEREBRAL CORTEX; AMYGDALA; HIPPOCAMPUS; and the adjacent PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS. This procedure is generally used for the treatment of intractable temporal epilepsy (EPILEPSY, TEMPORAL LOBE).
Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.
A slowly hydrolyzed muscarinic agonist with no nicotinic effects. Pilocarpine is used as a miotic and in the treatment of glaucoma.
Treatment of chronic, severe and intractable psychiatric disorders by surgical removal or interruption of certain areas or pathways in the brain, especially in the prefrontal lobes.
Decrease in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or multiple organs, associated with a variety of pathological conditions such as abnormal cellular changes, ischemia, malnutrition, or hormonal changes.
A convolution on the inferior surface of each cerebral hemisphere, lying between the hippocampal and collateral sulci.
A disorder characterized by recurrent partial seizures marked by impairment of cognition. During the seizure the individual may experience a wide variety of psychic phenomenon including formed hallucinations, illusions, deja vu, intense emotional feelings, confusion, and spatial disorientation. Focal motor activity, sensory alterations and AUTOMATISM may also occur. Complex partial seizures often originate from foci in one or both temporal lobes. The etiology may be idiopathic (cryptogenic partial complex epilepsy) or occur as a secondary manifestation of a focal cortical lesion (symptomatic partial complex epilepsy). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp317-8)
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.
Dominance of one cerebral hemisphere over the other in cerebral functions.
Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.
Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.
Pathologic partial or complete loss of the ability to recall past experiences (AMNESIA, RETROGRADE) or to form new memories (AMNESIA, ANTEROGRADE). This condition may be of organic or psychologic origin. Organic forms of amnesia are usually associated with dysfunction of the DIENCEPHALON or HIPPOCAMPUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp426-7)
Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
Disturbances in registering an impression, in the retention of an acquired impression, or in the recall of an impression. Memory impairments are associated with DEMENTIA; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ENCEPHALITIS; ALCOHOLISM (see also ALCOHOL AMNESTIC DISORDER); SCHIZOPHRENIA; and other conditions.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of paroxysmal brain dysfunction due to a sudden, disorderly, and excessive neuronal discharge. Epilepsy classification systems are generally based upon: (1) clinical features of the seizure episodes (e.g., motor seizure), (2) etiology (e.g., post-traumatic), (3) anatomic site of seizure origin (e.g., frontal lobe seizure), (4) tendency to spread to other structures in the brain, and (5) temporal patterns (e.g., nocturnal epilepsy). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p313)
Cerebral cortex region on the medial aspect of the PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS, immediately caudal to the OLFACTORY CORTEX of the uncus. The entorhinal cortex is the origin of the major neural fiber system afferent to the HIPPOCAMPAL FORMATION, the so-called PERFORANT PATHWAY.
A localization-related (focal) form of epilepsy characterized by seizures which arise in the FRONTAL LOBE. A variety of clinical syndromes exist depending on the exact location of the seizure focus. Frontal lobe seizures may be idiopathic (cryptogenic) or caused by an identifiable disease process such as traumatic injuries, neoplasms, or other macroscopic or microscopic lesions of the frontal lobes (symptomatic frontal lobe seizures). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp318-9)
A prolonged seizure or seizures repeated frequently enough to prevent recovery between episodes occurring over a period of 20-30 minutes. The most common subtype is generalized tonic-clonic status epilepticus, a potentially fatal condition associated with neuronal injury and respiratory and metabolic dysfunction. Nonconvulsive forms include petit mal status and complex partial status, which may manifest as behavioral disturbances. Simple partial status epilepticus consists of persistent motor, sensory, or autonomic seizures that do not impair cognition (see also EPILEPSIA PARTIALIS CONTINUA). Subclinical status epilepticus generally refers to seizures occurring in an unresponsive or comatose individual in the absence of overt signs of seizure activity. (From N Engl J Med 1998 Apr 2;338(14):970-6; Neurologia 1997 Dec;12 Suppl 6:25-30)
A language dysfunction characterized by the inability to name people and objects that are correctly perceived. The individual is able to describe the object in question, but cannot provide the name. This condition is associated with lesions of the dominant hemisphere involving the language areas, in particular the TEMPORAL LOBE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p484)
Automatic, mechanical, and apparently undirected behavior which is outside of conscious control.
Upper central part of the cerebral hemisphere. It is located posterior to central sulcus, anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE, and superior to the TEMPORAL LOBES.
The process whereby a representation of past experience is elicited.
The knowledge or perception that someone or something present has been previously encountered.
Posterior portion of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES responsible for processing visual sensory information. It is located posterior to the parieto-occipital sulcus and extends to the preoccipital notch.
Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.
GRAY MATTER situated above the GYRUS HIPPOCAMPI. It is composed of three layers. The molecular layer is continuous with the HIPPOCAMPUS in the hippocampal fissure. The granular layer consists of closely arranged spherical or oval neurons, called GRANULE CELLS, whose AXONS pass through the polymorphic layer ending on the DENDRITES of PYRAMIDAL CELLS in the hippocampus.
Conditions characterized by recurrent paroxysmal neuronal discharges which arise from a focal region of the brain. Partial seizures are divided into simple and complex, depending on whether consciousness is unaltered (simple partial seizure) or disturbed (complex partial seizure). Both types may feature a wide variety of motor, sensory, and autonomic symptoms. Partial seizures may be classified by associated clinical features or anatomic location of the seizure focus. A secondary generalized seizure refers to a partial seizure that spreads to involve the brain diffusely. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp317)
Seizures that occur during a febrile episode. It is a common condition, affecting 2-5% of children aged 3 months to five years. An autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance has been identified in some families. The majority are simple febrile seizures (generally defined as generalized onset, single seizures with a duration of less than 30 minutes). Complex febrile seizures are characterized by focal onset, duration greater than 30 minutes, and/or more than one seizure in a 24 hour period. The likelihood of developing epilepsy (i.e., a nonfebrile seizure disorder) following simple febrile seizures is low. Complex febrile seizures are associated with a moderately increased incidence of epilepsy. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p784)
Surgery performed on the nervous system or its parts.
In invertebrate zoology, a lateral lobe of the FOREBRAIN in certain ARTHROPODS. In vertebrate zoology, either of the corpora bigemina of non-mammalian VERTEBRATES. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1329)
Drugs used to prevent SEIZURES or reduce their severity.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.
Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
Axons of certain cells in the DENTATE GYRUS. They project to the polymorphic layer of the dentate gyrus and to the proximal dendrites of PYRAMIDAL CELLS of the HIPPOCAMPUS. These mossy fibers should not be confused with mossy fibers that are cerebellar afferents (see NERVE FIBERS).
A set of forebrain structures common to all mammals that is defined functionally and anatomically. It is implicated in the higher integration of visceral, olfactory, and somatic information as well as homeostatic responses including fundamental survival behaviors (feeding, mating, emotion). For most authors, it includes the AMYGDALA; EPITHALAMUS; GYRUS CINGULI; hippocampal formation (see HIPPOCAMPUS); HYPOTHALAMUS; PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS; SEPTAL NUCLEI; anterior nuclear group of thalamus, and portions of the basal ganglia. (Parent, Carpenter's Human Neuroanatomy, 9th ed, p744; NeuroNames, http://rprcsgi.rprc.washington.edu/neuronames/index.html (September 2, 1998)).
Personal names, given or surname, as cultural characteristics, as ethnological or religious patterns, as indications of the geographic distribution of families and inbreeding, etc. Analysis of isonymy, the quality of having the same or similar names, is useful in the study of population genetics. NAMES is used also for the history of names or name changes of corporate bodies, such as medical societies, universities, hospitals, government agencies, etc.
Tomography using radioactive emissions from injected RADIONUCLIDES and computer ALGORITHMS to reconstruct an image.
The relationships between symbols and their meanings.
Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.
A method of computed tomography that uses radionuclides which emit a single photon of a given energy. The camera is rotated 180 or 360 degrees around the patient to capture images at multiple positions along the arc. The computer is then used to reconstruct the transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images from the 3-dimensional distribution of radionuclides in the organ. The advantages of SPECT are that it can be used to observe biochemical and physiological processes as well as size and volume of the organ. The disadvantage is that, unlike positron-emission tomography where the positron-electron annihilation results in the emission of 2 photons at 180 degrees from each other, SPECT requires physical collimation to line up the photons, which results in the loss of many available photons and hence degrades the image.
(2S-(2 alpha,3 beta,4 beta))-2-Carboxy-4-(1-methylethenyl)-3-pyrrolidineacetic acid. Ascaricide obtained from the red alga Digenea simplex. It is a potent excitatory amino acid agonist at some types of excitatory amino acid receptors and has been used to discriminate among receptor types. Like many excitatory amino acid agonists it can cause neurotoxicity and has been used experimentally for that purpose.
Surgically placed electric conductors through which ELECTRIC STIMULATION is delivered to or electrical activity is recorded from a specific point inside the body.
Type of declarative memory, consisting of personal memory in contrast to general knowledge.
A gamma-emitting RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING agent used in the evaluation of regional cerebral blood flow and in non-invasive dynamic biodistribution studies and MYOCARDIAL PERFUSION IMAGING. It has also been used to label leukocytes in the investigation of INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASES.
The life of a person written by himself or herself. (Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed)
A barbiturate with hypnotic and sedative properties (but not antianxiety). Adverse effects are mainly a consequence of dose-related CNS depression and the risk of dependence with continued use is high. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p565)
A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)
Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
The inability to recognize a familiar face or to learn to recognize new faces. This visual agnosia is most often associated with lesions involving the junctional regions between the temporal and occipital lobes. The majority of cases are associated with bilateral lesions, however unilateral damage to the right occipito-temporal cortex has also been associated with this condition. (From Cortex 1995 Jun;31(2):317-29)
Loss of the ability to recall information that had been previously encoded in memory prior to a specified or approximate point in time. This process may be organic or psychogenic in origin. Organic forms may be associated with CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENTS; SEIZURES; DEMENTIA; and a wide variety of other conditions that impair cerebral function. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp426-9)
Heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by frontal and temporal lobe atrophy associated with neuronal loss, gliosis, and dementia. Patients exhibit progressive changes in social, behavioral, and/or language function. Multiple subtypes or forms are recognized based on presence or absence of TAU PROTEIN inclusions. FTLD includes three clinical syndromes: FRONTOTEMPORAL DEMENTIA, semantic dementia, and PRIMARY PROGRESSIVE NONFLUENT APHASIA.
Learning to respond verbally to a verbal stimulus cue.
A verbal or nonverbal means of communicating ideas or feelings.
A generalized seizure disorder characterized by recurrent major motor seizures. The initial brief tonic phase is marked by trunk flexion followed by diffuse extension of the trunk and extremities. The clonic phase features rhythmic flexor contractions of the trunk and limbs, pupillary dilation, elevations of blood pressure and pulse, urinary incontinence, and tongue biting. This is followed by a profound state of depressed consciousness (post-ictal state) which gradually improves over minutes to hours. The disorder may be cryptogenic, familial, or symptomatic (caused by an identified disease process). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p329)
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The storing or preserving of video signals for television to be played back later via a transmitter or receiver. Recordings may be made on magnetic tape or discs (VIDEODISC RECORDING).
Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.
Rare indolent tumors comprised of neoplastic glial and neuronal cells which occur primarily in children and young adults. Benign lesions tend to be associated with long survival unless the tumor degenerates into a histologically malignant form. They tend to occur in the optic nerve and white matter of the brain and spinal cord.
Cognitive disorders including delirium, dementia, and other cognitive disorders. These may be the result of substance use, trauma, or other causes.
The anterior portion of the head that includes the skin, muscles, and structures of the forehead, eyes, nose, mouth, cheeks, and jaw.
Substances that act in the brain stem or spinal cord to produce tonic or clonic convulsions, often by removing normal inhibitory tone. They were formerly used to stimulate respiration or as antidotes to barbiturate overdose. They are now most commonly used as experimental tools.
The use of diffusion ANISOTROPY data from diffusion magnetic resonance imaging results to construct images based on the direction of the faster diffusing molecules.
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
A paraneoplastic syndrome marked by degeneration of neurons in the LIMBIC SYSTEM. Clinical features include HALLUCINATIONS, loss of EPISODIC MEMORY; ANOSMIA; AGEUSIA; TEMPORAL LOBE EPILEPSY; DEMENTIA; and affective disturbance (depression). Circulating anti-neuronal antibodies (e.g., anti-Hu; anti-Yo; anti-Ri; and anti-Ma2) and small cell lung carcinomas or testicular carcinoma are frequently associated with this syndrome.
Mental process to visually perceive a critical number of facts (the pattern), such as characters, shapes, displays, or designs.
Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.
A neurobehavioral syndrome associated with bilateral medial temporal lobe dysfunction. Clinical manifestations include oral exploratory behavior; tactile exploratory behavior; hypersexuality; BULIMIA; MEMORY DISORDERS; placidity; and an inability to recognize objects or faces. This disorder may result from a variety of conditions, including CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; infections; ALZHEIMER DISEASE; PICK DISEASE OF THE BRAIN; and CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS.
A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.
Loss of the ability to form new memories beyond a certain point in time. This condition may be organic or psychogenic in origin. Organically induced anterograde amnesia may follow CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; SEIZURES; ANOXIA; and other conditions which adversely affect neural structures associated with memory formation (e.g., the HIPPOCAMPUS; FORNIX (BRAIN); MAMMILLARY BODIES; and ANTERIOR THALAMIC NUCLEI). (From Memory 1997 Jan-Mar;5(1-2):49-71)
A physical property showing different values in relation to the direction in or along which the measurement is made. The physical property may be with regard to thermal or electric conductivity or light refraction. In crystallography, it describes crystals whose index of refraction varies with the direction of the incident light. It is also called acolotropy and colotropy. The opposite of anisotropy is isotropy wherein the same values characterize the object when measured along axes in all directions.
A condition characterized by long-standing brain dysfunction or damage, usually of three months duration or longer. Potential etiologies include BRAIN INFARCTION; certain NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ANOXIA, BRAIN; ENCEPHALITIS; certain NEUROTOXICITY SYNDROMES; metabolic disorders (see BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC); and other conditions.
A cognitive disorder marked by an impaired ability to comprehend or express language in its written or spoken form. This condition is caused by diseases which affect the language areas of the dominant hemisphere. Clinical features are used to classify the various subtypes of this condition. General categories include receptive, expressive, and mixed forms of aphasia.
The principle that items experienced together enter into a connection, so that one tends to reinstate the other.
Includes both producing and responding to words, either written or spoken.
An amino acid that occurs in vertebrate tissues and in urine. In muscle tissue, creatine generally occurs as phosphocreatine. Creatine is excreted as CREATININE in the urine.
Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.
Compounds that contain the radical R2C=N.OH derived from condensation of ALDEHYDES or KETONES with HYDROXYLAMINE. Members of this group are CHOLINESTERASE REACTIVATORS.
Remembrance of information for a few seconds to hours.
The repeated weak excitation of brain structures, that progressively increases sensitivity to the same stimulation. Over time, this can lower the threshold required to trigger seizures.
A diagnostic technique that incorporates the measurement of molecular diffusion (such as water or metabolites) for tissue assessment by MRI. The degree of molecular movement can be measured by changes of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) with time, as reflected by tissue microstructure. Diffusion MRI has been used to study BRAIN ISCHEMIA and tumor response to treatment.
The compound is given by intravenous injection to do POSITRON-EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY for the assessment of cerebral and myocardial glucose metabolism in various physiological or pathological states including stroke and myocardial ischemia. It is also employed for the detection of malignant tumors including those of the brain, liver, and thyroid gland. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1162)
Tests designed to assess language behavior and abilities. They include tests of vocabulary, comprehension, grammar and functional use of language, e.g., Development Sentence Scoring, Receptive-Expressive Emergent Language Scale, Parsons Language Sample, Utah Test of Language Development, Michigan Language Inventory and Verbal Language Development Scale, Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities, Northwestern Syntax Screening Test, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Ammons Full-Range Picture Vocabulary Test, and Assessment of Children's Language Comprehension.
Conditions characterized by deficiencies of comprehension or expression of written and spoken forms of language. These include acquired and developmental disorders.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Communication through a system of conventional vocal symbols.
An acquired organic mental disorder with loss of intellectual abilities of sufficient severity to interfere with social or occupational functioning. The dysfunction is multifaceted and involves memory, behavior, personality, judgment, attention, spatial relations, language, abstract thought, and other executive functions. The intellectual decline is usually progressive, and initially spares the level of consciousness.
Recurrent conditions characterized by epileptic seizures which arise diffusely and simultaneously from both hemispheres of the brain. Classification is generally based upon motor manifestations of the seizure (e.g., convulsive, nonconvulsive, akinetic, atonic, etc.) or etiology (e.g., idiopathic, cryptogenic, and symptomatic). (From Mayo Clin Proc, 1996 Apr;71(4):405-14)
A class of nerve fibers as defined by their structure, specifically the nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the myelinated nerve fibers are completely encased in a MYELIN SHEATH. They are fibers of relatively large and varied diameters. Their NEURAL CONDUCTION rates are faster than those of the unmyelinated nerve fibers (NERVE FIBERS, UNMYELINATED). Myelinated nerve fibers are present in somatic and autonomic nerves.
The largest portion of the CEREBRAL CORTEX in which the NEURONS are arranged in six layers in the mammalian brain: molecular, external granular, external pyramidal, internal granular, internal pyramidal and multiform layers.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.
The measurement of magnetic fields over the head generated by electric currents in the brain. As in any electrical conductor, electric fields in the brain are accompanied by orthogonal magnetic fields. The measurement of these fields provides information about the localization of brain activity which is complementary to that provided by ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY. Magnetoencephalography may be used alone or together with electroencephalography, for measurement of spontaneous or evoked activity, and for research or clinical purposes.
Drugs that bind to and activate muscarinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, MUSCARINIC). Muscarinic agonists are most commonly used when it is desirable to increase smooth muscle tone, especially in the GI tract, urinary bladder and the eye. They may also be used to reduce heart rate.
Organic compounds that contain technetium as an integral part of the molecule. These compounds are often used as radionuclide imaging agents.
Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
A prodromal phase of cognitive decline that may precede the emergence of ALZHEIMER DISEASE and other dementias. It may include impairment of cognition, such as impairments in language, visuospatial awareness, ATTENTION and MEMORY.
Tests designed to measure intellectual functioning in children and adults.
Heavily myelinated fiber bundle of the TELENCEPHALON projecting from the hippocampal formation to the HYPOTHALAMUS. Some authorities consider the fornix part of the LIMBIC SYSTEM. The fimbria starts as a flattened band of axons arising from the subiculum and HIPPOCAMPUS, which then thickens to form the fornix.
Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.
Signs and symptoms of higher cortical dysfunction caused by organic conditions. These include certain behavioral alterations and impairments of skills involved in the acquisition, processing, and utilization of knowledge or information.
Care given during the period prior to undergoing surgery when psychological and physical preparations are made according to the special needs of the individual patient. This period spans the time between admission to the hospital to the time the surgery begins. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
The process whereby auditory stimuli are selected, organized, and interpreted by the organism.
The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.
Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)
The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.
Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.
Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.
The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.
A pair of nuclei and associated gray matter in the interpeduncular space rostral to the posterior perforated substance in the posterior hypothalamus.
A mental disorder associated with chronic ethanol abuse (ALCOHOLISM) and nutritional deficiencies characterized by short term memory loss, confabulations, and disturbances of attention. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1139)
The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.
A subsection of the hippocampus, described by Lorente de No, that is located between the HIPPOCAMPUS CA2 FIELD and the DENTATE GYRUS.
Subjectively experienced sensations in the absence of an appropriate stimulus, but which are regarded by the individual as real. They may be of organic origin or associated with MENTAL DISORDERS.
A potent benzodiazepine receptor antagonist. Since it reverses the sedative and other actions of benzodiazepines, it has been suggested as an antidote to benzodiazepine overdoses.
The process whereby an utterance is decoded into a representation in terms of linguistic units (sequences of phonetic segments which combine to form lexical and grammatical morphemes).
Chronic mental disorders in which there has been an insidious development of a permanent and unshakeable delusional system (persecutory delusions or delusions of jealousy), accompanied by preservation of clear and orderly thinking. Emotional responses and behavior are consistent with the delusional state.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Brain waves seen on EEG characterized by a high amplitude and a frequency of 4 Hz and below. They are considered the "deep sleep waves" observed during sleep in dreamless states, infancy, and in some brain disorders.
Organic mental disorders in which there is impairment of the ability to maintain awareness of self and environment and to respond to environmental stimuli. Dysfunction of the cerebral hemispheres or brain stem RETICULAR FORMATION may result in this condition.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.
Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.
The awareness of the spatial properties of objects; includes physical space.
The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.
Sound that expresses emotion through rhythm, melody, and harmony.
The period following a surgical operation.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Derived from TELENCEPHALON, cerebrum is composed of a right and a left hemisphere. Each contains an outer cerebral cortex and a subcortical basal ganglia. The cerebrum includes all parts within the skull except the MEDULLA OBLONGATA, the PONS, and the CEREBELLUM. Cerebral functions include sensorimotor, emotional, and intellectual activities.
A cognitive process involving the formation of ideas generalized from the knowledge of qualities, aspects, and relations of objects.
The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.
Broad plate of dense myelinated fibers that reciprocally interconnect regions of the cortex in all lobes with corresponding regions of the opposite hemisphere. The corpus callosum is located deep in the longitudinal fissure.
Study of the anatomy of the nervous system as a specialty or discipline.
A basic constituent of lecithin that is found in many plants and animal organs. It is important as a precursor of acetylcholine, as a methyl donor in various metabolic processes, and in lipid metabolism.
Lists of words to which individuals are asked to respond ascertaining the conceptual meaning held by the individual.
Wave-like oscillations of electric potential between parts of the brain recorded by EEG.
A visual image which is recalled in accurate detail. It is a sort of projection of an image on a mental screen.
Conceptual functions or thinking in all its forms.
The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by ACOUSTIC STIMULATION or stimulation of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS.
The ability to learn and to deal with new situations and to deal effectively with tasks involving abstractions.
Impairment in the comprehension of speech and meaning of words, both spoken and written, and of the meanings conveyed by their grammatical relationships in sentences. It is caused by lesions that primarily affect Wernicke's area, which lies in the posterior perisylvian region of the temporal lobe of the dominant hemisphere. (From Brain & Bannister, Clinical Neurology, 7th ed, p141; Kandel et al., Principles of Neural Science, 3d ed, p846)
Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.
One of the convolutions on the medial surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES. It surrounds the rostral part of the brain and CORPUS CALLOSUM and forms part of the LIMBIC SYSTEM.
Most generally any NEURONS which are not motor or sensory. Interneurons may also refer to neurons whose AXONS remain within a particular brain region in contrast to projection neurons, which have axons projecting to other brain regions.
The act or fact of grasping the meaning, nature, or importance of; understanding. (American Heritage Dictionary, 4th ed) Includes understanding by a patient or research subject of information disclosed orally or in writing.
Acquired or developmental cognitive disorders of AUDITORY PERCEPTION characterized by a reduced ability to perceive information contained in auditory stimuli despite intact auditory pathways. Affected individuals have difficulty with speech perception, sound localization, and comprehending the meaning of inflections of speech.
An anticonvulsant used to control grand mal and psychomotor or focal seizures. Its mode of action is not fully understood, but some of its actions resemble those of PHENYTOIN; although there is little chemical resemblance between the two compounds, their three-dimensional structure is similar.
Disorders in which the essential feature is a severe disturbance in mood (depression, anxiety, elation, and excitement) accompanied by psychotic symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations, gross impairment in reality testing, etc.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A rare central nervous system demyelinating condition affecting children and young adults. Pathologic findings include a large, sharply defined, asymmetric focus of myelin destruction that may involve an entire lobe or cerebral hemisphere. The clinical course tends to be progressive and includes dementia, cortical blindness, cortical deafness, spastic hemiplegia, and pseudobulbar palsy. Concentric sclerosis of Balo is differentiated from diffuse cerebral sclerosis of Schilder by the pathologic finding of alternating bands of destruction and preservation of myelin in concentric rings. Alpers' Syndrome refers to a heterogeneous group of diseases that feature progressive cerebral deterioration and liver disease. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p914; Dev Neurosci 1991;13(4-5):267-73)
Disorders in which there is a loss of ego boundaries or a gross impairment in reality testing with delusions or prominent hallucinations. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
The persistence to perform a learned behavior (facts or experiences) after an interval has elapsed in which there has been no performance or practice of the behavior.
The most common clinical form of FRONTOTEMPORAL LOBAR DEGENERATION, this dementia presents with personality and behavioral changes often associated with disinhibition, apathy, and lack of insight.
Non-invasive methods of visualizing the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the brain, by various imaging modalities.
A discipline concerned with relations between messages and the characteristics of individuals who select and interpret them; it deals directly with the processes of encoding (phonetics) and decoding (psychoacoustics) as they relate states of messages to states of communicators.
Unstable isotopes of fluorine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. F atoms with atomic weights 17, 18, and 20-22 are radioactive fluorine isotopes.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
An acute (or rarely chronic) inflammatory process of the brain caused by SIMPLEXVIRUS infections which may be fatal. The majority of infections are caused by human herpesvirus 1 (HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN) and less often by human herpesvirus 2 (HERPESVIRUS 2, HUMAN). Clinical manifestations include FEVER; HEADACHE; SEIZURES; HALLUCINATIONS; behavioral alterations; APHASIA; hemiparesis; and COMA. Pathologically, the condition is marked by a hemorrhagic necrosis involving the medial and inferior TEMPORAL LOBE and orbital regions of the FRONTAL LOBE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp751-4)
The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.
Narrow channel in the MESENCEPHALON that connects the third and fourth CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.
Abnormalities in the development of the CEREBRAL CORTEX. These include malformations arising from abnormal neuronal and glial CELL PROLIFERATION or APOPTOSIS (Group I); abnormal neuronal migration (Group II); and abnormal establishment of cortical organization (Group III). Many INBORN METABOLIC BRAIN DISORDERS affecting CNS formation are often associated with cortical malformations. They are common causes of EPILEPSY and developmental delay.
Large subcortical nuclear masses derived from the telencephalon and located in the basal regions of the cerebral hemispheres.
The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.
A progressive form of dementia characterized by the global loss of language abilities and initial preservation of other cognitive functions. Fluent and nonfluent subtypes have been described. Eventually a pattern of global cognitive dysfunction, similar to ALZHEIMER DISEASE, emerges. Pathologically, there are no Alzheimer or PICK DISEASE like changes, however, spongiform changes of cortical layers II and III are present in the TEMPORAL LOBE and FRONTAL LOBE. (From Brain 1998 Jan;121(Pt 1):115-26)
Loss of the ability to comprehend the meaning or recognize the importance of various forms of stimulation that cannot be attributed to impairment of a primary sensory modality. Tactile agnosia is characterized by an inability to perceive the shape and nature of an object by touch alone, despite unimpaired sensation to light touch, position, and other primary sensory modalities.
A new pattern of perceptual or ideational material derived from past experience.
The region of the cerebral cortex that receives the auditory radiation from the MEDIAL GENICULATE BODY.
A subtype of epilepsy characterized by seizures that are consistently provoked by a certain specific stimulus. Auditory, visual, and somatosensory stimuli as well as the acts of writing, reading, eating, and decision making are examples of events or activities that may induce seizure activity in affected individuals. (From Neurol Clin 1994 Feb;12(1):57-8)
Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.
The paired caudal parts of the PROSENCEPHALON from which the THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; EPITHALAMUS; and SUBTHALAMUS are derived.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
A surgical specialty concerned with the treatment of diseases and disorders of the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral and sympathetic nervous system.
Analogs and derivatives of atropine.
An acquired cognitive disorder characterized by inattentiveness and the inability to form short term memories. This disorder is frequently associated with chronic ALCOHOLISM; but it may also result from dietary deficiencies; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; NEOPLASMS; CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS; ENCEPHALITIS; EPILEPSY; and other conditions. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1139)
An interdisciplinary science concerned with studies of the biological bases of behavior - biochemical, genetic, physiological, and neurological - and applying these to the understanding and treatment of mental illness.
The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)
Brain waves characterized by a frequency of 4-7 Hz, usually observed in the temporal lobes when the individual is awake, but relaxed and sleepy.
Neoplasms composed of neuroepithelial cells, which have the capacity to differentiate into NEURONS, oligodendrocytes, and ASTROCYTES. The majority of craniospinal tumors are of neuroepithelial origin. (From Dev Biol 1998 Aug 1;200(1):1-5)
An involuntary expression of merriment and pleasure; it includes the patterned motor responses as well as the inarticulate vocalization.
The sum or the stock of words used by a language, a group, or an individual. (From Webster, 3d ed)
Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and contain an integral membrane chloride channel. Each receptor is assembled as a pentamer from a pool of at least 19 different possible subunits. The receptors belong to a superfamily that share a common CYSTEINE loop.

Differential spatial memory impairment after right temporal lobectomy demonstrated using temporal titration. (1/3458)

In this study a temporal titration method to explore the extent to which spatial memory is differentially impaired following right temporal lobectomy was employed. The spatial and non-spatial memory of 19 left and 19 right temporal lobectomy (TL) patients was compared with that of 16 normal controls. The subjects studied an array of 16 toy objects and were subsequently tested for object recall, object recognition and memory for the location of the objects. By systematically varying the retention intervals for each group, it was possible to match all three groups on object recall at sub-ceiling levels. When memory for the position of the objects was assessed at equivalent delays, the right TL group revealed disrupted spatial memory, compared with both left TL and control groups (P < 0.05). MRI was used to quantify the extent of temporal lobe resection in the two groups and a significant correlation between hippocampal removal and both recall of spatial location and object name recall in the right TL group only was shown. These data support the notion of a selective (but not exclusive) spatial memory impairment associated with right temporal lobe damage that is related to the integrity of the hippocampal functioning.  (+info)

Disrupted temporal lobe connections in semantic dementia. (2/3458)

Semantic dementia refers to the variant of frontotemporal dementia in which there is progressive semantic deterioration and anomia in the face of relative preservation of other language and cognitive functions. Structural imaging and SPECT studies of such patients have suggested that the site of damage, and by inference the region critical to semantic processing, is the anterolateral temporal lobe, especially on the left. Recent functional imaging studies of normal participants have revealed a network of areas involved in semantic tasks. The present study used PET to examine the consequences of focal damage to the anterolateral temporal cortex for the operation of this semantic network. We measured PET activation associated with a semantic decision task relative to a visual decision task in four patients with semantic dementia compared with six age-matched normal controls. Normals activated a network of regions consistent with previous studies. The patients activated some areas consistently with the normals, including some regions of significant atrophy, but showed substantially reduced activity particularly in the left posterior inferior temporal gyrus (iTG) (Brodmann area 37/19). Voxel-based morphometry, used to identify the regions of structural deficit, revealed significant anterolateral temporal atrophy (especially on the left), but no significant structural damage to the posterior inferior temporal lobe. Other evidence suggests that the left posterior iTG is critically involved in lexical-phonological retrieval: the lack of activation here is consistent with the observation that these patients are all anomic. We conclude that changes in activity in regions distant from the patients' structural damage support the argument that their prominent anomia is due to disrupted temporal lobe connections.  (+info)

The predictive value of changes in effective connectivity for human learning. (3/3458)

During learning, neural responses decrease over repeated exposure to identical stimuli. This repetition suppression is thought to reflect a progressive optimization of neuronal responses elicited by the task. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to study the neural basis of associative learning of visual objects and their locations. As expected, activation in specialized cortical areas decreased with time. However, with path analysis it was shown that, in parallel to this adaptation, increases in effective connectivity occurred between distinct cortical systems specialized for spatial and object processing. The time course of these plastic changes was highly correlated with individual learning performance, suggesting that interactions between brain areas underlie associative learning.  (+info)

Kleine-Levin and Munchausen syndromes in a patient with recurrent acromegaly. (4/3458)

Hypothalamic disease often affects the patients' personality and this also applies to pituitary tumors with suprasellar extension. We report on a patient with a 12-year history of recurrent acromegaly, treated with three transphenoidal operations, single field radiation therapy and bromocriptine/octreotide administration. During the course of follow-up she presented with self-inflicted anemia and Kleine-Levin syndrome (hypersomnia, hyperphagia and hypersexuality). Furthermore, she developed post-radiation necrosis within the right temporal lobe. Whether her neurological and personality disorders result - at least partially - from the acromegaly or the temporal lobe necrosis remains unclear.  (+info)

Increased poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of nuclear proteins in Alzheimer's disease. (5/3458)

Experimental studies indicate that overactivation of the DNA repair protein poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) in response to oxidative damage to DNA can cause cell death due to depletion of NAD+. Oxidative damage to DNA and other macromolecules has been reported to be increased in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease. In the present study we sought evidence of PARP activation in Alzheimer's disease by immunostaining sections of frontal and temporal lobe from autopsy material of 20 patients and 10 controls, both for PARP itself and for its end-product, poly(ADP-ribose). All of the brains had previously been subjected to detailed neuropathological examination to confirm the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease or, in the controls, to exclude Alzheimer's disease-type pathology. Double immunolabelling for poly(ADP-ribose) and microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2), glial fibrillary-acidic protein (GFAP), CD68, A beta-protein or tau was used to assess the identity of the cells with poly(ADP-ribose) accumulation and their relationship to plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. Both PARP- and poly(ADP-ribose)-immunolabelled cells were detected in a much higher proportion of Alzheimer's disease (20 out of 20) brains than of control brains (5 out of 10) (P = 0.0018). Double-immunolabelling for poly(ADP-ribose) and markers of neuronal, astrocytic and microglial differentiation (MAP2, GFAP and CD68, respectively) showed many of the cells containing poly(ADP-ribose) to be neurons. Most of these were small pyramidal neurons in cortical laminae 3 and 5. A few of the cells containing poly(ADP-ribose) were astrocytes. No poly(ADP-ribose) accumulation was detected in microglia. Double-immunolabelling for poly(ADP-ribose) and tau or A beta-protein indicated that the cells with accumulation of poly(ADP-ribose) did not contain tangles and relatively few occurred within plaques. Our findings indicate that there is enhanced PARP activity in Alzheimer's disease and suggest that pharmacological interventions aimed at inhibiting PARP may have a role in slowing the progression of the disease.  (+info)

Evaluation of the NINCDS-ADRDA criteria in the differentiation of Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal dementia. (6/3458)

OBJECTIVES: The diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is now reliant on the use of NINCDS-ADRDA criteria. Other diseases causing dementia are being increasingly recognised--for example, frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Historically, these disorders have not been clearly demarcated from AD. This study assesses the capability of the NINCDS-ADRDA criteria to accurately distinguish AD from FTD in a series of pathologically proved cases. METHODS: The case records of 56 patients (30 with AD, 26 with FTD) who had undergone neuropsychological evaluation, brain imaging, and ultimately postmortem, were assessed in terms of whether at initial diagnosis the NINCDS-ADRDA criteria were successful in diagnosing those patients who had AD and excluding those who did not. RESULTS: (1) The overall sensitivity of the NINCDS-ADRDA criteria in diagnosing "probable" AD from 56 patients with cortical dementia (AD and FTD) was 0.93. However, the specificity was only 0.23; most patients with FTD also fulfilled NINCDS-ADRDA criteria for AD. (2) Cognitive deficits in the realms of orientation and praxis significantly increased the odds of a patient having AD compared with FTD, whereas deficits in problem solving significantly decreased the odds. Neuropsychological impairments in the domains of attention, language, perception, and memory as defined in the NINCDS-ADRDA statement did not contribute to the clinical differentiation of AD and FTD. CONCLUSION: NINCDS-ADRDA criteria fail accurately to differentiate AD from FTD. Suggestions to improve the diagnostic specificity of the current criteria are made.  (+info)

Structural maturation of neural pathways in children and adolescents: in vivo study. (7/3458)

Structural maturation of fiber tracts in the human brain, including an increase in the diameter and myelination of axons, may play a role in cognitive development during childhood and adolescence. A computational analysis of structural magnetic resonance images obtained in 111 children and adolescents revealed age-related increases in white matter density in fiber tracts constituting putative corticospinal and frontotemporal pathways. The maturation of the corticospinal tract was bilateral, whereas that of the frontotemporal pathway was found predominantly in the left (speech-dominant) hemisphere. These findings provide evidence for a gradual maturation, during late childhood and adolescence, of fiber pathways presumably supporting motor and speech functions.  (+info)

Conduction aphasia elicited by stimulation of the left posterior superior temporal gyrus. (8/3458)

OBJECTIVE: Disruption of fascicular tracts that connect Wernicke's to Broca's areas is the classic mechanism of conduction aphasia. Later work has emphasised cortical mechanisms. METHODS: To determine the distribution of language on dominant cortex, electrical cortical stimulation was performed using implanted subdural electrodes during brain mapping before epilepsy surgery. RESULTS: A transient, isolated deficit in repetition was elicited with stimulation of the posterior portion of the dominant superior temporal gyrus. CONCLUSION: This finding suggests that cortical dysfunction, not just white matter disruption, can induce conduction aphasia.  (+info)

The functional contribution of medial temporal lobe has been studied in the human brain for over half a century. Insight into the nature of this extraordinary structure was discovered when epileptic patient H.M. had an experimental operation to surgically resect his bilateral medial temporal lobes. The procedure resulted in profound anterograde amnesia, demonstrating the critical role of medial temporal lobe in forming new long-term memories; yet a variety of other capacities remained intact (e.g., intelligence, personality, and skills). The notion that medial temporal lobe function was isolated to the formation of new long-term memories persisted for several decades until the development of new methodologies. It has been the endeavor of cognitive neuroscience to further our understanding of the structural organization of complex cognition and behavior. The focus of this dissertation is to provide evidence supporting the functional contribution of medial temporal lobe sub-regions, namely ...
Medial temporal lobe damage in humans is typically thought to produce a circumscribed impairment in the acquisition of new enduring memories, but recent reports have documented deficits even in short-term maintenance. We examined possible maintenance deficits in a population of medial temporal lobe amnesics, with the goal of characterizing their impairments as either representational drift or outright loss of representation over time. Patients and healthy comparisons performed a visual search task in which the similarity of various lures to a target was varied parametrically. Stimuli were simple shapes varying along one of several visual dimensions. The task was performed in two conditions, one presenting a sample target simultaneously with the search array and the other imposing a delay between sample and array. Eye-movement data collected during search revealed that the duration of fixations to items varied with lure-target similarity for all participants, i.e., fixations were longer for items
While it is commonly accepted that structures in the medial temporal lobe play a critical role in memory, current theories disagree on three fundamental issues: (a) the extent to which different regions within the medial temporal lobe can be functionally dissociated; (b) whether structures within the medial temporal lobe are specialised for memory processing or play an additional role in perception; and (c) whether there is support for functional homology across species. To address these controversial questions, this Special Issue brings together researchers working on memory and perception in the medial temporal lobe and asks whether there is evidence for similar functional dissociations across species. The papers reported here include lesion and early gene imaging in rats, electrophysiological and lesion studies in nonhuman primates, lesion and functional neuroimaging in human participants, as well as touching on computational modelling approaches. Pulling together these methodological diverse
The temporal lobe is a region of the cerebral cortex that is under the Sylvian fissure on both cerebral hemispheres of the mammalian brain.[3] The temporal lobe is involved in auditory perception and is home to the primary auditory cortex. It is also important for the processing of semantics (meaning) in both speech and vision. The temporal lobe contains the hippocampus and plays a key role in the formation of long-term memory. An area in the Sylvian fissure is the first place where auditory signals from the cochlea reach the cerebral cortex. This part of the cortex (primary auditory cortex) is involved in hearing. Other areas of the temporal lobes are involved in high-level auditory processing. In humans this includes speech, for which the left temporal lobe in particular seems to be specialized. Wernickes area, which spans the region between temporal and parietal lobes, plays a key role (with Brocas area, which is in the frontal lobe). The functions of the left temporal lobe extends to ...
The right temporal lobe variant of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is an uncommon progressive neurodegenerative disorder. We present the case of a 77-year-old right-handed man who presented with altered behaviour and problems with interpersonal relationships. He had no decline in cognitive function but brain perfusion single-photon emission CT demonstrated distinct hypoperfusion in the right temporal pole. At 2-year follow-up, he could not recognise his wifes relatives; and at 3-year follow-up, he had semantic aphasia. Decreased brain perfusion extended from the right temporal lobe into the contralateral temporal and both frontal lobes. These findings suggest that the right temporal lobe variant of FTD should be considered in elderly patients with altered behaviour and problems with interpersonal relationships, even if dementia is not suspected. The right anterior temporal lobe may play a key role in the onset of the early symptoms of this disease. ...
The top (superior or dorsal) part of the temporal lobe includes an area (within the Sylvian fissure) where auditory signals from the cochlea (relayed via several subcortical nuclei) first reach the cerebral cortex. This part of the cortex (primary auditory cortex) is involved in hearing. Adjacent areas in the superior, posterior and lateral parts of the temporal lobe are involved in high-level auditory processing. In humans this includes speech, for which the left temporal lobe in particular seems to be specialized. Wernickes area which spans the region between temporal and parietal lobes plays a key role (in tandem with Brocas area, which is in the frontal lobe). The functions of the left temporal lobe are not limited to low-level perception but extend to comprehension, naming, verbal memory and other language functions. The underside (ventral) part of the temporal cortex appears to be involved in high-level visual processing of complex stimuli such as faces (fusiform gyrus) and scenes ...
Where do you know who you know? There are faces that are instantly recognizable and nameable. Conversely, there are names that automatically bring up an associated face. Some neurons are likely to respond to both the name and the face of these familiar individuals - in fact, such neurons with an invariant, explicit and selective response to both famous and familiar individuals, e.g. Jennifer Aniston, are routinely found with the aid of implanted microelectrodes in the medial temporal lobes of human patients (Quian Quiroga, Reddy, Kreiman, Koch, & Fried, 2005). We set out to investigate such modality-independent, conceptual representations with fMRI. We conducted an event-related fMRI study in which subjects were asked to recognize and name three famous actors (Brad Pitt, Matt Damon and Tom Cruise) from various pictures or to read their written name, on separate trials within each run. We used high resolution fMRI (2x2x2mm voxels) with 30 axial slices covering the occipital and temporal lobes. ...
RADIOLOGY: HEAD: Case# 33666: HYPOMETABOLIC SEIZURE FOCUS LEFT ANTERIOR TEMPORAL LOBE. Patient is a 17 y.o. young man with a history of complex partial seizures. Selected axial and coronal images from an interictal18-FDG PET study reveal hypometabolism of the left anterior temporal lobe. MRI T2 weighted image through the temporal lobes reveals an area of increased signal intensity in the left hippocampus. 18-FDG is a glucose analoge that competes with glucose for uptake. Once it is actively transported, it is then phosphorylated but not further metabolized. Consequently its accumulation within a cell is a function of the cells metabolic rate. Preoperative planning for epilepsy surgery often includes an interictal PET study to localize the epilepsy site. Focal hypometabolism relative to the contralateral structures suggests a seizure focus. PET will demonstrate interictal temporal lobe hypometabolism in 70% of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (1). Proper interpretation requires knowledge of any
TY - JOUR. T1 - Selectivity of pyramidal cells and interneurons in the human medial temporal lobe. AU - Ison, Matias J.. AU - Mormann, Florian. AU - Cerf, Moran. AU - Koch, Christof. AU - Fried, Itzhak. AU - Quiroga, Rodrigo Quian. PY - 2011/10. Y1 - 2011/10. N2 - Neurons in the medial temporal lobe (MTL) respond selectively to pictures of specific individuals, objects, and places. However, the underlying mechanisms leading to such degree of stimulus selectivity are largely unknown. A necessary step to move forward in this direction involves the identification and characterization of the different neuron types present in MTL circuitry. We show that putative principal cells recorded in vivo from the human MTL are more selective than putative interneurons. Furthermore, we report that putative hippocampal pyramidal cells exhibit the highest degree of selectivity within the MTL, reflecting the hierarchical processing of visual information. We interpret these differences in selectivity as a plausible ...
There have been few quantitative characterizations of the morphological, biophysical, and cable properties of neurons in the human neocortex. We employed feature-based statistical methods on a rare data set of 60 3D reconstructed pyramidal neurons from L2 and L3 in the human temporal cortex (HL2/L3 PCs) removed after brain surgery. Of these cells, 25 neurons were also characterized physiologically. Thirty-two morphological features were analyzed (e.g., dendritic surface area, 36 333 +/- 18 157 mu m(2); number of basal trees, 5.55 +/- 1.47; dendritic diameter, 0.76 +/- 0.28 mu m). Eighteen features showed a significant gradual increase with depth from the pia (e.g., dendritic length and soma radius). The other features showed weak or no correlation with depth (e.g., dendritic diameter). The basal dendritic terminals in HL2/L3 PCs are particularly elongated, enabling multiple nonlinear processing units in these dendrites. Unlike the morphological features, the active biophysical features (e.g., spike
Neurons in the human medial temporal lobe (MTL) that are selective for the identity of specific people are classically thought to encode identity invariant to
Studies of primates and of patients with brain lesions have shown that the visual system represents the external world in regions and pathways specialized to compute visual features and attributes. For example, object recognition is performed by a ventral pathway located in the inferior portion of the temporal lobe. We studied visual processing of words and word-like stimuli (letter-strings) by recording field potentials directly from the human inferior temporal lobe. Our results showed that two discrete portions of the fusiform gyrus responded preferentially to letter-strings. A region of the posterior fusiform gyrus responded equally to words and non-words, and was unaffected by the semantic context in which words were presented. In contrast, a region of the anterior fusiform gyrus was sensitive to these stimulus dimensions. These regions were distinct from areas that responded to other types of complex visual stimuli, including faces and coloured patterns, and thus form a functionally specialized
TY - JOUR. T1 - Material-specific lateralization in the medial temporal lobe and prefrontal cortex during memory encoding. AU - Golby, Alexandra J.. AU - Poldrack, Russell A.. AU - Brewer, James B.. AU - Spencer, David. AU - Desmond, John E.. AU - Aron, Arthur P.. AU - Gabrieli, John D.E.. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. N2 - Numerous observations in patients with unilateral lesions of the medial temporal lobe (MTL) and the prefrontal cortex indicate that memory processes are lateralized according to content. Left-sided lesions interfere with verbal memory processes, whereas right-sided lesions interfere with visuospatial (non-verbal) memory processes. However, functional imaging studies have resulted in contradictory data, some studies showing lateralization in the prefrontal cortex determined by stage of processing (encoding versus retrieval) and others suggesting that lateralization is dependent on the type of material. Few studies have examined this issue in the MTL. In order to test the hypothesis ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Automatic temporal lobe atrophy assessment in prodromal AD: Data from the DESCRIPA study. AU - Chincarini, Andrea. AU - Bosco, Paolo. AU - Gemme, Gianluca. AU - Esposito, Mario. AU - Rei, Luca. AU - Squarcia, Sandro. AU - Bellotti, Roberto. AU - Minthon, Lennart. AU - Frisoni, Giovanni. AU - Scheltens, Philip. AU - Froelich, Lutz. AU - Soininen, Hilkka. AU - Visser, Pieter-Jelle. AU - Nobili, Flavio. PY - 2014/7. Y1 - 2014/7. KW - MRI. KW - Image analysis. KW - Memory clinics. KW - Naturalistic population. KW - Alzheimers disease. KW - Medial temporal lobe. KW - Hippocampus. U2 - 10.1016/j.jalz.2013.05.1774. DO - 10.1016/j.jalz.2013.05.1774. M3 - Article. C2 - 24035058. VL - 10. SP - 456. EP - 467. JO - Alzheimers & Dementia. JF - Alzheimers & Dementia. SN - 1552-5260. IS - 4. ER - ...
The distribution of beta-amyloid protein (beta A4) was examined in the medial temporal lobes from cases of Alzheimers disease (AD) (n = 13), senile dementia of Lewy body type (SDLT) (n = 12) and age matched controls (n = 9). Using a previously described image analysis technique the extent of beta A4 pathology was determined in ten distinct anatomical sites within the medial temporal lobe. AD and SDLT cases contained very similar amounts of beta A4 in the areas sampled and both contained significantly more beta A4 than the age matched controls, particularly in the dentate and parahippocampal gyri. The similarity of the beta A4 load in the two conditions is in contrast to reported differences in the number of neurofibrillary tangles which can be observed. It is suggested that AD and SDLT represent a spectrum of pathology which centres around the aberrant processing of the beta A4 precursor protein.. ...
Recent research has demonstrated (a) that the perirhinal cortex (PRC) encodes complex object-level configurations of features, and (b) these representations participate in discriminating familiar versus novel configurations. The ventral visual stream is able to identify familiar object parts as such even in the face of PRC damage, although it cannot identify their configuration as correct or incorrect Barense et al. (2011). Here, we use fMRI to investigate whether extrastriate cortex in the intact brain a). is sensitive to the configuration of parts of familiar objects and b). covaries with activation in the PRC. Participants viewed peripherally presented silhouettes (nearest edge 4°) that portrayed familiar or novel objects. There were 3 types of silhouettes: familiar configurations (objects that exist in the real world); part-rearranged novel configurations (rearranged parts of the familiar configurations); and novel configurations created by (inverted part-rearranged novel configurations) ...
If we can access a non-local reality, then paranormal abilities could be analyzed as being based on normal right temporal lobe function. For example, remote viewing is well documented in the laboratory and is shown to be independent of time and distance(Dunne 1987,Utts 1996) . If we are able to access non-local reality, remote viewing would not only be possible, but expected to be independent of time and space. Sheldrake has already proposed a model of morphic forms. These are patterns of energy in nature which correspond to the physical bodies, memories, and behaviors of living organisms. I am adding to this model the speculation that our right temporal lobe is the mediator of morphic resonance, the postulated interaction between our brains and morphic forms. Becker(1985,1990) presents evidence that biological resonance and absorption and even transfer of energy occurs at the specific frequency range at which the hydrogen atom proton is effected by nuclear magnetic resonance. He ...
Optimal perceptual decisions require sensory signals to be combined with prior information about stimulus probability. Although several theories propose that probabilistic information about stimulus occurrence is encoded in sensory cortex, evidence from neuronal recordings has not yet fully supported this view. We recorded activity from single neurons in inferior temporal cortex (IT) while monkeys performed a task that involved discriminating degraded images of faces and fruit. The relative probability of the cue being a face versus a fruit was manipulated by a latent variable that was not revealed to the monkeys and that changed unpredictably over the course of each recording session. In addition to responding to stimulus identity (face or fruit), population responses in IT encoded the long-term stimulus probability of whether a face or a fruit stimulus was more likely to occur. Face-responsive neurons showed reduced firing rates to expected faces, an effect consistent with expectation suppression,
High intakes of fat have been linked to greater cognitive decline in old age, but such associations may already occur in younger adults. We tested memory and learning in 38 women (25-45 years old), recruited for a larger observational study in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. These women varied in health status, though not significantly between cases (n=23) and controls (n=15). Performance on tests sensitive to medial temporal lobe function (CANTABeclipse, Cambridge Cognition Ltd.), i.e. verbal memory, visuo-spatial learning and delayed pattern matching, were compared with intakes of macronutrients from 7-day diet diaries and physiological indices of metabolic syndrome. Partial correlations were adjusted for age, activity and verbal IQ (National Adult Reading Test). Greater intakes of saturated and trans fats, and higher saturated to unsaturated fat ratio (Sat:UFA), were associated with more errors on the visuo-spatial task and with poorer word recall and recognition. Unexpectedly, higher UFA
3H-Spiroperidol labels multiple high affinity states with serotonergic selectivity in human prefrontal cortex and with dopaminergic selectivity in human caudate and putamen. The characteristics of...
Autor: Qin, Shaozheng et al.; Genre: Zeitschriftenartikel; Im Druck veröffentlicht: 2009; Open Access; Keywords: Episodic memory|br/|Hippocampus|br/|Parahippocampal cortex|br/|Perirhinal cortex|br/|Prefrontal cortex; Titel: Dissecting medial temporal lobe contributions to item and associative|br/|memory formation
I got an CT scan yesterday and the nurse gave me the results to day. They want to do an MRI of my head. My symptoms have been blurred vision for the past 6 or 7 months and some medium to severe pain ...
Visual search is a fundamental human behavior, providing a gateway to understanding other sensory domains as well as the role of search in higher-order cognition. Search has been proposed to include two component processes: inefficient search (search) and efficient search (pop-out). According to extant research, these two processes map onto two separable neural systems located in the frontal and parietal association cortices. In this study, we use intracranial recordings from 23 participants to delineate the neural correlates of search and pop-out with an unprecedented combination of spatiotemporal resolution and coverage across cortical and subcortical structures. First, we demonstrate a role for the medial temporal lobe in visual search, on par with engagement in frontal and parietal association cortex. Second, we show a gradient of increasing engagement over anatomical space from dorsal to ventral lateral frontal cortex. Third, we confirm previous intracranial work demonstrating nearly ...
This safe, noninvasive technique can be used to manipulate the competition between the left and right hemispheres of the brain by inhibiting and/or activating certain networks, they explained. According to Chi and Snyder, the right anterior temporal lobe is associated with insight or finding new meaning, and the inhibition of activity in the left anterior temporal lobe can lead to thinking that is less likely to be influenced by preconceptions. However, the authors noted that more research is needed ...
It is widely assumed that incipient protein pathology in the medial temporal lobe instigates the loss of episodic memory in Alzheimers disease, one of the earliest cognitive deficits in this type of dementia. Within this region, the hippocampus is seen as the most vital for episodic memory. Consequ …
The medial temporal lobe (MTL) plays a critical role in the rapid formation of episodic memories in human and nonhuman primates, while research performed in fre...
Field potentials were recorded from intracranial electrodes in humans to study language-related processing. Subjects viewed sentences in which each word was presented successively in the center of a video monitor. Half of the sentences ended normally, while the other half ended with a semantically anomalous word. The anomalous sentence-ending words elicited a large negative field potential with a peak latency near 400 msec, which was focally distributed bilaterally in the anterior medial temporal lobe (AMTL), anterior to the hippocampus and near the amygdala. Subdural electrodes positioned near the collateral sulcus just inferior and lateral to the amygdala recorded a positive field potential at the same latency. This spatial distribution of voltage suggested that this language-sensitive field potential was generated in the neocortex near the collateral sulcus and anterior fusiform gyrus. Additional task-related field potentials were recorded in the hippocampus. The AMTL field potential at 400 msec
Wilson MA, Joubert S, Ferré P, Belleville S, Ansaldo AI, Joanette Y, et al. The role of the left anterior temporal lobe in exception word reading: reconciling patient and neuroimaging findings. Neuroimage. 2012;60(4):2000-7. ...
The middle temporal gyrus is one of three gyri on the lateral surface of the temporal lobe. Gross anatomy The middle temporal gyrus is bounded dorsally by the superior temporal sulcus and superior temporal gyrus and ventrally by the inferior te...
There has been considerable debate as to whether the hippocampus and perirhinal cortex may subserve both memory and perception. We administered a series of oddity tasks, in which subjects selected the odd stimulus from a visual array, to amnesic patients with either selective hippocampal damage (HC group) or more extensive medial temporal damage, including the perirhinal cortex (MTL group). All patients performed normally when the stimuli could be discriminated using simple visual features, even if faces or complex virtual reality scenes were presented. Both patient groups were, however, severely impaired at scene discrimination when a significant demand was placed on processing spatial information across viewpoint independent representations, while only the MTL group showed a significant deficit in oddity judgments of faces and objects when object viewpoint independent perception was emphasized. These observations provide compelling evidence that the human hippocampus and perirhinal cortex are critical
Sasikumar, D., Emeric, E., Stuphorn, V., & Connor, C.E. (2018). First-pass processing of value cues in the ventral visual pathway. Current Biology 28: 538-548.. Connor, C.E., & Knierim, J.J. (2017). Integration of objects and space in perception and memory. Nature Neuroscience 20: 1493-1503.. Vaziri, S., & Connor, C. E. (2016). Representation of Gravity-Aligned Scene Structure in Ventral Pathway Visual Cortex. Current Biology 26: 766-774.. Connor, C. E., & Stuphorn, V. (2015). The Decision Path Not Taken. Neuron 87: 1128-1130.. Vaziri, S., Carlson, E.T., Wang, Z., & Connor, C.E. (2014). A channel for 3D environmental shape in anterior inferotemporal cortex. Neuron 84: 55-62. PMCID: PMC4247160.. Connor, C. E. (2014). Cortical geography is destiny. Nature Neuroscience 17: 1631-1632.. Yau, J.M., Connor, C.E., & Hsiao, S.S. (2013). Representation of tactile curvature in macaque somatosensory area 2. Journal of Neurophysiology 109: 2999--3012.. Hung, C.-C., Carlson, E.T., Connor, C.E. (2012) Medial ...
We studied the responses of single neurons in the human medial temporal lobe while subjects viewed familiar faces, animals, and landmarks. By progressively shortening the duration of stimulus presentation, coupled with backward masking, we show two striking properties of these neurons. (i) Their responses are not statistically different for the 33-ms, 66-ms, and 132-ms stimulus durations, and only for the 264-ms presentations there is a significantly higher firing. (ii) These responses follow conscious perception, as indicated by the subjects recognition report. Remarkably, when recognized, a single snapshot as brief as 33 ms was sufficient to trigger strong single-unit responses far outlasting stimulus presentation. These results suggest that neurons in the medial temporal lobe can reflect conscious recognition by all-or-none responses ...
Axmacher:2008dk. Ripples in the medial temporal lobe are relevant for human memory consolidation. N. Axmacher and C. E. Elger and J. Fell. Brain 131 1806-17 (2008). http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/awn103. High-frequency oscillations (ripples) have been described in the hippocampus and rhinal cortex of both animals and human subjects and have been linked to replay and consolidation of previously acquired information. More specifically, studies in rodents suggested that ripples are generated in the hippocampus and are then transferred into the rhinal cortex, and that they occur predominantly during negative half waves of neocortical slow oscillations. Recordings in human epilepsy patients used either microelectrodes or foramen ovale electrodes; it is thus unclear whether macroelectrodes, which are routinely used for pre-surgical investigations, allow the recording of ripples as well. Furthermore, no direct link between ripples and behavioural performance has yet been established. Here, we recorded ...
Caveat: for researchers interested in differentiating the pathologies associated with the various forms of frontotemporal dementia, AD, and related diseases, the ATL pathology in SD may very well be considered to be focal in the sense that the bulk of the atrophy and hypometabolism, at least in early stages of the disease, is in the anterior half of the temporal lobes. So if claims about the ATL being a semantic hub (or some similar concept) are willing to include in their definition of ATL a number of different anatomical structures and cytoarchitectonic fields, including both neocortex and limbic structures (hippocampus, amygdala), with posterior involvement including roughly half of the temporal lobe ventro-laterally, then I think SD can provide reasonable support for this idea. My own interest in the link between SD and the ATL came out of claims that used SD to argue that the lateral anterior temporal lobe (i.e., those regions corresponding to sentence-specific activations, and ...
In a RT-PCR approach using human postmortem cerebral tissue from different brain regions several EPB41 (erythrocyte protein band 4.1) spliceforms could be generated. The amplificates were cloned and two of the highmolecular EPB41 spliceforms Klon 9 and Klon 13 were characterized. Klon 9 is a new spliceform, Klon13 is identical with EPB41 (accesion number AF156225). In an in situ hybridization study the EPB41 spliceforms were detected in almost all neurons of the temporal cortex and the hippocampus. Immunhistochemical localization of the p4.1R immunreactive proteins in human temporal cortex using p4.1R specific peptide antibodies, confirmed these results. The stning pattern of soma and dendrites of the neurones was punctuated. In Western Blot experiments a 110 kDa and 120 kDa p4.1R immunreactive proteinband was detected. A regulation of the protein 4.1R immunreactive proteins as well as the mRNA of protein 4.1 was found in experiments in which the functional pool of Rho GTPases in hippocampal ...
Occipital lobe -- The occipital lobe receives and processes visual information directly from the eyes and relates this information to the parietal lobe (Wernickes area) and motor cortex (frontal lobe). One of the things it must do is interpret the upside-down images of the world that are projected onto the retina by the lens of the eye.. Temporal lobe -- The temporal lobe processes auditory information from the ears and relates it to Wernickes area of the parietal lobe and the motor cortex of the frontal lobe.. ...
The ability to recognize a previously experienced stimulus is supported by two processes: recollection of the stimulus in the context of other information associated with the experience, and a sense of familiarity with the features of the stimulus. Although familiarity and recollection are functiona …
To me, one of the most interesting results of this exciting study is the clear initial appearance of tau in the medial temporal lobe without notable neocortical tau. Although the medial temporal lobe has long been recognized as the initial site of tau pathology in sporadic AD (Braak and Braak, 1991), this does not necessarily have to translate to genetically determined forms of the disease. While there is accumulating evidence that genetically determined and sporadic forms of AD follow similar pathogenetic trajectories when observed on global biomarker levels (i.e., amyloid then tau then neurodegeneration), there may be important regional differences in the onset and evolution of the different types of pathology. For example, studies analyzing amyloid-PET data on a regional level have reported a very early striatal amyloid deposition in autosomal-dominant AD that appears before the occurrence of neocortical amyloid (Klunk et al., 2007). This is in striking contrast to the late-stage striatal ...
Dataset associated with the following publication: van Kemenade, B.M., Arikan, B. E., Podranski, K., Steinsträter, O., Kircher, T., & Straube, B. (2018). Distinct roles for the cerebellum, angular gyrus and middle temporal gyrus in action-feedback monitoring. Cerebral Cortex
MUTATIONS PSEN1 73637540 GRCh37 (105) A T Exon 4 Point, Missense Coding Unknown. Unknown, but in one patient, MRI showed moderate frontal cortex atrophy, PiB-PET no amyloid deposition, FDG-PET mild hypometabolism in the lateral temporal lobe. CSF Aβ and tau were .... ...
My wife had a seizure Thursday afternoon. It appeared she was having a stroke and after many hours, many tests and two hospitals we found out she has a malignant brain tumor. While bad, there is a lot of optimistic news with it. It is operable and the location of the tumor means there wont be any lasting issues from the surgery. The tumor is very near the surface in the right temporal lobe. They think its a primary tumor meaning it didnt come from some place else. The surgeon said it would
New research shows that people who behave more altruistically have more gray matter at the junction between the parietal and temporal lobes. This shows, for the
The main underlying idea I keep coming back to is hierarchy (both in terms of sensation and action). It makes so much sense. Low-level sensory inputs are combined into higher-level representations. In the cerebral cortex this occurs within modalities at first. Higher up in the hierarchy it occurs across modalities. So the highest levels of the sensory hierarchy represent very abstract states, combining all sensory input. Most of this seems to occur in the occipital, parietal, and temporal lobes ...
iMedPub is a new approach to scientific publishing. As an open service to scientists, it is driven by researchers for researchers, while serving the interests of the general public lobe | .
അനുമസ്തിഷ്കത്തിലെ കേന്ദ്രബിന്ദുക്കളിൽനിന്നും പുറപ്പെടുന്ന നാഡികൾ നാരുകളായി മാറുക, അനുമസ്തിഷ്കത്തിലെ രക്തക്കുഴലിൽ രക്തം കട്ടപിടിക്കുക, രക്തക്കുഴൽ പൊട്ടി രക്തം ചിതറുക എന്നീ ക്രമക്കേടുകൾകൊണ്ട് അനുമസ്തിഷ്കത്തിന്റെ പ്രവർത്തനത്തിൽ മാറ്റം സംഭവിക്കുന്നു. പലതരം രോഗങ്ങൾ അനുമസ്തിഷ്കത്തെ ബാധിക്കാറുണ്ട്.പ്രമസ്തിഷ്കപർവകപാളി(floculo-nodular lobe)യെ ബാധിക്കുന്ന ഒരു പ്രധാന രോഗമാണ് ...
Mesial versus lateral. Temporal lobe epilepsy is the most common seizure disorder in adults. While mesial temporal lobe epilepsy can be associated with olfactory hallucinations, deja vu and epigastric auras, temporal lobe seizures arising from the lateral cortex rather than the hippocampus may present with auditory hallucinations as the initial seizure symptoms. While the genetics of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy remains poorly understood, the genetics of the far less common lateral temporal lobe epilepsies had major breakthrough when mutations in LGI1 were discovered in familial cases. LGI1, a secreted presynaptic protein, has mystified the field for over a decade, given that we have problems understanding how a highly localized form of epilepsy can be caused by a global genetic defect. In their recent study in AJHG, Dazzo and collaborators add another confusing piece to the puzzle. They identify RELN (reelin) mutations in families with autosomal dominant lateral temporal lobe epilepsy ...
Define temporal lobe epilepsy. temporal lobe epilepsy synonyms, temporal lobe epilepsy pronunciation, temporal lobe epilepsy translation, English dictionary definition of temporal lobe epilepsy. Noun 1. temporal lobe epilepsy - epilepsy characterized clinically by impairment of consciousness and amnesia for the episode; often involves purposeful...
Medial temporal lobe structures are essential for memory formation which is associated with coherent network oscillations. channel) confirmed expression of this protein in the immature entorhinal cortex. Neuronal activity was monitored by field potential (fp) and whole-cell recordings from layer III (LIII) of the mEC in horizontal brain slices obtained at postnatal day (P) 6C13. Spontaneous fp-bursts were suppressed by the KATP channel opener diazoxide and prolonged after blockade of KATP channels by glibenclamide. Immature mEC LIII principal neurons displayed two dominant intrinsic firing patterns, prolonged bursts or regular firing activity, respectively. Burst discharges were suppressed by the KATP channel openers diazoxide and NN414, and enhanced by the KATP channel blockers tolbutamide and glibenclamide. Activity of regularly firing neurons was modulated in a frequency-dependent manner: the diazoxide-mediated reduction of firing correlated negatively with basal frequency, while the ...
Introduction: Weight loss has been described in 20% to 45% of patients with Alzheimers disease (AD) and has been associated with adverse outcomes. Various mechanisms for weight loss in AD patients have been proposed, though none has been proven. This study aimed to elucidate a mechanism of weight loss in AD patients by examining the hypothesis that weight loss is associated with medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA). Methods: Patients from the Frisian Alzheimers disease cohort study (a retrospective, longitudinal study of 576 community-dwelling AD patients) were included when a brain MRI was performed on which MTA could be assessed. To investigate the hypothesis that weight loss is associated with MTA, we investigated whether the trajectory of body weight change depends on the severity of MTA at the time of diagnosis (that is baseline). We hypothesized that patients with more severe MTA at baseline would have a lower body weight at baseline and a faster decrease in body weight during the course of ...
temporal lobe - MedHelps temporal lobe Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for temporal lobe. Find temporal lobe information, treatments for temporal lobe and temporal lobe symptoms.
Methods Serum and CSF levels of anti-Aβ autoantibodies and CSF biomarkers were evaluated in 68 patients with cognitive impairment, comprising 44 patients with AD, 19 patients with amnestic MCI and five patients with non-Alzheimers dementia. The degree of brain atrophy was assessed using the voxel-based specific regional analysis system for AD, which targets the volume of interest (VOI) in medial temporal structures, including the whole hippocampus, entorhinal cortex and amygdala. ...
Find the best temporal lobe epilepsy doctors in Delhi NCR. Get guidance from medical experts to select temporal lobe epilepsy specialist in Delhi NCR from trusted hospitals - credihealth.com
Medial temporal lobe structures such as the hippocampus have been shown to play a critical role in mnemonic processes, with additional recruitment of the amygdala when memories contain emotional content. Thus far, studies that have examined the relationship between amygdala activity and memory have typically relied on emotional content of the kind that is rarely encountered in day-to-day interactions. The present event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging study investigates whether amygdala activity supports emotional memory during the more subtle social interactions that punctuate everyday life. Across four training sessions, subjects learned common first names for unfamiliar faces in the presence or absence of additional contextual information that was positive, negative, and neutral in valence (e.g., Emily helps the homeless, Bob is a deadbeat dad, Eric likes carrots). During scanning, subjects performed a yes/no recognition memory test on studied and novel faces. Results ...
BRÁZDIL, Milan, Pavel CHLEBUS, Michal MIKL, Marta PAŽOURKOVÁ, Petr KRUPA a Ivan REKTOR. \textit{Reorganization of language-related neuronal networks in patients with left temporal lobe epilepsy - an fMRI study.}. \textit{European Journal of Neurology}, 2005, roč.~12, č.~12, s.~268-275. ISSN~1351-5101 ...
This website uses cookies to improve your experience while you navigate through the website. Out of these, the cookies that are categorized as necessary are stored on your browser as they are essential for the working of basic functionalities of the website. We also use third-party cookies that help us analyze and understand how you use this website. These cookies will be stored in your browser only with your consent. You also have the option to opt-out of these cookies. But opting out of some of these cookies may affect your browsing experience ...
Because there is no clear, identifiable stimulus that elicits a déjà vu experience (it is a retrospective report from an individual), it is very difficult to study déjà vu in a laboratory, said Michelle Hook, Ph.D., assistant professor in the Department of Neuroscience and Experimental Therapeutics, at the Texas A&M Health Science Center College of Medicine. Episodes of déjà vu may be closely related to how memory is stored in the brain. Retention of long-term memories, events and facts are stored in the temporal lobes, and, specific parts of the temporal lobe are also integral for the detection of familiarity, and the recognition of certain events. The takeaway: The temporal lobe is where you make and store your memories.. While déjà vus connection to the temporal lobe and memory retention is still relatively unknown, clues about the condition were derived from people who suffer from temporal lobe epilepsy (a condition in which nerve cell activity in the brain is disturbed-causing ...
Kids with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) have seizures that start in one of the temporal lobes of the brain. Seizures usually get better with medicine.
Kids with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) have seizures that start in one of the temporal lobes of the brain. Seizures usually get better with medicine.
Schizophrenia has been hypothesized to be associated with an underlying brain developmental anomaly, specifically affecting normal brain asymmetries. The most pronounced asymmetries are present on the superior surface of the temporal lobes, the left plane, as measured along the sylvian fissure (planum temporale) being longer than the right in the majority of normal individuals. These asymmetries encompass Wernickes area, the anatomical substrate for language, and have been found to be less pronounced in individuals with developmental language problems, i.e. dyslexia. Since disordered language is one of the hallmarks of schizophrenia, the present study focuses on the planum temporale and related superior temporal gyrus. Eighty-five first-episode schizophrenic patients and 40 controls had measurements of the sylvian fissure taken from coronal slices. The pattern of asymmetry in controls was for the right length to be longer than the left in anterior slices, and for left to be longer than right in ...
Brain lobar volumes are heritable but genetic studies are limited. We performed genome-wide association studies of frontal, occipital, parietal and temporal lobe volumes in 16,016 individuals, and replicated our findings in 8,789 individuals. We identified six genetic loci associated with specific lobar volumes independent of intracranial volume. Two loci, associated with occipital (6q22.32) and temporal lobe volume (12q14.3), were previously reported to associate with intracranial and hippocampal volume, respectively. We identified four loci previously unknown to affect brain volumes: 3q24 for parietal lobe volume, and 1q22, 4p16.3 and 14q23.1 for occipital lobe volume. The associated variants were located in regions enriched for histone modifications (DAAM1 and THBS3), or close to genes causing Mendelian brain-related diseases (ZIC4 and FGFRL1). No genetic overlap between lobar volumes and neurological or psychiatric diseases was observed. Our findings reveal part of the complex genetics ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Decreased fronto-temporal interaction during fixation after memory retrieval. AU - Katsura, Masaki. AU - Hirose, Satoshi. AU - Sasaki, Hiroki. AU - Mori, Harushi. AU - Kunimatsu, Akira. AU - Ohtomo, Kuni. AU - Jimura, Koji. AU - Konishi, Seiki. PY - 2014/10/23. Y1 - 2014/10/23. N2 - Previous studies have revealed top-down control during memory retrieval from the prefrontal cortex to the temporal cortex. In the present functional MRI study, we investigated whether the fronto-temporal functional interaction occurs even during fixation periods after memory retrieval trials. During recency judgments, subjects judged the temporal order of two items in a study list. The task used in the present study consisted of memory trials of recency judgments and non-memory trials of counting dots, and post-trial fixation periods. By comparing the brain activity during the fixation periods after the memory trials with that during the fixation periods after the non-memory trials, we detected ...
tumors present considerable challenges from the point of view of diagnosis and therapeutic management. temporoparietal region 15 years previously was referred to our outpatient clinic. He presented with a tumor that had CP-673451 increased in size over the previous four years in that area (Fig. 1A). A biopsy of the tumor revealed a cutaneous meningioma. An imaging study using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed encephalomalacia with discrete foci of reactive gliosis in the frontal medium and temporal left gyrus. A left temporoparietal fracture which may have been old was identified as well as a 24×38×39-mm mass of extracranial soft tissue reaching the skin CP-673451 (Fig. 1B). No infiltrations of the underlying bone or intracranial components were observed. Fig. 1 (A) Skin tumor in the temporoparietal region. (B) T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. The tumor is hyperintense relative to the gray matter. A bloc resection was performed including a skin segment infiltrated by the tumor the ...
Brain lesions in the diencephalon produce an acquisition or learning deficit but do not affect the forgetting rate on recognition testing, once learning had been accomplished.1 On the other hand, it has been claimed that temporal lobe lesions do indeed produce accelerated forgetting between delays from 10 minutes to 1 week after presentation of test stimuli.2 3 This finding was based originally on findings in one patient, HM,2 in whom the results were not replicated when he was tested on different occasions.4 Moreover, when the original test procedure1 2 was used in various groups of patients with actual or presumed temporal lobe pathology-including patients with Alzheimers disease,5 6 patients with head injury (out of the period of post-traumatic amnesia),3 and patients with anoxic brain damage7-the findings failed to substantiate the original hypothesis. In general, patients with temporal lobe lesions do not forget faster than either healthy controls or other groups of amnesic patients, once ...
One of the most common types of epilepsy - mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) - is characterized by spontaneous and recurrent partial seizures. Furthermore, m...
Reduced D2-D3 Receptor Binding of Extrastriatal and Striatal Regions in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Teams of researchers from Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin and the Medical University of Innsbruck have developed a new therapeutic concept for the treatment of temporal lobe epilepsy.
Temporal Lobe Epilepsy by Candi Wernz Im an 18-year-old starting my second year of college. I was given a scholarship for one full year instead of going...
We describe corticosteroid-responsive focal granulomatous encephalitis as a manifestation of herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 disease in the brain: something easily missed and easily treated. Two adult cases presented with cognitive symptoms progressing over weeks, despite aciclovir treatment. Brain imaging showed temporal lobe abnormalities, with gadolinium enhancement but no abnormal diffusion restriction. HSV-1 PCR analysis was negative in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) but positive in brain biopsies, which showed vasocentric granulomatous inflammation. Paired blood and CSF samples showed intrathecal synthesis of HSV-1 type-specific IgG. The patients improved clinically only after immunosuppression. Despite profound cognitive impairment at their clinical nadir, both patients recovered fully. We suggest that, at least in a subset of patients with HSV-1 encephalitis, adjunctive corticosteroid treatment is critical to improve the outcome of the disease. ...
File:PET Alzheimer.jpg,thumbnail,250px,right,A PET scan of the brain of an individual with Alzheimers disease reveals a loss of function in the [[Temporal lobes,temporal lobe]].]] [[Alzheimers disease]] is characterised by loss of neurons and synapses in the [[cerebral cortex]] and certain subcortical regions. This loss results in gross atrophy of the affected regions, including degeneration in the [[temporal lobes,temporal lobe]] and [[parietal lobe]], and parts of the frontal cortex and cingulate gyrus.,ref>[http://www.news-medical.net/health/Neurodegeneration-in-Alzheimers-and-Parkinsons.aspx Neurodegeneration in Alzheimers and Parkinsons],/ref> Some of the primary symptoms of Alzheimers disease are: memory problems, mood swings, emotional outbursts, brain stem damage which impairs function in the heart, lungs plus causes disruption of various other bodily processes.,ref>[http://www.dementiacarecentral.com/node/559 Alzheimers disease],/ref> The current global [[Atheist ...
Phillips and her team are the first to use high-resolution, whole-brain MRI data and sophisticated analysis techniques to measure cortical thickness and tissue density within specific brain areas. Namely, they investigated language and cognition control areas in the frontal regions of the brain, and medial temporal lobe structures that are important for memory, and are brain areas known to atrophy in MCI and AD patients.. Previous studies used CT scans, which are a much less sensitive measure, says Phillips, founding director of Concordias Cognition, Aging and Psychophysiology (CAP) Lab.. The study looked at MRIs from participating patients from the Jewish General Hospital Memory Clinic in Montreal.. Their sample included 34 monolingual MCI patients, 34 multilingual MCI patients, 13 monolingual AD patients and 13 multilingual AD patients.. Phillips believes their study is the first to assess the structure of MCI and AD patients language and cognition control regions. It is also the first to ...
So he decided to take a MRI Scan of my brain, And it reported that I have an infract on right temporal lobe, because of that I got an unusual mild stroke in youg age. I used Asprin for 3 months to improve blood circulation to brain as per doctors suggetion. I find a very little change after 9 months ...
First and most importantly, you should know why this happens. The part that is responsible for our speech and communication is the cerebrum. Since its the largest part of the brain, the cerebrum further divides into two parts, the hemispheres. A bundle of nerves known as corpus callosum connects the two halves. The left side of the cerebrum is primarily responsible for our speech.. The cerebrum is the center of processing, learning, and forming speech. The whole process of speaking, forming sentences, and understanding our thoughts before speaking out loud, is done with the help of other parts of the brain.. From cerebrum to Brocas area, Wernickes area, cerebellum, and motor cortex, all parts perform a different role. The cerebrum, which is most of the brain, comprises of the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes. The frontal and temporal lobes are mainly in charge of understanding and speech formation.. Brocas and Wernickes areas work with converting the thought into articulated ...
Working with the #Imagenetics @SanfordHealth to provide real world evidence about genetic testing as an elective service in primary care. Proud of the first of many reports to come about the program and its impact! https://bit.ly/31CDzXM @PROMoTeR_DPM @CHeRP_DPM @ ...
Insulin sensitivity as indexed by the HOMA value in our community-based data shows strong links to deficits in speech production. We are the first to demonstrate this in a negative association between the HOMA value and VF scores in cognitively healthy, nondiabetic elderly men and women. Furthermore, we found that HOMA is negatively coupled with gray matter volume in the temporal lobe (specifically BAs 21 and 22) brain regions that support language ability (3,28,29). Corroborating previous findings (27), we show that the HOMA value is negatively correlated with total brain size as well. In contrast, separate analyses in the cognitively impaired and diabetic subgroups did not produce significant associations. These results provide evidence that fluctuations in insulin sensitivity in cognitively healthy, nondiabetic elderly men and women (independent of sex effects) are linked to changes in cognitive performance and brain volume.. Both impaired glucose tolerance and increased HOMA values have been ...
We found that almost all ACC neurons increased their activity just before hippocampal ripple activity during SWS. This observation is consistent with recent animal and human studies showing that cortical slow waves typically begin in the cortex and only later reach medial temporal lobe structures and the hippocampus (Isomura et al., 2006; Nir et al., 2011). Moreover, we observed that ripple activity increased during ACC up states, and decreased during the down state. This is in line with a number of studies showing that hippocampal ripple activity occurs preferentially during the depolarized up states of cortical slow oscillation (Sirota et al., 2003; Isomura et al., 2006; Mölle et al., 2006; Nir et al., 2011; but see Battaglia et al., 2004; Hahn et al., 2007). These observations led to the hypothesis that the cortex initiates or modulates hippocampal activity to supervise the signal transduction and memory consolidation process (Sirota et al., 2003; Ji and Wilson, 2007). In other words, ...
The argument that temporal lobe epilepsy is the cause of hallucinations mistakenly viewed as paranormal, is not a new one having being announced and concluded a grea...
1) Neocortex - the whole large sheet of brain cells on the brains outer surface, folded up into the skull giving it the appearance of a walnut.. 2) Frontal lobe - the region of the neocortex at the front of the brain, behind the forehead, which is much larger in humans than our monkey cousins and enables us to do all those complex functions that other primates cannot.. 3) Brainstem - the part of the brain that ninja assasins aim for with their deadly chop where neck meets skull, it is involved in coordinating all the vital bodily functions that keep us alive e.g. breathing and heart rates.. 4) Hippocampus - key brain area at the core of the temporal lobes (which run horizontally down the sides of the head from the temple to behind the ears) which is heavily involved in not just creating, but also retrieving memories. It also creates new brain cells in response to exercise!. 5) Neural node - erm, I think they just needed something sciency sounding to rhyme with the other lines. The image THE ...
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Despite a strong correlation to severity of AD pathology, the measurement of medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) is not being widely used in daily clinical practice as a criterion in the diagnosis of prodromal and probable AD. This is mainly because the methods available to date are sophisticated and difficult to implement for routine use in most hospitals-volumetric methods-or lack objectivity-visual rating scales. In this pilot study we aim to describe a new, simple and objective method for measuring the rate of MTA in relation to the global atrophy using clinically available neuroimaging and describe the rationale behind this method ...
, Human Brain: Temporal Lobe (Parkinsons Disease) tissue lysate, GTX26291, Applications: ELISA, IP, WB; ELISA, Immunoprecipitation, Western Blot (WB); CrossReactivity:
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , Biochai \ cDNA _ Human Adult Normal Tissue Brain Temporal Lobe \ C1234078 for more molecular products just contact us
How young adults remember events may occur in a different part of the brain to older adults, meaning that perhaps a developmental change takes place in the brain in older adulthood, according to new research.. The research, by Gates Scholar Elect Brielle Stark, has been accepted for publication in the Yale Review for Undergraduate Research in Psychology next year. The Review is an annual publication that chooses only six articles a year to publish.. There has been a lot of research on how older adults recollect events (whether they remember events with detail or without), and it is thought that these processes occur in the frontal and medial temporal lobes of the brain. However, research on young adults is much more rare. Brielle, who will start a PhD in Clinical Neurosciences this autumn, wanted to see if the same general brain regions were associated with how events are recollected in young adults as in older adults.. Her research found that the medial temporal lobe, at least in young ...
Hyperplasia of Intermediate Lobe may be related to mutation in the Aryl Hydrocarbon Protein Gene in a Context of Familial Isolated Pituitary Adenoma (FIPA ...
Medical journal Epilepsy and Behavior has a curious case study of a female patient who had the experience of changing sex when she had a seizure. The patient in question had a small tumour near the right amygdala and showed abnormal right temporal lobe activity on an EEG. Interestingly, when she had the experience of…
Multimodal assessment of language and memory reorganization. A proof of concept in two patients with temporal lobe epilepsy.: Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) accou
Brain lobes and their functions pdf, Worksheet for grade 3 grammar pdf, The area or lobe of the brain in which they occur can determine how they will affect a persons body. Here are some of the ways that seizures in different lobes can.
Frontal lobe Brain: Frontal lobe Frontal lobe Temporal lobe Parietal lobe Occipitallobe Principal fissures and lobes of the cerebrum viewed laterally. (Frontal
Gyrus or gyri in the temporal lobe on the inferior bank of lateral sulcus. It might said to be a part of the superior temporal gyrus and sometimes referred to as Herchls gyrus/gyri. ...
One of 4 well-defined portions (i.e. lobes) of each of the cerebral hemisphere that is located lateral and below the occipital and frontal lobes; controls the senses of hearing and smell and...
Question - Infant has not yet attained head holding, fixing gaze. MRI shows mild pre-frontal lobe atrophy. Will he have normal development? . Ask a Doctor about when and why MRI is advised, Ask a Pediatrician
I would like to read newly released papers on the matter. are there any opposing views on this? some says yes ,others says no? I need it for my BA. I need to have 2 papers that contradict each other
Build: Wed Jun 21 18:33:50 EDT 2017 (commit: 4a3b2dc). National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS), 6701 Democracy Boulevard, Bethesda MD 20892-4874 • 301-435-0888. ...
For other uses, see Hippocampus (disambiguation). Brain: Hippocampus The hippocampus is located in the medial temporal lobe of the brain. In this lateral view of the human brain, the frontal lobe is at le
Extra-hippocampal medial temporal lobe (ehMTL) structures, which consists of entorhinal (ERC) and perirhinal (PRC) cortices, receives increasing attention because they are amongst the earliest sites affected by Alzheimer`s Disease (AD) pathology and due to their important and complex role in episodic … Continue reading →. ...
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Temporal lobe. The medial temporal lobe memory system H. M.'s Medial Temporal Lobe ... The temporal lobe is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain of mammals. The temporal lobe is located ... and lateral parts of the temporal lobes are involved in high-level auditory processing. The temporal lobe is involved in ... Ruiz Mitjana, Laura (6 September 2019). "Lóbulo temporal: anatomía, funciones y características" [Temporal lobe: anatomy, ...
... is a late-stage and serious complication usually occurring in persons who have undergone radiation ... Dassarath, M; Yin, Z; Chen, J; Liu, H; Yang, K; Wu, G (2011). "Temporal lobe necrosis: a dwindling entity in a patient with ... Chen, J; Dassarath, M; Yin, Z; Liu, H; Yang, K; Wu, G (2011). "Radiation induced temporal lobe necrosis in patients with ... Many patients who experience temporal lobe necrosis are asymptomatic. This demonstrates a need for consistent imaging follow up ...
In 2016, a case history found that a male temporal lobe epileptic patient experienced a vision of God following a temporal lobe ... Animal models and clinical studies show that memory loss correlates with temporal lobe neuronal loss in temporal lobe epilepsy ... The International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) recognizes two main types of temporal lobe epilepsy: mesial temporal lobe ... aspect of the temporal lobe, and lateral temporal lobe epilepsy (LTLE), the rarer type, arising in the neocortex at the outer ( ...
Insular lobe Insular lobe. Four cerebral lobes and cerebellum: Occipital lobe Parietal lobe Frontal lobe Temporal lobe Brain ... The temporal lobe is located beneath the lateral fissure on both cerebral hemispheres of the mammalian brain. The temporal lobe ... The parietal lobe is positioned above the occipital lobe and behind the frontal lobe and central sulcus. The parietal lobe ... It is separated from the parietal lobe by a space between tissues called the central sulcus, and from the temporal lobe by a ...
Williams, D. (1966). "Temporal Lobe Epilepsy". British Medical Journal. 1 (5501): 1439-1442. doi:10.1136/bmj.1.5501.1439. PMC ...
Approximately 80% of temporal lobe seizures produce auras that may lead to micropsia or macropsia. They are a common feature of ... Micropsia often occurs as an aura signalling a seizure in patients with medial temporal lobe epilepsy. Most auras last for a ... It has also been suggested that Carroll may have had temporal lobe epilepsy.[citation needed] Micropsia has also been related ... The most frequent neurological origin of micropsia is a result of temporal lobe seizures. These seizures affect the entire ...
Temporal lobe seizures appeared particularly responsive to sultiame. Doubts subsequently arose as to whether sultiame has ... temporal lobe epilepsy; myoclonic seizures; grand mal attacks; and Jacksonian seizures. In contrast to other sulfonamide drugs ...
The development of the Medial Temporal Lobe (MTL), which contains the hippocampus, has been found to specifically have a ... Squire LR, Stark CE, Clark RE (2004). "The medial temporal lobe". Annual Review of Neuroscience. 27: 279-306. doi:10.1146/ ...
The medial temporal lobes are commonly associated with memory. More specifically, the lobes have been linked to episodic/ ... Thus, the medial temporal lobe, precuneus, superior parietal lobe and posterior cingulate gyrus have all been implicated in ... The medial temporal lobes, the precuneus, the posterior cingulate gyrus and the prefrontal cortex are the most typically ... Psychiatrists suggest that temporal lobe seizures may also have some relation. Conversely, several ideas have been discounted ...
... since strokes can involve the temporal lobe in the temporal cortex, and the temporal cortex houses the hippocampus. Finally, ... Initially, it is present in the limbic cortices; it may then spread to the adjacent frontal and temporal lobes. Damage to ... This is explained by the fact that the disease is initiated within the medial temporal lobe and first affacts the entorhinal ... In stark contrast, a woman whose temporal lobes were damaged in the front due to encephalitis lost her semantic memory; she ...
The ability to encode and retrieve past experiences relies on the circuitry of the medial temporal lobe, a brain structure that ... Many similarities have been found including the role of the medial temporal lobe, a structure including the hippocampus. ... Squire, L.; Stark, C.; Clark, R. (2004). "The Medial Temporal Lobe". Annual Review of Neuroscience. 27: 279-306. doi:10.1146/ ... largely conserved across mammalian species as are the major pathways that information travels between the medial temporal lobe ...
Squire, L. R., Stark, C. E. L., & R. E. Clark (2004). The medial temporal lobe. Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 27:279-306. Bracha, ... As learning proceeds, the olive becomes inhibited and it has been shown that this inhibition has temporal properties that makes ... and the anterior lobe ((ANT) Garcia, Steele, and Mauk, 1999). The importance of cerebellar cortex in EBC, relative to INP, is a ... INP cells discharge prior to CR execution and fire in a pattern of increased frequency of response that predicts the temporal ...
... a neurological disorder resulting from degeneration of the frontal lobes and/or anterior temporal lobes. There are a range of ... Epileptic foci can be found on the temporal lobe, near the amygdala. It has been postulated that there is an increased ... Baird, A.D., Wilson, S.J., Bladin, P.F., Saling, M.M., & Reutens, D.C. (2002). Hypersexuality after temporal lobe resection. ... Previous human studies have shown an association between temporal lobe dysfunction and altered sexual behavior. There has also ...
Laterally: temporal lobe with uncus. Anteriorly: superior orbital fissure, and the apex of the orbit. Posteriorly: apex of ... human head is one of the dural venous sinuses creating a cavity called the lateral sellar compartment bordered by the temporal ... petrous temporal bone. The cavernous sinus receives blood from: Superior and inferior ophthalmic veins Sphenoparietal sinus ...
Britton W. B., Bootzin R. R. "Near-death experiences and the temporal lobe". Psychol. Sci. 15, 254-58, 2004 Ruttimann, ... temporal lobe dysfunction or seizures; the NMDA receptor; activation of the limbic system; drugs; retinal ischemia; and ...
It is located in the inner part of the temporal lobe, which is found near the division of the left and right hemisphere. The ... The medial temporal lobe is essential for declarative memory, and consists of different regions that contribute towards its ... ISBN 978-1-4419-1427-9. Squire, L. R.; Stark, C. E.; Clark, R. E. (2004). "The medial temporal lobe" (PDF). Annual Review of ... A patient with semantic amnesia would have damage to the temporal lobe. Memory has two classifications-short-term memory and ...
... labeled at center, in green section.) Right temporal lobe (shown in green). Superior temporal gyrus is ... The superior temporal gyrus (STG) is one of three (sometimes two) gyri in the temporal lobe of the human brain, which is ... Including the superior temporal gyrus, areas more anterior and dorsal within the temporal lobe have been linked to the ability ... The superior temporal gyrus is bounded by: the lateral sulcus above; the superior temporal sulcus (not always present or ...
Failure of the temporal lobe is thought to be the cause of this phenomenon because the circuits that connect to memories get ... Temporal lobe epilepsy affects the hippocampus. Patients that suffer from this medical diagnosis are said to have a misfiring ... In Ray Loriga's 1999 novel Tokio ya no nos quiere, Penfield's method of stimulating the temporal lobes is described and ... Of his 520 patients, 40 reported that while their temporal lobe was stimulated with an electrode they would recall dreams, ...
The hippocampus is a structure located in the medial temporal lobe. It is thought to be involved in the encoding, consolidation ... It is generally located on the fusiform gyrus in the temporal lobe, but its precise location varies between individuals. The ... Milner, B. (1966). Amnesia following operation on the temporal lobes. In C.W.M. Whitty & O.L. Zangwill(Eds), Amnesia, (109-133 ... Squire, L.R.; Zola-Morgan, S. (1991). "The medial temporal lobe memory system". Science. 253 (5026): 1380-1386. Bibcode:1991Sci ...
Efron found that the brain's sorting of incoming signals is done in the temporal lobe of the brain's left hemisphere. However, ... doi:10.1046/j.1474-7766.2003.11136.x. Illman NA, Butler CR, Souchay C, Moulin CJ (2012). "Déjà experiences in temporal lobe ... Déjà vu is associated with temporal lobe epilepsy. This experience is a neurological anomaly related to epileptic electrical ... signals enter the temporal lobe twice before processing, once from each hemisphere of the brain, normally with a slight delay ...
Gu W, Brodtkorb E, Steinlein OK (September 2002). "LGI1 is mutated in familial temporal lobe epilepsy characterized by aphasic ... "LGI1 mutations in temporal lobe epilepsies". Neurology. 62 (7): 1115-9. doi:10.1212/01.wnl.0000118213.94650.81. PMID 15079010. ... adrenergic receptor gene in a heritable form of temporal lobe epilepsy". Neurology. 51 (6): 1730-1. doi:10.1212/wnl.51.6.1730. ... Hedera P, Abou-Khalil B, Crunk AE, Taylor KA, Haines JL, Sutcliffe JS (March 2004). "Autosomal dominant lateral temporal ...
Most patients have temporal lobe epilepsy. Listening, probably also thinking or playing, of usually very specific music with an ... Although musicality is at least in non-musicians predominantly located in the right temporal lobe, the seizure onset may also ... Of the approximately 100 patients reported in the literature so far, about 75% had temporal lobe epilepsy, women were slightly ... Musicogenic seizures can arise from multiple temporal lobe foci: intracranial EEG analyses of three patients. Epilepsia 2006; ...
Lobes in this cortex are more closely associated with memory and in particular autobiographical memory. The temporal lobes are ... The temporal lobes are a region of the cerebral cortex that is located beneath the Sylvian fissure on both the left and right ... It is part of the limbic system, and lies next to the medial temporal lobe. It is made up of two structures, the Ammon's Horn, ... The basal ganglia are a group of nuclei which are located in the medial temporal lobe, above the thalamus and connected to the ...
533-539). Squire, L.R, Zola-Morgan, S. (1991). The medial temporal lobe memory system. In Science (Vol 253, pp. 1380-1386) ... which itself is contained in the medial temporal lobe with close proximity to the hippocampus. Its name comes from the ... One study that used single unit recordings in macaque monkeys found that neurons in middle temporal visual area, also known as ... Maunsell, J. H., & Van Essen, D. C. (1983). Functional properties of neurons in middle temporal visual area of the macaque ...
"It is likely that the earlier accounts of temporal lobe epilepsy and temporal lobe pathology and the relation to mystic and ... and it has been speculated that many religious figures had temporal lobe epilepsy. The temporal lobes generate the feeling of " ... The temporal lobes and adjacent anterior insular cortex seem to be involved in mystical experiences, and in the change in ... Murai T, Hanakawa T, Sengoku A, Ban T, Yoneda Y, Fujita H, Fujita N (1998). "Temporal lobe epilepsy in a genius of natural ...
Morton, N., Gray, N.S., Mellers, J., Toone, B., Lishman, W.A., & Gray, J.A. (1994). Prepulse inhibition in temporal lobe ... 1996). According to one study, people who have temporal lobe epilepsy with psychosis also show decreases in PPI, unlike those ...
Gloor, P. (1997). The Temporal Lobe and Limbic System. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509272-4. v t e (Cerebrum, All stub ... In the brain, the angular bundle is a composite fiber tract within the ventrolateral aspect of the lateral ventricle's temporal ...
SI:Medial Temporal Lobe Memory Networks. 254: 1-7. doi:10.1016/j.bbr.2013.01.012. PMID 23348108. S2CID 5486456. França, Thiago ... "Aberrant seizure-induced neurogenesis in experimental temporal lobe epilepsy". Annals of Neurology. 59 (1): 81-91. doi:10.1002/ ... The central nervous system of a planarian is simple, though fully formed with two lobes located in the head and two ventral ... It also allows for temporal specificity with the interaction of certain drugs. This is beneficial in looking specifically at ...
Brorson, J. R.; Brewer, K. (1988). "St Paul and temporal lobe epilepsy". Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry. 51 ... Landsborough, D. (1987). "St Paul and temporal lobe epilepsy". Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry. 50 (6): 659- ... Landsborough, D. (1987), "St Paul and temporal lobe epilepsy", Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, 50 (6): 659-664 ... temporal lobe epilepsy], perhaps ending in a convulsion ... The blindness which followed may have been post-ictal." This ...
Seizures in temporal lobe epilepsy can affect the normal development of new neurons and can cause tissue damage. Hippocampal ... This ridge can also be seen as an inward fold of the archicortex into the medial temporal lobe. The hippocampus can only be ... Diana RA, Yonelinas AP, Ranganath C (Sep 2007). "Imaging recollection and familiarity in the medial temporal lobe: a three- ... Some researchers regard the hippocampus as part of a larger medial temporal lobe memory system responsible for general ...
Since then, both techniques have been applied to numerous disorders of frontal and prefrontal lobe function. Sherrill, R. (2004 ... due to the wide variations in blood flow and skull thickness from one person to the next Cannot be used as a temporal measure ...
... and abnormal experiences associated with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). The authors suggest that Jesus sought to condemn himself ...
Egocentric navigation causes high levels of activation in the right parietal lobe and prefrontal regions of the brain that are ... Spatial and Temporal Reasoning in Geographic Information Systems, ed. R. Golledge (Oxford: Oxford University Press): 143-154. ...
Word recognition in the human inferior temporal lobe. Nature 372(6503):260-3. Allison T, Ginter H, McCarthy G, Nobre AC, Puce A ... pioneering the neuroscientific study of temporal expectations (temporal orienting) (1998 ), demonstrating the ability to orient ...
... anterior temporal lobe with Broca's and Wernicke's areas). However, these neural networks are not discrete, meaning these areas ... The scans also showed an enhanced temporal activation during narrative levels tests indicating this approach activates ... temporal and spatial reference points, casual and intentional inflections, etc.) conveyed for assertions, questioning, ...
... is thought to contribute to encoding of new memories by the medial temporal lobe of the brain Purves et al., p. 37; Bullock, ...
The fins are all white dusky with the exception of the anal fin and lower caudal fin lobe, which are white to brownish orange, ... ISBN 978-0-8047-2289-6. Guadalupe Cabral-Solis, E.; E. Espino-Barr (2004). "Distribucion y abundancia espacio-temporal de los ...
Haier, Richard; Benbow, Camilla Persson (1995). "Sex differences and lateralization in temporal lobe glucose metabolism during ... those with higher SAT mathematics scores exhibited higher rates of glucose metabolism in the temporal lobes than those with ...
Mirror neurones of the frontal lobe are active during this exercise and act to link speech perception and production. This ... This area links auditory and motor representations of speech through a pathway that starts in the superior temporal cortex, ... A shadow response can reduce the delay by analysing the temporal difference between the pronunciation of phonemes within a ... Shadowing speech during a positron emission tomography finds greater stimulation of the temporal cortex and motor-function ...
Medial temporal lobe structures such as the uncus, the parahippocampal gyrus and the hippocampal formation, are also intimately ... If intracranial pressure superior to the cerebellar tentorium is increased, it may force part of the temporal lobe through this ...
Hirabayashi, T. (2 November 2005). "Dynamically Modulated Spike Correlation in Monkey Inferior Temporal Cortex Depending on the ... Duncan, John; Burgess, Paul; Emslie, Hazel (March 1995). "Fluid intelligence after frontal lobe lesions". Neuropsychologia. 33 ...
The visual cortex is located in the occipital lobe of the brain and harbors many other structures that aid in visual ... During tasks of recognition, there is increased activation in the left inferior temporal cortex and decreased activation in the ... The primary visual cortex is located within the occipital lobe in the back of infant's brain and is responsible for processing ... Multiple brain areas are involved in this process such as the frontal lobe, the right extrastriate cortex, the neocortex, and ...
Other indicative and supportive biomarkers are useful in distinguishing DLB and AD (preservation of medial temporal lobe ... lack of damage to medial temporal lobe (damage is more likely in AD); reduced occipital activity; and prominent slow-wave ...
Two lobes that reach past the Moon in length form the outer magnetotail while the central plasma sheet forms the inner ... 2007). "Spatial-Temporal characteristics of ion beamlets in the plasma sheet boundary layer of magnetotail". Journal of ... 2001). "Temporal evolution of the electric field accelerating electrons away from the auroral ionosphere". Nature. 414 (6865): ... Cluster monitors particles from the ionosphere and the solar wind as they pass through the magnetotail lobes. In the central ...
... and 14-16 years in the temporal lobes (with the superior temporal cortex being last to mature), peaking at about roughly the ...
The lobula plate is one of the three stacks of the neuropils in the fly's optic lobe. The "tangential cells" of the lobula ... At the same time, the signal is delayed in time within the subunit, and after the temporal filter, is then multiplied by the ... Second-order mechanisms have poorer temporal resolution and are low-pass in terms of the range of spatial frequencies to which ... Hess RH, Baker CL, Zihl J (May 1989). "The "motion-blind" patient: low-level spatial and temporal filters". The Journal of ...
The connection between the amygdala, OFC, and other medial temporal lobe structures suggest that they play an important role in ... paracingulate cortex temporal poles superior temporal sulcus. When people focus on things in a social context, the medial ... the left temporal and occipital regions would be activated and when emblematic gestures were involved the temporal poles would ... The amygdala, fusiform gyrus, insula, and superior and middle temporal regions have been identified as areas in the brain that ...
DBS targeting the anterior nucleus of the thalamus may be somewhat more effective for temporal lobe epilepsy and efficacy may ...
... local neurons and projection neurons reformats the information input from the sensory neurons into a spatio-temporal code ... The antennal lobe is the primary (first order) olfactory brain area in insects. The antennal lobe is a sphere-shaped ... The antennal lobe is composed of densely packed neuropils, termed glomeruli, where the sensory neurons synapse with the two ... For instance, there are 32 glomeruli in mosquito, 43 glomeruli in the fruit fly antennal lobe, and 203 glomeruli in cockroach. ...
In particular, the supplementary motor complex on the medial surface of the frontal lobe appears to activate prior to primary ... Assert differences in non-temporal knowledge (space-time independence), an approach taken for example by Boethius, Thomas ... Using functional magnetic resonance imaging with specialized multivariate analyses to study the temporal dimension in the ... and precise temporal order that the only reason to call it that is to satisfy the human habitual need for causes.... The very ...
... patients typically have damage temporal lobe damage that affects the medial and lateral cortex as well as the frontal lobe. ... Temporal lobe damage affecting the lateral and medial cortexes have been related to semantic impairments. Damage to different ... This would lead to the conclusion that any type of lesion in the temporal lobe, depending on severity and location, has the ... Research suggests that the temporal lobe, more specifically the structural description system might be responsible for category ...
The hippocampus is located in the medial temporal lobe (subcortical), and is an infolding of the medial temporal cortex. The ... Scans have demonstrated a uniform variation in blood flow distribution within the hippocampus (and the medial temporal lobe ... Epileptic patients, especially those who suffer from temporal lobe epilepsy, often experience deficits in memory encoding and ... Hippocampal sclerosis involves neural loss and a selective mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) danger and is likely caused by an ...
In addition to these parietal regions, regions of the frontal lobe are also active in calculation tasks. These activations ... have shown that multiplication uses a left lateralized network of the inferior frontal cortex and the superior-middle temporal ... Human neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that regions of the parietal lobe, including the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) and ...
At a higher level yet is the primary motor cortex, a strip of tissue located at the posterior edge of the frontal lobe. The ... ISBN 978-0-631-21403-8. Engel, AK; Singer, W (2001). "Temporal binding and the neural correlates of sensory awareness". Trends ... Arthropods have a central brain, the supraesophageal ganglion, with three divisions and large optical lobes behind each eye for ... Shima, K; Tanji, J (1998). "Both supplementary and presupplementary motor areas are crucial for the temporal organization of ...
Retrieved from http://www.interactivemetronome.com/impublic/Research/Temporal%20Processing/MemoryWorkingMemory/Research_Working ... A widely reported case of frontal lobe injury was that of Phineas Gage, a railroad worker whose left frontal lobe was damaged ... we may be misrepresenting the functions of the frontal lobe, specifically the role it plays in memory. Frontal lobe disorder ... Patients with damaged frontal lobes often complain of minimal to substantial memory loss. Because of this, frontal lobe ...
"Temporal patterns of wolverine (Gulo gulo luscus) foraging in the boreal forest." Journal of Mammalogy 99, no. 3 (2018): 693- ... In North America, moose (A. a. americanus) antlers are usually larger than those of Eurasian moose and have two lobes on each ... Eurasian moose antlers resemble a seashell, with a single lobe on each side. In the North Siberian moose (A. a. bedfordiae), ...
... may present itself as a symptom of both frontal lobe epilepsy and temporal lobe epilepsy, which may actually help in ... It may be subsequently concluded that the EEG is congruent with temporal or frontal lobe seizure. Anxiety and headaches ... Swash M. Visual perseveration in temporal lobe epilepsy J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1979;42:569-71. Zwijnenburg PJ, Wennink ... Alice in Wonderland syndrome: a clinical presentation of frontal lobe epilepsy. Neuropediatrics, 2002 33: 53-5. Moorhouse D. ...
... a significant increase in cortical glucose metabolism in bilateral anterior cingulate and in the left inferior temporal lobe, ... emission computed tomography on an elderly patient with Alzheimer's disease revealed greater blood flow to the frontal lobe of ...
... temporal lobe epilepsy. It also occurs in some cases after brain surgery, stroke, infection, tumor, aneurysm, migraine and ... form of alien hand syndrome is associated with damage to the posterolateral parietal lobe and/or occipital lobe of the brain. ... When the frontal lobe damage is bilateral and generally more extensive, the patient completely loses the ability to act in a ... With anteromedial frontal lobe injuries, these movements are often exploratory reaching movements in which external objects are ...
In fact, 90% of patients with temporal interictal epileptiform abnormalities on their electroencephalograms (EEGs) have a ... The temporal lobe is the most epileptogenic region of the brain. ... encoded search term (Temporal Lobe Epilepsy) and Temporal Lobe ... However, the true prevalence of temporal lobe epilepsy is not known, since not all cases of presumed temporal lobe epilepsy are ... The temporal lobe is the most epileptogenic region of the brain. In fact, 90% of patients with temporal interictal epileptiform ...
This study compares diencephalic and temporal lobe amnesics on a memory task in which the encoding of temporal context is ... This study compares diencephalic and temporal lobe amnesics on a memory task in which the encoding of temporal context is ... Differential sensitivity to context in diencephalic and temporal lobe amnesia Cortex. 1990 Sep;26(3):373-80. doi: 10.1016/s0010 ... the diencephalic group showed poorer accuracy than the temporal lobe group. These results indicate that the diencephalic ...
Care guide for Temporal Lobe Seizures in Children. Includes: possible causes, signs and symptoms, standard treatment options ... A temporal lobe seizure starts in the temporal lobe of the brain. One temporal lobe is on each side of the brain, near the ... A temporal lobe seizure may not show up on an EEG.. *CT or MRI pictures may be used to check for abnormal areas. Your child may ... What can I do to help my child manage temporal lobe seizures?. *Keep a seizure diary. This can help you find your childs ...
Correction for Daselaar et al., The Medial Temporal Lobe Distinguishes Old from New Independently of Consciousness. Journal of ... Correction: The article "The Medial Temporal Lobe Distinguishes Old from New Independently of Consciousness," by Sander M. ... Correction for Daselaar et al., The Medial Temporal Lobe Distinguishes Old from New Independently of Consciousness ... Correction for Daselaar et al., The Medial Temporal Lobe Distinguishes Old from New Independently of Consciousness ...
EEG-fMRI in the presurgical evaluation of temporal lobe epilepsy. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry 10.1136/jnnp- ... EEG-fMRI in the presurgical evaluation of temporal lobe epilepsy.. Open access status:. An open access version is available ... Drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) often requires thorough investigation to define the epileptogenic zone for surgical ...
... caused brain seizures in mice similar to those seen in human temporal lobe epilepsy.. Read More ...
A single human adult diseased tissue with 5-10 µm thickness is mounted on a positively charged glass slide. The slides are fixed and dehydrated with acetone for consistent results with in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. BioChains tissue pro
Temporal Lobe, Human Tissue Block, Cell Assays, Formalin-fixed Tissue Block-app. 0.1 gm. Useful for a number of applications ...
Positive and negative network correlations in temporal lobe epilepsy. ... We found that temporal lobe seizures associated with loss of consciousness produced CBF increases in the temporal lobe, ... These results suggest that impaired consciousness in temporal lobe seizures may result from focal abnormal activity in temporal ... In contrast, temporal lobe seizures in which consciousness was spared were not accompanied by these widespread CBF changes. The ...
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) represents by far the most common form of medically intractable focal epilepsy in adults. Surgical ... Chapter 3 focuses on identifying microstructural abnormalities in the white matter (WM) and grey matter (GM) of the temporal ... The method developed combining DKI measurements and tract-specific analysis uncovered temporal pole microstructural ... Temporal lobe epilepsy is a medical condition that affects the temporal lobe region of the brain, and is commonly treated with ...
... in the temporal lobe. Specifically, the PAC is located in Brodmann area (BA) 41 in the transverse temporal gyrus, which is ... Right Temporal Lobe Glioblastoma Presenting as Distortions of Speech Processing C. Clare Charbonnet, MD1 • Charles L. Emerman, ... Although both temporal lobes receive the same input from these lower auditory neurons, the processing of sound is traditionally ... While bilateral temporal lobes receive the same input from lower auditory neurons, the processing of sound is traditionally ...
right anterior temporal lobe resection. Add to your list(s) Download to your calendar using vCal ...
Three surgical approaches were used: anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL; n = 209), transcortical selective ... The reasons for failure of surgical treatment for mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) associated with hippocampal sclerosis ( ... Predictive factors of long-term outcomes of surgery for mesial temporal lobe epilepsy associated with hippocampal sclerosis ... Abstract : OBJECTIVE: The reasons for failure of surgical treatment for mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) associated with ...
Extra-temporal lobe epilepsy (ETLE) in pediatric patients is often medically refractory, leading to significantly diminished ... seizure outcomes after resective surgery for pediatric ETLE are less favorable than those associated with temporal lobectomy, ... While temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common epilepsy syndrome in adults, seizures in children are more often ... Engel J Jr, , Wiebe S, , French J, , Sperling M, , Williamson P, & Spencer D, et al.: Practice parameter: temporal lobe and ...
... et al.Late Radiation Injury to the Temporal Lobes Morphologic Evaluation at MR Imaging.Radiology. 1999; 213(3) 800 - 807. ... Chan Y.I., Leung S.F., and King A.D., et al.Late Radiation Injury to the Temporal Lobes: Morphologic Evaluation at MR Imaging. ... Structure and Temporal Variability of Mediterranean Water in Hydrological and Marine Seismic Data South of Portimao Canyon ( ...
... left-temporal lobe variant of FTLD. Recently, patients with mainly right-sided atrophy, or right-temporal lobe variant(RTLV ... a case of right temporal lobe variant of FTLD. JT showed early and prominent behavioral changes accompanied by a severe ... It is associated with mainly left anterior temporal atrophy, and is also referred to as ... "left-temporal lobe variant" of FTLD. Recently, patients with mainly right-sided atrophy, or "right-temporal lobe variant"(RTLV ...
Prefrontal and Medial Temporal Lobe Cortical Contributions to Visual Short-Term Memory J Cogn Neurosci (December,2022) ... The Medial Temporal Lobe Is Critical for Spatial Relational Perception J Cogn Neurosci (September,2020) ... The Necessity of the Medial Temporal Lobe for Statistical Learning In Special Collection: CogNet ... High-resolution fMRI of Content-sensitive Subsequent Memory Responses in Human Medial Temporal Lobe J Cogn Neurosci (January, ...
Explore the research topics touched on by this project. These labels are generated based on the underlying awards/grants. Together they form a unique fingerprint ...
Parietal Frontal Lobe Lobe Occipital Loble cerebellum medulla Hypothalamus Temporal Lobe Thalamus Limbic ... Parietal Frontal Lobe Lobe Occipital Loble cerebellum ...
Structural MRI data indicate schizophrenics have reduced left-sided temporal lobe gray matter volumes, especially in the ... but fewer medial temporal lobe abnormalities.. CONCLUSIONS: These abnormalities strengthen the hypothesis of a temporal lobe ... especially in the superior temporal gyrus (STG) and medial temporal lobe. Our data further suggest a specificity to ... Schizotypal personality disorder and MRI abnormalities of temporal lobe gray matter March 31, 2015. Dickey CC, McCarley RW, ...
... in epilepsy temporal neocortex derived from fresh surgical material in patients with medically refractory temporal lobe ... from non-pathological fresh-frozen human postmortem temporal neocortex brain tissue (TL Control) and then employed it, in ... Glia-specific nuclei isolation and single cell transcriptomics inform astrocyte pathology in human temporal lobe epilepsy. ... in epilepsy temporal neocortex derived from fresh surgical material in patients with medically refractory temporal lobe ...
Dive into the research topics of T2 heterogeneity as an in vivo marker of microstructural integrity in medial temporal lobe ... T1 - T2 heterogeneity as an in vivo marker of microstructural integrity in medial temporal lobe subfields in ageing and mild ... T2 heterogeneity as an in vivo marker of microstructural integrity in medial temporal lobe subfields in ageing and mild ... T2 heterogeneity as an in vivo marker of microstructural integrity in medial temporal lobe subfields in ageing and mild ...
Du X, Zhang H, Parent JM (2017) Rabies tracing of birthdated dentate granule cells in rat temporal lobe epilepsy. Ann Neurol 81 ... Thind KK, Ribak CE, Buckmaster PS (2008) Synaptic input to dentate granule cell basal dendrites in a rat model of temporal lobe ... Alexander A, Maroso M, Soltesz I (2016) Organization and control of epileptic circuits in temporal lobe epilepsy. Prog Brain ... Buckmaster PS, Zhang GF, Yamawaki R (2002) Axon sprouting in a model of temporal lobe epilepsy creates a predominantly ...
... and determine the radiation dose tolerance of the temporal lobe (TL) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients treated with ... To identify the radiation volume effect and significant dosimetric parameters for temporal lobe injury (TLI) ... dose to 0.5 ml of temporal lobe volume). The cutoff point for D0.5cc (as the temporal lobe dose tolerance) was determined as 69 ... Table 3 Summary of temporal lobe radiation tolerance expressed as V 10-75 using paired t-tests and ROC curve Full size table. ...
Prospective analysis of diplopia after anterior temporal lobectomy for mesial temporal lobe sclerosis. Journal of neurosurgery ... Prospective analysis of diplopia after anterior temporal lobectomy for mesial temporal lobe sclerosis. / Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A ... Prospective analysis of diplopia after anterior temporal lobectomy for mesial temporal lobe sclerosis. In: Journal of ... Dive into the research topics of Prospective analysis of diplopia after anterior temporal lobectomy for mesial temporal lobe ...
... temporal lobe epilepsy associated with misplacement of a ventricular shunting catheter in the apex of the right temporal lobe. ... temporal lobe epilepsy associated with misplacement of a ventricular shunting catheter in the apex of the right temporal lobe. ... temporal lobe epilepsy associated with misplacement of a ventricular shunting catheter in the apex of the right temporal lobe. ... temporal lobe epilepsy associated with misplacement of a ventricular shunting catheter in the apex of the right temporal lobe. ...
The medial temporal lobe (MTL; i.e., hippocampus, subiculum, and entorhinal and perirhinal cortices) memory circuit displays ... From: Tau pathology in the medial temporal lobe of athletes with chronic traumatic encephalopathy: a chronic effects of ... in the inferior temporal cortex (BA20) of a stage III case. c-f Photomicrographs of Aβ1-42 immunolabeling in the PrS of CTE ...
... was measured in 4 patients with temporal lobe epilepsy during a selective anterior temporal lobe (TL) amobarbital test (ATLAT) ... was measured in 4 patients with temporal lobe epilepsy during a selective anterior temporal lobe (TL) amobarbital test (ATLAT) ... was measured in 4 patients with temporal lobe epilepsy during a selective anterior temporal lobe (TL) amobarbital test (ATLAT) ... was measured in 4 patients with temporal lobe epilepsy during a selective anterior temporal lobe (TL) amobarbital test (ATLAT) ...
  • Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) was defined in 1985 by the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) as a condition characterized by recurrent, unprovoked seizures originating from the medial or lateral temporal lobe. (medscape.com)
  • The article "The Medial Temporal Lobe Distinguishes Old from New Independently of Consciousness," by Sander M. Daselaar, Mathias S. Fleck, Steven E. Prince, and Roberto Cabeza, which appeared on pages 5835-5839 of the May 24, 2006 issue, the following sentence in the abstract, "Furthermore, functional connectivity analyses showed that perceived novelty activity in the posterior MTL inhibited true oldness activity in the anterior MTL. (jneurosci.org)
  • Although the extraction of such regularities, or statistical learning (SL), is typically viewed as a cortical process, recent studies have implicated the medial temporal lobe (MTL), including the hippocampus. (mit.edu)
  • Structural MRI data indicate schizophrenics have reduced left-sided temporal lobe gray matter volumes, especially in the superior temporal gyrus (STG) and medial temporal lobe. (harvard.edu)
  • To test the hypothesis of whether SPD subjects might show similar STG abnormalities, STG and medial temporal lobe regions of interest (ROI) were manually drawn on high resolution coronal MRI 1.5 mm thick slices. (harvard.edu)
  • Comparisons with chronic schizophrenics previously studied by us showed the SPD group had a similarity of left STG gray matter volume reduction, but fewer medial temporal lobe abnormalities. (harvard.edu)
  • It is also possible that presence of medial temporal lobe abnormalities may help to differentiate who will develop schizophrenia and who will develop the less severe schizophrenia spectrum disorder, SPD. (harvard.edu)
  • Here we test whether T2 markers of brain integrity precede the volume changes we know are present in established AD and whether such changes are most marked in medial temporal lobe (MTL) subfields known to be most affected early in AD. (bris.ac.uk)
  • Transplants of medial-ganglionic eminence (MGE) GABAergic progenitors into the hippocampus of adult mice with pilocarpine-induced temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) have been shown to increase inhibitory synaptic currents in granule cells (GCs) in the dentate gyrus (DG) and suppress seizures. (eneuro.org)
  • We report the case of a 35-year-old woman who developed right medial temporal lobe epilepsy associated with misplacement of a ventricular shunting catheter in the apex of the right temporal lobe. (elsevier.com)
  • This study aimed to elucidate a mechanism of weight loss in AD patients by examining the hypothesis that weight loss is associated with medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Moreover, atrophy of the medial temporal lobe reflects changes in functional neuroanatomical networks that are involved in the regulation of body weight [ 22 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The medial temporal lobe is a site where AD pathology is typically present [ 25 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • showed that medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) was associated with low body weight in AD patients [ 22 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These studies, including some of the first fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging) examinations, revealed a right-hemisphere bias for self-face recognition in a diverse set of regions including the insula, the dorsal frontal lobe, the temporal parietal junction, and the medial temporal cortex. (mdpi.com)
  • In AD, hypometabolism involves the parietal (lateral and medial/precuneus) and temporal lobes and the posterior cingulate cortices either unilaterally or bilaterally ( Fig. 1 ). (snmjournals.org)
  • Medically intractable temporal lobe epilepsy is amenable to epilepsy surgery with a very high seizure-free rate. (medscape.com)
  • What is a temporal lobe seizure? (drugs.com)
  • A temporal lobe seizure starts in the temporal lobe of the brain. (drugs.com)
  • A temporal lobe seizure is called a focal seizure because it starts in one part of your child's brain. (drugs.com)
  • What are the signs and symptoms of a temporal lobe seizure? (drugs.com)
  • How is a temporal lobe seizure diagnosed? (drugs.com)
  • Nose wiping is common after a temporal lobe seizure. (drugs.com)
  • A temporal lobe seizure may not show up on an EEG. (drugs.com)
  • How is a temporal lobe seizure treated? (drugs.com)
  • In conclusion, seizure outcomes after resective surgery for pediatric ETLE are less favorable than those associated with temporal lobectomy, but seizure freedom may be more common with earlier intervention and lesional epilepsy etiology. (thejns.org)
  • Additionally, transplants of fetal GABAergic interneurons in the DG of mice with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) result in seizure suppression, but it is unknown whether increasing interneurons with these transplants restores GABAergic innervation to adult-born GCs. (eneuro.org)
  • Injury to the temporal lobe, whether through trauma , disease or seizure, can cause a great number of problems. (thehealthboard.com)
  • Temporal lobe resective surgery in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and unilateral mesial temporal lobe sclerosis not associated with neuronal antibodies was up to 70% effective in achieving seizure freedom. (facfil.eu)
  • After a temporal lobe seizure, you may have: Unilateral mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) has been associated with reduced amygdala responsiveness to fearful faces. (facfil.eu)
  • A temporal lobe seizure starts in the part of the brain that processes emotions, fight or flight reactions, and short-term memory. (lynchspharmacy.com)
  • But, it's not always possible to determine the cause of a temporal lobe seizure. (lynchspharmacy.com)
  • Temporal lobe seizures are often resistant to anti-seizure medications. (lynchspharmacy.com)
  • An unusual sensation or emotion, known as an aura, may precede a temporal lobe seizure, acting as a warning. (lynchspharmacy.com)
  • People who have temporal lobe seizures usually remain partially conscious during a seizure, but they lose awareness of their surroundings and usually don't remember what happened. (lynchspharmacy.com)
  • A temporal lobe seizure usually lasts 30 seconds to two minutes. (lynchspharmacy.com)
  • In extreme cases, what starts as a temporal lobe seizure evolves into a grand mal (tonic-clonic) seizure - featuring convulsions and a loss of consciousness. (lynchspharmacy.com)
  • About half of people with temporal lobe seizures never experience a grand mal seizure. (lynchspharmacy.com)
  • When this occurs in an area of the brain known as the temporal lobe, it's called a temporal lobe seizure. (lynchspharmacy.com)
  • Gleichgerrcht E, Greenblatt AS, Kellermann TS, Rowland N, Vandergrift WA, Edwards J, Davis KA, Bonilha L. Patterns of seizure spread in temporal lobe epilepsy are associated with distinct white matter tracts. (musc.edu)
  • Altered expression of signaling pathways regulating neuronal excitability in hippocampal tissue of temporal lobe epilepsy patients with low and high seizure frequency. (bvsalud.org)
  • Despite recent advances in our understanding of synaptic transmission associated with epileptogenesis, the molecular mechanisms that control seizure frequency in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) remain obscure. (bvsalud.org)
  • The description of arrhythmias, from a probabilistic perspective, observed during temporal lobe epileptic events and the description of the complexity of the state of the brain, from an information theory perspective, are integrated in a fusion-of-information framework towards temporal lobe epileptic seizure detection. (bl.uk)
  • It is associated with mainly left anterior temporal atrophy, and is also referred to as "left-temporal lobe variant" of FTLD. (escholarship.org)
  • Recently, patients with mainly right-sided atrophy, or "right-temporal lobe variant"(RTLV), have been described. (escholarship.org)
  • An MRI showed evidence of Effects of hippocampussparing resections in the temporal lobe: Hippocampal atrophy is associated with a decline in memory performance. (facfil.eu)
  • A repeat 3T epilepsy protocol MRI demonstrated further hippocampal atrophy, increased flair within the right hippocampus, and the loss of gray-white differentiation in the anterior temporal lobe, diagnosing mesial temporal lobe sclerosis (Figures 3A-3B). (facfil.eu)
  • Lines of emerging research indicate a rare variant with focal atrophy of the right temporal lobe (RTLA). (mssm.edu)
  • Topographic divergence of atypical cortical asymmetry and atrophy patterns in temporal lobe epilepsy. (musc.edu)
  • of the head shows fronto-temporal atrophy carnitine levels in urine were elevated and and bilateral subdural haemorrhage glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase activity in cul- tured fibroblasts was low. (who.int)
  • You have a hippocampus in each temporal lobe, which control memory and learning. (facfil.eu)
  • About 80% of all temporal lobe seizures start in the mesial temporal lobe, with seizures often starting in or near a structure called the hippocampus. (facfil.eu)
  • Thus, the hippocampus plays a role in recognition memory when such memory involves remembering that a particular stimulus occurred in a particular place or when the memory contains a temporal or object recency component. (jneurosci.org)
  • Thus, under conditions in which recognition memory has a spatial or temporal component, the hippocampus appears to be critical. (jneurosci.org)
  • There was a marked reduction in 5-HT uptake sites in the external and middle laminae of the anterior cingulate, frontal cortex, and posterior cingulate, and no changes were observed in the motor cortex, temporal cortex, or hippocampus. (elsevier.com)
  • Serotonin receptors were substantially elevated in the posterior cingulate, temporal cortex, and hippocampus, but not in the frontal, anterior cingulate, or motor cortices. (elsevier.com)
  • Examination of the temporal lobe and hippocampus of a group of nonschizophrenic suicides (n "" 8) indicated the alterations in 5-HT system in the limbic regions of the striatum, the limbic cortex, and hippocampus of the schizophrenic cases may be disease specific. (elsevier.com)
  • This "lobectomy" surgery removed his entire occipital lobe, which carries out visual processing, and most of his temporal lobe, which processes visual and auditory information. (newscientist.com)
  • Anything to the left of his nose is not transmitted to his brain, because the occipital lobe in his right hemisphere is missing and cannot receive this information," says Marlene Behrmann of Carnegie Mellon University, Pennsylvania. (newscientist.com)
  • The frontal lobe is associated with reasoning and abstract thought, the temporal lobe with preserving memory, the occipital lobe with vision, and the parietal lobe helps to integrate sensory inputs. (sciencealert.com)
  • It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE . (bvsalud.org)
  • There is usually preserved metabolism in the sensorimotor cortices, basal ganglia, occipital lobes, and cerebellum. (snmjournals.org)
  • These results suggest that impaired consciousness in temporal lobe seizures may result from focal abnormal activity in temporal and subcortical networks linked to widespread impaired function of the association cortex. (duke.edu)
  • Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) represents by far the most common form of medically intractable focal epilepsy in adults. (uwo.ca)
  • Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) is one of the most common types of refractory focal epilepsy in adults, and hippocampal sclerosis (HS) is the hallmark of most cases (Cendes et al. (facfil.eu)
  • A localization-related (focal) form of epilepsy characterized by recurrent seizures that arise from foci within the TEMPORAL LOBE, most commonly from its mesial aspect. (musc.edu)
  • Swiss mice: Mild diffuse infiltration of gray and white matter by mono- and polymorphonuclear leucocytes, with focal aggregates in basal ganglia and horn of temporal lobe. (cdc.gov)
  • The findings indicated that several FAB scores (including composite and item scores) provided valid measures of right hemispheric lateral frontal lobe dysfunction, specifically of focal lesions near the anterior insula, in the right middle frontal gyrus, and in the right inferior frontal gyrus. (medscape.com)
  • He was diagnosed with a right temporal lobe glioblastoma multiforme that caused distortion of the primary auditory cortex, secondary auditory cortex, and the anterior portion of the auditory association cortex. (consultant360.com)
  • Computerized tomography of the brain revealed a mass in the right temporal pole with extension along the lateral cortex associated with subcortical vasogenic edema. (consultant360.com)
  • b MTL sections immunolabeled with 6E10 (brown) and Nissl counter stained (blue) show a diffuse plaque ( b ) in the inferior temporal cortex (BA20) of a stage III case. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The temporal lobe is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain of mammals.The temporal lobe is located beneath the lateral fissure on both cerebral hemispheres of the mammalian brain. (facfil.eu)
  • Just like epilepsy of the motor cortex that results in spasmodic activation of the muscles, temporal lobe epilepsy causes the same repetitive firing of neuronal circuits but in a region of the brain central for our concept of space and time. (scienceblogs.com)
  • In DLBD, hypometabolism involves the occipital (mainly primary visual cortex) lobes unilaterally or bilaterally ( Fig. 2 ). (snmjournals.org)
  • The temporal lobe is the most epileptogenic region of the brain. (medscape.com)
  • One temporal lobe is on each side of the brain, near the temples. (drugs.com)
  • Researchers at Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center report that molecular disruptions in small neurons called granule cells - located in the dentate gyrus region of the brain - caused brain seizures in mice similar to those seen in human temporal lobe epilepsy. (neurosciencenews.com)
  • Temporal lobe epilepsy is a medical condition that affects the temporal lobe region of the brain, and is commonly treated with anti-epileptic drugs. (uwo.ca)
  • Several studies have attributed this to in-complete resection of abnormal brain areas, which may not be confined solely to the temporal lobe. (uwo.ca)
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain showed an irregularly, heterogeneously enhancing mass in the right temporal lobe measuring 3.7 × 2.7 × 2.8 cm with peripheral rim - restricted diffusion, thick rind, and nodular-like enhancement. (consultant360.com)
  • The temporal lobe is located within the cerebrum, which is the outermost portion of the brain. (thehealthboard.com)
  • The temporal lobe is located underneath the frontal and parietal lobes of the brain, just above the ears in humans. (thehealthboard.com)
  • Temporal lobe epilepsy is also the most common type of epilepsy, with seizures beginning in the temporal lobe of the brain. (thehealthboard.com)
  • Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we m Located just beneath the lateral fissure and crossing both fissures of the brain is the temporal lobe. (facfil.eu)
  • Experts say some possible causes of temporal lobe seizures include: severe traumatic brain injury. (facfil.eu)
  • Mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) is a term used to describe scarring in the deep part of the temporal lobe of the brain. (facfil.eu)
  • The temporal lobes are the most common brain region to develop epileptogenicity. (facfil.eu)
  • Over time, repeated temporal lobe seizures can cause the part of the brain that's responsible for learning and memory to shrink. (lynchspharmacy.com)
  • The approach relies on a biomedical case for the coupling of the Brain and Heart systems through the central autonomic network during temporal lobe epileptic events: neurovegetative manifestations associated with temporal lobe epileptic events consist of alterations to the cardiac rhythm. (bl.uk)
  • Tracking change over deep time across dozens of primate species, we found humans had particularly high levels of brain integration, especially between the parietal and frontal lobes. (sciencealert.com)
  • The word 'frontotemporal' refers to the lobes of the brain that are damaged in this type of dementia. (whenthefoglifts.blog)
  • The frontal lobes of the brain, found behind the forehead, deal with behaviour, problem-solving, planning and the control of emotions. (whenthefoglifts.blog)
  • The temporal lobes - on either side of the brain - have several roles. (whenthefoglifts.blog)
  • Frontotemporal dementia occurs when nerve cells in the frontal and/or temporal lobes of the brain die, and the pathways that connect the lobes change. (whenthefoglifts.blog)
  • Over time, as more and more nerve cells die, the brain tissue in the frontal and temporal lobes shrinks. (whenthefoglifts.blog)
  • It results from damage to the temporal lobe and surrounding areas in the brain. (medlineplus.gov)
  • People with Broca's aphasia have damage primarily to the frontal lobe of the brain. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Cognitive and behavioral profile in a case of right anterior temporal lobe neurodegeneration. (escholarship.org)
  • In this prospective study the authors investigated the incidence and natural history of postoperative diplopia in patients undergoing anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) and amygdalohippocampectomy for medically intractable mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. (elsevier.com)
  • Cerebral glucose utilisation using 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ( 18 F-FDG PET) was measured in 4 patients with temporal lobe epilepsy during a selective anterior temporal lobe (TL) amobarbital test (ATLAT) and compared with their baseline values. (elsevier.com)
  • abstract = "Cerebral glucose utilisation using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET) was measured in 4 patients with temporal lobe epilepsy during a selective anterior temporal lobe (TL) amobarbital test (ATLAT) and compared with their baseline values. (elsevier.com)
  • Objective This study identifies potential prognostic factors for favorable anterior mesial temporal lobe (AMTL) resection outcomes in patients with medically refractory temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with bilateral features on pre-operative examination. (elsevier.com)
  • In these five cases, tumor was located in the anterior or the inferior part of the temporal lobe. (elsevier.com)
  • One of the main symptoms of damage to the temporal lobe is the inability to correctly process auditory information. (thehealthboard.com)
  • Both children have exhibited symptoms, so tests are being run to either identify or rule out temporal lobe epilepsy. (psychologydictionary.org)
  • When the frontal and/or temporal lobes are damaged in this way, this causes the symptoms of FTD. (whenthefoglifts.blog)
  • Symptoms of possible frontal lobe dysfunction that should be probed include change in performance at work and changes organizing and executing difficult tasks such as holiday dinners or travel itineraries. (medscape.com)
  • To characterize abnormalities in neocortical central benzodiazepine receptor (cBZR) binding in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) with unilateral hippocampal sclerosis (HS) using [(11)C]-flumazenil-(FMZ) PET and complementary voxel-based and quantitative volume-of-interest (VOI) methods. (elsevier.com)
  • While bilateral temporal lobes receive the same input from lower auditory neurons, the processing of sound is traditionally considered to be dominated by the left hemisphere. (consultant360.com)
  • However, patients with right temporal lobe epilepsy have described auditory auras in which existing sound is distorted. (consultant360.com)
  • The main functions of the temporal lobe are the processing and analysis of auditory information. (thehealthboard.com)
  • To evaluate cortical auditory function in ten patients with temporal lobe gliomas, we measured AEF for monaural tone stimuli using a helmet-shaped 666- channel MEG system. (elsevier.com)
  • AEF can be used to evaluate cortical auditory function noninvasively in cases with temporal lobe gliomas. (elsevier.com)
  • Neuropsychological tests are increasingly used as part of clinical assessment in multiple sclerosis (MS) and temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), the most prevalent chronic disabling neurological conditions in adulthood. (bvsalud.org)
  • In fact, 90% of patients with temporal interictal epileptiform abnormalities on their electroencephalograms (EEGs) have a history of seizures. (medscape.com)
  • Chapter 3 focuses on identifying microstructural abnormalities in the white matter (WM) and grey matter (GM) of the temporal pole, a region underappreciated in TLE patients. (uwo.ca)
  • The method developed combining DKI measurements and tract-specific analysis uncovered temporal pole microstructural abnormalities in TLE patients (includes non-lesional TLE patients) compared to healthy controls. (uwo.ca)
  • Our findings demonstrated that by combining DKI and other analysis techniques, diffusion abnormalities related to TLE can be uncovered within the temporal pole. (uwo.ca)
  • These abnormalities strengthen the hypothesis of a temporal lobe abnormality in SPD, and the similarity of STG findings in schizophrenia and SPD suggest that STG abnormalities may be part of the spectrum "endophenotype. (harvard.edu)
  • Methods Thirty-one patients demonstrated bilateral features defined as: bilateral independent temporal or bitemporal ictal onsets on surface or intracranial EEG, or bitemporal interictal epileptiform abnormalities on surface EEG with bilateral radiographic mesial temporal sclerosis. (elsevier.com)
  • The majority of complex partial seizures (see EPILEPSY, COMPLEX PARTIAL) originate from the temporal lobes. (musc.edu)
  • The anticonvulsant drug was developed to treat both partial seizures as are seen in temporal lobe epilepsy and neuropathic pain. (fibromyalgia-symptoms.org)
  • Temporal lobe lesions may also cause fits (seizures). (facfil.eu)
  • We found that temporal lobe seizures associated with loss of consciousness produced CBF increases in the temporal lobe, followed by increases in bilateral midline subcortical structures. (duke.edu)
  • Extra-temporal lobe epilepsy (ETLE) in pediatric patients is often medically refractory, leading to significantly diminished quality of life. (thejns.org)
  • Depending on whether the left or right lobe of the temporal region is affected, an affected patient may have difficulty with musical abilities or with the ability to make sense of language. (thehealthboard.com)
  • That distortions of specifically speech stimuli in adverse conditions resulted from local mass effect in the right temporal lobe adds to the evidence that processing of speech stimuli involves bilateral cerebral hemispheres in ways not yet fully elucidated. (consultant360.com)
  • CT revealed that the tip of the shunting catheter was misplaced in the apex of the right temporal lobe, through the posterior and inferior horn of the right lateral ventricle. (elsevier.com)
  • tions, and the right AI mainly engaged in affective-per- Almost 80% of all temporal lobe seizures are due to MTLE. (facfil.eu)
  • Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) is a common inherited form of intractable epilepsy that is almost always associated with cognitive dysfunction. (facfil.eu)
  • The cerebrum is the most recent structure to have evolved in the brains of animals, and the temporal lobe is one of its five structures. (thehealthboard.com)
  • The transsylvian-transcisternal approach is a good way to access the mesial structures while preserving the lateral and basal temporal structures. (facfil.eu)
  • Here we report a detailed neuropsychological, language, behavioral and neuroimaging assessment of JT, a case of right temporal lobe variant of FTLD. (escholarship.org)
  • Conclusions: This case provides support for an FTLD right temporal lobe variant. (mssm.edu)
  • [ 1 ] Temporal lobe epilepsy is a common type of epilepsy that is sometimes difficult to diagnose, but once diagnosed it can be effectively treated with medications. (medscape.com)
  • In the later five patients, tumor extended to the superior and posterior part of the temporal lobe. (elsevier.com)
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated a right temporal lobe tumor. (vdocuments.mx)
  • I have 3.2 cms in the diameter of Jeselnik's temporal lobe tumor pool. (theviralist.com)
  • The autonomic influences responsible for ictal tachycardia during temporal lobe seizures may be inconsequential in patients without cardiac disease but can have serious consequences in patients with cardiac disease. (jhmi.edu)
  • This reflects the spatio-temporal progression of neurodegeneration in AD. (bris.ac.uk)
  • Her tumur was in her left frontal/temporal area, she is taking dilantin dayly to prevent and siezues, --she had only one which is how we found out she was ill. (cancer.org)
  • An area of usually the left frontal lobe also controls speech. (whenthefoglifts.blog)