Petrous Bone: The dense rock-like part of temporal bone that contains the INNER EAR. Petrous bone is located at the base of the skull. Sometimes it is combined with the MASTOID PROCESS and called petromastoid part of temporal bone.Temporal Bone: Either of a pair of compound bones forming the lateral (left and right) surfaces and base of the skull which contains the organs of hearing. It is a large bone formed by the fusion of parts: the squamous (the flattened anterior-superior part), the tympanic (the curved anterior-inferior part), the mastoid (the irregular posterior portion), and the petrous (the part at the base of the skull).Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Ear Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of any part of the hearing and equilibrium system of the body (the EXTERNAL EAR, the MIDDLE EAR, and the INNER EAR).Endolymphatic Sac: The blind pouch at the end of the endolymphatic duct. It is a storage reservoir for excess ENDOLYMPH, formed by the blood vessels in the membranous labyrinth.Cerebellopontine Angle: Junction between the cerebellum and the pons.Bone Remodeling: The continuous turnover of BONE MATRIX and mineral that involves first an increase in BONE RESORPTION (osteoclastic activity) and later, reactive BONE FORMATION (osteoblastic activity). The process of bone remodeling takes place in the adult skeleton at discrete foci. The process ensures the mechanical integrity of the skeleton throughout life and plays an important role in calcium HOMEOSTASIS. An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two contrasting events, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many of the metabolic bone diseases, such as OSTEOPOROSIS.Cranial Fossa, Posterior: The infratentorial compartment that contains the CEREBELLUM and BRAIN STEM. It is formed by the posterior third of the superior surface of the body of the sphenoid (SPHENOID BONE), by the occipital, the petrous, and mastoid portions of the TEMPORAL BONE, and the posterior inferior angle of the PARIETAL BONE.Mastoid: The posterior part of the temporal bone. It is a projection of the petrous bone.Bone Density: The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Otologic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the external, middle, or internal ear.Bone Resorption: Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.Ear Ossicles: A mobile chain of three small bones (INCUS; MALLEUS; STAPES) in the TYMPANIC CAVITY between the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE and the oval window on the wall of INNER EAR. Sound waves are converted to vibration by the tympanic membrane then transmitted via these ear ossicles to the inner ear.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Ear Canal: The narrow passage way that conducts the sound collected by the EAR AURICLE to the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE.Bone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.Skull Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the bony part of the skull.Bone Development: The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Round Window, Ear: Fenestra of the cochlea, an opening in the basal wall between the MIDDLE EAR and the INNER EAR, leading to the cochlea. It is closed by a secondary tympanic membrane.Bone Diseases: Diseases of BONES.Ear, Middle: The space and structures directly internal to the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE and external to the inner ear (LABYRINTH). Its major components include the AUDITORY OSSICLES and the EUSTACHIAN TUBE that connects the cavity of middle ear (tympanic cavity) to the upper part of the throat.Bone Conduction: Transmission of sound waves through vibration of bones in the SKULL to the inner ear (COCHLEA). By using bone conduction stimulation and by bypassing any OUTER EAR or MIDDLE EAR abnormalities, hearing thresholds of the cochlea can be determined. Bone conduction hearing differs from normal hearing which is based on air conduction stimulation via the EAR CANAL and the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE.Bone Regeneration: Renewal or repair of lost bone tissue. It excludes BONY CALLUS formed after BONE FRACTURES but not yet replaced by hard bone.Dictionaries, MedicalCorneal Topography: The measurement of curvature and shape of the anterior surface of the cornea using techniques such as keratometry, keratoscopy, photokeratoscopy, profile photography, computer-assisted image processing and videokeratography. This measurement is often applied in the fitting of contact lenses and in diagnosing corneal diseases or corneal changes including keratoconus, which occur after keratotomy and keratoplasty.Lens, Crystalline: A transparent, biconvex structure of the EYE, enclosed in a capsule and situated behind the IRIS and in front of the vitreous humor (VITREOUS BODY). It is slightly overlapped at its margin by the ciliary processes. Adaptation by the CILIARY BODY is crucial for OCULAR ACCOMMODATION.Cornea: The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Goosecoid Protein: Goosecoid protein is a homeodomain protein that was first identified in XENOPUS. It is found in the SPEMANN ORGANIZER of VERTEBRATES and plays an important role in neuronal CELL DIFFERENTIATION and ORGANOGENESIS.Tympanic Membrane: An oval semitransparent membrane separating the external EAR CANAL from the tympanic cavity (EAR, MIDDLE). It contains three layers: the skin of the external ear canal; the core of radially and circularly arranged collagen fibers; and the MUCOSA of the middle ear.Hyoid Bone: A mobile U-shaped bone that lies in the anterior part of the neck at the level of the third CERVICAL VERTEBRAE. The hyoid bone is suspended from the processes of the TEMPORAL BONES by ligaments, and is firmly bound to the THYROID CARTILAGE by muscles.Circle of Willis: A polygonal anastomosis at the base of the brain formed by the internal carotid (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL), proximal parts of the anterior, middle, and posterior cerebral arteries (ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY; MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY; POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), the anterior communicating artery and the posterior communicating arteries.Glossopharyngeal Nerve Injuries: Traumatic injuries to the GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL NERVE.Onychomycosis: A fungal infection of the nail, usually caused by DERMATOPHYTES; YEASTS; or nondermatophyte MOLDS.Paranasal Sinus Diseases: Diseases affecting or involving the PARANASAL SINUSES and generally manifesting as inflammation, abscesses, cysts, or tumors.Granuloma, Foreign-Body: Histiocytic, inflammatory response to a foreign body. It consists of modified macrophages with multinucleated giant cells, in this case foreign-body giant cells (GIANT CELLS, FOREIGN-BODY), usually surrounded by lymphocytes.Cranial Fossa, Middle: The compartment containing the anterior extremities and half the inferior surface of the temporal lobes (TEMPORAL LOBE) of the cerebral hemispheres. Lying posterior and inferior to the anterior cranial fossa (CRANIAL FOSSA, ANTERIOR), it is formed by part of the TEMPORAL BONE and SPHENOID BONE. It is separated from the posterior cranial fossa (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR) by crests formed by the superior borders of the petrous parts of the temporal bones.Appendix: A worm-like blind tube extension from the CECUM.Joints: Also known as articulations, these are points of connection between the ends of certain separate bones, or where the borders of other bones are juxtaposed.Arytenoid Cartilage: One of a pair of small pyramidal cartilages that articulate with the lamina of the CRICOID CARTILAGE. The corresponding VOCAL LIGAMENT and several muscles are attached to it.Joint DiseasesTemporomandibular Joint Disorders: A variety of conditions affecting the anatomic and functional characteristics of the temporomandibular joint. Factors contributing to the complexity of temporomandibular diseases are its relation to dentition and mastication and the symptomatic effects in other areas which account for referred pain to the joint and the difficulties in applying traditional diagnostic procedures to temporomandibular joint pathology where tissue is rarely obtained and x-rays are often inadequate or nonspecific. Common diseases are developmental abnormalities, trauma, subluxation, luxation, arthritis, and neoplasia. (From Thoma's Oral Pathology, 6th ed, pp577-600)Osteoarthritis: A progressive, degenerative joint disease, the most common form of arthritis, especially in older persons. The disease is thought to result not from the aging process but from biochemical changes and biomechanical stresses affecting articular cartilage. In the foreign literature it is often called osteoarthrosis deformans.Knee Joint: A synovial hinge connection formed between the bones of the FEMUR; TIBIA; and PATELLA.Otorhinolaryngologic Diseases: Pathological processes of the ear, the nose, and the throat, also known as the ENT diseases.Skull Base: The inferior region of the skull consisting of an internal (cerebral), and an external (basilar) surface.Plastic Embedding: The infiltrating of histological specimens with plastics, including acrylic resins, epoxy resins and polyethylene glycol, for support of the tissues in preparation for sectioning with a microtome.Auditory Brain Stem Implantation: Surgical insertion of an electronic hearing device (AUDITORY BRAIN STEM IMPLANTS) with electrodes to the cochlea nucleus in the BRAIN STEM rather than to the inner ear as in COCHLEAR IMPLANTATION.Epoxy Resins: Polymeric resins derived from OXIRANES and characterized by strength and thermosetting properties. Epoxy resins are often used as dental materials.Auditory Brain Stem Implants: Multi-channel hearing devices typically used for patients who have tumors on the COCHLEAR NERVE and are unable to benefit from COCHLEAR IMPLANTS after tumor surgery that severs the cochlear nerve. The device electrically stimulates the nerves of cochlea nucleus in the BRAIN STEM rather than the inner ear as in cochlear implants.Skull Base Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the base of the skull specifically, differentiated from neoplasms of unspecified sites or bones of the skull (SKULL NEOPLASMS).
Laterally: temporal lobe with uncus. Anteriorly: superior orbital fissure. Posteriorly: apex of petrous temporal bone. ... creating a cavity called the lateral sellar compartment bordered by the temporal bone of the skull and the sphenoid bone, ... Inferiorly: greater wing of sphenoid bone. Medially: sella turcica and sphenoidal air sinus. ...
Skull base abnormalities Hypoplasia of the petrous temporal bone. Hypoplastic and sclerotic petrous apex may mimic ...
... it extends to the posterior surface of the petrous portion of the temporal bone. It transmits a small vein and contains a ...
More commonly longitudinal fracture of petrous bone and fracture of temporal bone can cause facial nerve compression. Use of ... Post-operative meningitis, temporal lobe oedema, epidural hematoma. Uncontrolled bleeding or injury to I.A.C. is most serious ... foassa technique is most commonly used for the decompression of the facial nerve in Bell's palsy and longitudinal temporal bone ... May, M (1979). "Total facial nerve exploration: Transmastoid, Extralabyrinthine and sub temporal indication and results". The ...
... by the superior angles of the petrous portions of the temporal bones and the dorsum sellæ; laterally by the temporal squamæ, ... On the anterior surface of the petrous portion of the temporal bone are seen the eminence caused by the projection of the ... growing within the internal auditory canal of the temporal bone. The middle part of the fossa presents, in front, the ... It houses the temporal lobes of the brain and the pituitary gland. A middle fossa craniotomy is one means to surgically remove ...
Researchers successfully extracted DNA from the petrous part of the temporal bone and managed to recover low coverage genomes. ... In 2013, archaeologists found a temporal bone fragment of an ancient human in the cave. Direct AMS dating of the bone yielded ... Lithic artefacts, bone artefacts, charcoal, flax fibers, and pottery were discovered at the cave. The lithic artefacts show ... Perforated pendants made out of stalagmite and polished bovid bone were also discovered. The remains of yellow, red and brown ...
The syndrome is usually caused by the spread of an infection into the petrous apex of the temporal bone. It is named after ... is a complication of otitis media and mastoiditis involving the apex of the petrous temporal bone. It was first described by ... associated with bacterial otitis media with apex involvement of the petrous part of the temporal bone (petrositis). The ... Gradenigo's syndrome, also called Gradenigo-Lannois syndrome and petrous apicitis, ...
They receive the blood from the superior petrosal sinuses at the base of the petrous portion of the temporal bone; they ... to the base of the petrous portion of the temporal bone, and lies, in this part of its course, in the attached margin of the ... Left temporal bone showing surface markings for the tympanic antrum (red), transverse sinus (blue), and facial nerve (yellow). ... The petrosquamous sinus, when present, runs backward along the junction of the squama and petrous portion of the temporal, and ...
For example, fractures of the petrous temporal bone can selectively damage the nerve, as can aneurysms of the intracavernous ... At the tip of the petrous temporal bone it makes a sharp turn forward to enter the cavernous sinus. In the cavernous sinus it ... by stretching it between the point where it emerges from the pons and the point where it hooks over the petrous temporal bone. ...
The cartilage lies in a groove between the petrous part of the temporal bone and the great wing of the sphenoid; this groove ... ends at the angle of junction of the squamous and the petrous parts of the temporal bone, its extremity presenting a jagged ... The bony part (1/3) nearest to the middle ear is made of bone and is about 12 mm in length. It begins in the anterior wall of ... the Eustachian tube is known as the guttural pouch and is divided into medial and lateral compartments by the stylohyoid bone ...
The petrosquamous suture is a cranial suture between the petrous portion and the squama of the temporal bone that forms ... The petrous portion forms the medial component of the osseous margin, while the squama forms the lateral component. The ...
At the apex of the petrous part of the temporal bone the free and attached borders meet, and, crossing one another, are ... to the superior angle of the petrous part of the temporal bone on either side, enclosing the superior petrosal sinuses. ... It is attached, behind, by its convex border, to the transverse ridges upon the inner surface of the occipital bone, and there ... continued forward to be fixed to the anterior and posterior clinoid processes (respectively) of the sphenoid bone. To the ...
SBO can extend into the petrous apex of the temporal bone or more inferiorly into the opposite side of the skull base. The use ... The skin of the bony ear canal is unique, in that it is not movable but is closely attached to the bone, and it is almost paper ... Constriction of the ear canal from bone growth (Surfer's ear) can trap debris leading to infection. Saturation divers have ... the infection continues to smolder and over weeks or months can spread deeper into the head and involve the bones of the skull ...
... is the cranial suture between the sphenoid bone and the petrous portion of the temporal bone. It is in the middle cranial fossa ...
It articulates with the apex of the petrous portion of the temporal bone, and forms the medial boundary of the foramen lacerum ... a sharp process below the notch for the passage of the abducent nerve on either side of the dorsum sellae of the sphenoid bone ...
The hiatus for lesser petrosal nerve is a hiatus in the petrous part of the temporal bone which transmits the lesser petrosal ...
... formed by the junction of the petrous part of the temporal bone with the basilar part of the occipital bone. It begins in the ... The inferior petrosal sinuses are small sinuses situated on the inferior border of the petrous part of the temporal bone on ...
... is closed the meniscus is bordered medially and superiorly by the glenoid fossa of the petrous portion of the temporal bone. ... in order to remain interposed between the condyle and the temporal bone in all jaw positions. The neck is flattened from before ... the meniscus is distracted anteriorly and inferiorly along the slope of the inferior portion of the temporal bone towards the ...
It is situated on the anterior (frontal) surface of the petrous portion of the temporal bone close to its angle of junction ... the tympanic cavity forward and downward to the retiring angle between the squama and the petrous portion of the temporal bone ... partly by the ring of bone into which this membrane is inserted. This ring of bone is incomplete at its upper part, forming a ... The floor of the cavity (also called the jugular wall) is narrow, and consists of a thin plate of bone (fundus tympani) which ...
... with the petrous part of the temporal bone. Between these two bones on the under surface of the skull, is a furrow, the 'sulcus ... The lateral half of the great wing of the sphenoid bone articulates, by means of a synchondrosis, ...
It is located behind the carotid canal and is formed in front by the petrous portion of the temporal bone, and behind by the ... occipital bone; it is generally larger on the right than on the left side. Cranial nerves IX, X, and XI and the internal ...
... is a canal within the petrous part of the temporal bone of the skull between the posterior cranial fossa and the inner ear. The ... near the center of the posterior surface of the petrous part of the temporal bone. The size varies considerably; its margins ... Internal acoustic meatus Temporal bone at birth. Inner aspect. Base of the skull. Upper surface. Horizontal section through ... The internal auditory meatus is short (about 1 cm) and runs laterally into the bone. At its end are the openings for three ...
... cranial nerves into a canal in the petrous temporal bone. Lies between the inferior edge of the petrous temporal bone and the ... Anteriorly it extends to the apex of the petrous temporal. Posteriorly it is enclosed by the occipital bone. Laterally portions ... Where the apex of the petrous temporal meets the squamous temporal, the transverse sinuses lead into sigmoid (S-shaped) sinuses ... pass along the articulation between the posterior edge of the petrous temporal and the anterior edge of the occipital bones to ...
The petrous segment, or C2, of the internal carotid is that which is inside the petrous part of the temporal bone. This segment ... When the internal carotid artery enters the canal in the petrous portion of the temporal bone, it first ascends a short ... a reflection of periosteum between the lingula and petrous apex (or petrosal process) of the sphenoid bone. The lacerum portion ... The petrous portion classically has three sections: an ascending, or vertical portion; the genu, or bend; and the horizontal ...
Before exiting the jugular foramen, the tympanic nerve enters the petrous portion of the temporal bone and ascends via the ... The lesser petrosal nerve re-enters and travels through the temporal bone to emerge in the middle cranial fossa just lateral to ... The inferior ganglion on the inferior surface of petrous part of temporal is related with a triangular depression into which ... Extra-cranial course and final innervation Upon exiting the skull the branchial motor fibers descend deep to the temporal ...
From the posterior wall of the saccule a canal, the endolymphatic duct, is given off; this duct is joined by the utriculosaccular duct, and then passes along the vestibular aqueduct and ends in a blind pouch, the endolymphatic sac, on the posterior surface of the petrous portion of the temporal bone, where it is in contact with the dura mater. Studies suggest that the endolymphatic duct and endolymphatic sac perform both absorptive and secretory, as well as phagocytic and immunodefensive, functions. Neoplasms of the endolymphatic sac are very rare tumors. This article incorporates text in the public domain from the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy (1918) Schuknecht HF. Pathology of the Ear. Philadelphia, Pa: Lea & Febiger; 1993:45-47, 50-51, 62, 64, 101 Wackym PA, Friberg U, Bagger-Sjo¨ba¨ck D, Linthicum FH Jr, Friedmann I, Rask-Andersen H. Human endolymphatic sac: possible mechanisms of pressure regulation. J Laryngol Otol 1987; 101:768-779 ...
By 1870, Memphis's population of 40,000 was almost double that of Nashville and Atlanta, and it ranked as the second-largest city in the South after New Orleans.[30] The population of Memphis continued to grow after 1870, even when the Panic of 1873 hit the US hard, particularly in the South. The Panic of 1873 resulted in expanding Memphis's underclasses amidst the poverty and hardship wrought by the panic, giving further credence to Memphis as a rough, shiftless city. Leading up to the outbreak in 1878, it had suffered two yellow fever epidemics, cholera, and malaria, which gave Memphis a reputation as a sickly city and a filthy one. It was unheard of for a city with a population as large as that of Memphis not to have any waterworks; the city still relied for supplies entirely on collecting water from the river and rain cisterns, and it had no way to remove sewage.[30] The combination of a swelling population, especially of lower and working classes, and the abysmal health and sanitary ...
The temporal bones are at the sides and base of the skull. They protect the structures of the inner ear. The lower seven cranial nerves move along the inside of the temporal bones. The main blood vessels to and from the brain also move along the inside of the temporal bone. The temporal bones are not the same in all mammals. The inner ear is usually not protected in marsupials, and in other placentals it is protected by a structure called the auditory bulla. ...
The temporal bones are at the sides and base of the skull. They protect the structures of the inner ear. The lower seven cranial nerves move along the inside of the temporal bones. The main blood vessels to and from the brain also move along the inside of the temporal bone. The temporal bones are not the same in all mammals. The inner ear is usually not protected in marsupials, and in other placentals it is protected by a structure called the auditory bulla. ...
A fracture classification system in which temporal bone fractures detected on CT are delineated based on disruption of the otic capsule has been found to be predictive for complications of temporal bone trauma such as facial nerve injury, sensorineural deafness and cerebrospinal fluid otorrhea. On radiographic images, the otic capsule is the most dense portion of the temporal bone.[1][2]. In otospongiosis, a leading cause of adult-onset hearing loss, the otic capsule is exclusively affected. This area normally undergoes no remodeling in adult life, and is extremely dense. With otospongiosis, the normally dense enchondral bone is replaced by haversian bone, a spongy and vascular matrix that results in sensorineural hearing loss due to compromise of the conductive capacity of the inner ear ...
The tympanic ring is an incomplete circle, in the concavity of which is a groove, the tympanic sulcus, for the attachment of the circumference of the eardrum (tympanic membrane). This ring expands to form the tympanic part, and is ossified in membrane from a single center which appears about the third month. The styloid process is developed from the proximal part of the cartilage of the second branchial or hyoid arch by two centers: one for the proximal part, the tympanohyal, appears before birth; the other, comprising the rest of the process, is named the stylohyal, and does not appear until after birth. The tympanic ring unites with the squama shortly before birth; the petromastoid part and squama join during the first year, and the tympanohyal portion of the styloid process about the same time [Fig. 7, 8]. The stylohyal does not unite with the rest of the bone until after puberty, and in some skulls never at all ...
Diagnosis is suspected when a patient presents with the symptoms of the classic form of "Eagle syndrome" e.g. unilateral neck pain, sore throat or tinnitus. Sometimes the tip of the styloid process is palpable in the back of the throat. The diagnosis of the vascular type is more difficult and requires an expert opinion. One should have a high level of suspicion when neurological symptoms occur upon head rotation. Symptoms tend to be worsened on bimanual palpation of the styloid through the tonsillar bed. They may be relieved by infiltration of lidocaine into the tonsillar bed. Because of the proximity of several large vascular structures in this area this procedure should not be considered to be risk free. Imaging is important and is diagnostic. Visualizing the styloid process on a CT scan with 3D reconstruction is the suggested imaging technique.[8] The enlarged styloid may be visible on an orthopantogram or a lateral soft tissue X ray of the neck. It is worth noting that the styloid may be ...
From the posterior wall of the saccule a canal, the endolymphatic duct, is given off; this duct is joined by the utriculosaccular duct, and then passes along the vestibular aqueduct and ends in a blind pouch, the endolymphatic sac, on the posterior surface of the petrous portion of the temporal bone, where it is in contact with the dura mater. Studies suggest that the endolymphatic duct and endolymphatic sac perform both absorptive and secretory, as well as phagocytic and immunodefensive, functions. Neoplasms of the endolymphatic sac are very rare tumors. This article incorporates text in the public domain from the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy (1918) Schuknecht HF. Pathology of the Ear. Philadelphia, Pa: Lea & Febiger; 1993:45-47, 50-51, 62, 64, 101 Wackym PA, Friberg U, Bagger-Sjo¨ba¨ck D, Linthicum FH Jr, Friedmann I, Rask-Andersen H. Human endolymphatic sac: possible mechanisms of pressure regulation. J Laryngol Otol 1987; 101:768-779 ...
While "Oase 1" lower jaw is fully mature, the facial skeleton is that of a mid-second-decade adolescent, therefore corresponding to a second individual, designated as "Oase 2". Further analyses have revealed that the left temporal bone represents a third individual, assessed as adolescent versus mature female, designated as "Oase 3".[5] However, additional finds and work have shown that the temporal bone derives from the same cranium as the "Oase 2" facial and parietal bones.[10] The lack of archaeological signs such as torches, charcoal or tools could suggest that the human remains may have washed in the cave through fissures. The "Oase 2" and "Oase 3" confirm a pattern already known from the probably contemporaneous "Oase 1" mandible,[5] indicating a mixture of archaic, early modern human and Neanderthal morphological features. Thus, the specimens exhibit a suite of ...
It arises from the lower half of the nuchal ligament, from the spinous process of the seventh cervical vertebra, and from the spinous processes of the upper three or four thoracic vertebrae. The fibers of the muscle are directed upward and laterally and are inserted, under cover of the sternocleidomastoideus, into the mastoid process of the temporal bone, and into the rough surface on the occipital bone just below the lateral third of the superior nuchal line. The splenius capitis is deep to sternocleidomastoideus at the mastoid process, and to the trapezius for its lower portion. It is one of the muscles that forms the floor of the posterior triangle of the neck. The splenius capitis muscle is innervated by the posterior ramus of spinal nerves C3 and C4. ...
Most male crickets make a loud chirping sound by stridulation (scraping two specially textured limbs together). The stridulatory organ is located on the tegmen, or fore wing, which is leathery in texture. A large vein runs along the centre of each tegmen, with comb-like serrations on its edge forming a file-like structure, and at the rear edge of the tegmen is a scraper. The tegmina are held at an angle to the body and rhythmically raised and lowered which causes the scraper on one wing to rasp on the file on the other. The central part of the tegmen contains the "harp", an area of thick, sclerotinized membrane which resonates and amplifies the volume of sound, as does the pocket of air between the tegmina and the body wall. Most female crickets lack the necessary adaptations to stridulate, so make no sound.[5]. Several types of cricket songs are in the repertoire of some species. The calling song attracts females and repels other males, and is fairly loud. The courting song is used when a ...
The word "templar" as used in anatomy has a separate etymology from the word temple, meaning "place of worship". Both come from Latin, but the word for the place of worship comes from templum, whereas the word for the part of the head comes from Vulgar Latin *tempula, modified from tempora, plural form ("both temples") of tempus, a word that meant both "time" and the part of the head. Due to the common source with the word for time, the adjective for both is "temporal" (both "pertaining to time" and "pertaining to the anatomical temple"). Regarding the temporalis muscle: in English, this muscle's name is the time muscle. As above, the word "temporalis" comes from the Latin word "tempus" meaning "time". The muscle covers the temporal bone, or time bone, which received its name because the hair of the head covering this bone is often the first ...
Its first description is traditionally taken to be in 1641 by Caspar Bartholin who attributed its discovery to Franciscus Sylvius (1614-1672), professor of medicine at Leiden University his book Casp. Bartolini Institutiones Anatomicae where it is noted that "F.S. [F.S. probably refers to Franciscus Sylvius] If you examine the indentations which are represented in Figure 5 quite attentively, you will notice that they are very deep and that the brain is divided from one side to the other by the "anfractuosa fissura," which starts in the front part near the ocular roots, and from there moves backwards above the base of the spinal cord, following the temporal bones, and it divides the upper part of the brain from the lower."[4] It has been suggested that since Caspar Bartholin died in 1629 and Franciscus Sylvius only started medicine in 1632 that these words are either by his son Thomas Bartholin or Franciscus Sylvius. In 1663 in his Disputationem Medicarum, ...
Temporal bone Petrous part of the temporal Petrous part of the temporal This article incorporates text in the public domain ... The petrous part of the temporal bone is pyramid-shaped and is wedged in at the base of the skull between the sphenoid and ... Petrous comes from the Latin word petrosus, meaning "stone-like, hard". It is one of the densest bones in the body. The base is ... At the angle of junction of the petrous and the squamous parts are two canals, one above the other, and separated by a thin ...
MDCT sections of the right temporal bone. Transverse (C) and coronal (D) MDCT sections of the left temporal bone. A well- ... MDCT sections of the right temporal bone. Transverse (C) and coronal (D) MDCT sections of the left temporal bone. Bilateral ... The Hypodense Focus in the Petrous Apex: A Potential Pitfall on Multidetector CT Imaging of the Temporal Bone. T. Moser, F. ... The Hypodense Focus in the Petrous Apex: A Potential Pitfall on Multidetector CT Imaging of the Temporal Bone ...
Normal anatomic variation in the amount of fat within the petrous ... or fat in the substantia spongiosa of the petrous temporal bone ... Imaging Diagnosis-Magnetic Resonance Imaging Pseudolesion Associated With The Petrous Temporal Bone. by Heather Hill , posted ... Normal anatomic variation in the amount of fat within the petrous temporal bone of dogs can result in a magnetic resonance (MR ... the identification of normal anatomic variability in the amount of fat in the substantia spongiosa of the petrous temporal bone ...
What is anterior surface of petrous part of temporal bone? Meaning of anterior surface of petrous part of temporal bone medical ... What does anterior surface of petrous part of temporal bone mean? ... anterior surface of petrous part of temporal bone explanation ... Looking for online definition of anterior surface of petrous part of temporal bone in the Medical Dictionary? ... anterior surface of petrous part of temporal bone. an·te·ri·or sur·face of pet·rous part of temporal bone. [TA] the surface of ...
Laterally: temporal lobe with uncus. Anteriorly: superior orbital fissure. Posteriorly: apex of petrous temporal bone. ... creating a cavity called the lateral sellar compartment bordered by the temporal bone of the skull and the sphenoid bone, ... Inferiorly: greater wing of sphenoid bone. Medially: sella turcica and sphenoidal air sinus. ...
The petrous and mastoid parts of the temporal bone, which derive from the periotic bone, formed from the fusion of a number of ... the temporal bone is derived from the fusion of many bones that are often separate in non-human mammals: *The squamosal bone, ... The temporal bone consists of four parts[1][2]- the squamous, mastoid, petrous and tympanic parts. The squamous part is the ... The temporal bones are situated at the sides and base of the skull, and lateral to the temporal lobes of the cerebral cortex. ...
Mucocele of the petrous apex is very rare, only three cases having been reported. Since this area is inaccessible to direct ... Osborn AG, Parkin JL (1979) Mucocele of the petrous temporal bone. AJR 132: 680-681Google Scholar ... Cunningham MJ, Curtin HD, Butkiewicz BL (1988) Histiocytosis of the temporal bone: CT findings. J Comput Assist Tomogr 12: 70- ... Virapongse C, Sarwar M, Shimani S, Sasaki C, Shapiro R (1985) Computed tomography of temporal bone pneumatization: I. Normal ...
Petrous Apex: The tip of the bony portion of the temporal bone is known as the petrous apex. The petrous apex is located close ... Temporal Bone: Two temporal bones form part of the side surfaces and the base of the skull. The temporal bone is the hardest ... It contains the ear canal (external ear) with the eardrum, and small bones (ossicles) in the middle ear. The temporal bones ... Large air-filled spaces are present in part of the temporal bone. The carotid artery passes from the neck through the temporal ...
While squamous cell carcinoma is the most common tumor to affect the temporal bone, other rare tumors are recognized. These ... This chapter discusses rare tumors of the temporal bone. ... Osteoclastoma of the petrous temporal bone; report of a case ... Temporal bone giant cell tumour: report of a second primary giant cell tumour of the temporal bone and infratemporal fossa. B- ... Gidley P.W. (2018) Unusual Tumors of the Temporal Bone. In: Gidley P., DeMonte F. (eds) Temporal Bone Cancer. Springer, Cham. * ...
... petrous part of temporal bone; so, supraoccipital; sp, styloid process; sq, squamous; tb, trabecular basal plate; tr, tympanic ... petrous part of temporal bone; t, tongue; tg, trigeminal ganglion. Scale bar=100 µm. ... In addition, CM-derived bone such as the parietal and interparietal bones are also affected. (C) Loss Twist1 in the CM leads to ... squamous part of the temporal bone (tb); t, tongue. Scale bar=100 µm. ...
with parietal bone. *sphenosquamosal. *Involving the Petrous part of the temporal bone *sphenopetrosal ... A joint or articulation (or articular surface) is the connection made between bones in the body which link the skeletal system ... According to the anatomic classification, joints are subdivided into simple and compound, depending on the number of bones ... Damaging the cartilage of joints (articular cartilage) or the bones and muscles that stabilize the joints can lead to joint ...
Imaging of temporal bone lesions; Squamous cell carcinoma of the temporal bone; Glomus tympanicum; Adenomatous tumors of the ... Cholesterol granuloma and other petrous apex lesions; Stereotactic radiosurgery for tumors of the lateral skull base; Pediatric ... temporal bone malignancy; and Historical perspective on evolution in management of lateral skull base tumors. ...
the part of the temporal bone that makes up the floor of the EAC ... parts of the temporal bone mastoid. squmous. tympanic. petrous ...
Posterior surface of petrous part of temporal bone. The dura mater has been removed from the posterior surface of the temporal ... Posterior surface of petrous part of temporal bone. Image #62-2. KEYWORDS: Bones cartilage joints, Ear. ... bone except along the venous sinuses. The endolymphatic sac was not identified although fibrous tissue which protrudes from the ...
Radiological investigation of the petrous temporal bone. Dhillon, Ramindar S., FRCS (Eng) (et al.) ...
The temporal bone is the most complex bone in the human body. It houses many vital structures, including the cochlear and ... with temporal bone fractures appearing to have a greater correlation with the petrous type and the presence of sensorineural ... encoded search term (Temporal Bone Fractures) and Temporal Bone Fractures What to Read Next on Medscape. Related Conditions and ... Temporal bone fracture is a frequent manifestation of head trauma. Most cases of temporal bone fracture involve severe body and ...
135 Longitudinal fracture of petrous temporal bone. 136 Nohemorrhagic right middle cerebral artery infarct. 137 Acute disc ... 161 Transverse temporal bone fracture. 162 Bleeding Renal Venous Pseudoaneurysm. 163 Epiploic Appendagitis. 164 Neurogenic ... 121 Retained Foreign Body (Fish Bone) with Pharyngeal Perforation. 122 Laryngeal Fracture. 123 Maisonneuve Fracture. 124 Acute ...
1 cm long canal in petrous part of temporal bone, opening in the posteromedial part of the bone in line with the EAM ... How does the vestibule of the inner ear open posterolateral to the IAM in the posterior petrous part of the temporal bone? ... In which part of the temporal bone are the cochlear and vestibular organs located? ... Space between tympanic part of temporal bone and tympanic membrane (~2-3 cm in adults) ...
Bilateral osteosarcomas developed within the petrous portion of the temporal bone. No testicular pathology was observed. T- ... The transgene was expressed in round spermatids and, surprisingly, in the heart and temporal bone as well. Expression in the ... Heart and bone tumors in transgenic mice. R R Behringer, J J Peschon, A Messing, C L Gartside, S D Hauschka, R D Palmiter, R L ... Heart and bone tumors in transgenic mice. R R Behringer, J J Peschon, A Messing, C L Gartside, S D Hauschka, R D Palmiter, R L ...
Petrous part of temporal bone lateral expanse of temporal bone Temporal fossa. ... Lacrimal bones are located here the medial wall of the orbit. rami of the mandible articulate with what bone. the temporal bone ... zygomatic bones. Eachzygomatic bone has a projecting process that unites with a similar process of the temporal bone to form ... frontal bone, parietal bones, and occipital bone (flat) part of the frontal bone forming the skeleton of the forehead.. ...
See Brain, p. 191.) 9. 9. Petrous portion of temporal bone. 10. 10. Round foramina for superior maxillary nerve. 11, 11. Oval ... 4 pelvic bones, 1 sternum or breast bone, and 1 tongue bone. The two hip bones are naturally classified with the lower ... 1. Frontal bone. 2. Parietal. 3. Temporal; 4, its mastoid process. 5. Malar or cheek bone. 6. Upper maxillary. 7. Orbit of the ... The 14 bones of the face arc 2 nasal, 2 upper jaw or superior maxillary, 2 lachrymal, 2 cheek or malar bones, 2 palate bones, 2 ...
3 ear bones; petrous part of temporal bones; Malleus, incus, stapes Hyoid Bone between mandible and larynx; medial body and 2 ... mandible articulated with mandibular fossa or temporal bone zygomatic arch fused portion of temporal process of zygomatic bone ... articulated temporal bone and parietal bone on each side of skull. Paranasal sinuses ai filled chambers open into nasal cavity ... sphenoid bone; medial pterygoid + lateral pterygoid plates jugular foramen opening between temporal and occipital bones, ...
Petrous - This adjective is derived from the Latin word for rock "petra". It is applied to a part of the temporal bone that is ... Mastoid process of the temporal bone gets its name from the imagined similarity of its shape to that of the breast. Mastos is ... Or it may relate to the pulsations of the underlying superficial temporal artery, marking the time we have left here. There is ...
with parietal bone. *sphenosquamosal. *Involving the Petrous part of the temporal bone *sphenopetrosal ... A joint that connects the roots of the teeth and the alveolus is called gomphosis (plural gomphoses). Alveolar bone is the bone ... in the alveolar bone. A platelet-rich fibrin (PRF)[2] membrane containing bone growth enhancing elements can be stitched over ... Socket preservation or alveolar ridge preservation (ARP)[1] is a procedure to reduce bone loss after tooth extraction to ...
... general Carotid sinus Abnormalities Optic nerve Sphenoid bone Physiological aspects ... The internal carotid artery enters the carotid canal in the petrous portion of the temporal bone. The cavernous portion of the ... If the anterior clinoid process of the lesser wing of the sphenoid bone is pneumatized, there might be a deep recess ( ... It has cervical, petrous, cavernous, and cerebral portions. ...
  • The bony covering of the geniculate fossa was intact, and upon removal of this bone, pulsation of the sheath over the geniculate ganglion was apparent. (ajnr.org)
  • The disorder might be related to the initial inflammatory process in the middle ear with further direct spreading of infection through defects in the bony walls to deep temporal bone structures. (hindawi.com)
  • Computed tomography (CT) in bone window reveal the characteristic posterior petrous bony destruction (Fig. 4-6). (eurorad.org)
  • The skin of the bony ear canal is unique, in that it is not movable but is closely attached to the bone, and it is almost paper thin. (bionity.com)
  • The flat bones of the skull and the clavicles are formed from connective tissue in a process known as intramembranous ossification , and ossification of the mandible occurs in the fibrous membrane covering the outer surfaces of Meckel's cartilages . (wikidoc.org)
  • It is an attachment point for the digastric muscle that moves the hyoid bone and opens the mouth (or depresses the mandible). (getbodysmart.com)
  • All skull bones are immovable, except the mandible? (studyblue.com)
  • 2 Osteopathic physicians commonly find restricted ipsilateral motion of the temporal bone and upper cervical restrictions in patients with Bell's palsy. (jaoa.org)
  • The spectrum of temporal bone trauma is extremely varied, ranging from minor concussion without functional deficits to severe blunt or penetrating trauma with multifunctional deficits that involve the auditory and vestibular nerves, the facial nerve, and the intracranial contents. (medscape.com)
  • 8, 14, 18, 19, 22, 24 Recently, the technique of extra- and intracranial ligation of the ICA has been employed in combination with a superficial temporal-middle cerebral artery bypass procedure for the treatment of intracavernous aneurysms. (thejns.org)
  • On each side of the foramen magnum there is a condyle having an articular surface which rests upon a corresponding condyle of the atlas, the upper bone of the vertebral column. (chestofbooks.com)
  • A large triangular area of the occipital bone reaching the foramen magnum is sawed out to facilitate removal of the brain. (unmc.edu)
  • The clinical presentations specifically related to temporal bone trauma include facial nerve paralysis (partial or complete), hearing loss (conductive, sensorineural, or mixed), vertigo , dizziness , otorrhagia, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) otorrhea , tympanic membrane perforation , and hemotympanum and canal laceration. (medscape.com)
  • Removal of the bone from over the enlarged proximal tympanic segment of the facial nerve revealed it to be filled with CSF. (ajnr.org)
  • The 14 bones of the facial skeleton form the entrances to the respiratory and digestive tracts. (visiblebody.com)
  • The facial nerve enters the skull via a small opening in the petrous temporal bone at the base of the skull. (gancao.net)
  • We first reviewed histologic sections of the temporal bone from 8-month-old fetuses to determine the nature of the hypoattenuated focus in the anterior otic capsule. (ajnr.org)
  • The hypoattenuated focus in the anterior otic capsule corresponded histologically to a cancellous bone trabecula emanating from the middle otic layer and directed toward the petro-occipital fissure. (ajnr.org)
  • is formed mainly by the tympanic membrane, partly by the ring of bone into which this membrane is inserted. (bartleby.com)
  • 3 4 Magnetic resonance imaging has been demonstrated to show the inflammatory changes in petrous apicitis. (bmj.com)
  • The hyoid bone , which is located in the neck and serves as the point of attachment for the tongue , does not articulate with any other bones in the body, being supported by muscles and ligaments. (wikidoc.org)
  • The hyoid bone provides an anchor point. (visiblebody.com)