Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in DNA REPLICATION; GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of DNA to RNA, and GENETIC TRANSLATION of RNA into POLYPEPTIDES.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
DNA-dependent DNA polymerases found in bacteria, animal and plant cells. During the replication process, these enzymes catalyze the addition of deoxyribonucleotide residues to the end of a DNA strand in the presence of DNA as template-primer. They also possess exonuclease activity and therefore function in DNA repair.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
An enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template. It is encoded by the pol gene of retroviruses and by certain retrovirus-like elements. EC 2.7.7.49.
An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A single chain of deoxyribonucleotides that occurs in some bacteria and viruses. It usually exists as a covalently closed circle.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A DNA-dependent DNA polymerase characterized in prokaryotes and may be present in higher organisms. It has both 3'-5' and 5'-3' exonuclease activity, but cannot use native double-stranded DNA as template-primer. It is not inhibited by sulfhydryl reagents and is active in both DNA synthesis and repair. EC 2.7.7.7.
Enzymes that catalyze the template-directed incorporation of ribonucleotides into an RNA chain. EC 2.7.7.-.
A purine or pyrimidine base bonded to a DEOXYRIBOSE containing a bond to a phosphate group.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salt than RNA polymerase I and is strongly inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 2.7.7.6.
Phosphate esters of THYMIDINE in N-glycosidic linkage with ribose or deoxyribose, as occurs in nucleic acids. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1154)
A reverse transcriptase encoded by the POL GENE of HIV. It is a heterodimer of 66 kDa and 51 kDa subunits that are derived from a common precursor protein. The heterodimer also includes an RNAse H activity (RIBONUCLEASE H, HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS) that plays an essential role the viral replication process.
Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)
A single-stranded DNA-dependent RNA polymerase that functions to initiate, or prime, DNA synthesis by synthesizing oligoribonucleotide primers. EC 2.7.7.-.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Pairing of purine and pyrimidine bases by HYDROGEN BONDING in double-stranded DNA or RNA.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
A ribonuclease that specifically cleaves the RNA moiety of RNA:DNA hybrids. It has been isolated from a wide variety of prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms as well as RETROVIRUSES.
A species of ALPHARETROVIRUS causing anemia in fowl.
A DNA-dependent DNA polymerase characterized in E. coli and other lower organisms. It may be present in higher organisms and has an intrinsic molecular activity only 5% of that of DNA Polymerase I. This polymerase has 3'-5' exonuclease activity, is effective only on duplex DNA with gaps or single-strand ends of less than 100 nucleotides as template, and is inhibited by sulfhydryl reagents. EC 2.7.7.7.
A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Virulent bacteriophage and type species of the genus T7-like phages, in the family PODOVIRIDAE, that infects E. coli. It consists of linear double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant, and non-permuted.
A DNA-dependent DNA polymerase characterized in E. coli and other lower organisms but may be present in higher organisms. Use also for a more complex form of DNA polymerase III designated as DNA polymerase III* or pol III* which is 15 times more active biologically than DNA polymerase I in the synthesis of DNA. This polymerase has both 3'-5' and 5'-3' exonuclease activities, is inhibited by sulfhydryl reagents, and has the same template-primer dependence as pol II. EC 2.7.7.7.
A heat stable DNA-DIRECTED DNA POLYMERASE from the bacteria Thermus aquaticus. It is widely used for the amplification of genes through the process of POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION. EC 2.7.7.-.
The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Any of the covalently closed DNA molecules found in bacteria, many viruses, mitochondria, plastids, and plasmids. Small, polydisperse circular DNA's have also been observed in a number of eukaryotic organisms and are suggested to have homology with chromosomal DNA and the capacity to be inserted into, and excised from, chromosomal DNA. It is a fragment of DNA formed by a process of looping out and deletion, containing a constant region of the mu heavy chain and the 3'-part of the mu switch region. Circular DNA is a normal product of rearrangement among gene segments encoding the variable regions of immunoglobulin light and heavy chains, as well as the T-cell receptor. (Riger et al., Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Cytosine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.
An essential ribonucleoprotein reverse transcriptase that adds telomeric DNA to the ends of eukaryotic CHROMOSOMES.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
A group of ribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.
The degree of 3-dimensional shape similarity between proteins. It can be an indication of distant AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and used for rational DRUG DESIGN.
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A group of thymine nucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each thymine nucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
A series of 7 virulent phages which infect E. coli. The T-even phages T2, T4; (BACTERIOPHAGE T4), and T6, and the phage T5 are called "autonomously virulent" because they cause cessation of all bacterial metabolism on infection. Phages T1, T3; (BACTERIOPHAGE T3), and T7; (BACTERIOPHAGE T7) are called "dependent virulent" because they depend on continued bacterial metabolism during the lytic cycle. The T-even phages contain 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in place of ordinary cytosine in their DNA.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Circular duplex DNA isolated from viruses, bacteria and mitochondria in supercoiled or supertwisted form. This superhelical DNA is endowed with free energy. During transcription, the magnitude of RNA initiation is proportional to the DNA superhelicity.
A methodology for chemically synthesizing polymer molds of specific molecules or recognition sites of specific molecules. Applications for molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) include separations, assays and biosensors, and catalysis.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Viruses whose host is Escherichia coli.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The repeating structural units of chromatin, each consisting of approximately 200 base pairs of DNA wound around a protein core. This core is composed of the histones H2A, H2B, H3, and H4.
Enzymes that catalyze the incorporation of deoxyribonucleotides into a chain of DNA. EC 2.7.7.-.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
A DNA repair enzyme that catalyzes DNA synthesis during base excision DNA repair. EC 2.7.7.7.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Laboratory techniques that involve the in-vitro synthesis of many copies of DNA or RNA from one original template.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
An enzyme that catalyzes the replication of the RNA of coliphage Q beta. EC 2.7.7.-.
Double-stranded nucleic acid molecules (DNA-DNA or DNA-RNA) which contain regions of nucleotide mismatches (non-complementary). In vivo, these heteroduplexes can result from mutation or genetic recombination; in vitro, they are formed by nucleic acid hybridization. Electron microscopic analysis of the resulting heteroduplexes facilitates the mapping of regions of base sequence homology of nucleic acids.
The type species of the genus MICROVIRUS. A prototype of the small virulent DNA coliphages, it is composed of a single strand of supercoiled circular DNA, which on infection, is converted to a double-stranded replicative form by a host enzyme.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Adenine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.
The phosphate esters of DIDEOXYNUCLEOSIDES.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
The presence of an uncomplimentary base in double-stranded DNA caused by spontaneous deamination of cytosine or adenine, mismatching during homologous recombination, or errors in DNA replication. Multiple, sequential base pair mismatches lead to formation of heteroduplex DNA; (NUCLEIC ACID HETERODUPLEXES).
A group of cytosine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each cytosine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
Proteins that catalyze the unwinding of duplex DNA during replication by binding cooperatively to single-stranded regions of DNA or to short regions of duplex DNA that are undergoing transient opening. In addition DNA helicases are DNA-dependent ATPases that harness the free energy of ATP hydrolysis to translocate DNA strands.
Cyclic peptides extracted from carpophores of various mushroom species. They are potent inhibitors of RNA polymerases in most eukaryotic species, blocking the production of mRNA and protein synthesis. These peptides are important in the study of transcription. Alpha-amanitin is the main toxin from the species Amanitia phalloides, poisonous if ingested by humans or animals.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Nucleotides in which the purine or pyrimidine base is combined with ribose. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure where it transcribes DNA into RNA. It has specific requirements for cations and salt and has shown an intermediate sensitivity to alpha-amanitin in comparison to RNA polymerase I and II. EC 2.7.7.6.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
A genus of tripartite plant viruses in the family BROMOVIRIDAE. Transmission is by beetles. Brome mosaic virus is the type species.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.
DNA sequences recognized as signals to end GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION.
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. The enzyme functions in the nucleolar structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salts than RNA polymerase II and III and is not inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 2.7.7.6.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Temperate bacteriophage of the genus INOVIRUS which infects enterobacteria, especially E. coli. It is a filamentous phage consisting of single-stranded DNA and is circularly permuted.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.
The meaning ascribed to the BASE SEQUENCE with respect to how it is translated into AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. The start, stop, and order of amino acids of a protein is specified by consecutive triplets of nucleotides called codons (CODON).
Unassigned species, in the family PICORNAVIRIDAE, causing high mortality in ducklings 3 days to 3 weeks old.
The biosynthesis of DNA carried out on a template of RNA.
A trace element with atomic symbol Mn, atomic number 25, and atomic weight 54.94. It is concentrated in cell mitochondria, mostly in the pituitary gland, liver, pancreas, kidney, and bone, influences the synthesis of mucopolysaccharides, stimulates hepatic synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids, and is a cofactor in many enzymes, including arginase and alkaline phosphatase in the liver. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1992, p2035)
Electrophoresis in which agar or agarose gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
Polydeoxyribonucleotides made up of deoxyadenine nucleotides and thymine nucleotides. Present in DNA preparations isolated from crab species. Synthetic preparations have been used extensively in the study of DNA.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A group of adenine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each adenine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
Enzymes that catalyze the release of mononucleotides by the hydrolysis of the terminal bond of deoxyribonucleotide or ribonucleotide chains.
Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying lysine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
A bacteriophage genus of the family LEVIVIRIDAE, whose viruses contain the longer version of the genome and have no separate cell lysis gene.
A group of uridine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each uridine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
Viral proteins found in either the NUCLEOCAPSID or the viral core (VIRAL CORE PROTEINS).
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
An amino acid intermediate in the metabolism of choline.
A species of ciliate protozoa used in genetic and cytological research.
A group of 13 or more ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
A terminal section of a chromosome which has a specialized structure and which is involved in chromosomal replication and stability. Its length is believed to be a few hundred base pairs.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
In INFORMATION RETRIEVAL, machine-sensing or identification of visible patterns (shapes, forms, and configurations). (Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed)
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Collections of illustrative plates, charts, etc., usually with explanatory captions.
A pyrimidine base that is a fundamental unit of nucleic acids.
Preparations of cell constituents or subcellular materials, isolates, or substances.
5'-Uridylic acid. A uracil nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2', 3' or 5' position.
Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.
Cytidine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A cytosine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the exonucleolytic cleavage of DNA. It includes members of the class EC 3.1.11 that produce 5'-phosphomonoesters as cleavage products.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
RNA consisting of two strands as opposed to the more prevalent single-stranded RNA. Most of the double-stranded segments are formed from transcription of DNA by intramolecular base-pairing of inverted complementary sequences separated by a single-stranded loop. Some double-stranded segments of RNA are normal in all organisms.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
The products of chemical reactions that result in the addition of extraneous chemical groups to DNA.
The region of DNA which borders the 3' end of a transcription unit and where a variety of regulatory sequences are located.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Ribonucleic acid in protozoa having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
A species of ENTEROVIRUS which is the causal agent of POLIOMYELITIS in humans. Three serotypes (strains) exist. Transmission is by the fecal-oral route, pharyngeal secretions, or mechanical vector (flies). Vaccines with both inactivated and live attenuated virus have proven effective in immunizing against the infection.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds within RNA. EC 3.1.-.
A DNA virus that closely resembles human hepatitis B virus. It has been recovered from naturally infected ducks.
The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.
Virulent bacteriophage and type species of the genus T4-like phages, in the family MYOVIRIDAE. It infects E. coli and is the best known of the T-even phages. Its virion contains linear double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant and circularly permuted.
Cytidine (dihydrogen phosphate). A cytosine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2', 3' or 5' position.
Transcription factors whose primary function is to regulate the rate in which RNA is transcribed.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
A nucleoside consisting of the base guanine and the sugar deoxyribose.
Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.
The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
A group of guanine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each guanine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
Systematic organization, storage, retrieval, and dissemination of specialized information, especially of a scientific or technical nature (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983). It often involves authenticating or validating information.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.

A novel H2A/H4 nucleosomal histone acetyltransferase in Tetrahymena thermophila. (1/4212)

Recently, we reported the identification of a 55-kDa polypeptide (p55) from Tetrahymena macronuclei as a catalytic subunit of a transcription-associated histone acetyltransferase (HAT A). Extensive homology between p55 and Gcn5p, a component of the SAGA and ADA transcriptional coactivator complexes in budding yeast, suggests an immediate link between the regulation of chromatin structure and transcriptional output. Here we report the characterization of a second transcription-associated HAT activity from Tetrahymena macronuclei. This novel activity is distinct from complexes containing p55 and putative ciliate SAGA and ADA components and shares several characteristics with NuA4 (for nucleosomal H2A/H4), a 1.8-MDa, Gcn5p-independent HAT complex recently described in yeast. A key feature of both the NuA4 and Tetrahymena activities is their acetylation site specificity for lysines 5, 8, 12, and 16 of H4 and lysines 5 and 9 of H2A in nucleosomal substrates, patterns that are distinct from those of known Gcn5p family members. Moreover, like NuA4, the Tetrahymena activity is capable of activating transcription from nucleosomal templates in vitro in an acetyl coenzyme A-dependent fashion. Unlike NuA4, however, sucrose gradient analyses of the ciliate enzyme, following sequential denaturation and renaturation, estimate the molecular size of the catalytically active subunit to be approximately 80 kDa, consistent with the notion that a single polypeptide or a stable subcomplex is sufficient for this H2A/H4 nucleosomal HAT activity. Together, these data document the importance of this novel HAT activity for transcriptional activation from chromatin templates and suggest that a second catalytic HAT subunit, in addition to p55/Gcn5p, is conserved between yeast and Tetrahymena.  (+info)

Stable remodeling of tailless nucleosomes by the human SWI-SNF complex. (2/4212)

The histone N-terminal tails have been shown previously to be important for chromatin assembly, remodeling, and stability. We have tested the ability of human SWI-SNF (hSWI-SNF) to remodel nucleosomes whose tails have been cleaved through a limited trypsin digestion. We show that hSWI-SNF is able to remodel tailless mononucleosomes and nucleosomal arrays, although hSWI-SNF remodeling of tailless nucleosomes is less effective than remodeling of nucleosomes with tails. Analogous to previous observations with tailed nucleosomal templates, we show both (i) that hSWI-SNF-remodeled trypsinized mononucleosomes and arrays are stable for 30 min in the remodeled conformation after removal of ATP and (ii) that the remodeled tailless mononucleosome can be isolated on a nondenaturing acrylamide gel as a novel species. Thus, nucleosome remodeling by hSWI-SNF can occur via interactions with a tailless nucleosome core.  (+info)

Search for retroviral related DNA polymorphisms using RAPD PCR in schizophrenia. (3/4212)

Random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) is widely used to detect polymorphisms in many organisms. Individual (or strain) specific amplified bands are generated with single or pairs of primers in PCR reactions and can serve as genetic markers. We have used this method to generate a large number of reproducible bands with single primers, random and retroviral related, on 92 human DNA samples. Theoretically, RAPD PCR presents a logical approach for assessing variability among individuals. We used ten retroviral related primers (12, 20 and 22 bp) and eight random primers (10 bp) to assess individual differences in the context of testing the retroviral hypothesis for schizophrenia. Three pairs of discordant monozygotic twins, four pairs of discordant full sibs and 53 schizophrenic individuals with 25 of their unrelated matched controls were analyzed. Ten of these primers resulted in a total of approx. 850 amplified bands (65-110 bands per primer). Almost all of these bands were identical among each individual analyzed. However, the results are inconclusive with respect to the retroviral hypothesis for schizophrenia. The general lack of RAPD polymorphism in this study may argue for mechanisms other than rearrangements such as inversions, associated with the evolution of the human genome.  (+info)

Ligand-dependent activation of transcription in vitro by retinoic acid receptor alpha/retinoid X receptor alpha heterodimers that mimics transactivation by retinoids in vivo. (4/4212)

All-trans and 9-cis retinoic acids (RA) signals are transduced by retinoic acid receptor/retinoid X receptor (RAR/RXR) heterodimers that act as functional units controlling the transcription of RA-responsive genes. With the aim of elucidating the underlying molecular mechanisms, we have developed an in vitro transcription system using a chromatin template made up of a minimal promoter and a direct repeat with 5-spacing-based RA response element. RARalpha and RXRalpha were expressed in and purified from baculovirus-infected Sf9 cells, and transcription was carried out by using naked DNA or chromatin templates. Transcription from naked templates was not affected by the presence of RA and/or RAR/RXR heterodimers. In contrast, very little transcription occurred from chromatin templates in the absence of RA or RAR/RXR heterodimers whereas their addition resulted in a dosage-dependent stimulation of transcription that never exceeded that occurring on naked DNA templates. Most importantly, the addition of synthetic agonistic or antagonistic retinoids to the chromatin transcription system mimicked their stimulatory or inhibitory action in vivo, and activation by a RXR-specific retinoid was subordinated to the binding of an agonist ligand to the RAR partner. Moreover, the addition of the p300 coactivator generated a synergistic enhancement of transcription. Thus, the dissection of this transcription system ultimately should lead to the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms by which RAR/RXR heterodimers control transcription in a ligand-dependent manner.  (+info)

Restriction fragment analysis of bacteriophage SPP1 in vitro transcription by host RNA polymerase. (5/4212)

In vitro transcription of SPP1 DNA occurred on only one of the two strands, the same which is predominantly transcribed in SPP1-infected cells. Transcripts were distributed in several size classes. Analysis of elongation kinetics and of size distribution, coupled with hybridization to DNA restriction fragments, showed that some regions of the template have more initiation sites than others; some have none. Some regions were transcribed directly, some were transcribed from initiation sites located in other regions, and one was never transcribed. Several transcription initiation sites on SPP1 DNA are located on EcoRI fragment 1; four to five others are distributed among other fragments. Cutting the DNA with EcoRI did not introduce artifactual initiation sites. In vitro transcription units can be localized and oriented with respect to the EcoRI restriction map of SPP1 DNA.  (+info)

A fast, stochastic threading algorithm for proteins. (6/4212)

MOTIVATION: Sequences for new proteins are being determined at a rapid rate, as a result of the Human Genome Project, and related genome research. The ability to predict the three-dimensional structure of proteins from sequence alone would be useful in discovering and understanding their function. Threading, or fold recognition, aims to predict the tertiary structure of a protein by aligning its amino acid sequence with a large number of structures, and finding the best fit. This approach depends on obtaining good performance from both the scoring function, which simulates the free energy for given trial alignments, and the threading algorithm, which searches for the lowest-score alignment. It appears that current scoring functions and threading algorithms need improvement. RESULTS: This paper presents a new threading algorithm. Numerical tests demonstrate that it is more powerful than two popular approximate algorithms, and much faster than exact methods.  (+info)

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat-dependent activation of an arrested RNA polymerase II elongation complex. (7/4212)

The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Tat protein is a transcriptional activator that is essential for efficient viral gene expression and replication. Tat increases the level of full-length transcripts from the HIV-1 promoter by dramatically enhancing the elongation efficiency of the RNA polymerase II complexes assembled on this promoter. Tat could potentially activate the transcription machinery during initiation, elongation, or both. We used an immobilized HIV-1 promoter template with a reversible lac repressor (LacR) elongation block inserted downstream to dissect the stages in transcription affected by Tat. Transcription complexes assembled in the absence of Tat and blocked by LacR cannot be activated by incubation with Tat alone. These complexes can, however, be activated if Tat is added in combination with cellular factors. In this system, Tat also promoted the assembly of preinitiation complexes capable of elongating efficiently, suggesting that Tat can associate with transcription complex at an early stage. These data indicate that Tat can activate elongation of RNA polymerase by modifying an already elongating transcription complex. The data also suggest the possibility that Tat can interact with initiation complexes.  (+info)

Semi-nested, multiplex polymerase chain reaction for detection of human malaria parasites and evidence of Plasmodium vivax infection in Equatorial Guinea. (8/4212)

A semi-nested, multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based on the amplification of the sequences of the 18S small subunit ribosomal RNA (ssrRNA) gene was tested in a field trial in Equatorial Guinea (a hyperendemic focus of malaria in west central Africa). The method uses a primary PCR amplification reaction with a universal reverse primer and two forward primers specific for the genus Plasmodium and to mammals (the mammalian-specific primer was included as a positive control to distinguish uninfected cases from inhibition of the PCR). The second amplification is carried out with the same Plasmodium genus-specific forward primer and four specific reverse primers for each human Plasmodium species. The PCR amplified products are differentiated by fragment size after electrophoresis on a 2% agarose gel. Four villages from three regions of the island of Bioko (Equatorial Guinea) and two suspected Plasmodium vivax-P. ovale infections from the hospital of Malabo were tested by microscopy and PCR. The PCR method showed greater sensitivity and specificity than microscopic examination and confirmed the existence of a focus of P. vivax infections in Equatorial Guinea suspected by microscopic examination. It also provided evidence of several mixed infections, mainly P. falciparum and P. malariae, the two predominant species causing malaria in Equatorial Guinea.  (+info)

Gene Link specializes in long oligo synthesis up to 250mer in length. Longer templates can be constructed by ligation. Gene Link can provide custom synthetic oligo templates for all your genotyping and template requirements. We routinely provide expert technical assistance in the design of templates and ultra modified fluorescent probes with enhanced duplex stability and nuclease resistance Gene Link can provide custom synthetic oligo templates for all your genotyping and template requirements ...
Asymmetric division and cosegregation of template DNA strands in adult muscle satellite cells.: Satellite cells assure postnatal skeletal muscle growth and repa
Molecular Cloning, also known as Maniatis, has served as the foundation of technical expertise in labs worldwide for 30 years. No other manual has been so popular, or so influential.
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Micelle-template synthesis of hollow silica spheres for improving 2 Apr 20 7 SEM, TEM, FT-IR, XRD, DLS and BET-BJH were carried out to those samples fabri ed by micelle-template method were hollow in character and the Traditional view that the size and shape of free-volume holes high resistance against the plastic deformation and reinforced mechanical performance.. Milescraft 2202 1-1/2 Horizontal Character Template Set FOR The templates are self-spacing when used with the miles craft sign crafter, ensuring correct spacing without the need for pre-measuring. The set is designed for use with all miles craft sign making kits models 1212 and 1206 . the templates are constructed from durable, long-lasting plastic polymer and can be replaced easily if they are damaged. Drafting Templates, Ding Templates, Architectural Templates have pre-dimensional holes that are in the right scale, so engineers can accurately d a specific symbol or sign. Letter templates can be used to d text such as digits and ...
Described are imprint lithography templates, methods of forming and using the templates, and a template holder device. An imprint lithography template may include a body with a plurality of recesses on a surface of the body. The body may be of a material that is substantially transparent to activating light. At least a portion of the plurality of recesses may define features having a feature size less than about 250 nm. A template may be formed by obtaining a material that is substantially transparent to activating light and forming a plurality or recesses on a surface of the template. In some embodiments, a template may further include at least one alignment mark. In some embodiments, a template may further include a gap sensing area. An imprint lithography template may be used to form an imprinted layer in a light curable liquid disposed on a substrate. During use, the template may be disposed within a template holder. The template holder may include a body with an opening configured to receive the
use Text::Template; $template = Text::Template-,new(TYPE =, FILE, SOURCE =, filename.tmpl); $template = Text::Template-,new(TYPE =, ARRAY, SOURCE =, [ ... ] ); $template = Text::Template-,new(TYPE =, FILEHANDLE, SOURCE =, $fh ); $template = Text::Template-,new(TYPE =, STRING, SOURCE =, ... ); $template = Text::Template-,new(PREPEND =, q{use strict;}, ...); # Use a different template file syntax: $template = Text::Template-,new(DELIMITERS =, [$open, $close], ...); $recipient = King; $text = $template-,fill_in(); # Replaces `{$recipient} with `King print $text; $T::recipient = Josh; $text = $template-,fill_in(PACKAGE =, T); # Pass many variables explicitly $hash = { recipient =, Abed-Nego, friends =, [ me, you ], enemies =, { loathsome =, Bill Gates, fearsome =, Larry Ellison }, }; $text = $template-,fill_in(HASH =, $hash, ...); # $recipient is Abed-Nego, # @friends is ( me, you ), # %enemies is ( loathsome =, ..., fearsome =, ... ) # Call &callback in case of ...
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Close The Infona portal uses cookies, i.e. strings of text saved by a browser on the users device. The portal can access those files and use them to remember the users data, such as their chosen settings (screen view, interface language, etc.), or their login data. By using the Infona portal the user accepts automatic saving and using this information for portal operation purposes. More information on the subject can be found in the Privacy Policy and Terms of Service. By closing this window the user confirms that they have read the information on cookie usage, and they accept the privacy policy and the way cookies are used by the portal. You can change the cookie settings in your browser. ...
A dental template for positioning an object on teeth of a patient and method for fabricating the same. The method includes creating a digital model of the patients teeth, creating a simplified template model based on the digital model, and fabricating the dental template based on the simplified template model. The template model is simplified by removing certain features of the patients tooth anatomy. The dental template can be located on a patients teeth using four or fewer positioning teeth.
Two ways of nesting are covered: (1) all templates in uniform orientation, and (2) alternate columns of inverted templates. Columns of templates are formed and neighboring columns are meshed together. Then the template is rotated to a new orientation. The optimum packing is obtained by searching through the tightest packing of individual orientations. This method is based on the periodicity of interlocking shapes. The search covers all possible orientations and relationships of one template to another. An interlocking enclosure can be formed around the template by including the gaps. If the enclosure is not detrimental to the design of the template, this new shape is a scrap-free template.. ...
English , മലയാളം , +/− This template is localized through {{Autotranslate}}. The layout of the template can be found under Template:PD-Canada-creator/layout. To add your language to the list of languages supported by this template, please copy the code of Template:PD-Canada-creator/en (or any other language version you prefer to translate) and replace the text strings in there (the form below can be used to create a translation, the English version is preloaded in the edit box). Please change the parameter ...
Citation templates provide a uniform, easy way to cite sources. The inclusion of a template here does not necessarily mean that the sources in question are appropriate references; for details, see Wikipedia:Reliable sources and the individual template pages. Some templates may be marked FOR TESTING ONLY. Do not use these in articles, if requested on the template page itself. Take a look at the template page before using it. Note that the use of citation templates is not required. The information can be just as easily written out without the use of a template. NOTE: Dont add for {{Note}}, {{Ref}}, {{Note label}} and {{Ref label}}. ...
The following code is, as far as I know, standard C++. It compiles on gcc but Visual Studio 2008 and 2010 fail to compile it. namespace cool { template ,bool, typename = void, struct enable_if {}; template ,typename T, struct enable_if,true, T, { typedef T type; }; template ,typename T0, typename T1, struct is_same { enum { value = false }; }; template ,typename T, struct is_same,T, T, { enum { value = true }; }; } struct BasePolicy {}; struct BasePolicy2 {}; struct Faz {}; template ,typename Policy, typename = typename cool::enable_if,cool::is_same,BasePolicy, Policy,::value ,, cool::is_same,BasePolicy2, Policy,::value,::type , struct Foo; template ,typename Policy, struct Foo,Policy, { Foo(); }; template ,typename Policy, Foo,Policy,::Foo() { } int main() { Foo,BasePolicy2, fb; } Moving the constructor BACK to the class itself (i.e. the definition is now in-line so that the declaration is the definition as well) fixes the issue: namespace cool { template ,bool, typename = void, struct ...
A method for improved thinning or skeletonizing handwritten characters or other variable-line-width images. The method scans a template set over the image to be thinned. Each template has a specific arrangement of dark and light pixels. At least one of those templates includes either more than three pixels per row or more than three rows of pixels. An odd number is good choice. Moreover, the templates are chosen so that each template can unconditionally delete image pixels without consideration of the effect of such deletions on the behavior of the other templates. Thus the templates are independent of each other.
A drill guide and template for use in orthopedic surgery comprising a template and handle connected by a lockable universal joint. The handle further comprises a bent shaft. A template is provided with pins so that the template can be set into bone when accurately placed against a resected bony surface. The universal joint comprises a ball and socket joint with slots for increased adaptability. A threaded nut grips the ball against a distal end of the bent shaft. Tightening the nut onto shaft locks the ball in a selected position.
Template:Article summary start Template:Article summary text Template:Article summary heading Template:Article summary wiki - Main SSD Article which I started :p Template:Article summary wiki - Linux-ck package general info. Template:Article summary wiki - Info about the unofficial repo housing linux-ck and related packages which I maintain for the community. Template:Article summary wiki - Sync browser profiles to tmpfs. Template:Article summary wiki - Keeps track of every probed module for though of us who make localmodconfig. Template:Article summary wiki - Using vnc. Template:Article summary wiki - Using a software RAID. Template:Article summary wiki - Using deluge. Template:Article summary wiki - Setup and tips. Template:Article summary wiki- Article covers configuration of NFSv4 which is an open standard network file sharing protocol. Template:Article summary wiki - Distributed cc. Template:Article summary wiki - Tune ext4 partitions to boot much faster. Template:Article summary wiki - ...
Static templates are different from live templates. Live templates will automatically conform page data to a format. Static templates, on the other hand, pre-fill the edit box with code that will achieve a particular format. If you have a template and set it to a category, then every page created in that category will start off with code determined by the template. Since this code resides in the edit box, the user creating the page may, if desired, remove all the code and start off on a clean slate, though merely having the code there encourages otherwise.. ...
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Template:Article summary start Template:Article summary text Template:Article summary heading Template:Article summary wiki - Main SSD Article which I started :p Template:Article summary wiki - Linux-ck package general info. Template:Article summary wiki - Info about the unofficial repo housing linux-ck and related packages which I maintain for the community. Template:Article summary wiki - Sync browser profiles to tmpfs. Template:Article summary wiki - Keeps track of every probed module for though of us who make localmodconfig. Template:Article summary wiki - Using vnc. Template:Article summary wiki - Learn by doing: step-by-step examples presented a zpool built from virtual disks. Template:Article summary wiki - Using a software RAID. Template:Article summary wiki - Using deluge. Template:Article summary wiki - Setup and tips. Template:Article summary wiki- Article covers configuration of NFSv4 which is an open standard network file sharing protocol. Template:Article summary wiki - Distributed ...
the wordpress template hierarchy a visualization resource the wordpress template hierarchy is one of the most influential things in the life of theme developers users may need to understand it plugins may need to interact with it but generally it is themi organization chart template 10 free word pdf documents get organized as a representation of the hierarchy of the organization in terms of authority an organization chart is important in showing the lines of communication needed to be followed by all the organizational chart template business templates organizing things is a pre requisite for a company to do well this organization could be functional i e for a certain project that has been assigned to the company or it could be structural i e organizational chart and hierarchy definition examples organizational chart an organizational chart is a diagram of an organizations structure it will show the job titles and patterns of authority in the organization free gantt chart template for excel ...
makes a cell with a green background; the text in the cell is taken from the template parameters and defaults to Yes. If you find a table cell template that does not take a parameter and you want to be able to change the text in the cell, do not duplicate the template; instead, edit the template and change the text to a default parameter substitution. For example, if a templates text is ...
Choose the type of coupon you want to create. Create the coupon and save it as explained in the following sections. Creating Text Coupon Templates. Text templates are used for sending SMS coupons. Creative Assets allows you to configure SMS template for reissuing reminder coupons.. Creating coupon reminder template. When customers have not redeemed the coupons issued and if the coupons are getting expired soon then you can send reminders to those customers.. To create a reminder template, use the following procedure. ...
objref type_vinit, vgaba, typename[14] type_vinit = new Vector(14) vgaba = new Vector(14) //cell type id according to the mpirank in the fortran program //cell.type() returns this value. Note that the table order is below is the //same as the base order in groucho.hoc for i=0, 13 { j = fscan() typename[j] = new String() getstr(typename[j].s, 1) type_vinit.x[j] = fscan() vgaba.x[j] = fscan() } suppyrRS_template.hoc: rank = 0 suppyrRS -70 -81 suppyrFRB_template.hoc: rank = 1 suppyrFRB -70 -81 supbask_template.hoc: rank = 2 supbask -65 -75 supaxax_template.hoc: rank = 3 supaxax -65 -75 supLTS_template.hoc: rank = 4 supLTS -65 -75 spinstell_template.hoc: rank = 5 spinstell -65 -75 tuftIB_template.hoc: rank = 6 tuftIB -70 -75 tuftRS_template.hoc: rank = 7 tuftRS -70 -75 nontuftRS_template.hoc: rank = 8 nontuftRS -70 -75 deepbask_template.hoc: rank = 9 deepbask -65 -75 deepaxax_template.hoc: rank = 10 deepaxax -65 -75 deepLTS_template.hoc: rank = 11 deepLTS -65 -75 TCR_template.hoc: rank = 12 TCR -70 ...
objref type_vinit, vgaba, typename[14] type_vinit = new Vector(14) vgaba = new Vector(14) //cell type id according to the mpirank in the fortran program //cell.type() returns this value. Note that the table order is below is the //same as the base order in groucho.hoc for i=0, 13 { j = fscan() typename[j] = new String() getstr(typename[j].s, 1) type_vinit.x[j] = fscan() vgaba.x[j] = fscan() } suppyrRS_template.hoc: rank = 0 suppyrRS -70 -81 suppyrFRB_template.hoc: rank = 1 suppyrFRB -70 -81 supbask_template.hoc: rank = 2 supbask -65 -75 supaxax_template.hoc: rank = 3 supaxax -65 -75 supLTS_template.hoc: rank = 4 supLTS -65 -75 spinstell_template.hoc: rank = 5 spinstell -65 -75 tuftIB_template.hoc: rank = 6 tuftIB -70 -75 tuftRS_template.hoc: rank = 7 tuftRS -70 -75 nontuftRS_template.hoc: rank = 8 nontuftRS -70 -75 deepbask_template.hoc: rank = 9 deepbask -65 -75 deepaxax_template.hoc: rank = 10 deepaxax -65 -75 deepLTS_template.hoc: rank = 11 deepLTS -65 -75 TCR_template.hoc: rank = 12 TCR -70 ...
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that allows users to assign different template styles to individual menu items. By default, Joomla! assigns a template style to all menu items upon installation. A yellow star indicates the default template style in use. A default template style can be partially or completely overridden by assigning different template styles to the desired menu items in order to obtain a different look for their respective pages.. A template style can be assigned to menu items one of two ways.. ...
gs99, invoking micro-intelligence isnt needed to explain the arrival of activated nucleotides during replication. The Polymerase doesnt send out for the right nucleotide triphosphate; instead, random nucleotide triphosphates bump into the template nucleotide. If the nucleotide triphosphate hydrogen bonds correctly with the template nucleotide, the new phosphodiester linkage forms. If the nucleotide triphosphate is the wrong one then usually it will not slip into the correct orientation to form the new bond, so it is quickly displaced and another random activated nucleotide slips into position at the polymerase active site and bumps against the template nucleotide. Eventually (in a tiny fraction of a second) a correct nucleotide is fitted and reacted and the polymerase advances. If a mistake is made (and this sometimes happens), it is almost always caught by the proofreading function of the polymerase and corrected. If not, a mutation has occurred (a rare event). The process is driven by ...
gs99, invoking micro-intelligence isnt needed to explain the arrival of activated nucleotides during replication. The Polymerase doesnt send out for the right nucleotide triphosphate; instead, random nucleotide triphosphates bump into the template nucleotide. If the nucleotide triphosphate hydrogen bonds correctly with the template nucleotide, the new phosphodiester linkage forms. If the nucleotide triphosphate is the wrong one then usually it will not slip into the correct orientation to form the new bond, so it is quickly displaced and another random activated nucleotide slips into position at the polymerase active site and bumps against the template nucleotide. Eventually (in a tiny fraction of a second) a correct nucleotide is fitted and reacted and the polymerase advances. If a mistake is made (and this sometimes happens), it is almost always caught by the proofreading function of the polymerase and corrected. If not, a mutation has occurred (a rare event). The process is driven by ...
MedicalTemplates has developed a 1 page asthma patient evaluation template. This template is suitable for pulmonologists and any health care provider that manages patients with asthma. The asthma patient template contains prompters and space for the following required elements for a E&M encounter - Chief complaint History of present illness Past medical and surgical history Social history Family history Review of systems Review of data (labs, tests, imaging) Physical exam Assessment and plan This one page template contains detailed checklists for the severity of asthma symptoms, current and planned asthma therapy, and other features helpful for a comprehensive asthma treatment plan. The asthma patient encounter template was designed to include Clinical Performance Measures for asthma developed by the Physician Consortium for Performance Improvement. MedicalTemplates are in the Adobe PDF format, which requires the free Adobe Reader. With Adobe Reader, these templates can be printed as many times ...
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In this way, template names do not conflict with the names of articles, images, and other elements on Wikipedia. Template names are added to pages inside double curly brackets. In addition, user-typed parameters are allowed, so that the template has some input to work with. The parameters allow the templates to be tailored to the specific needs of different articles and pages. When the page is previewed or saved, the result or output of the template will be found in place of the template code. A typical page entry for a template with two parameters takes the form: ...
A method of generating a template in an implantable medical device for implantation within a patient, and a processor readable medium for performing the method, that includes generating a template from collected events corresponding to the patient, delaying the generation of the template for a first predetermined time period in response to the template not being generated within a predetermined number of collected events, determining whether the template is valid, and monitoring the template to determine whether the template is an accurate representation of the patient.
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Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) uses direct, continuous, unaliased, real-time imaging for motion compensation. Unaliased, real-time two dimensional (2D) images are acquired continuously of the anatomy of interest. The images are compared to at least one template to using a correlation coefficient technique to select images corresponding to minimal motion and distortion. A spatial grid of templates can be used to cover an anatomy of interest. Multiple temporal templates can be used to create a time series of magnetic resonance (MR) images. The selected images are used to provide a high-resolution image, preferably a three dimensional (3D) image.
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In previous work we have defined our trend template epistemology for clinically significant trends and we have illustrated and tested a program TrenDx that monitors time-ordered process data by matching the data to trend templates. Our initial application domain was pediatric growth monitoring. For this symposium we have explored monitoring hemodynamic and respiratory parameters of intensive care unit patients. This application has highlighted the needs for advances in our representation and monitoring algorithms. In particular, we have added reasoning with uncertainty to the trend template epistemology, and a new control structure allowing numerical ranking of competing trend templates. We also have added persistence heuristics to reduce branching of the different chronologies for how data matches a trend template. We demonstrate these techniques on a set of trend templates that monitor if oxygen handbagging is adequate or compromises venous return. 1
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STA refers to the approach which starts from a template rich precursor, and then this template can direct the process sequentially multiple times during its removal. Widely used templates include metal-rich carbonaceous spheres39 or polymer particles,40 and metal-polymer hybrid particles.41 Among them, MOFs, with beautifully designed structures and metal-rich compositions, can be considered as an excellent template for STA. Compared with conventional templates, MOFs show several characteristics in the fabrication of HoMSs: (1) MOFs can work as both metal-rich precursors and templates, thus there is no necessity for further ion absorption process; (2) the metal motif dispersion can be considered as relatively uniform within the MOF, without the concentration gradient; (3) the obtained materials normally resemble the shape of parent MOFs to get a variety of morphologies; (4) the MOF-derived materials often have a well-defined hierarchical pore structure and an easily tailored composition. Above ...
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PHS398 form templates are available on our lab web server: http://129.22.87.13 Sorry I do not have a sexy domain name (yet) This is an update of the templates I distributed in 1991, which were modifications of some done by others. I have incorporated the changes for the revised PHS398 application, dated 5/95. I dont have the non-comp or the NRSA forms yet. If you make them send them along to me at djt2 at po.cwru.edu and Ill post them. The templates are in Word 5 and Excel 4 format. I have not, and do not intend to update them to Word 6 or Excel 5 format. By the way, I do not have similar sheets for those attached to the Micro$oft umbilicus. These may translate well to MS Word4Win, but there are no guarantees. Again, if you need technical help, Email b_gates at microsoft.com. You may freely post these on your own server, but please leave this readme file intact. Best of luck with your proposal, Dr. Dennis J. Templeton Biomedical Research Building, Room 923 Institute of Pathology Case Western ...
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Page contains details about example of plurality of oriented nanoshells situated on templates retained in second substrate . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles : nano.nature.com
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A method for preparing a microarray that includes placing at least one template over a first surface of the recipient block, wherein the template defines an array of openings and the recipient block has a plurality of receptacle holes, such that the array of openings are aligned with the plurality of receptacle holes. A needle or punch that contains a sample is inserted through the openings of the template. The sample then is inserted into the receptacle hole in the recipient block. A device is also disclosed that includes a platform defining (i) a first surface, and (ii) a first region configured to retain at least one recipient block; and a raised template defining an array of openings, secured to the first surface of the platform and positioned above the first region configured to retain the recipient block.
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Learn how and when to remove these template messages) This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain ... For continuous variation in biology, see Genetic variability. For other uses, see Distribution. ... Learn how and when to remove this template message) ... Learn how and when to remove this template message) ...
Genetic testing[edit]. Genetic testing is available for symptomatic individuals and asymptomatic relatives.[5] ... Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (October 2009) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) ... Non-familial cases of AD are referred to as "sporadic" AD, where genetic risk factors are minor or unclear.[citation needed] ... Approximately 13% of the cases of early-onset Alzheimer's are familial Alzheimer's disease,[1] where a genetic predisposition ...
Search federal system of genetic identification. Unified automated information system for duty units. Boost (C++ libraries) ... Standard Template Library "EffiDB". SourceForge. "EffiValue". SourceForge. "Softpedia "100 % free" award". Archived from the ...
Learn how and when to remove these template messages) The neutrality of this article is disputed. Relevant discussion may be ... Please do not remove this message until conditions to do so are met. (April 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template ... Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (January 2014) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) ... Genetic use restriction technology (GURT), colloquially known as terminator technology or suicide seeds, is the name given to ...
Like its genetic template, the creature attacked with extremely large electrical blasts; this included a supersized blast that ... A giant electric eel located near Electric City, the product of genetic research by a resident scientist. The Eel (イール, Īru), ... A man named Eugene had been conducting experiments to bring back these types of animals using genetic research, funded by ... When the Eel's remains were recovered by the Paradigm Science Group, they used their genetic engineering to create a mutated ...
J Henner, PA Poncet, L Aebi, C Hagger, G Stranzinger et S Rieder, "Horse breeding: genetic tests for the coat colors chestnut, ... Learn how and when to remove this template message) ... Genetic identification[edit]. Main article: Equine coat color ... The actual horse may carry additional genetic modifiers that could make it bay, buckskin, gray, bay roan, perlino, silver bay, ...
The genetic code" (PDF reprint). Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. 167 (9): 331-47. Bibcode:1967RSPSB.167..331C. doi:10.1098/ ... "On Degenerate Templates and the Adaptor Hypothesis: A Note for the RNA Tie Club" by Francis Crick (1956). ... Ridley, Matt (2006). Francis Crick: Discoverer of the Genetic Code. Ashland, OH: Atlas Books. ISBN 0-06-082333-X.. ... It was clear that some macromolecule such as a protein was likely to be the genetic molecule.[25] However, it was well known ...
There are several options for commercial diagnostic testing for mutations in POLD1.[130] Genetic testing typically includes ... "APOBEC3A and APOBEC3B Preferentially Deaminate the Lagging Strand Template during DNA Replication". Cell Reports. 14 (6): 1273 ... "Database of Protein, Chemical, and Genetic Interactions , BioGRID". thebiogrid.org. Retrieved 2016-04-25.. ... review of reported cases and recommendations for genetic testing and surveillance". Genetics in Medicine. 18 (4): 325-32. doi: ...
She then uses his genetic template to create "super soldier-ants". However, he is freed by Lana, and traps her in her suspended ... In gratitude, he gives her a bio-genetic ring that allows her to gain the powers of insects or arachnids (by giving her lower ... with the ultimate goal of capturing a Kryptonian to use as a template for an army of hybrid insects. Supergirl breaks free and ...
In effect, DNA serves as the "hard drive" which stores genetic data. DNA is replicated and serves as its own template for ... These enzymes produce RNA using segments of chromosomal DNA as a template. Unlike replication, where a complete copy of DNA is ... In 1956, Francis Crick proposed what is now known as the "central dogma" of biology: DNA encodes the genetic information ... Initially, it was thought that RNA served as a structural template for protein synthesis, essentially ordering amino acids by a ...
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (January 2008) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) ... although as explained by genetic drift new genetic variants, that may cause an increase in the fitness of organisms, are more ... The gene pool is the set of all genes, or genetic information, in any population, usually of a particular species. ... Meanwhile, low genetic diversity (see inbreeding and population bottlenecks) can cause reduced biological fitness and an ...
Genetic studies. Main article: Genetic studies on Jews. This section relies too much on references to primary sources. Please ... improve this section by adding secondary or tertiary sources. (September 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template ... Genetic studies on Jews show that most Jews worldwide bear a common genetic heritage which originates in the Middle East, and ... Harry Ostrer MD (10 August 2012). Legacy: A Genetic History of the Jewish People. Oxford University Press. pp. 26-. ISBN 978-0- ...
Nucleotides containing the genetic information are now on a single strand messenger template called mRNA. The mRNA is ... The genetic information carried in the codons of the mRNA are now read (decoded) by anticodons of the tRNA. As each codon ( ... This is a genetic mutation at the level of nucleotide bases. Why and how frameshift mutations occur are continually being ... The reading of the genetic code is subject to three rules the monitor codons in mRNA. First, codons are read in a 5' to 3' ...
Template:Intracellular chemotherapeutic agents Template:Growth factor receptor modulators v t e. ... "ArQule, Daiichi Sankyo Say Cancer Candidate Tivantinib Fails Phase III Trial". Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology News. ...
While schizophrenia is widely believed to be multifactorially genetic by biopsychiatrists, no characteristic genetic markers ... Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (August 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) ... then there is a strong chance that the disease is genetic[citation needed] and that the patient will also be a genetic carrier ... If a genetic cause is suspected and little else is known about the illness, then it remains to be seen exactly how many genes ...
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (March 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) ... Birth order has no genetic basis.[18] The social interaction that occurs as a result of birth order however is the most notable ... Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (August 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) ... The opposite phenomenon, when relatives do fall in love, is known as genetic sexual attraction. This term is used primarily for ...
Learn how and when to remove this template message) ... "Definitions of Genetic Testing". Definitions of Genetic Testing ... Direct-to-consumer genetic testing[edit]. Direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic testing is a type of genetic test that is accessible ... Genetic testing, also known as DNA testing, allows the determination of bloodlines and the genetic diagnosis of vulnerabilities ... In humans, genetic testing can be used to determine a child's parentage (genetic mother and father) or in general a person's ...
Preexisting cell surface structures provided a template that was passed on for many generations. John R. Preer, Jr., following ... Genetic, and Information". Science.jrank.org. Retrieved 2011-06-30. "Structural inheritance: The parent as a developmental ... Epigenetic templating' was introduced. Structural inheritance was discovered by Tracy Sonneborn, and other researchers, during ... which accounts for the vast majority of known genetic variation. Examples of structural inheritance include the propagation of ...
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (July 2011) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) ... For continuous variation in biology, see Genetic variability. For other uses, see Distribution. ... Learn how and when to remove these template messages) This article includes a list of references, related reading or external ... Learn how and when to remove this template message) ...
Oocyte mitochondrial DNA as a protected genetic template". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B ...
In the manga Project ARMS, Keith Green utilizes a space-slicing technique he calls "Answerer". Later, his genetic template, ...
"Synthetic incoherent feedforward circuits show adaptation to the amount of their genetic template". Mol. Syst. Biol. 7 (1): 519 ... Camas FM, Blázquez J, Poyatos JF (August 2006). "Autogenous and nonautogenous control of response in a genetic network". Proc. ... Knabe JF, Nehaniv CL, Schilstra MJ (2008). "Do motifs reflect evolved function?-No convergent evolution of genetic regulatory ... and circuits based on RNA interference were the most robust to variation in DNA template amounts. In some cases the same ...
These two molecules are the genetic code and template that make life possible. Manipulation of these molecules and structures ... Advances in genetic engineering have made the modification of genes in microbes quite efficient allowing constructs to be made ... Genetic engineering - Purposeful manipulation of the genomes of organisms to produce new phenotypic traits. Bioelectronics, ... The sequence of the bases determine the genetic code. Nucleotides are nucleosides that are phosphorylated by specific kinases ...
Breivik, Jarle (2001). "Self-Organization of Template-Replicating Polymers and the Spontaneous Rise of Genetic Information". ... A "casting robot" would use sculpting tools and templates to make plaster molds. Plaster was selected because the molds are ...
Extreme genetic or environmental conditions can predominate in rare circumstances-if a child is born mute due to a genetic ... Learn how and when to remove this template message) ... multivariate genetic analysis has demonstrated that the genetic ... Multivariate genetic analysis examines the genetic contribution to several traits that vary together. For example, ... 2004). Nature and Nurture: The Complex Interplay of Genetic and Environmental Influences on Human Behavior and Development. ...
Genetic compatibility[edit]. Genetic compatibility refers to how well the genes of two parents function together in their ... Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (January 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) ... However, the genetic compatibility model is limited to specific traits due to complex genetic interactions (e.g. major ... Genetic benefit hypothesis: Women may choose to engage in short-term mating arrangements in order to aid conception if her long ...
Genetic engineering. Further information: Molecular biology, Nucleic acid methods, and Genetic engineering ... RNA strands are created using DNA strands as a template in a process called transcription, where DNA bases are exchanged for ... known collectively as the genetic code. The genetic code consists of three-letter 'words' called codons formed from a sequence ... listen);[1] DNA) is a molecule composed of two chains that coil around each other to form a double helix carrying genetic ...
"Genetic Home Reference. Federal Government. Retrieved 2011-03-21.. *^ Robinson, Roy. Genetics for Cat Breeders and ... "Tortoiseshell cat" - news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (October 2012) (Learn how and when to remove this template ... Tortoiseshell and calico coats result from an interaction between genetic and developmental factors. The primary gene for coat ... "Tortitude! Unfair Stereotype or Genetic Characterists?" (PDF). Tree House News. Tree House Humane Society. Retrieved 16 May ...
Viral DI RNAs with their small size and cis-acting elements are good templates both in vivo and in vitro on which to study RNA ... These viruses may be successfully transmitted by grafting or mechanical inoculation, and both the virion and the genetic ... Members of Tombusviridae replicate in the cytoplasm, by use of negative strand templates. The replication process leaves a ... sgRNAs and sgRNA negative-sense templates are found in infected cells. Subfamily: Calvusvirinae; genera: Umbravirus Subfamily: ...
This XNA is used in vivo (E coli) as template for DNA synthesis. This study, using a binary (G/T) genetic cassette and two non- ... Aside being used as extensions to template DNA strands, XNA activity has been tested for use as genetic catalysts. Although ... In analogy to information processing in IT, this safety concept is termed a "genetic firewall". The concept of the genetic ... The GRO exhibited increased resistance to T7 bacteriophage, thus showing that alternative genetic codes do reduce genetic ...
Learn how and when to remove these template messages) This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help ... Then, they could reliably identify fetal DNA, which would in turn allow them to diagnose certain fetal genetic conditions such ... Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (July 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) ... So they wanted to focus on genetic fragments containing paternally inherited sequences the mother did not share, but had ...
Genetic analysis indicates that there has been an unbroken genetic continuity[clarification needed] of the inhabitants over the ... Webarchive template wayback links. *Articles with short description. *Short description is different from Wikidata ...
The template below (Endocrine pathology) is being considered for deletion. See templates for discussion to help reach a ... Main article: Genetic causes of type 2 diabetes. Most cases of diabetes involve many genes, with each being a small contributor ... The development of type 2 diabetes is caused by a combination of lifestyle and genetic factors.[25][28] While some of these ... increases the risk of developing diabetes by 1.5 times and is the greatest risk of the common genetic variants.[13] Most of the ...
How is the illness usually diagnosed? For example: Based on symptoms, medical imagine, genetic testing, blood tests, etc. ... Medicine infobox templates. *Infobox templates using Wikidata. *Templates that add a tracking category ...
Besse, P.; DaSilva, D.; Humeau, L.; Govinden-Soulange, J.; Gurib-Fakim, A.; Kodja, H.. «A genetic diversity study of endangered ... Pages containing cite templates with deprecated parameters. *Σελίδα που χρησιμοποιεί δεδομένα των Wikidata/P1559 ...
In search of the genetic footprints of Sumerians: a survey of Y-chromosome and mtDNA variation in the Marsh Arabs of Iraq - - ... Webarchive template wayback links. *Articles containing Arabic-language text. *Pages using deprecated image syntax ... Many scholars have proposed historical and genetic links between the Marsh Arabs and the ancient Sumerians based on shared ...
The Gotland rabbit has therefore managed to retain a large genetic diversity in terms of shape and colour, at the same time ... The Gotland rabbit is considered a hardy variety that is rarely affected by disease or genetic defects.[4] ... maintaining good health and few known genetic illnesses.[2] As show breeds gained popularity, the farm rabbits became rarer ...
ɔrɡəˈnɛl/) ay isang espesyalisadong subunit ng isang selula na may spesipikang katungkulan at karaniwang hiwalay nan nasasarhan o napapalibutan sa loob ng sarili nitong lipidong dalawang patong]. Ang pangalang organelle ay nagmumula sa ideyang ang mga istrakturang ito ay sa mga selula kung paanong ang organo ay sa katawan kaya ang panglang organelle na ang hulaping elle ay labis na maliit. Ang mga organulo ay tinutukoy ng mikroskopiya at maaari ring dalisayin ng praksiyonasyong selula. Maraming mga uri ng organulo partikular na sa mga selulang eukaryotiko. Ang mga prokaryote ay minsang inakalang walang mga organulo ngunit ang ilang mga halimbawa ay natukoy na.[1] ...
Unreliable citations may be challenged or deleted. (February 2010) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) ... Archaeological and genetic data suggest that the source populations of Paleolithic humans survived in sparsely wooded areas and ... According to current archaeological and genetic models, there were at least two notable expansion events subsequent to peopling ...
Δ32 homozygous individual with two genetic copies of a rare variant of a cell surface receptor. This genetic trait confers ... Webarchive template wayback links. *Use dmy dates from July 2013. *Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2009 ... In addition, a genetic mismatch as small as a single DNA base pair is significant so perfect matches require knowledge of the ... G-CSF has also been described to induce genetic changes in mononuclear cells of normal donors.[44] There is evidence that ...
Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License and the GFDL; additional terms may apply. See Terms of Use for details ...
... as the causative genes of most monogenic genetic disorders have now been identified, and the development of techniques in ... Webarchive template wayback links. *CS1 Czech-language sources (cs). *CS1 Spanish-language sources (es) ... transcription and translation of the genetic material. ...
Agrobacterium-mediated genetic engineering techniques were developed in the late 1980s that could successfully transfer genetic ... A genetically modified tomato, or transgenic tomato, is a tomato that has had its genes modified, using genetic engineering. ... Tomato as a model system: I. Genetic and physical mapping of jointless". MGG Molecular & General Genetics. 242 (6). doi:10.1007 ... Ruf, S.; Hermann, M.; Berger, I.; Carrer, H.; Bock, R. (2001). "Stable genetic transformation of tomato plastids and expression ...
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests for Lyme disease have also been developed to detect the genetic material (DNA) of the ... Webarchive template wayback links. *CS1: long volume value. *CS1 Polish-language sources (pl) ... this is more common after infection by certain Borrelia strains in people with certain genetic and immunologic characteristics. ... and show a great deal of genetic diversity. ...
Wild Lens species are a significant source of genetic variation for improving the relatively narrow genetic base of this crop. ... Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (October 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) ... Serious genetic improvement for yield has been made, however, the full potential of production and productivity could not yet ... Although lentils have been an important crop for centuries, lentil breeding and genetic research has a relatively short history ...
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (September 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) ... and follow-up examination of prepared tissues after immunohistochemical staining or genetic analysis. ...
transcription, DNA-templated. • transcription initiation from RNA polymerase II promoter. • signal transduction. • steroid ... "Genetic variation in the progesterone receptor gene and ovarian cancer risk". American Journal of Epidemiology. 161 (5): 442- ... regulation of transcription, DNA-templated. • cell-cell signaling. • negative regulation of gene expression. • ...
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (April 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) ... Contrast genetic algorithm; random optimization.. See alsoEdit. *Gradient descent. *Greedy algorithm ...
"The Scoop (Columns). Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology News. 38 (10). May 15, 2018. Retrieved 2018-05-19.. ... Learn how and when to remove this template message) ...
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (March 2018) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) ... The second O, orientation-as the repository of our genetic heritage, cultural tradition, and previous experiences-is the most ... Statements consisting only of original research should be removed. (March 2018) (Learn how and when to remove this template ...
"Display" zoology - news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (March 2007) (Learn how and when to remove this template ... the continuance of their genetic line. ...
"Genetic Evaluation Results". Archived from the original on August 27, 2001.. *^ S1008: Genetic Selection and Crossbreeding to ... Learn how and when to remove these template messages) This article needs more medical references for verification or relies too ... "Genetic diversity and population genetic structure in the South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens)" (PDF). Department of ... There are genetic assays being scheduled for lions to determine their genetic diversity. The preliminary studies show results ...
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"World Health Assembly" - news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (July 2018) (Learn how and when to remove this template ... then published more details including the virus's genetic makeup and closest relatives.[18][19] The Erasmus Medical Center " ...
1992). "A Platform for Evolving Genetic Automata for Text Segmentation (GNATS)". Science of Artificial Neural Networks. Science ... Webarchive template wayback links. *CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter. *CS1 German-language sources (de) ... and desires are fixed by our genetic endowment and our biochemical makeup, the latter of which is affected by both genes and ... it is not certain that environmental determination is any less threatening to free will than genetic determination.[164] ...
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  • Gilis D, Massar S, Cerf NJ, Rooman M (2001) Optimality of the genetic code with respect to protein stability and amino-acid frequencies. (springer.com)
  • After the desired mutation is identified among the F 1 progeny heterozygous for the dominant marker mutation, F 2 animals that have lost the marker mutation are picked to obtain the desired mutation in an unmarked genetic background. (genetics.org)
  • Mr. BENSON: Batten disease is a very rare genetic neurodegenerative disorder that's caused by both her mom and I carry a gene mutation, a single gene mutation. (npr.org)
  • We hope your happy with this Genetic Mutations Worksheet Answer Key Dna Mutations Practice Worksheet Point Mutation Mutation idea. (novablohon.best)
  • You can download and please share this Genetic Mutations Worksheet Answer Key Dna Mutations Practice Worksheet Point Mutation Mutation ideas to your friends and family via your social media account. (novablohon.best)
  • We hope your happy with this Dna Mutation Practice Worksheet Answers Elegant 19 Best Of the Genetic Code Worksheet Answers idea. (chessmuseum.org)
  • The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES. (bioportfolio.com)
  • p>Used to describe "traditional" genetic interactions such as suppressors and synthetic lethals as well as other techniques such as functional complementation, rescue experiments, or inferences about a gene drawn from the phenotype of a mutation in a different gene. (uniprot.org)
  • to effect genetic transcription of (a DNA molecule template). (dictionary.com)
  • that selfish genetic elements are genes that can invade a population even if they are harmful to the individual carrying them? (wikipedia.org)
  • Indeed, after querying inDelphi for disease-relevant genes that could be corrected by cutting in just the right place, the researchers found nearly two hundred pathogenic genetic variants that were mostly corrected to their normal, healthy versions after being cut with CRISPR-associated enzymes. (genengnews.com)
  • Citation Query Bias caused by template annealing in the amplification of mixtures of 16S rRNA genes by PCR. (psu.edu)
  • Bias caused by template annealing in the amplification of mixtures of 16S rRNA genes by PCR. (psu.edu)
  • The first artificial genetic modification accomplished using biotechnology was transgenesis, the process of transferring genes from one organism to another, was first accomplished by Herbert Boyer and Stanley Cohen in 1973. (wikipedia.org)
  • Detailed findings appeared November 7 in the journal Nature , in an article titled, "Predictable and precise template-free CRISPR editing of pathogenic variants. (genengnews.com)
  • GLOBAL - A team of Boston University scientists says it has identified 150 genetic variants that would allow them to identify people who are predisposed to live to old age. (ipe.com)
  • The 150 genetic longevity variants thus combine into 19 genetic signatures of varying predictive value. (ipe.com)
  • Dounce AL (1953) Nucleic acid template hypothesis. (springer.com)
  • The invention generally relates to methods for maintaining the integrity and identification of a nucleic acid template in a multiplex sequencing reaction. (google.com)
  • In certain embodiments, methods of the invention involve obtaining a template nucleic acid, incorporating a pair of sequence identifiers into the template, and sequencing the template. (google.com)
  • The invention relates to a method of preparing template constructs for solid-phase nucleic acid amplification and to use of the templates in methods of solid-phase nucleic acid amplification. (google.com)
  • It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC). (bioportfolio.com)
  • DNA stores the information that determines an organism's hereditary or genetic properties. (mindmeister.com)
  • Genetic engineering is the direct manipulation of an organism's genome using certain biotechnology techniques that have only existed since the 1970s. (wikipedia.org)
  • A study explores the genetic diversity of plague bacteria in the First Pandemic. (pnas.org)
  • Breeder Tool: if you choose, you can leverage the new findings to identify compatible mates by employing a tool that uses the available genetic data to assess predicted diversity scores for the offspring. (tica.org)
  • Genetic diversity is the basis and premise of biodiversity, hence, one specie with low genetic diversity would not evolve or adapt to the changing environments. (omicsonline.org)
  • Genetic diversity is a decisive factor of successful response of one specie to human disturbance, and the degree of intra specific genetic variation also has key effect on its potentiality of evolution . (omicsonline.org)
  • This study analyzes the level of genetic diversity of L. tulipifera germplasm by using SSR markers . (omicsonline.org)
  • Indeed, this was observed in DEN-induced tumour genomes and gave rise to genetic diversity. (nature.com)
  • This paper considers a number of selection schemes commonly used in modern genetic algorithms. (psu.edu)
  • genome - the complete genetic information in the form of DNA available to a specific species. (edu.au)
  • Facilitated by recent advances using CRISPR/Cas9, genome editing technologies now permit custom genetic modifications in a wide variety of organisms. (genetics.org)
  • According to a new study led by Brigham and Women's Hospital and the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, CRISPR-Cas9 is capable precise genome editing-even without the assistance of donor DNA templates. (genengnews.com)
  • This study establishes an approach for precise, template-free genome editing. (genengnews.com)
  • One hallmark feature of cancer, including breast tumours, is the genome instability caused by defects in the spindle-assembly checkpoint (SAC), the molecular signalling mechanism that ensures the timely and high-fidelity transmission of the genetic material to an offspring. (brookes.ac.uk)
  • Grafting can transfer chloroplasts (specialised DNA in plants that can conduct photosynthesis), mitochondrial DNA and the entire cell nucleus containing the genome to potentially make a new species making grafting a form of natural genetic engineering. (wikipedia.org)
  • that selfish genetic elements can drive populations extinct? (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic relationships (RAPD-PCR) between geographically separated populations of the 'cosmopolitan' interstitial polychaete Hesionides gohari (Hesionidae) and the evolutionary origin of the freshwater species Hesionides riegerorum. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • This explanation could apply only if the genetic changes in the separated populations were relatively small over long periods of time, and mostly had no effect on the phenotype. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • We found a contrasted geneous within malaria-endemic areas and may exhibit population genetic structure explained by geographic isola- genetic structure patterns shaped by various transmission tion, human migration, malaria transmission, and drug se- rates and geographic isolation levels ( 4 - 6 ). (cdc.gov)
  • See chromosomal number genetic disorders uniparental disomy and aneuploidy . (edu.au)
  • In addition, the researchers put this predictive power to the test and successfully corrected mutations in cells taken from patients with one of two rare genetic disorders. (genengnews.com)
  • They were also able to correct mutations in cells from patients with two rare genetic disorders, Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome and Menkes disease. (genengnews.com)
  • This review summarizes evidence of dysregulated reward circuitry function in a range of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders and genetic syndromes . (rsrf.org)
  • neurodevelopmental disorders (i.e., schizophrenia, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorders, Tourette's syndrome , conduct disorder/oppositional defiant disorder), and genetic syndromes (i.e. (rsrf.org)
  • OBJECTIVECurrent research suggests that the causes of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are multifactorial and include both genetic and environmental factors. (rsrf.org)
  • We note that the coconversion approach described here could be applied in any of the variety of systems where suitable coconversion markers can be identified from previous intensive genetic analyses of gain-of-function alleles. (genetics.org)
  • Checked for appropriate genetic markers? (fda.gov)
  • According to their findings, published the 1 July edition of Science magazine , testing for these genetic markers can predict extreme longevity with 77 percent accuracy. (ipe.com)
  • Optimal Selection panel testing is done on a custom Illumina chip array that will test 10,000 genetic markers across each cat's DNA! (tica.org)
  • Thus, it can be inferred that genetic recombination has been important in the evolution of L. pneumophila . (asm.org)
  • A team in the US is part-way towards recoding the E. coli bacterium to work with a different genetic code from all other organisms on Earth. (newscientist.com)
  • The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. (bioportfolio.com)
  • A report template for molecular genetic tests designed to improve communication between the clinician and laboratory. (cdc.gov)
  • To mitigate these errors, we created a template for molecular genetic test reports that utilizes the combined features of synoptic reporting and narrative interpretation. (cdc.gov)
  • There was agreement that molecular genetic test reports should present information in groupings that flow in a logical manner, and most participants preferred the following order of presentation: patient and physician information, test performed, test results and interpretation, guidance on next steps, and supplemental information. (cdc.gov)
  • With input from key stakeholders and building upon prior work, we created a template for molecular genetic test reports designed to improve clinical decision making at the point of care. (cdc.gov)
  • Studies are needed to assess the usefulness and effectiveness of molecular genetic test reports generated using this template. (cdc.gov)
  • Contrary to previous suggestions, the negatively charged amino-terminal half of NS protein binds to L protein, while the carboxyl-terminal half of NS protein binds to both soluble recombinant nucleocapsid protein N and viral ribonucleocapsid template. (pnas.org)
  • The error-minimization theory maintains that in primitive systems the apparatus of protein synthesis was extremely prone to errors, and postulates that the genetic code evolved in order to minimize the deleterious effects of the translation errors. (springer.com)
  • 2. Capsid is the protein coat that encloses the genetic material. (issuu.com)
  • 5. Assembly (maturation): Genetic material is assembled into a protein coat. (issuu.com)
  • Synthesis of functional nanomaterials using viral-based bio-templates. (lboro.ac.uk)
  • To this end, we describe a coconversion strategy, using CRISPR/Cas9 in which screening for a dominant phenotypic oligonucleotide-templated conversion event at one locus can be used to enrich for custom modifications at another unlinked locus. (genetics.org)
  • Following cleavage by CRISPR/Cas9 in vivo , the double-strand break site can be repaired to generate mutations, including insertions and deletions via endogenous pathways such as nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) or targeted base mutations via homologous repair (HR) from a template or donor DNA. (genetics.org)
  • CRISPR-Cas9 is capable of precise and predictable template-free editing and repair. (genengnews.com)
  • Template-free Cas9 editing, the article maintains, is predictable and capable of precise repair to a predicted genotype, enabling correction of disease-associated mutations in humans. (genengnews.com)
  • He's an expert in prenatal genetic testing at Drexel University. (npr.org)
  • genetic code - the 3 nucleotide sequence that forms a codon for a single amino acid or stop. (edu.au)
  • and that is, the deciphering of the entire DNA sequence of the human genetic code. (todayinsci.com)
  • There is a potential problem when distantly related proteins are used as templates (less than 25% sequence identity). (coursera.org)
  • Because the trait is autosomal dominant, it may be eliminated from breeding dogs through genetic testing. (cornell.edu)
  • Bollenbach T, Vetsigian K, Kishony R (2007) Evolution and multilevel optimization of the genetic code. (springer.com)
  • The detection combines the normalized cross-correlation template matching and a genetic optimization algorithm. (hindawi.com)
  • The Genetic Counseling Workgroup from the 16th International Workshop on Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Conference (MEN 2019) convened to discuss contemporary challenges and opportunities in the area of. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Haig D, Hurst LD (1991) A quantitative measure of error minimization in the genetic code. (springer.com)
  • Cancer is a disease driven by genetic and genomic alterations such as amplifications, translocations, deletions, and point mutations. (mdpi.com)
  • aneuploidy - Genetic term used to describe an abnormal number of chromosomes mainly (90%) due to chromosome malsegregation mechanisms in maternal meiosis I. (edu.au)
  • disomy - Genetic term referring to the presence of two chromosomes of a homologous pair in a cell, as in diploid . (edu.au)
  • The genetic material found in mammalian chromosomes and mitochondria. (edu.au)
  • Further analysis revealed 90% of centenarians can be grouped into 19 clusters characterised by different genetic signatures correlated with differences in the prevalence and age of onset of age-associated diseases such as dementia, hypertension and cardiovascular disease," they said. (ipe.com)
  • We propose a new iterative approach, based on the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm , that simultaneously estimates the background statistics and restores a delta function at the location of the template . (psu.edu)
  • Privacy-preserving data mining based on modified quantum genetic algorithm is proposed in the paper. (techrepublic.com)
  • The quantum genetic algorithm is used in the first step to get the local Bayesian network structure. (techrepublic.com)
  • The segregated lesion-bearing DNA strands could serve as templates for DNA replication through subsequent cell divisions. (nature.com)
  • Download MedicPresents.com's free Genetic Engineering Mitosis Medical PowerPoint Template now for your upcoming medical PowerPoint presentations. (medicpresents.com)
  • This free Genetic Engineering Mitosis medical ppt is one of the free medical PowerPoint templates available for medical and healthcare professionals on MedicPresents.com. (medicpresents.com)
  • Be effective with all your medical PowerPoint presentations by easily filling your medical and healthcare content in our free Genetic Engineering Mitosis medical background for PowerPoint. (medicpresents.com)
  • They said: "Using these data, we built a genetic model that includes 150 single-nucleotide polymorphisms and found it could predict extreme longevity with 77% accuracy in an independent set of centenarians and controls. (ipe.com)
  • The goals of this study are: To assess the impact of genetic testing based on how it alters behaviors, to assess the utility of serum biomarker measurement in combination with genetic tes. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The message in the template has to be copied into a messenger RNA molecule (mRNA). (mindmeister.com)
  • Species identification, based on the multiplex-PCR reaction, was performed, and the genetic similarity of the isolates was analysed with the RAPD technique. (springer.com)
  • Genetic counseling and testing for hereditary breast cancer may reveal that you, and possibly your blood relatives, are at increased risk for the disease across the lifespan. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The primary goal of this research is to test a web-based genetic education intervention that is designed to educate men and women from hereditary cancer families about the personal relevan. (bioportfolio.com)
  • In theory at least, changing microbes' genetic code could solve these problems. (newscientist.com)
  • DNA , or genetic code. (prezi.com)
  • There are currently three major theories on the origin and evolution of the genetic code: the stereochemical theory, the coevolution theory, and the error-minimization theory. (springer.com)
  • The first two assume that the genetic code originated respectively from chemical affinities and from metabolic relationships between codons and amino acids. (springer.com)
  • This article describes a fourth theory which starts from the hypothesis that the ancestral genetic code was ambiguous and proposes that its evolution took place with a mechanism that systematically reduced its ambiguity and eventually removed it altogether. (springer.com)
  • This proposal is distinct from the stereochemical and the coevolution theories because they do not contemplate any ambiguity in the genetic code, and it is distinct from the error-minimization theory because ambiguity-reduction is fundamentally different from error-minimization. (springer.com)
  • Such a model is described in the present article and may be the first step in a new approach to the study of the evolution of the genetic code. (springer.com)
  • Di Giulio M (2008) An extension of the coevolution theory of the origin of the genetic code. (springer.com)
  • Fitch WM, Upper K (1987) The phylogeny of tRNA sequences provides evidence for ambiguity reduction in the origin of the genetic code. (springer.com)
  • Freeland SJ, Hurst LD (1998) The genetic code is one in a million. (springer.com)
  • Essentially, the article suggests that the cell's genetic auto-correction could one day be combined with CRISPR-based therapies that correct gene mutations by simply cutting DNA precisely and allowing the cell to naturally heal the damage. (genengnews.com)
  • Previous research suggests that this template must be flexible to account for variations in naturalistic stimulus properties such as size and occlusion, and that shapes of diagnostic parts of objects are a likely candidate. (bioportfolio.com)
  • This suggests that whole object shape is a necessary component of the category-level search template. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The Boston University team, led by Paola Sebastiani and Thomas Perls, identified genetic aspects of longevity by analysing the genomes of 1,055 centenarians and a control group of 1,267. (ipe.com)
  • Here we show the genetic interoperability and promiscuity of 16S rRNA in the ribosomes of an extremely thermophilic bacterium, Thermus thermophilus . (nature.com)
  • Our hypothesis was that features that better match the active search template will capture attention during search more strongly than partially-matching features. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Viral DNA or RNA serves as the template for mRNA production. (issuu.com)
  • One of the strands in the gene is used as a template to make mRNA. (mindmeister.com)
  • 1997) was the first gene to be attributed to disease development and its discovery represents a defining moment in PD research, not only preceding the identification of many other genetic determinants of PD but also mechanisms of sporadic disease. (mediashkola-plus.ru)
  • Google Scholar Gavin, C. This neurological disorder is therefore a polygenic disease with various genetic and environmental contributors cumulatively directing its pathological development. (mediashkola-plus.ru)
  • State of the Cat study, a partnership between Wisdom Health & TICA reached our goal of screening 1,000 cats for genetic disease, traits and genetic heterozygosity. (tica.org)
  • Specifically, the bioinformatics tools of BLAST, ORFinder, ClustalW and Cn3D are used to analyze genetic sequences. (nwabr.org)
  • After a short background explanation provided by the teacher about how genetic research is done, students make their own hypotheses and predictions about the relatedness of canine species, and align paper DNA sequences to evaluate their hypotheses. (nwabr.org)
  • It can search for genetic mutations linked to about 450 childhood diseases. (npr.org)
  • Diagnostic parts are not exclusive in the search template for real-world object categories. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Visual search can be aided by a search template: a preparatory representation of relevant target features. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Here, in three experiments, we systematically evaluated the contribution of diagnostic object parts and whole object shape to the category-level search template. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Template-to-distractor distinctiveness regulates visual search efficiency. (bioportfolio.com)
  • All models of attention include the concept of an attentional template (or a target or search template). (bioportfolio.com)
  • To do this, they cut the double helix with an enzyme and insert missing DNA, or remove extra DNA, using a template of genetic material that serves as a blueprint. (genengnews.com)
  • 4. Nucleocapsid is composed of the capsid and genetic material. (issuu.com)
  • 4. The eclipse period is the stage when the genetic material is replicated but intact virions are not yet detectable. (issuu.com)
  • Genetic engineering is the science of manipulating genetic material of an organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • The DNA-dependent conversion of incorrect deoxynucleoside triphosphate precursors to monophosphates (turnover) by bacteriophage T4 DNA polymerase was determined using either poly(dA) x (dT) or poly(dG) x (dC) homopolymer templates. (nih.gov)
  • We describe a simple solution to limit degradation of the DNA template. (nih.gov)
  • and describe the ideal design of the report template, including the preferred order of the report sections, formatting of data, and length of the report. (cdc.gov)
  • While our initial choice of a coconversion marker [ rol-6 ( su1006 ) ] was readily applicable in a single round of coconversion, the genetic properties of this locus were not optimal in that CRISPR-mediated deletion mutations at the unselected rol-6 locus can render a fraction of coconverted strains recalcitrant to further rounds of similar mutagenesis. (genetics.org)
  • To restore gene function without templated repair requires knowing how the cell will fix CRISPR-induced DNA breaks-knowledge that did not exist until now. (genengnews.com)
  • This curriculum unit explores how bioinformatics is used to perform genetic research. (nwabr.org)
  • To evaluate two different ways of providing information about genetic testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2 alterations. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Human directed genetic manipulation was occurring much earlier, beginning with the domestication of plants and animals through artificial selection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic testing in ovarian cancer - clinical impact and current practices. (bioportfolio.com)
  • In this 6-month randomized, controlled trial, we will evaluate the impact of genetic testing for type 2 diabetes on psychological, health behavior, and clinical outcomes. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Several lines of evidence suggest that epigenetics also plays an important role in ASD etiology and that it might, in fact, integrate genetic and environmental influences to dysregulate neurodevelopmental processes. (rsrf.org)
  • This free Genetic Engineering Mitosis Medical PPT is royalty free and easy to use. (medicpresents.com)
  • But if it is, it will be the greatest feat of genetic engineering by far. (newscientist.com)
  • Genetic engineering poses a serious threat to biodiversity and our own health. (greenpeace.org)
  • This study evaluates the feasibility of three-dimensional printed template in transthoracic pulmonary nodule biospy.we planned to include 20 patients with lung nodule biopsy schedule to re. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Circular and semicircular nodule candidates can be detected by template matching [ 8 - 11 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Q. How can genetic tests be used for genealogical research? (nytimes.com)
  • Remember that you can conduct experiments, and should test all improvements, in either the general Template sandbox or your user space before changing anything here. (wikipedia.org)
  • The test, which costs less than $400, would let parents know if they both carry genetic mutations that could put a future child at risk. (npr.org)
  • We begin this hour with the story of a powerful new genetic test. (npr.org)
  • Severe genetic illnesses in children are rare, but they account for about a fifth of all infant deaths in the U.S. This week, scientists announced the new test, which would be inexpensive and they hope, available to all would-be parents. (npr.org)
  • They asked him, would it be possible for you to make an affordable test that could screen all prospective parents for numerous genetic diseases? (npr.org)
  • TICA Members get immediate access to well-established genetic tests and a vast array of new genetic insights offered at a significant savings using the Optimal Selection™ Feline Genetic Breeding Analysis test. (tica.org)
  • The templates below have been created to help researchers create study documentation, and serve as a guide to complement study protocol. (uwo.ca)