Ranitidine: A non-imidazole blocker of those histamine receptors that mediate gastric secretion (H2 receptors). It is used to treat gastrointestinal ulcers.Organometallic Compounds: A class of compounds of the type R-M, where a C atom is joined directly to any other element except H, C, N, O, F, Cl, Br, I, or At. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Body Temperature: The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.Antacids: Substances that counteract or neutralize acidity of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Anti-Ulcer Agents: Various agents with different action mechanisms used to treat or ameliorate PEPTIC ULCER or irritation of the gastrointestinal tract. This has included ANTIBIOTICS to treat HELICOBACTER INFECTIONS; HISTAMINE H2 ANTAGONISTS to reduce GASTRIC ACID secretion; and ANTACIDS for symptomatic relief.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Metronidazole: A nitroimidazole used to treat AMEBIASIS; VAGINITIS; TRICHOMONAS INFECTIONS; GIARDIASIS; ANAEROBIC BACTERIA; and TREPONEMAL INFECTIONS. It has also been proposed as a radiation sensitizer for hypoxic cells. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985, p133), this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck, 11th ed).Salicylates: The salts or esters of salicylic acids, or salicylate esters of an organic acid. Some of these have analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory activities by inhibiting prostaglandin synthesis.Cold Temperature: An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.Amoxicillin: A broad-spectrum semisynthetic antibiotic similar to AMPICILLIN except that its resistance to gastric acid permits higher serum levels with oral administration.Helicobacter pylori: A spiral bacterium active as a human gastric pathogen. It is a gram-negative, urease-positive, curved or slightly spiral organism initially isolated in 1982 from patients with lesions of gastritis or peptic ulcers in Western Australia. Helicobacter pylori was originally classified in the genus CAMPYLOBACTER, but RNA sequencing, cellular fatty acid profiles, growth patterns, and other taxonomic characteristics indicate that the micro-organism should be included in the genus HELICOBACTER. It has been officially transferred to Helicobacter gen. nov. (see Int J Syst Bacteriol 1989 Oct;39(4):297-405).Helicobacter Infections: Infections with organisms of the genus HELICOBACTER, particularly, in humans, HELICOBACTER PYLORI. The clinical manifestations are focused in the stomach, usually the gastric mucosa and antrum, and the upper duodenum. This infection plays a major role in the pathogenesis of type B gastritis and peptic ulcer disease.Clarithromycin: A semisynthetic macrolide antibiotic derived from ERYTHROMYCIN that is active against a variety of microorganisms. It can inhibit PROTEIN SYNTHESIS in BACTERIA by reversibly binding to the 50S ribosomal subunits. This inhibits the translocation of aminoacyl transfer-RNA and prevents peptide chain elongation.Histamine H2 Antagonists: Drugs that selectively bind to but do not activate histamine H2 receptors, thereby blocking the actions of histamine. Their clinically most important action is the inhibition of acid secretion in the treatment of gastrointestinal ulcers. Smooth muscle may also be affected. Some drugs in this class have strong effects in the central nervous system, but these actions are not well understood.Skin Temperature: The TEMPERATURE at the outer surface of the body.Furazolidone: A nitrofuran derivative with antiprotozoal and antibacterial activity. Furazolidone acts by gradual inhibition of monoamine oxidase. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p514)Dimercaprol: An anti-gas warfare agent that is effective against Lewisite (dichloro(2-chlorovinyl)arsine) and formerly known as British Anti-Lewisite or BAL. It acts as a chelating agent and is used in the treatment of arsenic, gold, and other heavy metal poisoning.Body Temperature Regulation: The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.Tinidazole: A nitroimidazole antitrichomonal agent effective against Trichomonas vaginalis, Entamoeba histolytica, and Giardia lamblia infections.Duodenal Ulcer: A PEPTIC ULCER located in the DUODENUM.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Tetracycline: A naphthacene antibiotic that inhibits AMINO ACYL TRNA binding during protein synthesis.Omeprazole: A 4-methoxy-3,5-dimethylpyridyl, 5-methoxybenzimidazole derivative of timoprazole that is used in the therapy of STOMACH ULCERS and ZOLLINGER-ELLISON SYNDROME. The drug inhibits an H(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE which is found in GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS.Germanium: A rare metal element with a blue-gray appearance and atomic symbol Ge, atomic number 32, and atomic weight 72.63.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Klatskin's Tumor: Adenocarcinoma of the common hepatic duct bifurcation. These tumors are generally small, sharply localized, and seldom metastasizing. G. Klatskin's original review of 13 cases was published in 1965. Once thought to be relatively uncommon, tumors of the bifurcation of the bile duct now appear to comprise more than one-half of all bile duct cancers. (From Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1457)Sucralfate: A basic aluminum complex of sulfated sucrose.Peptic Ulcer: Ulcer that occurs in the regions of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT which come into contact with GASTRIC JUICE containing PEPSIN and GASTRIC ACID. It occurs when there are defects in the MUCOSA barrier. The common forms of peptic ulcers are associated with HELICOBACTER PYLORI and the consumption of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS).Dyspepsia: Impaired digestion, especially after eating.Penicillins: A group of antibiotics that contain 6-aminopenicillanic acid with a side chain attached to the 6-amino group. The penicillin nucleus is the chief structural requirement for biological activity. The side-chain structure determines many of the antibacterial and pharmacological characteristics. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1065)Radiation ProtectionHydrocarbons, IodinatedAntimony: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Sb, atomic number 51, and atomic weight 121.75. It is used as a metal alloy and as medicinal and poisonous salts. It is toxic and an irritant to the skin and the mucous membranes.Gastric Mucins: Mucins that are found on the surface of the gastric epithelium. They play a role in protecting the epithelial layer from mechanical and chemical damage.Proton Pump Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit H(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE. They are used as ANTI-ULCER AGENTS and sometimes in place of HISTAMINE H2 ANTAGONISTS for GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX.Thermometers: Measuring instruments for determining the temperature of matter. Most thermometers used in the field of medicine are designed for measuring body temperature or for use in the clinical laboratory. (From UMDNS, 1999)Thymolphthalein: Used as a pH indicator and as a reagent for blood after decolorizing the alkaline solution by boiling with zinc dust.Colloids: Two-phase systems in which one is uniformly dispersed in another as particles small enough so they cannot be filtered or will not settle out. The dispersing or continuous phase or medium envelops the particles of the discontinuous phase. All three states of matter can form colloids among each other.Hepatic Duct, Common: Predominantly extrahepatic bile duct which is formed by the junction of the right and left hepatic ducts, which are predominantly intrahepatic, and, in turn, joins the cystic duct to form the common bile duct.Thermography: Imaging the temperatures in a material, or in the body or an organ. Imaging is based on self-emanating infrared radiation (HEAT WAVES), or on changes in properties of the material or tissue that vary with temperature, such as ELASTICITY; MAGNETIC FIELD; or LUMINESCENCE.Scintillation Counting: Detection and counting of scintillations produced in a fluorescent material by ionizing radiation.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Breath Tests: Any tests done on exhaled air.Biliary Tract Surgical Procedures: Any surgical procedure performed on the biliary tract.Gastritis: Inflammation of the GASTRIC MUCOSA, a lesion observed in a number of unrelated disorders.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.2-Pyridinylmethylsulfinylbenzimidazoles: Compounds that contain benzimidazole joined to a 2-methylpyridine via a sulfoxide linkage. Several of the compounds in this class are ANTI-ULCER AGENTS that act by inhibiting the POTASSIUM HYDROGEN ATPASE found in the PROTON PUMP of GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS.Antidiarrheals: Miscellaneous agents found useful in the symptomatic treatment of diarrhea. They have no effect on the agent(s) that cause diarrhea, but merely alleviate the condition.Cimetidine: A histamine congener, it competitively inhibits HISTAMINE binding to HISTAMINE H2 RECEPTORS. Cimetidine has a range of pharmacological actions. It inhibits GASTRIC ACID secretion, as well as PEPSIN and GASTRIN output.Gastric Mucosa: Lining of the STOMACH, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. The surface cells produce MUCUS that protects the stomach from attack by digestive acid and enzymes. When the epithelium invaginates into the LAMINA PROPRIA at various region of the stomach (CARDIA; GASTRIC FUNDUS; and PYLORUS), different tubular gastric glands are formed. These glands consist of cells that secrete mucus, enzymes, HYDROCHLORIC ACID, or hormones.Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic: Passages within the liver for the conveyance of bile. Includes right and left hepatic ducts even though these may join outside the liver to form the common hepatic duct.Alpha Particles: Positively charged particles composed of two protons and two NEUTRONS, i.e. equivalent to HELIUM nuclei, which are emitted during disintegration of heavy ISOTOPES. Alpha rays have very strong ionizing power, but weak penetrability.Gastroscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the interior of the stomach.Tooth Discoloration: Any change in the hue, color, or translucency of a tooth due to any cause. Restorative filling materials, drugs (both topical and systemic), pulpal necrosis, or hemorrhage may be responsible. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p253)Humidity: A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.Resins, Synthetic: Polymers of high molecular weight which at some stage are capable of being molded and then harden to form useful components.Electrodes: Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.Transition Temperature: The temperature at which a substance changes from one state or conformation of matter to another.Spectrophotometry, Atomic: Spectrophotometric techniques by which the absorption or emmision spectra of radiation from atoms are produced and analyzed.Antitrichomonal Agents: Agents used to treat trichomonas infections.Erythromycin Ethylsuccinate: A macrolide antibiotic, produced by Streptomyces erythreus. This compound is an ester of erythromycin base and succinic acid. It acts primarily as a bacteriostatic agent. In sensitive organisms, it inhibits protein synthesis by binding to 50S ribosomal subunits. This binding process inhibits peptidyl transferase activity and interferes with translocation of amino acids during translation and assembly of proteins.Stomach Ulcer: Ulceration of the GASTRIC MUCOSA due to contact with GASTRIC JUICE. It is often associated with HELICOBACTER PYLORI infection or consumption of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS).Bile Duct Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the BILE DUCTS.Sulfoxides: Organic compounds that have the general formula R-SO-R. They are obtained by oxidation of mercaptans (analogous to the ketones). (From Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 4th ed)Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Myoclonus: Involuntary shock-like contractions, irregular in rhythm and amplitude, followed by relaxation, of a muscle or a group of muscles. This condition may be a feature of some CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; (e.g., EPILEPSY, MYOCLONIC). Nocturnal myoclonus is the principal feature of the NOCTURNAL MYOCLONUS SYNDROME. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp102-3).Drug Combinations: Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.Silicates: The generic term for salts derived from silica or the silicic acids. They contain silicon, oxygen, and one or more metals, and may contain hydrogen. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th Ed)Prosthesis Coloring: Coloring, shading, or tinting of prosthetic components, devices, and materials.Campylobacter: A genus of bacteria found in the reproductive organs, intestinal tract, and oral cavity of animals and man. Some species are pathogenic.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Lansoprazole: A 2,2,2-trifluoroethoxypyridyl derivative of timoprazole that is used in the therapy of STOMACH ULCERS and ZOLLINGER-ELLISON SYNDROME. The drug inhibits H(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE which is found in GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS. Lansoprazole is a racemic mixture of (R)- and (S)-isomers.Metals, Heavy: Metals with high specific gravity, typically larger than 5. They have complex spectra, form colored salts and double salts, have a low electrode potential, are mainly amphoteric, yield weak bases and weak acids, and are oxidizing or reducing agents (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Salmonella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.Campylobacter Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus CAMPYLOBACTER.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Hypothermia: Lower than normal body temperature, especially in warm-blooded animals.Urea: A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.Metals: Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Indium: A metallic element, atomic number 49, atomic weight 114.82, symbol In. It is named from its blue line in the spectrum. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Duodenum: The shortest and widest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE adjacent to the PYLORUS of the STOMACH. It is named for having the length equal to about the width of 12 fingers.Freezing: Liquids transforming into solids by the removal of heat.NitroimidazolesEscherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Radiation-Protective Agents: Drugs used to protect against ionizing radiation. They are usually of interest for use in radiation therapy but have been considered for other, e.g. military, purposes.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Cholangiocarcinoma: A malignant tumor arising from the epithelium of the BILE DUCTS.Thermosensing: The sensation of cold, heat, coolness, and warmth as detected by THERMORECEPTORS.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Urease: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of urea and water to carbon dioxide and ammonia. EC 3.5.1.5.Heating: The application of heat to raise the temperature of the environment, ambient or local, or the systems for accomplishing this effect. It is distinguished from HEAT, the physical property and principle of physics.Levofloxacin: The L-isomer of Ofloxacin.Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Stomach Diseases: Pathological processes involving the STOMACH.Bile Ducts: The channels that collect and transport the bile secretion from the BILE CANALICULI, the smallest branch of the BILIARY TRACT in the LIVER, through the bile ductules, the bile ducts out the liver, and to the GALLBLADDER for storage.Dental Cements: Substances used to bond COMPOSITE RESINS to DENTAL ENAMEL and DENTIN. These bonding or luting agents are used in restorative dentistry, ROOT CANAL THERAPY; PROSTHODONTICS; and ORTHODONTICS.Calorimetry, Differential Scanning: Differential thermal analysis in which the sample compartment of the apparatus is a differential calorimeter, allowing an exact measure of the heat of transition independent of the specific heat, thermal conductivity, and other variables of the sample.Fever: An abnormal elevation of body temperature, usually as a result of a pathologic process.Anti-Infective Agents, Local: Substances used on humans and other animals that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. They are distinguished from DISINFECTANTS, which are used on inanimate objects.Spectrum Analysis: The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Metallothionein: A low-molecular-weight (approx. 10 kD) protein occurring in the cytoplasm of kidney cortex and liver. It is rich in cysteinyl residues and contains no aromatic amino acids. Metallothionein shows high affinity for bivalent heavy metals.Phantoms, Imaging: Devices or objects in various imaging techniques used to visualize or enhance visualization by simulating conditions encountered in the procedure. Phantoms are used very often in procedures employing or measuring x-irradiation or radioactive material to evaluate performance. Phantoms often have properties similar to human tissue. Water demonstrates absorbing properties similar to normal tissue, hence water-filled phantoms are used to map radiation levels. Phantoms are used also as teaching aids to simulate real conditions with x-ray or ultrasonic machines. (From Iturralde, Dictionary and Handbook of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Imaging, 1990)Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Aminosalicylic Acids: A group of 2-hydroxybenzoic acids that can be substituted by amino groups at any of the 3-, 4-, 5-, or 6-positions.Radioisotopes: Isotopes that exhibit radioactivity and undergo radioactive decay. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Glycocalyx: The carbohydrate-rich zone on the cell surface. This zone can be visualized by a variety of stains as well as by its affinity for lectins. Although most of the carbohydrate is attached to intrinsic plasma membrane molecules, the glycocalyx usually also contains both glycoproteins and proteoglycans that have been secreted into the extracellular space and then adsorbed onto the cell surface. (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, p502)Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Mercury: A silver metallic element that exists as a liquid at room temperature. It has the atomic symbol Hg (from hydrargyrum, liquid silver), atomic number 80, and atomic weight 200.59. Mercury is used in many industrial applications and its salts have been employed therapeutically as purgatives, antisyphilitics, disinfectants, and astringents. It can be absorbed through the skin and mucous membranes which leads to MERCURY POISONING. Because of its toxicity, the clinical use of mercury and mercurials is diminishing.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Ofloxacin: A synthetic fluoroquinolone antibacterial agent that inhibits the supercoiling activity of bacterial DNA GYRASE, halting DNA REPLICATION.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Thermoreceptors: Cellular receptors which mediate the sense of temperature. Thermoreceptors in vertebrates are mostly located under the skin. In mammals there are separate types of thermoreceptors for cold and for warmth and NOCICEPTORS which detect cold or heat extreme enough to cause pain.Adsorption: The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.Gastrins: A family of gastrointestinal peptide hormones that excite the secretion of GASTRIC JUICE. They may also occur in the central nervous system where they are presumed to be neurotransmitters.Lead: A soft, grayish metal with poisonous salts; atomic number 82, atomic weight 207.19, symbol Pb. (Dorland, 28th)Microscopy, Electron, Transmission: Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.Radiation Dosage: The amount of radiation energy that is deposited in a unit mass of material, such as tissues of plants or animal. In RADIOTHERAPY, radiation dosage is expressed in gray units (Gy). In RADIOLOGIC HEALTH, the dosage is expressed by the product of absorbed dose (Gy) and quality factor (a function of linear energy transfer), and is called radiation dose equivalent in sievert units (Sv).Shivering: Involuntary contraction or twitching of the muscles. It is a physiologic method of heat production in man and other mammals.Cold Climate: A climate characterized by COLD TEMPERATURE for a majority of the time during the year.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Electrochemistry: The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.Metal Nanoparticles: Nanoparticles produced from metals whose uses include biosensors, optics, and catalysts. In biomedical applications the particles frequently involve the noble metals, especially gold and silver.Enzyme Stability: The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Salicylic Acid: A compound obtained from the bark of the white willow and wintergreen leaves. It has bacteriostatic, fungicidal, and keratolytic actions.Heat Stress Disorders: A group of conditions that develop due to overexposure or overexertion in excessive environmental heat.Diarrhea, Infantile: DIARRHEA occurring in infants from newborn to 24-months old.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Climate Change: Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.Brain Diseases: Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.CitratesGlobal Warming: Increase in the temperature of the atmosphere near the Earth's surface and in the troposphere, which can contribute to changes in global climate patterns.Diarrhea: An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Cadmium: An element with atomic symbol Cd, atomic number 48, and atomic weight 114. It is a metal and ingestion will lead to CADMIUM POISONING.Hypothermia, Induced: Abnormally low BODY TEMPERATURE that is intentionally induced in warm-blooded animals by artificial means. In humans, mild or moderate hypothermia has been used to reduce tissue damages, particularly after cardiac or spinal cord injuries and during subsequent surgeries.Thermal Conductivity: The heat flow across a surface per unit area per unit time, divided by the negative of the rate of change of temperature with distance in a direction perpendicular to the surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Half-Life: The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.Protein Denaturation: Disruption of the non-covalent bonds and/or disulfide bonds responsible for maintaining the three-dimensional shape and activity of the native protein.Phase Transition: A change of a substance from one form or state to another.Infrared Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum usually sensed as heat. Infrared wavelengths are longer than those of visible light, extending into the microwave frequencies. They are used therapeutically as heat, and also to warm food in restaurants.Weather: The state of the ATMOSPHERE over minutes to months.Hyperthermia, Induced: Abnormally high temperature intentionally induced in living things regionally or whole body. It is most often induced by radiation (heat waves, infra-red), ultrasound, or drugs.Sweating: The process of exocrine secretion of the SWEAT GLANDS, including the aqueous sweat from the ECCRINE GLANDS and the complex viscous fluids of the APOCRINE GLANDS.Treatment Failure: A measure of the quality of health care by assessment of unsuccessful results of management and procedures used in combating disease, in individual cases or series.Chelating Agents: Chemicals that bind to and remove ions from solutions. Many chelating agents function through the formation of COORDINATION COMPLEXES with METALS.Digestive System: A group of organs stretching from the MOUTH to the ANUS, serving to breakdown foods, assimilate nutrients, and eliminate waste. In humans, the digestive system includes the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and the accessory glands (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Exanthema: Diseases in which skin eruptions or rashes are a prominent manifestation. Classically, six such diseases were described with similar rashes; they were numbered in the order in which they were reported. Only the fourth (Duke's disease), fifth (ERYTHEMA INFECTIOSUM), and sixth (EXANTHEMA SUBITUM) numeric designations survive as occasional synonyms in current terminology.Refrigeration: The mechanical process of cooling.Ice: The solid substance formed by the FREEZING of water.Drug Stability: The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Sulfhydryl Compounds: Compounds containing the -SH radical.Metabolic Clearance Rate: Volume of biological fluid completely cleared of drug metabolites as measured in unit time. Elimination occurs as a result of metabolic processes in the kidney, liver, saliva, sweat, intestine, heart, brain, or other site.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Peptide Elongation Factor 1: Peptide elongation factor 1 is a multisubunit protein that is responsible for the GTP-dependent binding of aminoacyl-tRNAs to eukaryotic ribosomes. The alpha subunit (EF-1alpha) binds aminoacyl-tRNA and transfers it to the ribosome in a process linked to GTP hydrolysis. The beta and delta subunits (EF-1beta, EF-1delta) are involved in exchanging GDP for GTP. The gamma subunit (EF-1gamma) is a structural component.Environment, Controlled: A state in which the environs of hospitals, laboratories, domestic and animal housing, work places, spacecraft, and other surroundings are under technological control with regard to air conditioning, heating, lighting, humidity, ventilation, and other ambient features. The concept includes control of atmospheric composition. (From Jane's Aerospace Dictionary, 3d ed)Rain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Biofilms: Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Antarctic Regions: The continent lying around the South Pole and the southern waters of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. It includes the Falkland Islands Dependencies. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p55)Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Guanidines: A family of iminourea derivatives. The parent compound has been isolated from mushrooms, corn germ, rice hulls, mussels, earthworms, and turnip juice. Derivatives may have antiviral and antifungal properties.RNA, Ribosomal, 18S: Constituent of the 40S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 18S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Drug Storage: The process of keeping pharmaceutical products in an appropriate location.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Heat-Shock Response: A constellation of responses that occur when an organism is exposed to excessive heat. Responses include synthesis of new proteins and regulation of others.Circadian Rhythm: The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.Thermometry: Measurement of the temperature of a material, or of the body or an organ by various temperature sensing devices which measure changes in properties of the material that vary with temperature, such as ELASTICITY; MAGNETIC FIELDS; or LUMINESCENCE.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Stomach: An organ of digestion situated in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen between the termination of the ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of the DUODENUM.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Glycine: A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Greenhouse Effect: The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.Nucleic Acid Denaturation: Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.Intestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Air: The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.Drainage: The removal of fluids or discharges from the body, such as from a wound, sore, or cavity.Hibernation: The dormant state in which some warm-blooded animal species pass the winter. It is characterized by narcosis and by sharp reduction in body temperature and metabolic activity and by a depression of vital signs.Clothing: Fabric or other material used to cover the body.Bismuth: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Bi, atomic number 83 and atomic weight 208.98.Calorimetry: The measurement of the quantity of heat involved in various processes, such as chemical reactions, changes of state, and formations of solutions, or in the determination of the heat capacities of substances. The fundamental unit of measurement is the joule or the calorie (4.184 joules). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Bismuth forms Zintl phases such as NaBi,[157] Rb7In4Bi6[158] and Ba11Cd8Bi14.[159] Bailar et al.[160] refer to bismuth as being ... Savitsky EM 1961, The influence of temperature on the mechanical properties of metals and alloys, Stanford University Press, ... Examples include gallium,[231] ytterbium,[232] bismuth,[233] mercury[234] and neptunium.[235] Metalloids, which are in-between ... Bismuth is a soft metal (MH 2.5) that is too brittle for any structural use.[149] It has an open-packed crystalline structure ( ...
S. Otake, M. Momiuchi & N. Matsuno (1980). "Temperature Dependence of the Magnetic Susceptibility of Bismuth". J. Phys. Soc. ...
The coolant is very corrosive but operating temperature is quite low. An additional constraint is the opacity of lead-bismuth. ... MYRRHA is a pool type lead-bismuth reactor; therefore the mechanical features will be a very heavy core, and atmospheric ...
The Temperature-Dependent 1H and 31P Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Studies of Some Iron and Ruthenium Dihydrides" Journal of the ... Solid State Communications (1975), 17(1), 27-8. Sleight, Arthur W. Superconductive barium-lead-bismuth oxides. U.S. Patent ... that laid the groundwork for subsequent breakthroughs in high-temperature superconductors. In solution phase chemistry of ... High-temperature superconductivity in the barium plumbate bismuthate (BaPb1−xBixO3) systems. ...
Bath temperature - 220 deg. Celsius to 260 deg.Celsius (for binary tin-lead alloys) Bath temperature - 350 deg.Celsius to 400 ... Tin-Silver and Tin-Bismuth is used for Electronics. Because of the toxicity of lead, lead-free solders are being developed and ... Such as Lead-Silver for strength at higher than room temperature. Tin-Lead is used for General Purpose; Tin-Zinc is used for ... There is not much equipment or setup for this process, all that is needed is the solder pot with its temperature control panel ...
Like silicon, gallium, bismuth, antimony, and water, germanium is one of the few substances that expands as it solidifies (i.e ... The monoxide, germanous oxide, can be obtained by the high temperature reaction of GeO2 with Ge metal. The dioxide (and the ... Bismuth germanate, Bi4Ge3O12, (BGO) is used as a scintillator. Binary compounds with other chalcogens are also known, such as ... In 2010, researchers demonstrated room temperature spin transport and more recently donor electron spins in germanium has been ...
A mechanism will move the sample through varying temperature zones in the furnace. To start processing, the furnace melts all ... MEPHISTO simultaneously processes three identical cylindrical samples of bismuth and tin alloy. In the first sample, the ... experiment is primarily interested in measuring the temperature, velocity, and shape of the solidification front (the point ... temperature fluctuations of the moving solidification are measured electrically, with disturbing the sample. The position of ...
Similarly gold clusters implanted on TiO 2 can oxidize CO at temperatures as low as 40K. Catalytic activity correlated with the ... Thiolate-protected gold cluster Bismuth cluster Jin, Rongchao; Zhu, Yan; Qian, Huifeng (June 2011). "Quantum-Sized Gold ... When implanted on a FeOOH surface, gold clusters catalyze oxidation of CO at ambient temperatures. ... but can also be achieved chemically at low temperatures (below 100 °C/212 °F), e.g. using a peroxide-assisted route. Gold ...
"Intercalation of C60 fullerite with helium and argon at normal temperature and pressure". Low Temperature Physics. 29 (5): 445- ... Copper, permalloy, and bismuth also make nanowires. Helium II ions (He+) in liquid helium when attracted by an electric field ... "Matrix Isolation of H Atoms at Low Temperatures". Journal of Low Temperature Physics. 162 (3-4): 105-120. Bibcode:2011JLTP..162 ... In higher temperature liquid helium, larger clusters of metal are formed instead of wires. The metal vapours can only penetrate ...
The room-temperature (alpha) form has the same linear chain structure as bismuth pentafluoride. As a molecular (gas) species, ... occurred at cryogenic temperatures and the compound decomposes at the temperatures of solid nitrogen. More unstable still, the ... beryllium fluoride has the same room temperature crystal structure as quartz and shares many higher temperatures structures ... Bismuth's highest fluoride is a volatile penta species that is a powerful fluorinating agent. In the solid state, it is ...
An interpretation of the temperature variation and the sign of the thermopower". Physica C: Superconductivity. 165 (2): 183-188 ... "Systematics in the thermopower behaviour of several series of bismuth and thallium cuprate superconductors:: ...
... except for nitrogen which is gaseous at room temperature. Nitrogen and bismuth, despite both being pnictogens, are very ... Bismuth minerals do occur, but it is more economic to produce bismuth as a by-product of lead. In China, bismuth is also found ... and seawater contains 400 parts per trillion of bismuth. Bismuth most commonly occurs as the mineral bismuthinite, but bismuth ... Bismuth is not known to have a biological role. Humans ingest on average less than 20 micrograms of bismuth per day. There is ...
The superconductor is bismuth strontium calcium copper oxide (BSCCO) which superconducts at liquid nitrogen temperatures. Other ... The suburban Long Island electrical substation is fed by a 600 meter long tunnel containing about 99 miles of high-temperature ... "Status of high temperature superconductor cable and fault current limiter projects at American Superconductor", Physica C: ... and a number of cryostats which manage the transition between cryogenic and ambient temperatures. The project was funded by the ...
Bismuth telluride. Bi2Te3. Efficient thermoelectric material near room temperature when alloyed with selenium or antimony. ... Bismuth(III) iodide. BiI3. other. 2. Mercury(II) iodide. HgI2. Used in some gamma-ray and x-ray detectors and imaging systems ... Low temperature allotrope (diamond cubic lattice). IV. 2. Silicon carbide, 3C-SiC. SiC. 2.3[4]. indirect. used for early yellow ... Good high temperature thermoelectric material. IV-VI. 2. Lead(II) sulfide. PbS. 0.37. Mineral galena, first semiconductor in ...
Often a reactor of this type would use a lead-bismuth eutectic mixture. In this case, the bismuth would present some minor ... The pebble-bed reactor, a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGCR), is designed so high temperatures reduce power output by ... It uses ceramic fuels so its safe operating temperatures exceed the power-reduction temperature range. Most designs are cooled ... When at operating temperature, if the temperature of the water increases, its density drops, and fewer neutrons passing through ...
Lead, lead-bismuth eutectic, and other metals have also been proposed and occasionally used. Mercury was used in the first fast ... Molten salts share with metals the advantage of low vapor pressure even at high temperatures, and are less chemically reactive ... with tritium sometimes leaks to groundwater by accident or by official approval The fuel rods create high temperatures which ...
Low-temperature helium is the only known exception to the general rule. Helium-3 has a negative enthalpy of fusion at ... Some substances, such as water and bismuth, expand when frozen. Many living organisms are able to tolerate prolonged periods of ... temperature graph. Because vitrification is a non-equilibrium process, it does not qualify as freezing, which requires an ... Because of the latent heat of fusion, the freezing is greatly slowed down and the temperature will not drop anymore once the ...
Given the high temperatures on Venus, the leading candidates for the precipitate are lead sulfide and bismuth(III) sulfide. On ... Wet-bulb temperature is used as a metric since it takes air temperature and relative humidity into account. Snowmaking is a ... The production of snow requires low temperatures. The threshold temperature for snowmaking increases as humidity decreases. ... the temperature of the low-pressure system is often below the condensation point for carbon dioxide, so the gas condenses and ...
Liquid lead-bismuth systems can't cause an explosion and quickly solidify in case of a leak, greatly improving safety. LCFRs ... Such reactors have a number of advantages over older types: Due to higher coolant temperature, their energy efficiency is up to ... The issue was that the lead/bismuth eutectic solution solidifies at 125 °C (257 °F). If it ever hardened, it would be ... lead-bismuth cooled fast reactor, 155 MW Steam turbines: OK-7K, 40,000 shp (30,000 kW) Propulsion: 1 propeller Speed (submerged ...
It is a hydrothermal ore mineral found in moderate to high temperature veins with other Ni-Co minerals. Associated minerals are ... arsenopyrite, native silver, erythrite, annabergite, nickeline, cobaltite, silver sulfosalts, native bismuth, calcite, siderite ...
Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium ... 7.1 g Cl2 per kg of water at ambient temperature (21 °C).[19] Dissolved chlorine reacts to form hydrochloric acid (HCl) and ... From left to right: chlorine, bromine, and iodine at room temperature. Chlorine is a gas, bromine is a liquid, and iodine is a ... Iron wool can react rapidly with fluorine to form the white compound iron(III) fluoride even in cold temperatures. When ...
... in some high temperature gold veins, and in recent volcanic exhalation deposits. Associated minerals include native bismuth, ... Bismuthinite is a mineral consisting of bismuth sulfide (Bi2S3). It is an important ore for bismuth. The crystals are steel- ... Bismuthinite forms a series with the lead, copper, bismuth mineral aikinite (PbCuBiS3). It occurs in hydrothermal veins with ...
It has only been generated by oxidation of stibine (SbH3) at −90 °C. Above this temperature and in ambient light, this ... In accordance with periodic trends, it is more electronegative than tin or bismuth, and less electronegative than tellurium or ... Antimony is stable in air at room temperature, but reacts with oxygen if heated to produce antimony trioxide, Sb2O3. Antimony ... the temperature at which stibnite melts and separates from the gangue minerals. Antimony can be isolated from the crude ...
It also helps prevent embrittlement of oxygen free copper by bismuth, antimony and lead by the formation of complex oxides. ... Arsenical copper contains up to 0.5% arsenic which, at elevated temperatures, imparts higher tensile strength and a reduced ...
At room temperature, all the fifth electrons are liberated, can move around the Si crystal and can carry a current and thus act ... Other pentavalent dopants are antimony (Sb) and bismuth (Bi). When substituting a Si atom in the crystal lattice, four of the ...
Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium ... Scandium(III) oxide, yttrium(III) oxide, lanthanum(III) oxide and lutetium(III) oxide are white high-temperature-melting solids ...
... high-temperature ceramic capacitor material having the base composition of (Na₀.₅ Bi₀.₅) TiO₃. The goal is to modify this ... Citation: Bridger, K., Cooke, A., Schulze, W., Weigner, J. et al., "High Temperature Sodium Bismuth Titanate Capacitors - A New ... High Temperature Sodium Bismuth Titanate Capacitors - A New Product Realized 2008-01-2863. ... This paper describes the development of a lead free, high temperature ceramic capacitor material having the base composition of ...
Bismuth-antimony (Bi-Sb) alloy is a promising material for thermoelectric cooling. Herein, a high figure of merit, ZT, near 0.6 ... The study revealed a gradual narrowing of the band gap at increasing temperature in Bi-Sb alloy for the first time. Magneto- ... at cryogenic temperatures (100-150 K) has been achieved in melt-spun n-type Bi85Sb15 bulk samples consisting of micron-size ... Jain, A. L. Temperature Dependence of the Electrical Properties of Bismuth-Antimony Alloys. Phys. Rev. 114, 1518-1528 (1959). ...
... Jie Liu, ... C. Cho, Y. Kim, T. Y. Song, and Y. Lee, "Numerical design of a 20 MW lead-bismuth spallation target with an injection tube," ... "Natural circulation studies in a lead bismuth eutectic loop," Progress in Nuclear Energy, vol. 53, no. 4, pp. 308-319, 2011. ...
... Author(s). Ensor, ... In order to keep temperature below this level it has been proposed that lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) be used as the gap material ... Thermal analysis of uranium zirconium hydride fuel using a lead-bismuth gap at light water reactors operating temperatures ... In order for UZH to be viable as a fuel it is recommended that the peak central temperature of the fuel be maintained below 650 ...
... operating at 1.73 μm under different temperature conditions and gamma-irradiation of act ...
Bi2S3 nanobelts were synthesized via a facile solvothermal process and spin-coated onto alumina substrates at room temperature ... Highly sensitive response of solution-processed bismuth sulfide nanobelts for room-temperature nitrogen dioxide detection. J ... Highly sensitive response of solution-processed bismuth sulfide nanobelts for room-temperature nitrogen dioxide detection. ... can be a reasonable explanation for the improved performance at room temperature. Their sensitive room-temperature response ...
... Technische Universität, Darmstadt [Ph.D. Thesis], ( ... Characterization at room temperature revealed a distorted Beta-Bi2O3 structure. This shows a size-driven thermodynamic ... These thoughts are demonstrated here by experiments with sized-selected bismuth oxide nanoparticles between 5 and 50 nm. They ... in-situ XRD and a special membrane-based high-temperature nanocalorimeter. Different atmospheres were used. The results show a ...
In situ synthesis of a high-performance bismuth oxide based composite cathode for low temperature solid oxide fuel cells ... In situ synthesis of a high-performance bismuth oxide based composite cathode for low temperature solid oxide fuel cells W. ... resistance and better oxygen reduction reaction activity than the conventional LSM-based cathodes for low temperature solid ...
The operational temperature of the final device p style=margin-left:... ... One is indium and the other is bismuth.. There are five common solder alloys that are well suited for your low-temperature, Pb- ... Our Low Temperature Pb-Free Solder Paste Research Kit allows you to evaluate any two alloys in a side-by-side comparison to ... The five alloys that you can choose from in our Low Temperature Pb-Free Solder Paste Kit are:. *Indalloy 1E (52In 48Sn) ...
... was demonstrated in bismuth-based glass dielectrics under an electron beam (EB) irradiation at room temperature. The effects... ... in situ control growth of bismuth nanoparticles (Bi0NPs) ... Bismuth metal has a melting point of 271 °C and this low ... In situ electron beam irradiated rapid growth of bismuth nanoparticles in bismuth-based glass dielectrics at room temperature. ... In this study, in situ control growth of bismuth nanoparticles (Bi0 NPs) was demonstrated in bismuth-based glass dielectrics ...
High temperature dielectric properties of c-axis oriented bismuth layer-structured dielectric films prepared on Si and Glass ... High temperature dielectric properties of c-axis oriented bismuth layer-structured dielectric films prepared on Si and Glass ... substrates using nanosheets buffer layerHigh temperature dielectric properties of c-axis oriented bismuth layer-structured ...
Superconducting double perovskite bismuth oxide (Na0.25K0.45)(Ba1.00)3(Bi1.00)4O12 prepared by a low-temperature hydrothermal ... Superconducting double perovskite bismuth oxide (Na0.25K0.45)(Ba1.00)3(Bi1.00)4O12 prepared by a low-temperature hydrothermal ... Superconducting double perovskite bismuth oxide (Na0.25K0.45)(Ba1.00)3(Bi1.00)4O12 prepared by a low-temperature hydrothermal ... Fig.1 Magnetization curve of the new double perovskite bismuth oxide. superconductor having a transition temperature of 27 K. ...
... whereas bulk limited Poole-Frenkel emission and interface limited Fowler-Nordheim tunneling coexisted at temperatures between ...
Provides coverage of the ongoing investigations on bismuth-based high-temperature cuprate superconductors, integrating ... Bismuth-Based High-Temperature Superconductors. DOI link for Bismuth-Based High-Temperature Superconductors ... Bismuth-Based High-Temperature Superconductors. DOI link for Bismuth-Based High-Temperature Superconductors ... Provides coverage of the ongoing investigations on bismuth-based high-temperature cuprate superconductors, integrating ...
Variable-temperature multinuclear solid-state NMR study of oxide ion dynamics in fluorite-type bismuth vanadate and phosphate ... Variable-temperature multinuclear solid-state NMR study of oxide ion dynamics in fluorite-type bismuth vanadate and phosphate ... Using variable-temperature (VT) measurements ranging from room temperature to 923 K, the ionic motion experienced by these ... Variable-temperature multinuclear solid-state NMR study of oxide ion dynamics in fluorite-type bismuth vanadate and phosphate ...
Estimating Bismuth Volumetrically. By M. M. P. Muir. Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus with Salicylate of Soda. ... Maintenance of Constant Temperatures. By A. D*amp*apos;Arsonval. Physical Dilatation of the Urethra. ...
This paper reports the significant improved piezoelectric properties of high temperature bismuth titanate niobate (Bi3TiNbO9, ... High performance Aurivillius-type bismuth titanate niobate (Bi3TiNbO9) piezoelectric ceramics for high temperature applications ... High performance Aurivillius-type bismuth titanate niobate (Bi3TiNbO9) piezoelectric ceramics for high temperature applications ... High performance Aurivillius-type bismuth titanate niobate (Bi3TiNbO9) piezoelectric ceramics for high temperature applications ...
Controlling ultrastrong coupling at room temperature. Click here to see the primary source for this post and previous posts ... Anchoring single-unit-cell defect-rich bismuth molybdate layers on ultrathin carbon nitride nanosheet with boosted charge ...
... assuming that the temperature dependence of the energy gap dominates the susceptibility of bismuth. All coefficients of this ... Then we can evaluate the energy gap at any temperature; for example, the values of energy gaps at 0 K are 18 meV and 193 meV at ... we get a function to express the observed values at any temperature, ... The magnetic susceptibility of bismuth single crystals is measured in the trigonal-binary plane over a wide temperature range ...
Element Bismuth (Bi), Group 15, Atomic Number 83, p-block, Mass 208.980. Sources, facts, uses, scarcity (SRI), podcasts, ... Bismuth was often confused with lead; it was likewise a heavy metal and melted at a relatively low temperature making it easy ... bismuth painting. Painters in Italy including Raphael used both bismuth metal and bismuthinite, bismuth trisulphide in their ... Alloys containing bismuth were used for safety valves and boilers, melting if the temperature rose too high and a classic prank ...
La(O,F)BiSe{sub 2} shows superconductivity with a transition temperature of 3.6 K. • Bonding nature and superconductivity of La ... 37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; BISMUTH; BOND LENGTHS; CARBON 14; CATIONS; CESIUM CHLORIDES; LATTICE ... Title: First single crystal growth and structural analysis of superconducting layered bismuth oxyselenide; La(O,F)BiSe{sub 2} ... Journal Article: First single crystal growth and structural analysis of superconducting layered bismuth oxyselenide; La(O,F) ...
Bismuth is stable to both dry and moist air at ordinary temperatures. When red-hot, it reacts with water to make bismuth(III) ... Bismuth sulfide, Bi. 2S. 3, occurs naturally in bismuth ores.[45] It is also produced by the combination of molten bismuth and ... bismuth vanadate), pearlescent cosmetics (bismuth oxychloride), and bismuth-containing bullets. Recycling bismuth from these ... It reacts with fluorine to make bismuth(V) fluoride at 500 °C or bismuth(III) fluoride at lower temperatures (typically from Bi ...
Full Access to Nanoscale Bismuth-Palladium Intermetallics by,br/, Low-Temperature Syntheses ... Full Access to Nanoscale Bismuth-Palladium Intermetallics by Low-Temperature Syntheses Heise, M., Chang, J.-H., Schoenemann, R ... Although not stable at the temperature of synthesis, high-temperature phases are accessible as well. Differences in the redox ... Full Access to Nanoscale Bismuth-Palladium Intermetallics by Low-Temperature Syntheses. Chemistry of Materials, 26(19), 5640- ...
1000g/ box Sn42Bi58 tin bismuth alloy low temperature solder wire US $57.0-59.0 / Pieces ... 3. Melting temperature 227℃, operated by soldering irons in manual soldering and automated machine . Manufacturing good quality ...
  • These thoughts are demonstrated here by experiments with sized-selected bismuth oxide nanoparticles between 5 and 50 nm. (tu-darmstadt.de)
  • A new superconducting double perovskite bismuth oxide, (Na 0.25 K 0.45 )(Ba 1.00 ) 3 (Bi 1.00 ) 4 O 12 , was discovered. (or.jp)
  • Kumada and Tanaka (University of Yamanashi), Prof. Kuroiwa (Hiroshima University), Prof. Azuma (Tokyo Institute of Technology), and Prof. A.K.M.A. Islam (Rajshahi University, Bangladesh) discovered a new superconductive bismuth oxide, (Na 0.25 K 0.45 )(Ba 1.00 ) 3 (Bi 1.00 ) 4 O 12 . (or.jp)
  • This new bismuth oxide material was synthesized via a hydrothermal method (3) , which has been used for the syntheses of quartz, nanoparticles, and ceramics. (or.jp)
  • Fig.1 Magnetization curve of the new double perovskite bismuth oxide superconductor having a transition temperature of 27 K. (or.jp)
  • Variable-temperature multinuclear solid-state NMR study of oxide ion dynamics in fluorite-type bismuth vanadate and phosphate solid electrolytes. (dur.ac.uk)
  • Dunstan, Matthew T. and Halat, David M. and Tate, Matthew L. and Evans, Ivana Radosavljevic and Grey, Clare P. (2019) 'Variable-temperature multinuclear solid-state NMR study of oxide ion dynamics in fluorite-type bismuth vanadate and phosphate solid electrolytes. (dur.ac.uk)
  • Many different chemical controls, such as aliovalent doping, have been attempted to stabilise δ-Bi2O3, a material with exceptionally high oxide ion conductivity which is unfortunately only stable over a narrow temperature range. (dur.ac.uk)
  • In this study, we employ a multinuclear, variable-temperature NMR spectroscopy approach to characterise and measure oxide ionic motion in the V- and P-substituted bismuth oxide materials Bi0.913V0.087O1.587, Bi0.852V0.148O1.648 and Bi0.852P0.148O1.648, previously shown to have excellent ionic conduction properties (Kuang et al. (dur.ac.uk)
  • This study shows solid-state NMR is particularly well suited to understanding connections between local structural features and ionic mobility, and can quantify the evolution of oxide-ion dynamics with increasing temperature. (dur.ac.uk)
  • Elemental bismuth may occur naturally, although its sulfide and oxide form important commercial ores. (wikipedia.org)
  • The alpha crystalline form of bismuth(III) oxide has p-type electronic conductivity. (alfa.com)
  • Three concentrations of 10, 25 and 50% of Bismuth hydroxide nitrate oxide in acetone/olive oil (3+1 v/v), w/w, were examined. (europa.eu)
  • Bismuth oxide is used as a yellow pigment for cosmetics and paints, while bismuth(III) chloride oxide (BiClO) gives a pearly effect to cosmetics. (rsc.org)
  • These crystals also form a thin layer of bismuth oxide on their surface which is very colorful (Behner). (theodoregray.com)
  • It is a pentavalent post-transition metal and one of the pnictogens with chemical properties resembling its lighter homologs arsenic and antimony.Elemental bismuth may occur naturally, although its sulfide and oxide form important commercial ores. (fsfs.in)
  • Bismuth tungsten oxide. (espimetals.com)
  • Combination of Nonthermal Plasma and Low Temperature-C3H8-Selective Catalytic Reduction over Co-In/H-beta Catalyst for Nitric Oxide Abatement. (ebscohost.com)
  • Nitric oxide (NOx) abatement by a two-stage system composed of nonthermal plasma (NTP) followed by the selective catalytic reduction with C3H8 (C3H8-SCR) over the Co-In/H-beta catalyst was investigated at a relativity low temperature range from 548 to 598 K. The combination system shows better. (ebscohost.com)
  • BNT was synthesized from oxide powders using the classic solid-state route and sintered at temperatures ranging from 1000 °C to 1150 °C. Cobalt was added in concentrations between 0.1 mol% and 2.6 mol% Co prior to the calcination as Co3O4. (fraunhofer.de)
  • Structures of bismuth oxide carbonate (Bi 2 O 2 CO 3 ) were successfully synthesized using a solution at 0.03 M concentration of sodium bismuthate as precursor and ethylene glycol as dissolvent by solvothermal microwave-assisted approach. (scirp.org)
  • Luna-Alvarado, M. , Estrada-Flores, M. , Manríquez-Ramírez, M. and Germán, C. (2019) Bismuth Oxide Carbonate Structures Synthesized by Microwave-Assisted Solvothermal Approach and Its Use as Catalyst for the Degradation of Azo Dye in a Solution. (scirp.org)
  • As a result, there is known that bismuth oxide has different structures which can be obtained with micro and nanometric structures. (scirp.org)
  • Besides this polymorphic characteristic, bismuth oxide is characterized for being a well ionic conductor because its band gap is between 2.7 - 2.8 eV and, it has a good photoconductivity . (scirp.org)
  • Bismuth (III) oxide is one of the simplest oxides and it has the advantage of being economical and environmentally friendly. (scirp.org)
  • Nowadays, this oxide is used in different areas such as medicine and engineering, and also is used in cosmetics because of its low toxicity and, in the last few years, 43% of the bismuth production has been used as a replacement of lead . (scirp.org)
  • this phase is known because of its high ionic conductivity as oxide ions can move from side to side along bismuth arrangement. (scirp.org)
  • In terms of this research, Mexico has maintained its second place in bismuth's world production with a maximum quantity of 1000 ton in 2010 , so bismuth oxide can replace titanium dioxide as catalyst. (scirp.org)
  • Silvery solid, often with rainbow layer of bismuth oxide. (sciencemadness.org)
  • Measuring the nanoparticles' temperature as a function of the junction current, we have observed heterojunction cooling by 30 0 C. With better ohmic contacts and improved device geometry, we hope to increase the thermoelectric efficiency of these 2D devices relative to their bulk 3D counterparts. (aps.org)
  • Here, we review the current progress in the thermoelectrics of bismuth nanowires, the fundamentals of their advantage and limitation over bulk Bi, and their potential use for enhancing thermoelectric performance. (rsc.org)
  • Bismuth chalcogenides have been intensively studied for their high-performance thermoelectric properties and their novel topological surface states, which could significantly benefit novel applications in fields such as TE devices, spintronics, and quantum computing. (intechopen.com)
  • The fractional changes, due to a magnetic field, in the electrical conductivity, in the thermal conductivity, and in the thermoelectric power of a single bismuth crystal are measured in these experiments. (rice.edu)
  • Heterogeneous Electron‐Transfer Rates for the Reduction of Viologen Derivatives at Platinum and Bismuth Electrodes in Acetonitrile (2017) Shaun K. Cook et al. (naver.com)
  • Terahertz surface plasmon excitation over a bismuth thin film by an electron beam (2013) V.K. Agrawal et al. (naver.com)
  • The plasmon energy is related to the electron density, which in turn is related to temperature via the material's coefficient of thermal expansion. (aps.org)
  • In Bismuth, a single electron is shared by 100,000 atoms, making this semimetal's carrier density quite low, which has made it seem unlikely it could be a superconductor. (eurekalert.org)
  • Of the different systems examined here, $Tl_{1-x}Pb_xCaSr_2Cu_2O_{6+\delta}$ containing $Pb$ in the 4+state, deserves special mention since it shows negative $\alpha$ over the entire temperature range in addition to a negative slope suggesting that this is likely to be a genuine high-$T_c$ electron-superconductor. (iisc.ac.in)
  • From transport measurements for several thin films ( with various carrier density, thickness, and carrier mobility), and by using a purely phenomenological approach, with no microscopic theory, we show that the low-temperature growth of the resistivity is accompanied by growth of the Hall coefficient, in agreement with the diffusive electron-electron interaction correction mechanism. (hse.ru)
  • If the magnetic field changes the free electron density in bismuth some of the results may be explained in a general way. (rice.edu)
  • The chemical potential must reside safely within this gap to avoid detrimental contributions to the edge current from the bulk material, and very low temperatures (below that of liquid helium) are needed to suppress thermal excitation of charge carriers into those bulk electron bands ( 7 , 8 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • The material formed a perovskite-type structure consisting of sodium, potassium, barium, bismuth, and oxygen, and its superconducting transition was confirmed at 27 K. Zero resistivity (4) was confirmed in the pressed pellet form. (or.jp)
  • The codoping effects of sodium and bismuth ions on the characteristics of Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 films prepared via the solution process were investigated in this study. (hindawi.com)
  • When sodium and bismuth ions were incorporated into Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 , the ratio of the intensity of (112) diffraction peak to that of (220/204) diffraction peak was greatly increased. (hindawi.com)
  • Although the doping effects of sodium ions and bismuth ions have been confirmed, the codoping effects of sodium and bismuth ions for Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 films have not been investigated in detail. (hindawi.com)
  • For exploring the codoping influence of sodium and bismuth ions, Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 films doped with the above two ions were prepared via the solution process on the sodium-free substrates. (hindawi.com)
  • The doping effects of sodium and bismuth ions on the properties of the films were investigated. (hindawi.com)
  • In order to achieve good results, at least 99.99% pure bismuth should be used (Gray 2003). (theodoregray.com)
  • Pure bismuth shows a high absorbtion of gamma rays which makes it useful as a filter or window for these particles, whilst at the same time permitting the passage of neutrons. (goodfellow.com)
  • Scientists from India report that pure Bismuth - a semimetal with a very low number of electrons per given volume, or carrier concentration - is superconducting at ultralow temperatures. (eurekalert.org)
  • They report the observation in pure Bismuth single crystals that they prepared. (eurekalert.org)
  • Other experiment with MBEdid show 2DEG, by transition to tetragonal BFO, with reduced lattice parameter (3.9A) and increased polarization \17 table1 for promising bismuth ferrite-based HS. (prezi.com)
  • Enhanced Activation of Persulfate by Co-Doped Bismuth Ferrite Nanocomposites for Degradation of Levofloxacin Under Visible Light Irradiation. (nih.gov)
  • In this study, magnetic visible light driven photocatalysts (bismuth ferrite, Bi 2 Fe 4 O 9 , BFO and Co-doped bismuth ferrite, Co-BFO) were successfully prepared by the facile hydrothermal method. (nih.gov)
  • The low activation temperature of the Indium5.7LT in combination with the low melt point solders 58Bi 42Sn and 57Bi 42Sn 1Ag feature exceptional wetting in an air reflow, clear residue and good mechanical, thermal and electrical properties. (indium.com)
  • Heating experiments up to the evaporation point were performed inside the synthesis-chamber as well as with in-situ TEM, in-situ XRD and a special membrane-based high-temperature nanocalorimeter. (tu-darmstadt.de)
  • Balan L, Schneider R, Billaud D, Fort Y, Ghanbaja J (2004) A new synthesis of ultrafine nanometre-sized bismuth particles. (springer.com)
  • Derrouiche S, Loebick CZ, Pfefferle L (2010) Optimization of routes for the synthesis of bismuth nanotubes: implications for nanostructure form and selectivity. (springer.com)
  • Although not stable at the temperature of synthesis, high-temperature phases are accessible as well. (mpg.de)
  • Density functional theory calculations have confirmed that the magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy increases with increasing temperature as a result of a spin-reorientation occurring around 100 K. Growing LTP MnBi thin films directly from an alloy Mn55Bi45 target is an important step toward facilitating the synthesis of multilayers for spintronics or in an exchange spring magnet configuration. (tu-darmstadt.de)
  • This paper describes the development of a lead free, high temperature ceramic capacitor material having the base composition of (Na 0.5 Bi 0.5 ) TiO 3 . (sae.org)
  • Moreover, the superconductive mechanism in high-temperature superconductive materials is an important but unsolved scientific problem. (or.jp)
  • With high sintering temperature and time, the evaporation of PbO scaled up from surface toward the bulk and resulted in a Pb 2+ deficient layer up to 0.25 mm depth under ceramic surface. (springer.com)
  • It is made by reacting bismuth(III) fluoride with fluorine at a high temperature. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bismuth is a high-density, silvery, pink-tinged metal. (rsc.org)
  • They are used for joining high-temperature resistant stainless steel. (voestalpine.com)
  • They are ideal for cladding low-alloyed, creep resistant steels but can be used also for joining high-temperature resistant stainless steel when welding in flat position. (voestalpine.com)
  • The non-saturation of the Hall effect prevented a determination of the excess carrier density, P-N, at high temperatures and a further analysis of the data was therefore performed. (abcdfestivalgoa.com)
  • An annular-shaped, high power nitrogen microwave induced plasma (N2-MIP) produced at atmospheric pressure by an Okamoto cavity, as a new excitation source for atomic emission spectrometry (AES), has been used for the simultaneous determination of bismuth and tellurium in steels with the hydride generation method. (ebscohost.com)
  • The Rotational Temperature in High-Enthalpy Jets of Atmospheric- Pressure Nitrogen Plasma. (ebscohost.com)
  • As a result, the sintering temperature of doped BNT decreased with increasing cobalt concentrations, and high final densities were achieved. (fraunhofer.de)
  • A high pressure-high temperature cell which permits in-situ pressure and temperature calibration is described. (ias.ac.in)
  • The concept is based on a substrate-supported monolayer of a high-atomic number element and is experimentally realized as a bismuth honeycomb lattice on top of the insulating silicon carbide substrate SiC(0001). (sciencemag.org)
  • Reaction temperatures range between 170 and 240 degrees C, whereas conventional syntheses from melt necessitate 500 to 1000 degrees C. Reaction times of few minutes up to 1 h are sufficient. (mpg.de)
  • The pressure and temperature capability of the cell are 100 kbar and 1000°C respectively. (ias.ac.in)
  • The flux formulation of stainless steel flux-cored wires usually contains small amounts of bismuth in the form of Bi2O3 to improve slag detachability. (voestalpine.com)
  • This can lead to lower operating temperatures which will reduce the amount of fission gas release to negligible quantities, eliminate cracking, and reduce the internal energy of the fuel. (mit.edu)
  • This topic is significant because its findings can be applied to the commercial production of bismuth crystals for use by jewelers and collectors. (theodoregray.com)
  • its only primordial isotope , bismuth-209 , decays via alpha decay with a half-life more than a billion times the estimated age of the universe . (wikipedia.org)
  • Bismuth-209 is currently known as isotope with longest decay half-time of all radioactive elements calculated to be (1.9 +/- 0.2 ) x 10 19 years, which is in good agreement with the theoretical prediction of 4.6 x 10 19 years. (sciencemadness.org)