Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Body Temperature: The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Cold Temperature: An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.Skin Temperature: The TEMPERATURE at the outer surface of the body.Body Temperature Regulation: The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.Thermometers: Measuring instruments for determining the temperature of matter. Most thermometers used in the field of medicine are designed for measuring body temperature or for use in the clinical laboratory. (From UMDNS, 1999)Thermography: Imaging the temperatures in a material, or in the body or an organ. Imaging is based on self-emanating infrared radiation (HEAT WAVES), or on changes in properties of the material or tissue that vary with temperature, such as ELASTICITY; MAGNETIC FIELD; or LUMINESCENCE.Humidity: A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.Transition Temperature: The temperature at which a substance changes from one state or conformation of matter to another.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Hypothermia: Lower than normal body temperature, especially in warm-blooded animals.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Freezing: Liquids transforming into solids by the removal of heat.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Thermosensing: The sensation of cold, heat, coolness, and warmth as detected by THERMORECEPTORS.Heating: The application of heat to raise the temperature of the environment, ambient or local, or the systems for accomplishing this effect. It is distinguished from HEAT, the physical property and principle of physics.Calorimetry, Differential Scanning: Differential thermal analysis in which the sample compartment of the apparatus is a differential calorimeter, allowing an exact measure of the heat of transition independent of the specific heat, thermal conductivity, and other variables of the sample.Fever: An abnormal elevation of body temperature, usually as a result of a pathologic process.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Thermoreceptors: Cellular receptors which mediate the sense of temperature. Thermoreceptors in vertebrates are mostly located under the skin. In mammals there are separate types of thermoreceptors for cold and for warmth and NOCICEPTORS which detect cold or heat extreme enough to cause pain.Shivering: Involuntary contraction or twitching of the muscles. It is a physiologic method of heat production in man and other mammals.Cold Climate: A climate characterized by COLD TEMPERATURE for a majority of the time during the year.Enzyme Stability: The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Heat Stress Disorders: A group of conditions that develop due to overexposure or overexertion in excessive environmental heat.Climate Change: Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.Global Warming: Increase in the temperature of the atmosphere near the Earth's surface and in the troposphere, which can contribute to changes in global climate patterns.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Hypothermia, Induced: Abnormally low BODY TEMPERATURE that is intentionally induced in warm-blooded animals by artificial means. In humans, mild or moderate hypothermia has been used to reduce tissue damages, particularly after cardiac or spinal cord injuries and during subsequent surgeries.Thermal Conductivity: The heat flow across a surface per unit area per unit time, divided by the negative of the rate of change of temperature with distance in a direction perpendicular to the surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Protein Denaturation: Disruption of the non-covalent bonds and/or disulfide bonds responsible for maintaining the three-dimensional shape and activity of the native protein.Phase Transition: A change of a substance from one form or state to another.Infrared Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum usually sensed as heat. Infrared wavelengths are longer than those of visible light, extending into the microwave frequencies. They are used therapeutically as heat, and also to warm food in restaurants.Weather: The state of the ATMOSPHERE over minutes to months.Hyperthermia, Induced: Abnormally high temperature intentionally induced in living things regionally or whole body. It is most often induced by radiation (heat waves, infra-red), ultrasound, or drugs.Sweating: The process of exocrine secretion of the SWEAT GLANDS, including the aqueous sweat from the ECCRINE GLANDS and the complex viscous fluids of the APOCRINE GLANDS.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Refrigeration: The mechanical process of cooling.Ice: The solid substance formed by the FREEZING of water.Drug Stability: The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Environment, Controlled: A state in which the environs of hospitals, laboratories, domestic and animal housing, work places, spacecraft, and other surroundings are under technological control with regard to air conditioning, heating, lighting, humidity, ventilation, and other ambient features. The concept includes control of atmospheric composition. (From Jane's Aerospace Dictionary, 3d ed)Rain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Antarctic Regions: The continent lying around the South Pole and the southern waters of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. It includes the Falkland Islands Dependencies. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p55)Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Drug Storage: The process of keeping pharmaceutical products in an appropriate location.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Heat-Shock Response: A constellation of responses that occur when an organism is exposed to excessive heat. Responses include synthesis of new proteins and regulation of others.Circadian Rhythm: The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.Thermometry: Measurement of the temperature of a material, or of the body or an organ by various temperature sensing devices which measure changes in properties of the material that vary with temperature, such as ELASTICITY; MAGNETIC FIELDS; or LUMINESCENCE.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Greenhouse Effect: The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.Nucleic Acid Denaturation: Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Air: The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.Hibernation: The dormant state in which some warm-blooded animal species pass the winter. It is characterized by narcosis and by sharp reduction in body temperature and metabolic activity and by a depression of vital signs.Clothing: Fabric or other material used to cover the body.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Calorimetry: The measurement of the quantity of heat involved in various processes, such as chemical reactions, changes of state, and formations of solutions, or in the determination of the heat capacities of substances. The fundamental unit of measurement is the joule or the calorie (4.184 joules). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Microclimate: The climate of a very small area.Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Microwaves: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum from the UHF (ultrahigh frequency) radio waves and extending into the INFRARED RAYS frequencies.Rectum: The distal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, between the SIGMOID COLON and the ANAL CANAL.Stress, Physiological: The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.Telemetry: Transmission of the readings of instruments to a remote location by means of wires, radio waves, or other means. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Solutions: The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Heat-Shock Proteins: Proteins which are synthesized in eukaryotic organisms and bacteria in response to hyperthermia and other environmental stresses. They increase thermal tolerance and perform functions essential to cell survival under these conditions.Preservation, Biological: The process of protecting various samples of biological material.Viscosity: The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Heat Stroke: A condition caused by the failure of body to dissipate heat in an excessively hot environment or during PHYSICAL EXERTION in a hot environment. Contrast to HEAT EXHAUSTION, the body temperature in heat stroke patient is dangerously high with red, hot skin accompanied by DELUSIONS; CONVULSIONS; or COMA. It can be a life-threatening emergency and is most common in infants and the elderly.Immersion: The placing of a body or a part thereof into a liquid.Food Preservation: Procedures or techniques used to keep food from spoiling.Tropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Specimen Handling: Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Protein Folding: Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Spectrophotometry: The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.Rewarming: Application of heat to correct hypothermia, accidental or induced.Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Desiccation: Removal of moisture from a substance (chemical, food, tissue, etc.).Photosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Freeze Drying: Method of tissue preparation in which the tissue specimen is frozen and then dehydrated at low temperature in a high vacuum. This method is also used for dehydrating pharmaceutical and food products.Tympanic Membrane: An oval semitransparent membrane separating the external EAR CANAL from the tympanic cavity (EAR, MIDDLE). It contains three layers: the skin of the external ear canal; the core of radially and circularly arranged collagen fibers; and the MUCOSA of the middle ear.X-Ray Diffraction: The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Lipid Bilayers: Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.Scrotum: A cutaneous pouch of skin containing the testicles and spermatic cords.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Biophysics: The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.Photoperiod: The time period of daily exposure that an organism receives from daylight or artificial light. It is believed that photoperiodic responses may affect the control of energy balance and thermoregulation.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Biophysical Phenomena: The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared: A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.Incubators, Infant: Electrically powered devices that are intended to assist in the maintenance of the thermal balance of infants, principally by controlling the air temperature and humidity in an enclosure. (from UMDNS, 1999)Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Atmosphere: The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Arctic Regions: The Arctic Ocean and the lands in it and adjacent to it. It includes Point Barrow, Alaska, most of the Franklin District in Canada, two thirds of Greenland, Svalbard, Franz Josef Land, Lapland, Novaya Zemlya, and Northern Siberia. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p66)Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Phosphatidylcholines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.Thermogenesis: The generation of heat in order to maintain body temperature. The uncoupled oxidation of fatty acids contained within brown adipose tissue and SHIVERING are examples of thermogenesis in MAMMALS.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Wind: The motion of air relative to the earth's surface.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Membrane Lipids: Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Mathematics: The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Gels: Colloids with a solid continuous phase and liquid as the dispersed phase; gels may be unstable when, due to temperature or other cause, the solid phase liquefies; the resulting colloid is called a sol.Cold-Shock Response: A constellation of responses that occur when an organism is exposed to excessive cold. In humans, a fall in skin temperature triggers gasping, hypertension, and hyperventilation.Membrane Fluidity: The motion of phospholipid molecules within the lipid bilayer, dependent on the classes of phospholipids present, their fatty acid composition and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains, the cholesterol concentration, and temperature.Germination: The initial stages of the growth of SEEDS into a SEEDLINGS. The embryonic shoot (plumule) and embryonic PLANT ROOTS (radicle) emerge and grow upwards and downwards respectively. Food reserves for germination come from endosperm tissue within the seed and/or from the seed leaves (COTYLEDON). (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Food Handling: Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, processing, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.Physicochemical Phenomena: The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Chemistry, Physical: The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.Oceans and Seas: A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).Anthozoa: A class in the phylum CNIDARIA, comprised mostly of corals and anemones. All members occur only as polyps; the medusa stage is completely absent.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy: A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Steam: Water in its gaseous state. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Hydrostatic Pressure: The pressure due to the weight of fluid.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine: A synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers for the study of biological membranes.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Scattering, Radiation: The diversion of RADIATION (thermal, electromagnetic, or nuclear) from its original path as a result of interactions or collisions with atoms, molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Spectrum Analysis: The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Water Loss, Insensible: Loss of water by diffusion through the skin and by evaporation from the respiratory tract.Spectrophotometry, Infrared: Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Gases: The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Snow: Frozen water crystals that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Salts: Substances produced from the reaction between acids and bases; compounds consisting of a metal (positive) and nonmetal (negative) radical. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Crystallization: The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Bacillus: A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.Liposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Remote Sensing Technology: Observation and acquisition of physical data from a distance by viewing and making measurements from a distance or receiving transmitted data from observations made at distant location.1,2-Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine: Synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers to study biological membranes. It is also a major constituent of PULMONARY SURFACTANTS.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Spores: The reproductive elements of lower organisms, such as BACTERIA; FUNGI; and cryptogamic plants.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Housing, AnimalAir Movements: The motion of air currents.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Carps: Common name for a number of different species of fish in the family Cyprinidae. This includes, among others, the common carp, crucian carp, grass carp, and silver carp.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.

A comparison of affinity constants for muscarine-sensitive acetylcholine receptors in guinea-pig atrial pacemaker cells at 29 degrees C and in ileum at 29 degrees C and 37 degrees C. (1/37801)

1 The affinity of 17 compounds for muscarine-sensitive acetylcholine receptors in atrial pacemaker cells and ileum of the guinea-pig has been measured at 29 degrees C in Ringer-Locke solution. Measurements were also made at 37 degrees C with 7 of them. 2 Some of the compounds had much higher affinity for the receptors in the ileum than for those in the atria. For the most selective compound, 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine methiodide, the difference was approximately 20-fold. The receptors in the atria are therefore different the structure from those in the ileum. 3 The effect of temperature on affinity are not the same for all the compounds, tested indicating different enthalpies and entropies of adsorption and accounting for some of the difficulty experienced in predicting the affinity of new compounds.  (+info)

Temperature sensitivity studies on selected strains on Mycoplasma gallisepticum. (2/37801)

Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG324), a tylosin resistant strain of low virulence, was compared with four other strains with respect to their survival at temperatures from 46.1 to 48.9 degrees C. MG324 was found to be more resistant than the other strains tested.  (+info)

Improved medium for recovery and enumeration of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from water using membrane filters. (3/37801)

A modified mPA medium, designated mPA-C, was shown to recover Pseudomonas aeruginosa from a variety of water sources with results comparable to those with mPA-B and within the confidence limits of a most-probable-number technique. Enumeration of P. aeruginosa on mPA-C was possible after only 24 h of incubation at 41.5 degrees C, compared with 72 h of incubation required for mPA-B and 96 h of incubation for a presumptive most probable number.  (+info)

The Saccharomyces cerevisiae ETH1 gene, an inducible homolog of exonuclease III that provides resistance to DNA-damaging agents and limits spontaneous mutagenesis. (4/37801)

The recently sequenced Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome was searched for a gene with homology to the gene encoding the major human AP endonuclease, a component of the highly conserved DNA base excision repair pathway. An open reading frame was found to encode a putative protein (34% identical to the Schizosaccharomyces pombe eth1(+) [open reading frame SPBC3D6.10] gene product) with a 347-residue segment homologous to the exonuclease III family of AP endonucleases. Synthesis of mRNA from ETH1 in wild-type cells was induced sixfold relative to that in untreated cells after exposure to the alkylating agent methyl methanesulfonate (MMS). To investigate the function of ETH1, deletions of the open reading frame were made in a wild-type strain and a strain deficient in the known yeast AP endonuclease encoded by APN1. eth1 strains were not more sensitive to killing by MMS, hydrogen peroxide, or phleomycin D1, whereas apn1 strains were approximately 3-fold more sensitive to MMS and approximately 10-fold more sensitive to hydrogen peroxide than was the wild type. Double-mutant strains (apn1 eth1) were approximately 15-fold more sensitive to MMS and approximately 2- to 3-fold more sensitive to hydrogen peroxide and phleomycin D1 than were apn1 strains. Elimination of ETH1 in apn1 strains also increased spontaneous mutation rates 9- or 31-fold compared to the wild type as determined by reversion to adenine or lysine prototrophy, respectively. Transformation of apn1 eth1 cells with an expression vector containing ETH1 reversed the hypersensitivity to MMS and limited the rate of spontaneous mutagenesis. Expression of ETH1 in a dut-1 xthA3 Escherichia coli strain demonstrated that the gene product functionally complements the missing AP endonuclease activity. Thus, in apn1 cells where the major AP endonuclease activity is missing, ETH1 offers an alternate capacity for repair of spontaneous or induced damage to DNA that is normally repaired by Apn1 protein.  (+info)

In vivo chaperone activity of heat shock protein 70 and thermotolerance. (5/37801)

Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) is thought to play a critical role in the thermotolerance of mammalian cells, presumably due to its chaperone activity. We examined the chaperone activity and cellular heat resistance of a clonal cell line in which overexpression of Hsp70 was transiently induced by means of the tetracycline-regulated gene expression system. This single-cell-line approach circumvents problems associated with clonal variation and indirect effects resulting from constitutive overexpression of Hsp70. The in vivo chaperone function of Hsp70 was quantitatively investigated by using firefly luciferase as a reporter protein. Chaperone activity was found to strictly correlate to the level of Hsp70 expression. In addition, we observed an Hsp70 concentration dependent increase in the cellular heat resistance. In order to study the contribution of the Hsp70 chaperone activity, heat resistance of cells that expressed tetracycline-regulated Hsp70 was compared to thermotolerant cells expressing the same level of Hsp70 plus all of the other heat shock proteins. Overexpression of Hsp70 alone was sufficient to induce a similar recovery of cytoplasmic luciferase activity, as does expression of all Hsps in thermotolerant cells. However, when the luciferase reporter protein was directed to the nucleus, expression of Hsp70 alone was not sufficient to yield the level of recovery observed in thermotolerant cells. In addition, cells expressing the same level of Hsp70 found in heat-induced thermotolerant cells containing additional Hsps showed increased resistance to thermal killing but were more sensitive than thermotolerant cells. These results suggest that the inducible form of Hsp70 contributes to the stress-tolerant state by increasing the chaperone activity in the cytoplasm. However, its expression alone is apparently insufficient for protection of other subcellular compartments to yield clonal heat resistance to the level observed in thermotolerant cells.  (+info)

The influence of junction conformation on RNA cleavage by the hairpin ribozyme in its natural junction form. (6/37801)

In the natural form of the hairpin ribozyme the two loop-carrying duplexes that comprise the majority of essential bases for activity form two adjacent helical arms of a four-way RNA junction. In the present work we have manipulated the sequence around the junction in a way known to perturb the global folding properties. We find that replacement of the junction by a different sequence that has the same conformational properties as the natural sequence gives closely similar reaction rate and Arrhenius activation energy for the substrate cleavage reaction. By comparison, rotation of the natural sequence in order to alter the three-dimensional folding of the ribozyme leads to a tenfold reduction in the kinetics of cleavage. Replacement with the U1 four-way junction that is resistant to rotation into the antiparallel structure required to allow interaction between the loops also gives a tenfold reduction in cleavage rate. The results indicate that the conformation of the junction has a major influence on the catalytic activity of the ribozyme. The results are all consistent with a role for the junction in the provision of a framework by which the loops are presented for interaction in order to create the active form of the ribozyme.  (+info)

Single atom modification (O-->S) of tRNA confers ribosome binding. (7/37801)

Escherichia coli tRNALysSUU, as well as human tRNALys3SUU, has 2-thiouridine derivatives at wobble position 34 (s2U*34). Unlike the native tRNALysSUU, the full-length, unmodified transcript of human tRNALys3UUU and the unmodified tRNALys3UUU anticodon stem/loop (ASLLys3UUU) did not bind AAA- or AAG-programmed ribosomes. In contrast, the completely unmodified yeast tRNAPhe anticodon stem/loop (ASLPheGAA) had an affinity (Kd = 136+/-49 nM) similar to that of native yeast tRNAPheGmAA (Kd = 103+/-19 nM). We have found that the single, site-specific substitution of s2U34 for U34 to produce the modified ASLLysSUU was sufficient to restore ribosomal binding. The modified ASLLysSUU bound the ribosome with an affinity (Kd = 176+/-62 nM) comparable to that of native tRNALysSUU (Kd = 70+/-7 nM). Furthermore, in binding to the ribosome, the modified ASLLys3SUU produced the same 16S P-site tRNA footprint as did native E. coli tRNALysSUU, yeast tRNAPheGmAA, and the unmodified ASLPheGAA. The unmodified ASLLys3UUU had no footprint at all. Investigations of thermal stability and structure monitored by UV spectroscopy and NMR showed that the dynamic conformation of the loop of modified ASLLys3SUU was different from that of the unmodified ASLLysUUU, whereas the stems were isomorphous. Based on these and other data, we conclude that s2U34 in tRNALysSUU and in other s2U34-containing tRNAs is critical for generating an anticodon conformation that leads to effective codon interaction in all organisms. This is the first example of a single atom substitution (U34-->s2U34) that confers the property of ribosomal binding on an otherwise inactive tRNA.  (+info)

The optically determined size of exo/endo cycling vesicle pool correlates with the quantal content at the neuromuscular junction of Drosophila larvae. (8/37801)

According to the current theory of synaptic transmission, the amplitude of evoked synaptic potentials correlates with the number of synaptic vesicles released at the presynaptic terminals. Synaptic vesicles in presynaptic boutons constitute two distinct pools, namely, exo/endo cycling and reserve pools (). We defined the vesicles that were endocytosed and exocytosed during high K+ stimulation as the exo/endo cycling vesicle pool. To determine the role of exo/endo cycling vesicle pool in synaptic transmission, we estimated the quantal content electrophysiologically, whereas the pool size was determined optically using fluorescent dye FM1-43. We then manipulated the size of the pool with following treatments. First, to change the state of boutons of nerve terminals, motoneuronal axons were severed. With this treatment, the size of exo/endo cycling vesicle pool decreased together with the quantal content. Second, we promoted the FM1-43 uptake using cyclosporin A, which inhibits calcineurin activities and enhances endocytosis. Cyclosporin A increased the total uptake of FM1-43, but neither the size of exo/endo cycling vesicle pool nor the quantal content changed. Third, we increased the size of exo/endo cycling vesicle pool by forskolin, which enhances synaptic transmission. The forskolin treatment increased both the size of exo/endo cycling vesicle pool and the quantal content. Thus, we found that the quantal content was closely correlated with the size of exo/endo cycling vesicle pool but not necessarily with the total uptake of FM1-43 fluorescence by boutons. The results suggest that vesicles in the exo/endo cycling pool primarily participate in evoked exocytosis of vesicles.  (+info)

*RNA thermometer

... and induces protective proteins when cell temperature exceeds 37 °C (body temperature), thus preventing the cells from ... As temperature increases, the hairpin structure can 'melt' and expose the RBS or Shine-Dalgarno sequence to permit binding of ... When exposed to temperatures above 45 °C, the stem-loop that base-pairs opposite the Shine-Dalgarno sequence becomes unpaired ... The first temperature-sensitive RNA element was reported in 1989. Prior to this research, mutations upstream from the ...

*Timeline of temperature and pressure measurement technology

Rømer scale), The temperature scale used for his thermometer had 0 representing the temperature of a salt and ice mixture (at ... Timeline of temperature and pressure measurement technology. A history of temperature measurement and pressure measurement ... Kinetic theory) 1742 - Anders Celsius proposed a temperature scale in which 100 represented the temperature of melting ice and ... 1744 - Carl Linnaeus suggested reversing the temperature scale of Anders Celsius so that 0 represented the freezing point of ...

*Canned fish

From a public safety point of view, foods with low acidity (a pH more than 4.6) need sterilization under high temperature (116- ... For example, the microorganism Clostridium botulinum (which causes botulism), can only be eliminated at temperatures above the ... 130 °C). To achieve temperatures above the boiling point requires a method of pressurized cooking which is provided by the ...

*Surgical humidification

These devices aim to condition the gas to body temperature and 100% Relative Humidity (although the exact temperature and ... "Impact of temperature and humidity of carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum on body temperature and peritoneal morphology". Journal ... Temperature loss during surgery, due to tissue drying, can be prevented by adequately humidifying and heating the CO2. During ... Unconditioned medical-grade CO2 has virtually no moisture and enters the abdomen at room temperature (19 to 21 °C). The ...

*List of temperature sensors

"Digital Temperature Sensor STS3x". www.sensirion.com. Retrieved 2016-12-15. "Digital Temperature Sensor STS3x". www.sensirion. ... Accuracy (Typical) : Typical IC accuracy Accuracy (Max) : Maximum IC accuracy Linear Temperature Slope : Linear temperature ... It generally depends of the temperature range and the linear temperature slope values. Package : IC package(s) Availability ... IC Designation Temperature Range : Die temperature range where the IC can operate. ...

*Apparent temperature

... is the temperature equivalent perceived by humans, caused by the combined effects of air temperature, ... The wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT) combines the effects of radiation, humidity, temperature and wind speed on the perception ... Equivalent temperature Thermal comfort#Interplay of temperature and humidity. ... The heat index and humidex measure the effect of humidity on the perception of temperatures above 27 °C (80 °F). In humid ...

*Minimum resolvable temperature difference

Minimum detectable temperature difference (MDTD), also called minimum detectable temperature (MDT), is not the same phenomenon ... i.e. the infrared camera's ability to resolve detail, in this case temperature. F ( x ) = Δ t ( i ) f s ( i ) {\displaystyle F( ... Minimum resolvable temperature difference (MRTD) is a measure for assessing the performance of infrared cameras, and is ... Typically, an operator is asked to assess the minimum temperature difference at which a 4 bar target can be resolved. This ...

*Superheated water

The solubility of gases in water is usually thought to decrease with temperature, but this only occurs to a certain temperature ... Superheated water can be more corrosive than water at ordinary temperatures, and at temperatures above 300 °C special corrosion ... All materials change with temperature, but superheated water exhibits greater changes than would be expected from temperature ... so relative permittivity decreases with temperature to about 7 at the critical temperature. At 205 °C the relative permittivity ...

*Fungiculture

Substrate composition and the geometry of growth substrate will also affect the ideal times and temperatures. Pinning is the ... Indoor growing provides the ability to tightly regulate light, temperature and humidity while excluding contaminants and pests ... Specific time spans and temperatures required during stages 3-6 will vary respective to species and variety. ... All mushroom growing techniques require the correct combination of humidity, temperature, substrate (growth medium) and ...

*MSU temperature measurements

The resulting temperature profiles depend on details of the methods that are used to obtain temperatures from radiances. As a ... A graph comparing of the surface, balloon and satellite records (2007 archive) HadAT radiosonde temperature graphs Temperature ... and mid-tropospheric temperature show warming rates that are similar to those of the surface temperature record and are ... The Satellite Temperature Records: Parts 1 and 2 May 1996 "CCSP sap 1.1" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-12-24 ...

*Electronic Temperature Instruments

... Ltd is the UK's largest digital thermometer and temperature probe manufacturer. The purpose- ... Today, Electronic Temperature Instruments Ltd has 2 factories (40,000 sq. ft.) and over 50 distributors around the world.[ ... Electronic Temperature Instruments (ETI) is a worldwide manufacturer and distributor of thermometers, portable test and ... ETI has expanded its product line to include a large variety of temperature measuring instruments, such as thermometers, data ...

*Alpine climate

Biotemperature is defined as the temperature, except all temperatures below 0 °C (32 °F) are treated as 0 °C (32 °F), because ... As the pressure gets lower, the temperature decreases. The rate of decrease of temperature with elevation is known as the ... where no month has a mean temperature higher than 10 °C (50 °F). The temperature profile of the atmosphere is a result of an ... The temperature continues to drop until the tropopause, at 11,000 metres (36,000 ft), where it does not decrease further. ...

*Neurochemical

Serotonin is a monoamine neurotransmitter that plays a regulatory role in mood, sleep, appetite, body temperature regulation, ... Histamine is a monoamine neurotransmitter that is involved in arousal, pain, body temperature regulation, and appetite. Trace ... It also is involved in cognitive processes associated with movement, arousal, executive function, body temperature regulation, ... body temperature regulation, and other processes. Epinephrine, also known as adrenaline, is a monoamine neurotransmitter that ...

*Instant hot water dispenser

They may have a built-in water filter and a thermostat to adjust the water temperature. There is no need to fill them, they can ... A hot water dispenser which keeps water hot in a tank uses the energy needed to heat the water to the required temperature, and ... They do not need to be installed, are portable, may have adjustable temperature, need to be refilled (capacity is typically 2 ... They also remove sometimes dangerous parasites and protozoa such as cryptosporidium, although the high temperature prevents ...

*Logarithmic mean temperature difference

The logarithmic mean temperature difference (also known as log mean temperature difference or simply by its initialism LMTD) is ... For a condenser, the hot fluid inlet temperature is then equivalent to the hot fluid exit temperature. It has also been assumed ... It has been assumed that the rate of change for the temperature of both fluids is proportional to the temperature difference; ... whose temperatures along z are T1(z) and T2(z). The local exchanged heat flux at z is proportional to the temperature ...

*Pill thermometer

A pill thermometer is an ingestible thermometer that allows a person's core temperature to be continuously monitored. It was ... formerly HTI Technologies manufactures the CorTemp Temperature Pill used in detecting heat stress HQ Inc - the manufacturer of ...

*Temperature coefficient

For strongly temperature-dependent α, this approximation is only useful for small temperature differences ΔT. Temperature ... For a property R that changes by dR when the temperature changes by dT, the temperature coefficient α is defined by the ... The temperature coefficient of most of the reactions lies between -2 & 3. Most ceramics exhibit negative temperature dependence ... By combining samarium and gadolinium in the alloy, the temperature coefficient can be reduced to nearly zero. The temperature ...

*Atmospheric temperature

... average humidity and a temperature range of about 10 degrees Celsius around the average temperature (yearly temperature ... Temperature ranges can also be based on periods of a month, or a year. The size of ground-level atmospheric temperature ranges ... The variation in temperature that occurs from the highs of the day to the cool of nights is called diurnal temperature ... Temperature variation along the year in Aracaju is very damped (standard deviation of 1.93 for the maximum temperature and 2.72 ...

*Diurnal temperature variation

In meteorology, diurnal temperature variation is the variation between a high temperature and a low temperature that occurs ... Temperature lag is an important factor in diurnal temperature variation: peak daily temperature generally occurs after noon, as ... has temperature variations of only 8 °C (14 °F); urban Hong Kong has a diurnal temperature range of little more than 4 °C (7.2 ... On a warm summer's day, for example, air temperatures may vary by 16.5 °C (30 °F) from just above the ground to waist height. ...

*Temperature

Atmospheric temperature Body temperature (thermoregulation) Color temperature Dry-bulb temperature Heat conduction Heat ... temperature Thermography Thermometer Virtual temperature Wet-bulb globe temperature Wet-bulb temperature Agency, International ... temperature) Outside air temperature Planck temperature Rankine scale Relativistic heat conduction Satellite temperature ... This generalized temperature tends to the ordinary temperature when N goes to infinity. On the empirical temperature scales, ...

*Brightness temperature

... is the temperature a black body in thermal equilibrium with its surroundings would have to be to ... The brightness temperature is not a temperature as ordinarily understood. It characterizes radiation, and depending on the ... heat up by a source of radiation with some brightness temperature to the actual temperature equal to brightness temperature). ... Nonthermal sources can have very high brightness temperatures. In pulsars the brightness temperature can reach 1026 K. For the ...

*Krafft temperature

The Krafft temperature (also known as Krafft point, or critical micelle temperature) is the minimum temperature at which ... Below the Krafft temperature, there is no value for the critical micelle concentration (CMC), i.e., micelles cannot form. The ... Increasing the length of the hydrocarbon chain increases the Krafft temperature because it improves Van der Waals forces. ... or if the temperature increases, thus causing entropy to have a stronger force and encouraging the crystalline structure to ...

*Electron temperature

... then the electron temperature is defined as the temperature of that distribution. For other distributions, not assumed to be in ... The SI unit of temperature is the kelvin (K), but using the above relation the electron temperature is often expressed in terms ... The electron temperature of a plasma can be several orders of magnitude higher than the temperature of the neutral species or ... Temperature is a statistical quantity. The formal definition is T = dU/dS, the change in internal energy with respect to ...

*Negative temperature

... to the positive-temperature system. That a system at negative temperature is hotter than any system at positive temperature ... If a negative-temperature system and a positive-temperature system come in contact, heat will flow from the negative- ... Temperature is defined by the relationship between entropy and energy. The negative temperatures discussed here arise from ... A substance with a negative temperature is not colder than absolute zero, but rather it is hotter than infinite temperature. As ...

*Hagedorn temperature

... "the temperature becomes stuck at a limiting value". Hagedorn temperature is the temperature above which the partition sum ... The Hagedorn temperature is the temperature in theoretical physics where hadronic matter (i.e. ordinary matter) is no longer ... This temperature is extremely high (1030 K) and thus of mainly theoretical interest. The Hagedorn temperature was discovered by ... The Hagedorn temperature is only a maximum temperature in the physically unrealistic case of exponentially many species with ...
Dawson, J D. and Sauer, L A., "The effect of different incubation temperatures on the adenine nucleotide content of ehrlich-lettre ascites tumor cells." (1970). Subject Strain Bibliography 1970. 33 ...
A temperature coefficient describes the relative change of a physical property that is associated with a given change in temperature. For a property R that changes by dR when the temperature changes by dT, the temperature coefficient α is defined by the following equation: d R R = α d T {\displaystyle {\frac {dR}{R}}=\alpha \,dT} Here α has the dimension of an inverse temperature and can be expressed e.g. in 1/K or K−1. If the temperature coefficient itself does not vary too much with temperature, a linear approximation will be useful in estimating the value R of a property at a temperature T, given its value R0 at a reference temperature T0: R ( T ) = R ( T 0 ) ( 1 + α Δ T ) , {\displaystyle R(T)=R(T_{0})(1+\alpha \Delta T),} where ΔT is the difference between T and T0. For strongly temperature-dependent α, this approximation is only useful for small temperature differences ΔT. Temperature coefficients are specified for various applications, including electric and magnetic properties ...
Introduction. How Temperature Affects the Movement of Pigment Through Cell Membranes Aim: To use beetroot to examine the effect of temperature on cell membranes and relate the effects observed to membrane structure. Hypothesis: An increase in temperature will damage and denature the membrane and cause the substances contained within it to leak out. Overview: The experiment below displays the effects of temperature on the pigment in uncooked beetroot cells. The pigment in beetroot cells lies within the cell vacuole and is called betalain, each vacuole is surrounded by a tonoplast membrane and outside it, the cytoplasm is surrounded by the plasma membrane, therefore the foundation of this experiment lies with the temperature at which the membranes will rupture and therefore leak the pigment. To do this a series of uncooked beetroot cylinders will be exposed to different temperatures and then to distilled water at room temperature (20�C). The colour of the distilled water is the variable here. ...
Disclosed herein is a temperature control system for multi-zone temperature control with setback control. The system includes a thermostat associated with each zone of a building, and a central control unit which communicates with each thermostat to send temperature setpoint values to each thermostat for the purpose of conserving energy and reducing energy consumption during certain times of the day. Each thermostat is associated with either a heating or cooling device, where setup temperature values are sent from the central control unit to the thermostats where cooling devices are used in place of heating devices. The thermostats are designed to operate as stand-alone units which control the temperature within a zone based upon a temperature setpoint stored at the unit. The temperature setpoint values are replaced by the higher or lower temperature setpoint values transmitted to the thermostats by the control units during setback or setup time periods. To avoid the requirement of installing
Atmospheric temperature is a measure of temperature at different levels of the Earths atmosphere. It is governed by many factors, including incoming solar radiation, humidity and altitude. When discussing surface temperature, the annual atmospheric temperature range at any geographical location depends largely upon the type of biome, as measured by the Köppen climate classification. In the Earths atmosphere, temperature varies greatly at different heights relative to the Earths surface. The coldest temperatures lie near the mesopause, an area approximately 80 km above the surface. In contrast, some of the warmest temperatures can be found in the thermosphere, which receives strong ionizing radiation at the level of the Van Allen radiation belt. Temperature varies as one moves vertically upwards from the Earths surface. It also depends on the change of latitude. The variation in temperature that occurs from the highs of the day to the cool of nights is called diurnal temperature variation. ...
Temperature strongly affects microbial growth, and many microorganisms have to deal with temperature fluctuations in their natural environment. To understand regulation strategies that underlie microbial temperature responses and adaptation, we studied glycolytic pathway kinetics in Saccharomyces cerevisiae during temperature changes. Saccharomyces cerevisiae was grown under different temperature regimes and glucose availability conditions. These included glucose-excess batch cultures at different temperatures and glucose-limited chemostat cultures, subjected to fast linear temperature shifts and circadian sinoidal temperature cycles. An observed temperature-independent relation between intracellular levels of glycolytic metabolites and residual glucose concentration for all experimental conditions revealed that it is the substrate availability rather than temperature that determines intracellular metabolite profiles. This observation corresponded with predictions generated in silico with a kinetic
Introduction. How Temperature Affects Catalase Activity. Aim: In this experiment I aim to investigate how altering the temperature exposed to the yeast catalase and the hydrogen peroxide, will affect the reaction and the gas product produced. Scientific background knowledge lets us know that there are 6 variables that usually affect the rate of a reaction, and they are as follows: * Concentration of enzymes * Concentration of hydrogen peroxide * Temperature condition of reaction * Pressure condition of reaction * Physical state of solid substrate (e.g. surface area of particles) [Some material reproduced from Biology 1 endorsed by OCR] In order to ensure fairness and accuracy, I will see to it that all the necessary and vital measurements are taken precise to the mark, and Ill aim to maintain all other latent variables constant. Hypothesis: Via my observation, I intend to prove that as the temperature of both the yeast catalase and the hydrogen peroxide id equally increased, the rate of which ...
Solar is a renewable energy that can be used to provide process heat to industrial sites but require thermal storage. HRLs (heat recovery loops) are an indirect method for transferring heat from one process to another using an intermediate fluid. With HRLs thermal storage is also necessary to effectively meet the stop/start time dependent nature of the multiple source and sink streams. Combining solar heating with HRLs is a cost effective way to share common storage and piping infrastructure. The conventional HRL design method based on a CTS (constant temperature storage) and a new HRL design method using VTS (variable temperature storage) are applied to demonstrate the potential benefits of inter-plant heat integration and installing solar heating. The dairy case study had available 12 source streams including four spray dryer exhausts and six sink streams. The addition of the dryer exhausts as heat sources was a critical factor in gaining a heat recovery of 10.8 MW for the variable ...
Experiments on life history genetics are usually performed using constant temperature environments in the laboratory. However, the dynamics of insect growth can be influenced profoundly by daily fluctuations in temperature such as those which characterize field environments. We report here on experiments using different stocks and selected lines of a tropical butterfly, Bicyclus anynana, to examine whether genotype-environment interactions occur for three traits describing pre-adult growth. These traits were measured over two pairs of environments differing in mean temperature, each of which had a constant, and a cycling temperature regime. Development time, pupal weight and growth rate show genotype-environment interactions, especially at comparatively low average temperatures. Researchers should, therefore, take care when extrapolating from the form of genetic covariance matrices and trade-offs among life history traits found in constant temperature environments to those likely to occur in ...
Scientists have known that a type of brain cell circuit helps regulate a variety of innate and learned behavior in animals, including their temperature preferences. What has been a mystery is whether or not this behavior stems from a specific set of neurons (brain cells) or overlapping sets.. Now, a new study from The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) shows that a complex set of overlapping neuronal circuits work in concert to drive temperature preferences in the fruit fly Drosophila by affecting a single target, a heavy bundle of neurons within the fly brain known as the mushroom body. These nerve bundles, which get their name from their bulbous shape, play critical roles in learning and memory.. The study, published in the January 30, 2013 edition of the Journal of Neuroscience, shows that dopaminergic circuits-brain cells that synthesize dopamine, a common neurotransmitter-within the mushroom body do not encode a single signal, but rather perform a more complex computation of environmental ...
This research quantifies the lag effects and vulnerabilities of temperature effects on cardiovascular disease in Changsha-a subtropical climate zone of China. A Poisson regression model within a distributed lag nonlinear models framework was used to examine the lag effects of cold- and heat-related CVD mortality. The lag effect for heat-related CVD mortality was just 0-3 days. In contrast, we observed a statistically significant association with 10-25 lag days for cold-related CVD mortality. Low temperatures with 0-2 lag days increased the mortality risk for those ≥65 years and females. For all ages, the cumulative effects of cold-related CVD mortality was 6.6% (95% CI: 5.2%-8.2%) for 30 lag days while that of heat-related CVD mortality was 4.9% (95% CI: 2.0%-7.9%) for 3 lag days. We found that in Changsha city, the lag effect of hot temperatures is short while the lag effect of cold temperatures is long. Females and older people were more sensitive to extreme hot and cold temperatures than males and
View Notes - Chapter10blackrw2 from CHEM 102 at UNC. 10 Gases Visualizing Concepts 10.2 At constant temperature and volume, pressure depends on total number of particles (Charles Law). In order to
Rodriguez, Eduardo Matinelli, "1\ Effects of Population Density and Temperature on Growth and Development of Rana sylvatica" (2005). Introductory Biology: Independent Project Research Papers. Paper 143 ...
The Ross Sea, Antarctica experiences one of the worlds largest annual phytoplankton blooms at exceptionally low environmental temperature (-1.5-0.5oC). Chlorophyll concentrations during the bloom can exceed 15 mg l-1. Heterotrophic protists seasonally dominate biomass within Antarctic marine ecosystems, and function as important players in nutrient remineralization and carbon flow. However, these potential algal grazers do not prevent the formation of phytoplankton blooms in this ecosystem. Low temperature represents a constant potential limit on maximal growth of all Antarctic species, yet the effect of temperature on growth of heterotrophic protists is not well characterized. Existing data for growth rates and growth efficiencies of polar protists are conflicting. I investigated top-down control of algal and bacterial standing stocks at ambient Ross Sea temperatures through a literature review of temperature effects on protistan growth rate, laboratory experiments with cultured Antarctic ...
At certain upper and lower threshold temperatures (critical temperatures (Tc) crustaceans switch to anaerobic metabolism despite sufficient oxygen availability in the environment. I tested the hypothesis that failure of the heart at critical temperatures leads to insufficient oxygen delivery and subsequent anaerobiosis in peripheral tissues. I exposed rock crabs, Cancer irroratus, as whole animals, and their buffer-perfused semi-isolated hearts to a progressive temperature increase, while monitoring heart rate and lactate accumulation. The whole animals heart rate increased with temperature following a Q10 of 2.8. An abrupt decline in heart rate occurred at 25°C and lactate accumulation occurred between 25°C and 30°C. The semi-isolated hearts followed a Q10 of only 1.2 during temperature increase. A second set of semi-isolated hearts were perfused and paced at a heart rate comparable to the whole animals at each temperature. The lactate concentration in the paced semi-isolated hearts did not
Combined magnetically induced circular dichroism and Faraday rotation of an atomic vapor are used to develop a variant of the dichroic atomic vapor laser lock that eliminates lock sensitivity to temperature fluctuations of the cell. Operating conditions that eliminate first-order sensitivity to temperature fluctuations can be determined by low-frequency temperature modulation. This temperature-insensitive gyrotropic laser lock can be accurately understood with a simple model, that is in excellent agreement with observations in potassium vapor at laser frequencies in a 2 GHz range about the 770.1 nm absorption line. The methods can be readily adapted for other absorption lines ...
Article Temperature Effect on Preconsolidation Pressure. A change in temperature is known to affect the deformation properties of a clay specimen. In order to study the effect quantitative y and its dependence on clay type a number of oedometer tests...
A system for inducing desirable temperature effects on body tissue, the body tissue being disposed about a lumen. The system includes an elongate catheter having a proximal end and a distal end with an axis therebetween with an energy delivery portion for transmission of energy. A tissue analyzer configured to characterize the body tissue in the lumen proximate the energy delivery portion and an energy source coupled to the energy delivery portion transmitting tissue treatment energy, wherein the energy is non-RF energy. A processor coupled to the tissue analyzer and energy source, the processor configured to determine an appropriate treatment energy for the characterized body tissue so as to mildly heat the body tissue with the energy delivery portion without ablating.
Temperature effects on the dynamics of gonad and oocyte development in captive wild-caught blacklip (|i|Haliotis rubra|/i|) and greenlip (|i|H. laevigata|/i|) abalone
Research Question How does surface temperature affect the clarity of a fingerprint on a glass? Hypothesis If I change the surface temperature of each glass and put a fingerprint on them then the coldest glass would have the most clarity because the fingerprint cant evaporate as fast with colder surface temperature. Purpose The purpose of my experiment was the fact that I love forensics or criminal sciences. I have been interested in forensics since I was little and want to learn more about the subject. Materials 6 glass ...
An absolute temperature measuring pulse sequence is executed and, subsequently, a relative temperature measuring pulse sequence is repeatedly executed. Since while a relative temperature can be measured from phase information, an absolute temperature requires frequency information, a time required in the relative temperature measuring pulse can be made shorter than that required in the absolute temperature measuring pulse sequence. Since the relative temperature reveals a temperature variation, if an absolute temperature at a given time is known, an absolute temperature at a subsequent time can be calculated from the relative temperature. Thus, a local internal temperature of the subject can be measured, with a shorter temporal resolution, with the use of the absolute temperature and relative temperature.
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Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Human influences have directly impacted the latitude/altitude pattern of atmospheric temperature. That is the conclusion of a new report by scientists from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and six other scientific institutions. The research compares multiple satellite records of atmospheric temperature change with results from a large, multi-model archive of simulations.. "Human activity has very different effects on the temperature of the upper and lower atmosphere, and a very different fingerprint from purely natural influences," said Benjamin Santer, the lead researcher in the paper appearing in the Sept.16 online edition of the Proceedings of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences. "Our results provide clear evidence for a discernible human influence on the thermal structure of the atmosphere.". Observational satellite data and the computer model-predicted response to human influence have a common latitude/altitude pattern of atmospheric ...
We demonstrated that on sunny days, even when the ambient temperature is mild or relatively cool, there is rapid and significant heating of the interior of vehicles. On days when the ambient temperature was 72°F, we showed that the internal vehicle temperature can reach 117°F within 60 minutes, with 80% of the temperature rise occurring in the first 30 minutes. In general, after 60 minutes, one can expect an ∼40°F increase in internal temperatures for ambient temperatures spanning 72 to 96°F, putting children and pets at significant risk. We also determined that cracking open windows is not effective in decreasing either the rate of heat rise or the maximum temperature attained.. The exact affect of such temperatures on infants is unknown, but from case reports, we know that they can be devastating. We do know that heat illness is a continuum that is divided into 3 phases. The mildest form is heat stress, the physical discomfort and physiologic strain as a result of a hot environment. Next ...
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Question - What causes fluctuating temperatures and lack of appetite?. Ask a Doctor about diagnosis, treatment and medication for Lack of appetite, Ask a General & Family Physician
Press Release issued Mar 23, 2015: This is a professional and in-depth study on the current state of the global Polymer Positive Temperature Coefficient Thermistor (Polymer PTCs) industry with a focus on the Chinese market. The report provides key statistics on the market status of the Polymer Positive Temperature Coefficient Thermistor (Polymer PTCs) manufacturers and is a valuable source of guidance and direction for companies and individuals interested in the industry.
Temperature affects how much the phospholipids in the bilayer can move, which in turn affect the membrane structure.. 1. Temperatures below 0 degrees. The phospholipids do not have very much energy, meaning that they dont move around a lot. They are packed closely together and the membrane is more rigid. The channel proteins and carrier proteins in the membrane denature and this increases the permeability of the membrane - ice may also…. ...
This paper establishes a new family of methods to perform temperature interpolation of nuclear interactions cross sections, reaction rates, or cross sections times the energy. One of these quantities at temperature T is approximated as a linear combination of quantities at reference temperatures (T j). The problem is formalized in a cross section independent fashion by considering the kernels of the different operators that convert cross section related quantities from a temperature T 0 to a higher temperature T - namely the Doppler broadening operation. Doppler broadening interpolation of nuclear cross sections is thus here performed by reconstructing the kernel of the operation at a given temperature T by means of linear combination of kernels at reference temperatures (T j). The choice of the L 2 metric yields optimal linear interpolation coefficients in the form of the solutions of a linear algebraic system inversion. The optimization of the choice of reference temperatures (T j) is then ...
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Sea-surface temperature estimation by Anderson, Eric; 1 edition; First published in 1967; Subjects: Ocean temperature, Time-series analysis, Accessible book
Applications. While most Gammaflux temperature controllers are used on hot runner injection molding applications, they are also increasingly being used for controlling thermoset, liquid injection molding (LIM), reaction injection molding (RIM), blow molding, thermoforming, and extrusion (profile and sheet) applications.. "Each of these processes requires reliable temperature control," said Mike Brostedt, Gammaflux Director of Market Development. "If the temperature controller fails, the process either stops or is crippled. When selecting a temperature control supplier, processors are selecting a partner who is critical to their product quality and profitability.". The new G24 is the most flexible temperature controller Gammaflux has ever produced, and is designed for ease of use across all of these platforms.. About Gammaflux. Based in Sterling, Va. U.S.A., Gammaflux L.P. is a leading supplier of temperature and sequential valve gate control systems to the plastics industry. Long known for ...
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Schneider, E; Muller, B; and Schindler, R, "Effects of temperature changes on thymidine kinase in heat-and cold-sensitive cell-cycle mutanta and wild-type murine p-815 cells." (1983). Subject Strain Bibliography 1983. 1696 ...
First, we focused on the effects of temperature shifts on the dynamics of a synthetic genetic clock, the above mentioned Elowitz-Leibler low-copy repressilator (LCR). By studying its fluorescence over time, we observed a loss of functionality (fraction of cells exhibiting oscillations) and robustness (fraction of expected oscillations that do occur) for higher-than-optimal temperatures. We hypothesized that this is due to a loss of functionality of the CI repressor, which is one of the proteins composing the structure of this circuit. To test this, we made use of a genetic switch (CICro, where CI is also a component of the circuits structure), which we subjected to the same temperature shifts. We found a behavioral change at the same temperature. Namely, as temperature is increased, at a given value, the kinetics of RNA production of the PRM promoter changes from sub-Poissonian to super-Poissonian, consistent with the emergence of tangible repression by the opposing protein, Cro. These ...
An animation showing changes in global sea-surface temperature between 1991 and 2010, developed through ESAs Climate Change Initiative. The animation is based on data from ESAs ERS and Envisat Along Track Scanning Radiometers, and the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometers carried on the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administrations Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellites and Eumetsats MetOp satellites.. ...
The influence of final cooked temperature on the form of iron present and on the concentration of taurine, carnosine, coenzyme Q 10 and creatine was investigated in surface and inner parts of 30-mm thick steaks from beef semitendinosus muscle (n=6). The use of a fast, dry-heat cooking method with a Silex clam cooker (set at 200 °C) led to cooking times ranging from 5.6 to 8.6 min for final internal temperatures of 60 and 85 °C, respectively. The proportion of iron as soluble haem iron decreased from 65% in uncooked meat to 22% when cooked to 60 °C and then decreased more gradually with increases in final cooked temperature. The proportion of insoluble haem iron increased in a reciprocal manner, while changes in the proportions of soluble and insoluble non-haem iron were relatively small, but increases in the percentage of insoluble non-haem iron with increasing final temperature were significant (P,0.01). Changes in the forms of iron with cooking generally took place more rapidly in surface ...
The research also revealed the extent of the negative effects varied depending on where the insect population is based. Insects which evolve in countries at low latitudes - such as Spain - cope better with above average temperature rises compared to those living at high latitudes, such as Sweden.. This means insects in high latitude countries are more vulnerable to climate change, which could lead to a decline in population.. Dr Rhonda Snook, lead investigator of the study from the University of Sheffields Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, said: "We already knew that insects are feeling the effect of climate change but we now know they are felt at much lower temperatures.. "Our study is unique as we only exposed the insects to mild heat but tested the long-term impact this had on them as both juveniles and when they reached adulthood. The results show that even small increases in temperature may still cause populations to decline because - while these insects dont die because of the ...
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A Proud Tradition of Leadership in Temperature Control Technology. Since its founding in 1966, Gammaflux has set an uncompromising standard: to design and produce the most technologically advanced, highest-quality temperature control systems for the plastics industry. Because of this, the company has an excellent reputation globally as a product and service leader and innovator.. Partnership. Gammaflux is more than just a supplier to our customers - we consider customers to be partners in the ongoing search for the best, most productive, and most cost-effective temperature control solutions possible.. Most Gammaflux temperature controllers are used on hot runner injection molding applications. However, they are also frequently used for controlling a wide variety of other plastics industry processes including thermoset, liquid injection molding (LIM), reaction injection molding (RIM), injection and extrusion blow molding, thermoforming, pipe/profile/sheet extrusion, and more.. These processes all ...
Single crystalline specimens of Ni{sub 3}Ge were compressed along [0 0 1] at different temperatures. Temperature dependence of the critical resolved shear stress (τ{sub 0}(T)) has been obtained. Detailed measurements at cryogen temperatures (4.2-77 K temperature interval) showed that the increase of the yield stress with temperature starts at liquid helium temperature. The values of the apparent activation volume (V*) have been obtained as a result of stress relaxation tests repeated along the stress-strain curve at different stress levels at seven temperatures (77, 293, 373, 473, 573, 673, 773 K). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) methods were used to analyze the evolution of dislocation structure with temperature and strain. The measurements of the straight dislocations fraction determined as δ = ρ{sub sd} / ρ, (ρ{sub sd} is the straight dislocation density, ρ is a total dislocation density) have been performed. The experimental data obtained in different tests in Ni{sub 3}Ge ...
NOAA Fisheries Ecology Division and UC Santa Cruz researchers found the thermal tolerance of Chinook salmon embryos in the Sacramento River is much lower than expected from laboratory studies. Exploring the cause of this discrepancy led to new insights into how egg size and water flow affect the survival of fish eggs.
Aug. 16, 1960 E. J. DAVIDSON 2,949,513 EFFECTIVE TEMPERATURE THERMOSTAT Filed Sept. 3, 1957 i eeixmfive wm/m g 71 ff/eefil/elimperarure 2 Q: 11 5 x [00 40 7 I g r INVENTOR. 3 51 44 t]; 404100.570, 727 7.9 D y 841/6 (Deyrees) Patented Aug. 16, 1960 iice EFFECTIVE TEMPERATURE THERMOSTAT Evan J. Davidson, North Hollywood, Calif., assignor to General Controls Co., Glendale, Califl, a corporation of California Filed Sept. 3, 1957, Ser. No. 681,700 Claims. (Cl. 20061.06) This invention relates to a thermostat structure to be used for air heating or cooling systems. It is well recognized that for a given air velocity, the sense of warmth or coolness depends not only upon the dry bulb temperature of the surrounding air, but also upon its relative humidity or moisture content. Thus, air at 72 dry bulb temperature and at 70% relative humidity is physiologically as comfortable as air at 77 dry bulb temperature and at 30% relative humidity. Eifective temperature is the term given to the degree of ...
TY - GEN. T1 - Exergetic evaluation of heat pump booster configurations in a low temperature district heating network. AU - Ommen,Torben Schmidt. AU - Elmegaard,Brian. PY - 2012. Y1 - 2012. N2 - In order to minimise losses in a district heating network, one approach is to lower the temperature difference between working media and soil. Considering only direct heat exchange, the minimum forward temperature level is determined by the demand side, as energy services are required at a certain temperature. As domestic hot water is required at a temperature range where legionella is no longer a threat, forward temperatures in a traditional low temperature district heating network cannot be lowered beyond approximately 55 ºC. One solution is to boost the temperature of the forward tap water stream with a heat pump, as the remaining heat demands are often not required at temperature levels as high as the tap water. The scope of this work is to evaluate the power consumption and second law efficiency of ...
We investigated the temperature dependence of foamability, foam stability and foam structure between 5 and 60°C for four types of milk: ultra-high temperature processed milk
An embodiment of the present invention is a temperature forcing system and method for precision temperature control of a device-under-test. The system comprises a thermal test head suspended by a support arm that receives a temperature controlled air flow through an output hose from an air supply system. A pair of temperature sensors, one attached to the device-under-test and the other in the output hose, are used differentially by a closed-loop temperature controller when the temperature of the device-under-test comes within a temperature window surrounding a target temperature setpoint point. Outside the temperature window control is linear and within the temperature window control is compensated by a correction factor obtained during a single calibration test that amalgamates the effects of the mass of the device-under-test, the ambient conditions and other factors.
the solubility of argon in water at 25 degrees celcius is 0.0150M. what is the henrys law constant of Ar if the partial pressure of argon is 0.00934 atm. A)0.000140 M/atm B)0.623 M/ atm C)1.61 M/atm D) 4.10 M/atm K=Pgas/Cgas Post ...
The authors wish to add the following correction on their paper published in IJERPH [1], doi: 10.3390/ijerph9124662, website: http://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/9/12/4662.
Murata Official product details information. Here are the latest datasheet, appearance & shape, specifications, features, applications, product data of PTC for Temperature Sensor PRF18AR471QS2RB.Specifications:Max. Voltage=32V,Sensing Temperature=135℃,Sensing Temperature Tolerance=±5℃,Measure Condition of Sensing Temperature=at 4.7k ohm,Sensing Temperature(2)=150℃,Sensing Temperature (2) Tolerance=±7℃,Measure Condition of Sensing Temperature(2)=at 47k ohm,Resistance (25℃)=470Ω,Resistance Value Tolerance (at 25℃)=±50%,Operating Temperature Range=-40℃ to 150℃,Size Code (in mm)=1.6x0.8mm,Size Code (in inch)=0.6x0.3inch,Shape=SMD,Mass=0.004g,Automotive Usage=Powertrain/Safety,Limited Usage=Automotive Grade
Explain, why? (i) Two bodies at different temperatures T1 and T2, if brought in thermal contact do not necessarily settle to the mean temperature (T1 + T2)/2 (ii) The coolant in a chemical of a nuclear plant (i. e., the…
How much can the resistance of a typical voice coil change over its operating temperature range assuming frequency remains constant? From the calculat
On-line diagnostics of power system components is an important area since it allows the diagnostics to be performed at regular intervals during the normal operation of the components. This combined with reliability centered maintenance could lead to reduced customer outages. In this thesis the on-line diagnostic methods for medium voltage cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) cables are investigated based on Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR).. Degradation of XLPE insulated power cables by water-trees (WT) is a primary cause of failure of these cables. The detection of WT and information about the severity of the degradation can be obtained with off-line measurements using dielectric spectroscopy. In many situations only a limited part of the cable may be degraded by the WT. In such a situation a method for localization of this WT section would be desirable.. The developed high frequency measurements superimposed on HV system is presented. It was used to measure the propagation constant of the WT aged ...
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Notes: Production, means the output of Negative Temperature Coefficient(NTC) Thermistors Revenue, me - Market Research Reports and Industry Analysis
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Benjamin J Povinelli, Kathleen M Kokolus, Jason W-L Eng, Christopher W Dougher, Leslie Curtin, Maegan L Capitano, Christi T Sailsbury-Ruf, Elizabeth A Repasky, Michael J Nemeth].
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The column oven should operate over a fairly wide temperature range (e.g. from 5˚C to 400˚C). In practice, however, the maximum oven temperature needed is usually less than 250˚C, particularly when synthetic stationary phases are being used, as many of them tend to be unstable and either decompose or volatilize at higher temperatures. Similarly, initial temperatures below 50˚C are also rarely needed. The oven usually has air circulation driven by a powerful fan to ensure an even temperature throughout the oven. The temperature in any part of the oven should be stable to 0.5 ˚C and when operating isothermally the column temperature should be constant to 0.2 ˚C. The oven should have a capacity of 1-2 cu. ft. and is supplied with fittings to accept more than one column and some switching valves if so desired. Such equipment is needed for multidimensional chromatography.. The temperature programmer (hardware and software) usually has a range of linear gradients from 0.5˚C/min. to about ...
Temperature can affect the bounce of a squash ball because it can change the pressure inside the ball and the resilience or flexibility of the rubber, according to the Department of Physics at the University of Illinois.
Resonant senosrs and microsensors are one of the most common used sensors in industry. The applications ranges from fuid, pressure to chemical sensing. Temperature effect on the performance of such devices is of importance to the accuracy of measurement Some work was carried out with respect to beam sensors to study this phenomenon, but nothing with respect to diaphragm sensors to the author knowldge. In this paper, we are interested in the modeling of such diaphragm under thermal effect. We chose the dynamic analogue of Saint-Venant plate model under uniform temperature to analyse a circular diaphragm. The resulting equation turns out to be similar to the classic problem of plate stability under uniform in-plane loading. The modeling methodology can be applied to any type of thermal loading and the complications would be only the possibility of solving the resulting stability problem. It is found that under the assumption of isotropic materials with temperature-insensitive material properties,
A temperature control system for maintaining a cryogenic load at a predetermined temperature by circulating a wet mixture of a coolant through tubing that is in heat-transfer relationship with the load while maintaining the coolant in a saturated condition throughout the tubing at a constant temperature that is slightly cooler than the predetermined load temperature. The system includes a preconditioning chamber from which liquid coolant is supplied to the tubing. The chamber is partially filled with liquid coolant, with the remainder of the chamber filled with vaporous coolant. Inlet and outlet metering valves for the tubing are mounted in the chamber and controls are provided for maintaining the entire interior environment of the chamber including the valves, interconnecting tubing and both the liquid and vaporous coolant in a state of thermodynamic equilibrium at a temperature that is a few tenths of a degree lower than the predetermined temperature of the load. Sensors are provided at the load and
Sterling, VA (November 30, 2005) . . . Gammaflux L.P., the worlds leading supplier of hot runner temperature control systems, has expanded its LEC line of temperature controllers with the introduction of a new LEC 2-zone model. The 2-zone LEC is the ideal solution for providing precision control to small hot runners such as single-cavity molds and hot sprue bushing applications. The 2-zone LEC is the latest addition to the family of LEC controllers, which are available for applications for up to 24 zones of control. The LEC provides molders with full-featured hot runner temperature control at an extremely competitive price. Designed for smaller hot runner system applications, the LEC is offered with 2, 6 and 12 zone enclosures. The LEC features a modular design for simple control card removal, addition or replacement. Flexibility has been built-in to the LEC line for global use. It is designed to work with most hot runner molds operating in the world today. All LEC controllers are backed by a ...
Note:. Temperature ranges stated are affected by the actual emissivity (e) of your target, and ambient temperature surrounding the sensor. Best results are at 77F (25 C) ambient.. For best accuracy on the standard pc models (i.e. J50, K50, etc.), choose model closest to targets range, and ambient temperature ,200F.. For instance, target temperature range = 0-100°F, choose the J or K50F. Target temperature range = 400-700°F, choose the J or K440F.. For HiE models; when e,0.9, the min and max temperature can increase, when e,0.9 the min and max temperature can decrease slightly.. For LoE models; when e,0.2, the min and max temperature can increase greatly, when e,0.2 the min and max temperature can decrease greatly.. These models are recommended to utilize the performance capabilities of the Eurotherm 2000 Series Controllers and other programmable controllers, for full temperature range linearization, emissivity/reflectivity adjustment and quick OEM configuration.. email: ...
The other major category, and the one that we shall concentrate on in this section, are referred to as switching PTC thermistors. These devices are polycrystalline ceramic materials that are normally highly resistive but are made semiconductive by the addition of dopants. They are most often manufactured using compositions of barium, lead and strontium titanates with additives such as yttrium, manganese, tantalum and silica. These devices have a resistance-temperature characteristic that exhibits a very small negative temperature coefficient until the device reaches a critical temperature, that is referred to as its Curie , switch or transition temperature. As this critical temperature is approached, the devices begin to exhibit a rising, positive temperature coefficient of resistance as well as a large increase in resistance. The resistance change can be as much as several orders of magnitude within a temperature span of a few degrees ...
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Study on temperature distribution simulation during cementing of hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal well is rare. It has important guiding significance to simulate the construction process of temperature distribution of hot dry rock on site construction. Based on numerical simulation of HDR considering heat-fluid-solid coupling, the influence of temperature distribution on well cementing is analyzed when the drilling fluid cycles and reaches stable state, respectively, and when the cement slurry is injected during the cementing process. It is found that the seepage at the well bottom accelerates the flow velocity of wellbore; the stable temperature change is less than the cyclic temperature change; and the upper and lower temperature variation of the stratum is greater when the cement slurry is injected. Therefore, as to cement retarder involved, the influence of temperature variation on concretion should be considered during cementing of the hot dry rock geothermal well.
In the present study, elevated temperature and CO2 levels were found to increase the DM, EE and NDF contents and reduce the ash and CP contents. Rosenzweig et al. [23] reported that increasing the CO2 concentration and temperature might lead to the increase of photosynthesis, carbohydrate fixation, respiration and transpiration in the plants. Increased photosynthesis and carbohydrate fixation might result in the increase of growth rate and plant biomass [24], which would lead to the increase of dry matter in the plants. Meanwhile, the increased respiration and transpiration would lead to the increase of total leaf area, which could increase the evaporation of water, decrease the water content, and thus relatively increase the dry matter content in plants [25]. Carten et al. [26] reported that a combined increase in temperature and CO2 concentration could increase the biomass of three genotypes of Lotus corniculatus. Hocking et al. [27] also showed that shoot to root dry matter rations of both ...
The CX Series of control and measurement stations monitor furnace temperature in tunnel kiln furnaces and the like using Faceplate and Trend screens that come as standard features. There is no need to create new monitoring screens, and it is possible to introduce the CX more easily than conducting instrumentation on a PC or the like. The CX implements temperature control with a single unit, using a maximum of six embedded loops. (Maximum six-zone temperature control.). ...
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1 How do your parents keep your house warm or cool? At home, theres probably a thermostat on the wall. Your parents set the temperature they want the house to be. The thermostat tells the heater or air conditioner when to come on and turn off again. The thermostats job is to keep your house an even temperature. Did you know your body has a kind of thermostat, too ...
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Instrumental data describing large-scale surface temperature changes are only available for roughly the past 150 years. Estimates of surface temperature changes further back in time must therefore make use of the few long available instrumental records or historical documents and natural archives or climate proxy indicators, such as tree rings, corals, ice cores and lake sediments, and historical documents to reconstruct patterns of past surface temperature change. Due to the paucity of data in the Southern Hemisphere, recent studies have emphasized the reconstruction of Northern Hemisphere (NH) mean, rather than global mean temperatures over roughly the past 1000 years.. The term "Hockey Stick" was coined by the former head of NOAAs Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, Jerry Mahlman, to describe the pattern common to numerous proxy and model-based estimates of Northern Hemisphere mean temperature changes over the past millennium. This pattern includes a long-term cooling trend from the ...
Instrumental data describing large-scale surface temperature changes are only available for roughly the past 150 years. Estimates of surface temperature changes further back in time must therefore make use of the few long available instrumental records or historical documents and natural archives or climate proxy indicators, such as tree rings, corals, ice cores and lake sediments, and historical documents to reconstruct patterns of past surface temperature change. Due to the paucity of data in the Southern Hemisphere, recent studies have emphasized the reconstruction of Northern Hemisphere (NH) mean, rather than global mean temperatures over roughly the past 1000 years.. The term "Hockey Stick" was coined by the former head of NOAAs Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, Jerry Mahlman, to describe the pattern common to numerous proxy and model-based estimates of Northern Hemisphere mean temperature changes over the past millennium. This pattern includes a long-term cooling trend from the ...
Higher temperatures make higher levels of humidity possible. This is because warm air is capable of holding more moisture than cold air. Warm air has a stronger bond to water molecules, making the...
Even though hot desert soil is characterized by high and seasonally fluctuating temperatures, the temperature sensitivity of the bacterial community in the soil did not change between seasons. Periods with warm temperatures were more important in determining the temperature response of the bacterial community than cold periods. By comparing our Tmin and Topt values with a study from a cold area (Antarctica) we were able to suggest a range of possible values of these cardinal temperatures for soil bacterial communities worldwide ...
A dual current conveyor based rectifier circuit with low temperature sensitivity is presented. The use of a DC current source to bias the rectifying diodes
The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is an important organism as a model for understanding vertebrate cardiovascular development. However, little is known about adult ZF cardiac function and how contractile function changes to cope with fluctuations in ambient temperature. The goals of this study were to: 1) determine if high resolution echocardiography (HRE) in the presence of reduced cardiodepressant anesthetics could be used to accurately investigate the structural and functional properties of the ZF heart and 2) if the effect of ambient temperature changes both acutely and chronically could be determined non-invasively using HRE in vivo. Heart rate (HR) appears to be the critical factor in modifying cardiac output (CO) with ambient temperature fluctuation as it increases from 78 ± 5.9 bpm at 18°C to 162 ± 9.7 bpm at 28°C regardless of acclimation state (cold acclimated CA- 18°C; warm acclimated WA- 28°C). Stroke volume (SV) is highest when the ambient temperature matches the acclimation temperature,
Showers and thunderstorms will approach from the west overnight and arrive by dawn on Thursday and the streak of 90s will end tomorrow as a cold front brings cooler temperatures.
With 2016 set to be the warmest year on record, scientists have discovered insects are already feeling the effects of climate change, as a rise in temperature is shown to damage their ability to reproduce.
A vortex sensor senses the generated vortices and provides a vortex signal. A filtering circuit is coupling to the vortex sensor to receive the vortex signal and provide an output indicative of fluid flow. A temperature sensor senses a temperature of the fluid and provides a temperature value, while a pressure sensor senses a pressure of the fluid and provides a pressure value. A processor is operably coupled to the filtering circuit, the temperature sensor, and the pressure sensor for receiving the output, the temperature value, and the pressure value, respectively. The processor calculates a calibration factor as a function of the output, the temperature value, and the pressure value for use in calculating the output value indicative of the flow rate of the fluid.
The design of complex parts subjected to creep conditions is generally-based on the results of relatively simple laboratory tests in which both the load and temperature are held constant. In actual service such steady conditions seldom are encountered. The load and temperature usually vary in some complex manner depending on the operating cycle. In recent years there has been an increasing effort to evaluate the influence of nonsteady load and temperature conditions on the creep characteristics of a number of alloys. The object of such tests may be considered two-fold: first to provide a fundamental understanding of the influence of nonsteady conditions on the flow and fracture characteristics, and secondly to arrive at more rational methods of design which will reduce the safety factors now employed. It is not to be expected that the results of nonsteady creep tests can be related in any simple manner to those of steady tests. If either the load or temperature change in some manner, various ...
by Judith Curry Two new papers have focused on the quality, uncertainties and interpretation of global sea surface temperature data. A call for new approaches to quantifying biases in observations of sea-surface temperature Elizabeth Kent, John Kennedy, Thomas Smith, Shoji Hirahara et al. (long author list) Abstract: Global surface-temperature is a fundamental measure of climate change.…
by Judith Curry Two new papers have focused on the quality, uncertainties and interpretation of global sea surface temperature data. A call for new approaches to quantifying biases in observations of sea-surface temperature Elizabeth Kent, John Kennedy, Thomas Smith, Shoji Hirahara et al. (long author list) Abstract: Global surface-temperature is a fundamental measure of climate change.…
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A calorimeter capable of measuring the heat capacity of 1 mg size samples from 4.2 to greater than 100 K has been designed, constructed, and tested. The sample is bonded to the end of a 0.002 inch diameter, 0.5 cm long chromel-constantan thermocouple (type E) and heated optically with a laser and fiber optic. An advantage of this calorimeter is the low addenda heat capacity of the thermocouple. The thermocouple, which serves not only as the temperature sensor of the sample but also as the thermal link between the sample and a constant temperature reservoir, is anchored to a copper block, which acts as the constant temperature reservoir. Heat capacity is determined from the temperature rate of decay of the sample using a sweep method. The sample is heated to an initial temperature above the block temperature by the laser. The laser is then turned off and the sample temperature is allowed to decay to the block temperature. By measuring the temperature of the sample as a function of time and ...
I have recently started working on some cell sites. The temperature control I have come across, is nice, but the company that made it is not returning calls about parts and support. So I have to start replacing them. I was wondering what people are using for these cell tower computer rooms for automatic changeover temperature control?
A temperature compensating circuit for a Hall generator with a positive temperature coefficient of the resistance of the drive circuit path utilizes summation of a voltage representing the drive current as detected across a substantially temperature-independent compensating resistance in the drive current path, with a constant voltage component to provide one output to an operational amplifier whose other output is connected to this operational amplifier which produces the output signal of the circuit.
To better treat pain, we require an understanding of the molecular principles that govern the perception of both noxious and subnoxious stimuli. Decades of investigation into thermosensation across phyla have highlighted a conserved family of transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels (first discovered by Craig Montell through studies of the fruit fly visual system) that respond to a spectrum of noxious or subnoxious temperatures. Interestingly, many classic experiments show that animals also exhibit nociceptive escape behavior in response to a rapid change in temperature, even within a subnoxious range.. In this recent study, Montell and his team investigate, using the power of fruit fly genetics, how an animal can detect rapid temperature change. The team first develops a novel experimental paradigm to study fruit fly larvae behavioral responses to changing temperature and then uses automated tracking software to confirm that a rapid rate of temperature increase was sufficient to trigger ...
Full text for this publication is not currently held within this repository. Alternative links are provided below where available. ...
Rigid chains have higher melting temperatures. 16.5 Thermoplastic and Thermosetting Polymers Thermoplastic polymers (thermoplasts) soften reversibly when heated (harden when cooled back) Thermosetting polymers (thermosets) harden permanently when heated, as cross-linking hinder bending and rotations. Thermosets are harder, more dimensionally stable, and more brittle than thermoplasts. 16.6 Viscoelasticity At low temperatures, amorphous polymers deform elastically, like glass, at small elongation. At high temperatures the behavior is viscous, like liquids. At intermediate temperatures, the behavior, like a rubbery solid, is termed viscoelastic. Viscoelasticity is characterized by the viscoelastic relaxation modulus Er = s(t)/e0. If the material is strained to a value e0.it is found that the stress needs to be reduced with time to maintain this constant value of strain (see figs. 16.11 and 16.12). In viscoelastic creep, the stress is kept constant at s0 and the change of deformation with time e(t) ...
Close The Infona portal uses cookies, i.e. strings of text saved by a browser on the users device. The portal can access those files and use them to remember the users data, such as their chosen settings (screen view, interface language, etc.), or their login data. By using the Infona portal the user accepts automatic saving and using this information for portal operation purposes. More information on the subject can be found in the Privacy Policy and Terms of Service. By closing this window the user confirms that they have read the information on cookie usage, and they accept the privacy policy and the way cookies are used by the portal. You can change the cookie settings in your browser. ...
Cardinal Temperatures The temperatures ranging from minimum to maximum that allow for bacterial growth. Minimum temperature: the lowest temperature at which an organism can grow-lower temperatures do not support bacterial growth Maximum temperature: the highest temperature at which an organism can grow-higher temperatures do not support bacterial growth Optimum temperature: the temperature at which growth is most rapid The optimum temperature is always closer to the maximum temperature than to the minimum temperature
An ink jet recording apparatus includes a recording head for ejecting ink from ejection unit to cause a change in temperature in a recording period, a temperature keeping unit for maintaining a temperature of the recording head at a predetermined keeping temperature higher than an upper limit of a surrounding temperature range in which recording is possible, a temperature prediction unit for predicting an ink temperature in the ejection unit in the recording period prior to recording, and an ejection stabilization unit for stabilizing ink ejection from the ejection unit according to the ink temperature in the ejection unit predicted by the temperature prediction unit.
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Julia Jaroslawska, Agnieszka Chabowska-Kita, Monika M Kaczmarek, Leslie P Kozak].
Standard thermostat temperatures for residential buildings have been set by the SJU administration. If you would like your room to be below the standard temperature in the heating season (winter) or above the standard temperature in the cooling season (summer), talk with your roommates to see if you can agree on a different temperature.. Important: Before submitting this form, you must read the section specific to your building in the Heating and Cooling in Residential Buildings page. Also keep in mind that the normal range of temperatures is ±2°F from the set temperature, and that the temperature is measured where the thermostat is-your own thermometer may give a different reading.. Once you have all agreed on a new temperature, please follow these steps:. ...
Small changes in temperatures during flash-cooling have significant effects on the diffraction quality of nucleosome crystals and in some cases cause substantial changes in unit-cell parameters that are a result of the reorganization of molecules in the lattice. Thus, in cases where flash-cooling around liquid-nitrogen temperatures leads to a deterioration in diffraction, flash-cooling at intermediate temperatures using alternative cryogens may be a useful approach ...
The hypothesis for this experiment is that if the temperature of the water decreases, then the respiration rate of the goldfish that are in it will also decrease. To test this, the group had a control and an experimental group of goldfish. After we lowered the temperature of the water that the experimental was put into, an observation was made that respiration rate of the fish does indeed decrease. In conclusion our hypothesis was supported and the experiment proved to be true according to our results ...
I recently installed a new CPU cooler that actually resulted in higher temps, and my SIM score in Supreme Commander 2 seems to have suffered relative to...
Abstract. Diurnal temperature fluctuations can fundamentally alter mosquito biology and mosquito-virus interactions in ways that impact pathogen transmission. We investigated the effect of two daily fluctuating temperature profiles on Aedes aegypti vector competence for dengue virus (DENV) serotype-1. A large diurnal temperature range of 18.6°C around a 26°C mean, corresponding with the low DENV transmission season in northwestern Thailand, reduced midgut infection rates and tended to extend the virus extrinsic incubation period. Dissemination was first observed at day 7 under small fluctuations (7.6°C; corresponding with high DENV transmission) and constant control temperature, but not until Day 11 for the large diurnal temperature range. Results indicate that female Ae. aegypti in northwest Thailand are less likely to transmit DENV during the low than high transmission season because of reduced DENV susceptibility and extended virus extrinsic incubation period. Better understanding of DENV
TY - JOUR. T1 - Estimation of tribological properties on surface modified SiC by chlorine gas reaction at various temperatures. AU - Bae, Heung Taek. AU - Jeong, Ji Hoon. AU - Choi, Hyun Ju. AU - Lim, Dae-Soon. PY - 2009/9/1. Y1 - 2009/9/1. N2 - Carbon layers were fabricated on silicon carbide by chlorination reaction at temperatures between 1000°C and 1500°C with Cl2/H 2 gas mixtures. The effect of reaction temperature on the micro-structures and tribological behavior of SiC derived carbon layer was investigated. Tribological tests were carried out ball-on-disk type wear tester. Carbon layers were characterized by X-ray diffractometer, Raman spectroscopy and surface profilometer. Both friction coefficients and wear rates were maintained low values at reaction temperature up to 1300°C but increased suddenly above this temperature. Variation of surface roughness as a function of reaction temperature was dominant factor affecting tribological transition behavior of carbon layer derived from ...
Temperature plays a crucial role in the life history of insects. Recent climate change research has highlighted the importance of elevated temperature on malaria vector distribution. This study aims to examine the role of elevated temperatures on epidemiologically important life-history traits in the major malaria vector, Anopheles arabiensis. Specifically, the differential effects of temperature on insecticide-resistant and susceptible strains were examined. Two laboratory strains of A. arabiensis, the insecticide-susceptible SENN and the insecticide-resistant SENN DDT strains, were used to examine the effect of elevated temperatures on larval development and adult longevity. The effects of various elevated temperatures on insecticide resistance phenotypes were also examined and the biochemical basis of the changes in insecticide resistance phenotype was assessed. SENN and SENN DDT larvae developed at similar rates at elevated temperatures. SENN DDT adult survivorship did not vary between control and
Temperature has an important indirect impact on pest populations. Direct effects occur, but also may result from temperature-induced changes in plant quality, including the expression of host plant resistance traits. Therefore, I examined both indirect and direct effects of temperature on biotype 1 soybean aphids (SBA), Aphis glycines, on a Rag1-resistant soybean variety and compared the effects with a susceptible variety to gain a better understanding of how temperature impacts SBA. Four aphid responses were evaluated: preimaginal development, survival to adulthood, number of progeny produced, and adult longevity. In the first experiment, I grew soybean seedlings to the V-0 stage at 25°C and then conditioned them for 0, 3 or 5 days at 20° or 30°C before infesting with a single first instar SBA at each of the two experimental temperatures. Based on previous literature for SBA, I hypothesized that conditioning plants at the lower temperature would cause resistance to break down and that longer ...
Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.), acclimated to 5 °C, were equipped with ultrasonic transmitters which allowed the continuous monitoring of their vertical movements and heart rate. Fish were then placed in a 125 m3 tower tank in which the various thermal conditions they encounter in their natural environment were reproduced. Physiological and behavioural responses of cod were followed in parallel to the induced environmental changes. The experimental conditions studied in the tower tank were also reproduced in a swimming respirometer, where oxygen consumption and heart rate could be monitored within the activity range of a free-swimming animal. In a homogeneous water column, a rise in temperature induced marked increases in fish swimming activity, heart rate and heart beat-to-beat variability. In a thermally stratified environment, voluntary activity also increased when the thermal structure of the water column was altered, though no temperature-dependent changes in heart rate were observed. ...
The thermal conductivity of undoped, Sn-doped, and Fe-doped beta-Ga2O3 bulk crystals was measured by the 3 omega technique in the temperature range of 295-410 K. A unique approach for extracting the thermal conductivity along the lateral and transverse heat flow directions was used in order to determine the thermal conductivity along different crystallographic directions. The data analysis at room temperature confirmed the expected anisotropy of the thermal conductivity of beta-Ga2O3, revealing the highest value of similar to 29 W/m K in the [010] direction. The thermal conductivity of the Sn-doped and Fe-doped beta-Ga2O3 samples was found to be lower than that of the undoped samples due to the enhanced phonon-impurity scattering contribution, which reduces the thermal conductivity. This tendency was maintained for the thermal conductivity at elevated temperatures. The thermal conductivity in all samples decreased with increasing temperature, but the slope of the temperature dependence was found ...
MAPEKA, M.H.; LEHLOENYA, K.C. and NEDAMBALE, T.L.. Comparison of different extenders and storage temperature on the sperm motility characteristics of Kolbroek pig semen. S. Afr. j. anim. sci. [online]. 2012, vol.42, n.5, pp.530-534. ISSN 2221-4062.. Maintaining a successful pig artificial insemination programme depends on a number of factors, including evaluation of semen characteristics. This study compared the efficacy of different extenders on the sperm motility of Kolbroek semen during short term storage at 4 °C and 25 °C. Semen was collected from Kolbroek boars using the gloved hand technique and transported to the laboratory for evaluation. Semen was pooled and randomly allocated to four groups and diluted at a ratio of 1:1 (v/v) with Beltsville thawing solution (BTS), Kobidil+, egg yolk citrate (EYC) and non-extended semen (Control). Each extender had two similar semen samples, making a total of eight samples. Extended and non-extended semen were stored at 4 °C and the other samples at ...
Rising temperatures, persistent drought, and depleted aquifers could set the stage for a second Dust Bowl, a period of drought and dust storms that affected the prairies in the USA and Canada during the 1930s.. The southern Great Plains have been ravaged, and a cool October broke a 16-month streak of higher than average temperatures across the Lower 48. However, temperatures are projected to remain above normal across most of the western half of the country in the following months and future temperature gains could be on the high side, according to various climate models.. As of November, 59.5% of the contiguous US was experiencing persistent drought conditions that are even more severe in the Great Plains in North and South Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas, Montana, Wyoming, and Colorado. The drought is expected to persist in intensity for the foreseeable future. Large dust storms have been reported across some of the states.. Farmers are seeing major shifts in the places and times ...

Temperature-induced maternal effects on the phenotype of larvae released by the brooding coral Pocillopora damicornis. | Moorea...Temperature-induced maternal effects on the phenotype of larvae released by the brooding coral Pocillopora damicornis. | Moorea...

... than colonies at ambient temperature. The energy content of larvae also was affected by the temperatures under which the ... Temperature-induced maternal effects on the phenotype of larvae released by the brooding coral Pocillopora damicornis. ... Temperature-induced maternal effects on the phenotype of larvae released by the brooding coral Pocillopora damicornis. ... Eight colonies were incubated for 16 d at ambient (27.13°C) and elevated (29.65°C) temperature and the outcome assessed as ...
more infohttp://mcr.lternet.edu/publications/temperature-induced-maternal-effects-phenotype-larvae-released-brooding-coral

Digital Thermometer Battery Clear Screen Quick Measure Body Temperature White Price - SelamSelamDigital Thermometer Battery Clear Screen Quick Measure Body Temperature White Price - SelamSelam

Digital Thermometer Battery Clear Screen Quick Measure Body Temperature White Price. by selamselam ... digital thermometer battery clear screen quick measure body temperature white price.. pigeon digital thermometer change battery ... can digital thermometer vicks temperature battery type braun change,vicks comfortflex digital thermometer battery salter change ... high quality food digital thermometer with alarm kitchen battery operated vicks temperature boots change. ...
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Climate Prediction Center - Seasonal OutlookClimate Prediction Center - Seasonal Outlook

Official 90-day Outlooks are issued once each month near mid-month at 8:30am Eastern Time. Please consult the schedule of 30 & 90-day outlooks for exact release dates. ...
more infohttp://www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/products/predictions/long_range/seasonal.php?lead=1

Brittle to Ductile transition temperature of steel S450GD | Physics ForumsBrittle to Ductile transition temperature of steel S450GD | Physics Forums

As the temperature of the steel being rolled is somewhere around 2-4 Degrees C, It may be closer to the brittle zone. Steel ... As the temperature of the steel being rolled is somewhere around 2-4 Degrees C, It may be closer to the brittle zone. Steel ... i gather theres a sub-grade that defines the temperature at which toughness is measured ?. clicking this link. ...
more infohttps://www.physicsforums.com/threads/brittle-to-ductile-transition-temperature-of-steel-s450gd.963999/

temperature - Wiktionarytemperature - Wiktionary

temperature (countable and uncountable, plural temperatures). *(obsolete) The state or condition of being tempered or moderated ... An elevated body temperature, as present in fever and many illnesses. You have a temperature; I think you should stay home ... when not used in relation with something) The temperature(1) of the immediate environment. The temperature dropped nearly 20 ... How do you think their temperatures would change? [...] if the temperature of the iron increased by 100 C°, the corresponding ...
more infohttps://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/temperature

Global TemperatureGlobal Temperature

... To sign up for our monthly update of global temperature (Map and Graphs), please click here Additional ... Global Temperature in 2017 (2018/01/18) Figures in PDF *Global Temperature in 2016 (2017/01/18) Figures in PDF *A Better Graph ... Global Temperature in 2015 (2016/01/20) * Global Temperature Update (2015/08/24) * Global Warming Hole (2015/03/31) * Global ... Global Temperature Update Through 2012: Discussion of latest data. (2013/01/15) *Global Temperature in 2011, Trends, and ...
more infohttp://www.columbia.edu/~mhs119/Temperature/

Apparent temperature - WikipediaApparent temperature - Wikipedia

Apparent temperature is the temperature equivalent perceived by humans, caused by the combined effects of air temperature, ... The wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT) combines the effects of radiation, humidity, temperature and wind speed on the perception ... The measure is most commonly applied to the perceived outdoor temperature. However it also applies to indoor temperatures ... The heat index and humidex measure the effect of humidity on the perception of temperatures above +27 °C (81 °F). In humid ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apparent_temperature

Temperature measurement - WikipediaTemperature measurement - Wikipedia

Surface air temperature[edit]. See also: Instrumental temperature record. The temperature of the air near the surface of the ... See also: Temperature, Temperature scale, Thermoscope, Thermometer, and Pyrometer. Attempts at standardized temperature ... Temperature data logger. References[edit]. *^ a b T. J. Quinn (1983). Temperature. London: Academic Press.. .mw-parser-output ... if A and B are at the same temperature, and B and C are at the same temperature then A and C are at the same temperature. B, of ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Temperature_measurement

temperaturetemperature

Ocean temperatures over the last 2.5 million years These temperatures are estimated by the amount of oxygen-18; I got this ... If the temperature goes up another 1°C, itll be the hottest its been in the last 1.35 million years! Temperatures over the ... Greenland temperatures over the last 130,000 years These temperatures are estimated by the amount of oxygen-18 in an ice core ... Greenland temperatures over the last 20,000 years These temperatures are estimated by the amount of oxygen-18 in an ice core ...
more infohttp://math.ucr.edu/home/baez/temperature/temperature.html

Water TemperatureWater Temperature

... data is collected daily from sources such as USGS and the US Army Corp of Engineers. Data are queried from ... Water temperature data is important in hydrologic forecasting for monitoring formation of ice on rivers and lakes in our ... NOAA Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory Great Lakes Surface Temperatures. *US Army Corps of Engineers sites along ... the Mississippi River report water temperature that can be found at RiverGages.com ...
more infohttps://www.weather.gov/ncrfc/LMI_WaterTemperature

xkcd: Temperaturexkcd: Temperature

Image URL (for hotlinking/embedding): https://imgs.xkcd.com/comics/temperature.png [[A close up of a man with a thermometer in ...
more infohttps://xkcd.com/901/

Temperature | Encyclopedia.comTemperature | Encyclopedia.com

TEMPERATURE CONCEPT Temperature is one of those aspects of the everyday world that seems rather abstract when viewed from the ... Temperature Science of Everyday Things COPYRIGHT 2002 The Gale Group Inc.. TEMPERATURE. CONCEPT. Temperature is one of those ... Temperature UXL Encyclopedia of Science COPYRIGHT 2002 The Gale Group, Inc.. Temperature. The concept of temperature has two ... Absolute temperature scale: A temperature scale that has the lowest possible temperature-at which all molecular motion ceases- ...
more infohttps://www.encyclopedia.com/science-and-technology/physics/physics/temperature

High-temperature alloyHigh-temperature alloy

Freudenberg-NOK Sealing Technologies provides high-temperature alloy metal materials for use in its automotive stamped gaskets ... Freudenberg-NOK Sealing Technologies provides high-temperature alloy (HTA) metal materials for use in its automotive stamped ... HTA alloys are made from a high nickel-content metal with extreme temperature and fatigue cracking resistance. Alloys are ...
more infohttps://www.sae.org/news/2015/01/high-temperature-alloy

ENSO impacts - temperatureENSO impacts - temperature

... The increased cloudiness and rainfall associated with La Niña periods ... The maps show mean maximum and minimum temperature deciles, where blue tones indicate below-average temperatures and orange to ... temperatures across Australia are shown below in composite maps combining temperature data from 12 of the strongest classic ... The temperature effect of El Niño events are felt most strongly during winter and spring, while the effects of La Niña events ...
more infohttp://www.bom.gov.au/climate/enso/history/ln-2010-12/ENSO-temperature.shtml

Temperature Computers | SpringerLinkTemperature Computers | SpringerLink

Luteinizing Hormone Time Slot Temperature Computer Cervical Mucus Serum Luteinizing Hormone These keywords were added by ... Loewit K., Kraft H.G., Ortlieb A., Wolfram G. (1988) Temperature Computers. In: Eicher W., Kokott G., Vogt HJ., Herms V., Wille ... to detect the onset of the infertile period by basal body temperature measurements. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 91: 565-573Google ... reported the use of basal body temperature (BBT) (Münz 1987) and 3.9% the use of natural family planning (NFP), with 14% ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-642-73794-7_9

Temperature Rising - LA TimesTemperature Rising - LA Times

A student walks through a dark hallway at John Muir Middle School in Burbank on Wednesday. The school lost its power shortly after 1p.m. and students and faculty had to cope without air conditioning for part of the afternoon. (Myung Chun / LAT ...
more infohttp://www.latimes.com/local/la-me-heat30-pg-photogallery.html

Temperature: DMITemperature: DMI

Average annual temperature for the entire country is 7.7°C (average 1961-90), ranging from 7.4°C in central Jutland to 8.4°C ... As the global temperature shows the temperatures for Denmark shows a clear increase in the annual mean temperature in the last ... The annual mean temperature varies from year to year, from below 6ºC to 10ºC, with an average of 8.3ºC (1981-2010 level; 8.9ºC ... Since 1870, the temperature in Denmark has risen by about 1.5ºC, but the ten hottest years have occurred from the 1930s to ...
more infohttp://www.dmi.dk/en/klima/klimaet-frem-til-i-dag/danmark/temperatur/

Ideal Room TemperatureIdeal Room Temperature

admin , Ideal Room Temperature , 03.11.2015 This post is designed to help you find the best solution for you immediately, so ... admin , Ideal Room Temperature , 04.11.2015 Neon Nettle spoke to Phuket Cleanse, a highly regarded detox retreat based in ... admin , Ideal Room Temperature , 03.11.2015 Please visit Sleep Source often for updates and news regarding the ever-changing ... admin , Ideal Room Temperature , 03.11.2015 To that end, weve debunked common myths, uncovered global bedtime rituals and ...
more infohttp://s3.amazonaws.com/snoringaids/ideal-room-temperature-957.html

ROOM TEMPERATUREROOM TEMPERATURE

A glass of water at room temperature is often considered too warm for drinking while coffee at room temperature is too cold for ... Someone came into my office recently and said Its really hot in here. I responded, Its room temperature. ... There is also a lot of variance in the temperature of rooms. Some of the rooms in my house are quiet chilly in the winter, some ... ROOM TEMPERATURE. One of many reasons that communication often breaks down is that we apply general expressions to specific ...
more infohttp://www.tcnj.edu/~hofmann/room_temperature.htm

Converting ambient temperature heatConverting ambient temperature heat

This discussion group is for people who know that it is possible to convert existing ambient temperature heat energy into work ... Converting ambient temperature heat is a Public Group with 199 members.. *Converting ambient temperature heat ...
more infohttps://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/Ambientenergy/conversations/messages/22089

Converting ambient temperature heatConverting ambient temperature heat

This discussion group is for people who know that it is possible to convert existing ambient temperature heat energy into work ... Converting ambient temperature heat is a Public Group with 199 members.. *Converting ambient temperature heat ...
more infohttps://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/AMBIENTENERGY/conversations/topics/2254

Earths Temperature TrackerEarth's Temperature Tracker

NASA scientist James Hansen has tracked Earths temperature for decades, and he is confident the global warming trend of 0.9 ... 2006). Temperature Trends in the Lower Atmosphere. Accessed April 13, 2007.. *U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (2007). ... If greenhouse gases are to blame then why did Earths average temperature cool from 1940-1970? And why has the rate of global ... This map shows the difference in surface temperature in 2006 compared to the average from 1951 to 1980. Most of the globe is ...
more infohttps://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/features/GISSTemperature/giss_temperature4.php

Linear Temperature Scale | NatureLinear Temperature Scale | Nature

GROVES and LIELMEZS have directed attention to certain properties of a temperature ψ defined as the logarithm of the usual ... GROVES and LIELMEZS have directed attention to certain properties of a temperature ψ defined as the logarithm of the usual ... WARREN, J. Linear Temperature Scale. Nature 206, 1347 (1965) doi:10.1038/2061347b0 ... Kelvin temperature1. It can also be shown that ψ has a very simple interpretation in terms of the efficiency of an ideal ...
more infohttps://www.nature.com/articles/2061347b0?error=cookies_not_supported&code=e02555a6-0b69-4b8a-916b-af43fb786bb0

Ideal Room TemperatureIdeal Room Temperature

According to the critics report, some jaw soreness was observed for a initial couple of nights but clients have reported that they had uninterrupted sleep and no snoring situations have been recorded. According to the Dental Tribune International, an on the web publication for dentists, some 90 million Americans snore. That figure consists of 60 % of men - and 40 percent of women - over the age of 50. According to the Dental Tribune International, an on-line publication for dentists, some 90 million Americans snore. That figure consists of 60 % of men ??and 40 % of females ??more than the age of 50. According to the Division of Sleep Medicine at Harvard Health-related School, your body manages and calls for sleep in considerably the very same way that it regulates the need for consuming, drinking, and breathing. According to the erroneous assertions of this write-up, you must be very religious since your argument lacks analytical thinking. According to the Guinness Book of Records, the loudest ...
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Category:Temperature - Wikimedia CommonsCategory:Temperature - Wikimedia Commons

English: Temperature is a physical property of a system that underlies the common notions of "hot" and "cold"; something that ... temperature physical property of matter that quantitatively expresses the common notions of hot and cold ... Media in category "Temperature". The following 103 files are in this category, out of 103 total. ... Temperature indicator mounted in gimbals for marine work-Tracts vol 10 p53.jpg 984 × 1,472; 476 KB. ...
more infohttps://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Temperature
  • GROVES and LIELMEZS have directed attention to certain properties of a temperature ψ defined as the logarithm of the usual Kelvin temperature 1 . (nature.com)
  • The kelvin (K) is the unit of temperature in the International System of Units (SI), in which temperature is one of the seven fundamental base quantities. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the standardization of the kelvin in the International System of Units, it has subsequently been redefined in terms of the equivalent fixing points on the Kelvin scale, and so that a temperature increment of one degree Celsius is the same as an increment of one kelvin, though they differ by an additive offset of 273.15. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many scientific measurements use the Kelvin temperature scale (unit symbol: K), named in honor of the Scottish physicist who first defined it. (wikipedia.org)
  • Australia's lowest recorded temperature, -23.0 °C, was observed at Charlotte Pass on 29 June 1994, during the 1994-95 El Niño event. (bom.gov.au)
  • Under some conditions heat from the measuring instrument can cause a temperature gradient, so the measured temperature is different from the actual temperature of the system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Temperature is one of those aspects of the everyday world that seems rather abstract when viewed from the standpoint of physics. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In this case, if this object is not in contact with something else that has a different temperature, it "does not make a sound" - in other words, it transfers no internal energy, and, thus, there is no heat from the standpoint of physics. (encyclopedia.com)
  • This book summarises the materials science and physics of all the most important high temperature superconductors as well as discussing material growth, properties and applications. (oreilly.com)
  • a) Our traditional graph of the annual and 5-year running means of the global temperature, and (b) 12-month and 132-month (to minimize the effect of the 11-year solar cycle) running means on the right. (columbia.edu)
  • The modern scientific field has its origins in the works by Florentine scientists in the 1600s including Galileo constructing devices able to measure relative change in temperature, but subject also to confounding with atmospheric pressure changes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since 1988, the majority of years has been hotter than average 1981-2010, and the temperature has shown a sharply rising trend from the 1990s. (dmi.dk)
  • something that is hotter generally has the greater temperature. (wikimedia.org)
  • What thermal comfort humans, animals and plants experience is related to more than temperature shown on a glass thermometer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mean radiant temperature also can affect thermal comfort. (wikipedia.org)
  • This section outlines your responsibilities as an employer, and suggests some ways you can manage the temperature in your workplace for the 'thermal comfort' of your employees. (hse.gov.uk)
  • Empirical temperature scales are historically older, while theoretically based scales arose in the middle of the nineteenth century. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such scales are valid only within convenient ranges of temperature. (wikipedia.org)
  • Temperature increase causes the fluid to expand, so the temperature can be determined by measuring the volume of the fluid. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the global temperature shows the temperatures for Denmark shows a clear increase in the annual mean temperature in the last decades. (dmi.dk)
  • This increased exposure to sunlight could partially account for the increase in surface temperature that Mischenko and Hansen observed over the same time span. (nasa.gov)
  • Most materials expand with temperature increase, but some materials, such as water, contract with temperature increase over some specific range, and then they are hardly useful as thermometric materials. (wikipedia.org)
  • For instance in 170 AD, physician Claudius Galenus mixed equal portions of ice and boiling water to create a "neutral" temperature standard. (wikipedia.org)
  • Water Temperature data is collected daily from sources such as USGS and the US Army Corp of Engineers. (weather.gov)
  • Water temperature data is important in hydrologic forecasting for monitoring formation of ice on rivers and lakes in our regions. (weather.gov)
  • The triple point is a singular state with its own unique and invariant temperature and pressure, along with, for a fixed mass of water in a vessel of fixed volume, an autonomically and stably self-determining partition into three mutually contacting phases, vapour, liquid, and solid, dynamically depending only on the total internal energy of the mass of water. (wikipedia.org)
  • The measure is most commonly applied to the perceived outdoor temperature. (wikipedia.org)
  • GHCN-M version 3 replaced version 2 in GISS temperature analysis because NOAA/NCDC no longer updates version 2. (columbia.edu)
  • 2. Temperature at which the liquid and vapour phase in a fluid inclusion homogenize to monophase liquid or vapour. (encyclopedia.com)
  • This gives an indication of the minimum trapping temperature of the fluid inclusion. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Information in detail with tables and the original data sources are on NASA GISS temperature web pages . (columbia.edu)
  • Average impacts of La Niña and El Niño events on maximum (daytime) and minimum (night-time) temperatures across Australia are shown below in composite maps combining temperature data from 12 of the strongest 'classic' events. (bom.gov.au)
  • Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the chart in the lower right we show the 2013-2018 global land-ocean temperature anomalies. (columbia.edu)
  • In addition to greenhouse gas emissions, human emissions of particulate matter are another significant influence on global temperature. (nasa.gov)
  • Ocean surface temperatures worldwide shot up by 5-8°C for a few thousand years - but in the Arctic, it heated up even more, to a balmy 23°C (73°F). This caused a severe dieoff of little ocean critters called foraminifera , and a drastic change of the dominant mammal species. (ucr.edu)
  • At the start of the Eocene , the continents were close to where they are now, but the average annual temperature in arctic Canada and Siberia was a balmy 18° C (65° F). The dominant plants up there were palm trees and cycads. (ucr.edu)
  • temperatures are generally further below average during La Niña events than they are above average during El Niño events. (bom.gov.au)
  • In contrast, during El Niño events, reduced cloudiness means daytime temperatures are typically warmer than normal, exacerbating the effect of lower than normal rainfall by increasing evaporation. (bom.gov.au)
  • Note that the temperature patterns can vary significantly from one event to the next. (bom.gov.au)
  • The temperature effect of El Niño events are felt most strongly during winter and spring, while the effects of La Niña events tend to have the greatest impact between October and March. (bom.gov.au)
  • How you manage the effects of temperature of your workplace depends on whether it is indoors or outdoors and the normal operating temperature of that environment. (hse.gov.uk)
  • Since 1870, the temperature in Denmark has risen by about 1.5ºC, but the ten hottest years have occurred from the 1930s to present. (dmi.dk)
  • The present temperature level is the highest in the time series and the period 2001-2010 was the warmest decade since records began. (dmi.dk)
  • THE Underground Temperature Committee of the British Association have presented a summary (drawn up by Professor Everett) of the results contained in all their reports (fifteen in number) up to the present date, of which the following is an abridgment: The results are classified under the heads: A. Instruments. (scientificamerican.com)
  • The wind chill factor makes the weather feel colder under windy conditions than calm conditions even though a glass thermometer shows the same temperature. (wikipedia.org)