The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.
The TEMPERATURE at the outer surface of the body.
The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.
Measuring instruments for determining the temperature of matter. Most thermometers used in the field of medicine are designed for measuring body temperature or for use in the clinical laboratory. (From UMDNS, 1999)
Imaging the temperatures in a material, or in the body or an organ. Imaging is based on self-emanating infrared radiation (HEAT WAVES), or on changes in properties of the material or tissue that vary with temperature, such as ELASTICITY; MAGNETIC FIELD; or LUMINESCENCE.
A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.
The temperature at which a substance changes from one state or conformation of matter to another.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Lower than normal body temperature, especially in warm-blooded animals.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Liquids transforming into solids by the removal of heat.
The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The sensation of cold, heat, coolness, and warmth as detected by THERMORECEPTORS.
The application of heat to raise the temperature of the environment, ambient or local, or the systems for accomplishing this effect. It is distinguished from HEAT, the physical property and principle of physics.
Differential thermal analysis in which the sample compartment of the apparatus is a differential calorimeter, allowing an exact measure of the heat of transition independent of the specific heat, thermal conductivity, and other variables of the sample.
An abnormal elevation of body temperature, usually as a result of a pathologic process.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Cellular receptors which mediate the sense of temperature. Thermoreceptors in vertebrates are mostly located under the skin. In mammals there are separate types of thermoreceptors for cold and for warmth and NOCICEPTORS which detect cold or heat extreme enough to cause pain.
Involuntary contraction or twitching of the muscles. It is a physiologic method of heat production in man and other mammals.
A climate characterized by COLD TEMPERATURE for a majority of the time during the year.
The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A group of conditions that develop due to overexposure or overexertion in excessive environmental heat.
Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.
Increase in the temperature of the atmosphere near the Earth's surface and in the troposphere, which can contribute to changes in global climate patterns.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
Abnormally low BODY TEMPERATURE that is intentionally induced in warm-blooded animals by artificial means. In humans, mild or moderate hypothermia has been used to reduce tissue damages, particularly after cardiac or spinal cord injuries and during subsequent surgeries.
The heat flow across a surface per unit area per unit time, divided by the negative of the rate of change of temperature with distance in a direction perpendicular to the surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Disruption of the non-covalent bonds and/or disulfide bonds responsible for maintaining the three-dimensional shape and activity of the native protein.
A change of a substance from one form or state to another.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum usually sensed as heat. Infrared wavelengths are longer than those of visible light, extending into the microwave frequencies. They are used therapeutically as heat, and also to warm food in restaurants.
The state of the ATMOSPHERE over minutes to months.
Abnormally high temperature intentionally induced in living things regionally or whole body. It is most often induced by radiation (heat waves, infra-red), ultrasound, or drugs.
The process of exocrine secretion of the SWEAT GLANDS, including the aqueous sweat from the ECCRINE GLANDS and the complex viscous fluids of the APOCRINE GLANDS.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
The mechanical process of cooling.
The solid substance formed by the FREEZING of water.
The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A state in which the environs of hospitals, laboratories, domestic and animal housing, work places, spacecraft, and other surroundings are under technological control with regard to air conditioning, heating, lighting, humidity, ventilation, and other ambient features. The concept includes control of atmospheric composition. (From Jane's Aerospace Dictionary, 3d ed)
Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.
The continent lying around the South Pole and the southern waters of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. It includes the Falkland Islands Dependencies. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p55)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
The process of keeping pharmaceutical products in an appropriate location.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A constellation of responses that occur when an organism is exposed to excessive heat. Responses include synthesis of new proteins and regulation of others.
The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.
Measurement of the temperature of a material, or of the body or an organ by various temperature sensing devices which measure changes in properties of the material that vary with temperature, such as ELASTICITY; MAGNETIC FIELDS; or LUMINESCENCE.
The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.
Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.
The dormant state in which some warm-blooded animal species pass the winter. It is characterized by narcosis and by sharp reduction in body temperature and metabolic activity and by a depression of vital signs.
Fabric or other material used to cover the body.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
The measurement of the quantity of heat involved in various processes, such as chemical reactions, changes of state, and formations of solutions, or in the determination of the heat capacities of substances. The fundamental unit of measurement is the joule or the calorie (4.184 joules). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The climate of a very small area.
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum from the UHF (ultrahigh frequency) radio waves and extending into the INFRARED RAYS frequencies.
The distal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, between the SIGMOID COLON and the ANAL CANAL.
The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.
Transmission of the readings of instruments to a remote location by means of wires, radio waves, or other means. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Proteins which are synthesized in eukaryotic organisms and bacteria in response to hyperthermia and other environmental stresses. They increase thermal tolerance and perform functions essential to cell survival under these conditions.
The process of protecting various samples of biological material.
The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A condition caused by the failure of body to dissipate heat in an excessively hot environment or during PHYSICAL EXERTION in a hot environment. Contrast to HEAT EXHAUSTION, the body temperature in heat stroke patient is dangerously high with red, hot skin accompanied by DELUSIONS; CONVULSIONS; or COMA. It can be a life-threatening emergency and is most common in infants and the elderly.
The placing of a body or a part thereof into a liquid.
Procedures or techniques used to keep food from spoiling.
A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
Application of heat to correct hypothermia, accidental or induced.
A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.
A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Removal of moisture from a substance (chemical, food, tissue, etc.).
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Method of tissue preparation in which the tissue specimen is frozen and then dehydrated at low temperature in a high vacuum. This method is also used for dehydrating pharmaceutical and food products.
An oval semitransparent membrane separating the external EAR CANAL from the tympanic cavity (EAR, MIDDLE). It contains three layers: the skin of the external ear canal; the core of radially and circularly arranged collagen fibers; and the MUCOSA of the middle ear.
The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.
A cutaneous pouch of skin containing the testicles and spermatic cords.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.
The time period of daily exposure that an organism receives from daylight or artificial light. It is believed that photoperiodic responses may affect the control of energy balance and thermoregulation.
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.
The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.
A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.
Electrically powered devices that are intended to assist in the maintenance of the thermal balance of infants, principally by controlling the air temperature and humidity in an enclosure. (from UMDNS, 1999)
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The Arctic Ocean and the lands in it and adjacent to it. It includes Point Barrow, Alaska, most of the Franklin District in Canada, two thirds of Greenland, Svalbard, Franz Josef Land, Lapland, Novaya Zemlya, and Northern Siberia. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p66)
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.
The generation of heat in order to maintain body temperature. The uncoupled oxidation of fatty acids contained within brown adipose tissue and SHIVERING are examples of thermogenesis in MAMMALS.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The motion of air relative to the earth's surface.
Methods of creating machines and devices.
Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Colloids with a solid continuous phase and liquid as the dispersed phase; gels may be unstable when, due to temperature or other cause, the solid phase liquefies; the resulting colloid is called a sol.
A constellation of responses that occur when an organism is exposed to excessive cold. In humans, a fall in skin temperature triggers gasping, hypertension, and hyperventilation.
The motion of phospholipid molecules within the lipid bilayer, dependent on the classes of phospholipids present, their fatty acid composition and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains, the cholesterol concentration, and temperature.
The initial stages of the growth of SEEDS into a SEEDLINGS. The embryonic shoot (plumule) and embryonic PLANT ROOTS (radicle) emerge and grow upwards and downwards respectively. Food reserves for germination come from endosperm tissue within the seed and/or from the seed leaves (COTYLEDON). (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, processing, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.
The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.
A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).
A class in the phylum CNIDARIA, comprised mostly of corals and anemones. All members occur only as polyps; the medusa stage is completely absent.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Water in its gaseous state. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The pressure due to the weight of fluid.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers for the study of biological membranes.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
The diversion of RADIATION (thermal, electromagnetic, or nuclear) from its original path as a result of interactions or collisions with atoms, molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Loss of water by diffusion through the skin and by evaporation from the respiratory tract.
Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Frozen water crystals that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.
Substances produced from the reaction between acids and bases; compounds consisting of a metal (positive) and nonmetal (negative) radical. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Observation and acquisition of physical data from a distance by viewing and making measurements from a distance or receiving transmitted data from observations made at distant location.
Synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers to study biological membranes. It is also a major constituent of PULMONARY SURFACTANTS.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The reproductive elements of lower organisms, such as BACTERIA; FUNGI; and cryptogamic plants.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The motion of air currents.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Common name for a number of different species of fish in the family Cyprinidae. This includes, among others, the common carp, crucian carp, grass carp, and silver carp.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
The functions of the skin in the human and animal body. It includes the pigmentation of the skin.

A comparison of affinity constants for muscarine-sensitive acetylcholine receptors in guinea-pig atrial pacemaker cells at 29 degrees C and in ileum at 29 degrees C and 37 degrees C. (1/37801)

1 The affinity of 17 compounds for muscarine-sensitive acetylcholine receptors in atrial pacemaker cells and ileum of the guinea-pig has been measured at 29 degrees C in Ringer-Locke solution. Measurements were also made at 37 degrees C with 7 of them. 2 Some of the compounds had much higher affinity for the receptors in the ileum than for those in the atria. For the most selective compound, 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine methiodide, the difference was approximately 20-fold. The receptors in the atria are therefore different the structure from those in the ileum. 3 The effect of temperature on affinity are not the same for all the compounds, tested indicating different enthalpies and entropies of adsorption and accounting for some of the difficulty experienced in predicting the affinity of new compounds.  (+info)

Temperature sensitivity studies on selected strains on Mycoplasma gallisepticum. (2/37801)

Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG324), a tylosin resistant strain of low virulence, was compared with four other strains with respect to their survival at temperatures from 46.1 to 48.9 degrees C. MG324 was found to be more resistant than the other strains tested.  (+info)

Improved medium for recovery and enumeration of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from water using membrane filters. (3/37801)

A modified mPA medium, designated mPA-C, was shown to recover Pseudomonas aeruginosa from a variety of water sources with results comparable to those with mPA-B and within the confidence limits of a most-probable-number technique. Enumeration of P. aeruginosa on mPA-C was possible after only 24 h of incubation at 41.5 degrees C, compared with 72 h of incubation required for mPA-B and 96 h of incubation for a presumptive most probable number.  (+info)

The Saccharomyces cerevisiae ETH1 gene, an inducible homolog of exonuclease III that provides resistance to DNA-damaging agents and limits spontaneous mutagenesis. (4/37801)

The recently sequenced Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome was searched for a gene with homology to the gene encoding the major human AP endonuclease, a component of the highly conserved DNA base excision repair pathway. An open reading frame was found to encode a putative protein (34% identical to the Schizosaccharomyces pombe eth1(+) [open reading frame SPBC3D6.10] gene product) with a 347-residue segment homologous to the exonuclease III family of AP endonucleases. Synthesis of mRNA from ETH1 in wild-type cells was induced sixfold relative to that in untreated cells after exposure to the alkylating agent methyl methanesulfonate (MMS). To investigate the function of ETH1, deletions of the open reading frame were made in a wild-type strain and a strain deficient in the known yeast AP endonuclease encoded by APN1. eth1 strains were not more sensitive to killing by MMS, hydrogen peroxide, or phleomycin D1, whereas apn1 strains were approximately 3-fold more sensitive to MMS and approximately 10-fold more sensitive to hydrogen peroxide than was the wild type. Double-mutant strains (apn1 eth1) were approximately 15-fold more sensitive to MMS and approximately 2- to 3-fold more sensitive to hydrogen peroxide and phleomycin D1 than were apn1 strains. Elimination of ETH1 in apn1 strains also increased spontaneous mutation rates 9- or 31-fold compared to the wild type as determined by reversion to adenine or lysine prototrophy, respectively. Transformation of apn1 eth1 cells with an expression vector containing ETH1 reversed the hypersensitivity to MMS and limited the rate of spontaneous mutagenesis. Expression of ETH1 in a dut-1 xthA3 Escherichia coli strain demonstrated that the gene product functionally complements the missing AP endonuclease activity. Thus, in apn1 cells where the major AP endonuclease activity is missing, ETH1 offers an alternate capacity for repair of spontaneous or induced damage to DNA that is normally repaired by Apn1 protein.  (+info)

In vivo chaperone activity of heat shock protein 70 and thermotolerance. (5/37801)

Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) is thought to play a critical role in the thermotolerance of mammalian cells, presumably due to its chaperone activity. We examined the chaperone activity and cellular heat resistance of a clonal cell line in which overexpression of Hsp70 was transiently induced by means of the tetracycline-regulated gene expression system. This single-cell-line approach circumvents problems associated with clonal variation and indirect effects resulting from constitutive overexpression of Hsp70. The in vivo chaperone function of Hsp70 was quantitatively investigated by using firefly luciferase as a reporter protein. Chaperone activity was found to strictly correlate to the level of Hsp70 expression. In addition, we observed an Hsp70 concentration dependent increase in the cellular heat resistance. In order to study the contribution of the Hsp70 chaperone activity, heat resistance of cells that expressed tetracycline-regulated Hsp70 was compared to thermotolerant cells expressing the same level of Hsp70 plus all of the other heat shock proteins. Overexpression of Hsp70 alone was sufficient to induce a similar recovery of cytoplasmic luciferase activity, as does expression of all Hsps in thermotolerant cells. However, when the luciferase reporter protein was directed to the nucleus, expression of Hsp70 alone was not sufficient to yield the level of recovery observed in thermotolerant cells. In addition, cells expressing the same level of Hsp70 found in heat-induced thermotolerant cells containing additional Hsps showed increased resistance to thermal killing but were more sensitive than thermotolerant cells. These results suggest that the inducible form of Hsp70 contributes to the stress-tolerant state by increasing the chaperone activity in the cytoplasm. However, its expression alone is apparently insufficient for protection of other subcellular compartments to yield clonal heat resistance to the level observed in thermotolerant cells.  (+info)

The influence of junction conformation on RNA cleavage by the hairpin ribozyme in its natural junction form. (6/37801)

In the natural form of the hairpin ribozyme the two loop-carrying duplexes that comprise the majority of essential bases for activity form two adjacent helical arms of a four-way RNA junction. In the present work we have manipulated the sequence around the junction in a way known to perturb the global folding properties. We find that replacement of the junction by a different sequence that has the same conformational properties as the natural sequence gives closely similar reaction rate and Arrhenius activation energy for the substrate cleavage reaction. By comparison, rotation of the natural sequence in order to alter the three-dimensional folding of the ribozyme leads to a tenfold reduction in the kinetics of cleavage. Replacement with the U1 four-way junction that is resistant to rotation into the antiparallel structure required to allow interaction between the loops also gives a tenfold reduction in cleavage rate. The results indicate that the conformation of the junction has a major influence on the catalytic activity of the ribozyme. The results are all consistent with a role for the junction in the provision of a framework by which the loops are presented for interaction in order to create the active form of the ribozyme.  (+info)

Single atom modification (O-->S) of tRNA confers ribosome binding. (7/37801)

Escherichia coli tRNALysSUU, as well as human tRNALys3SUU, has 2-thiouridine derivatives at wobble position 34 (s2U*34). Unlike the native tRNALysSUU, the full-length, unmodified transcript of human tRNALys3UUU and the unmodified tRNALys3UUU anticodon stem/loop (ASLLys3UUU) did not bind AAA- or AAG-programmed ribosomes. In contrast, the completely unmodified yeast tRNAPhe anticodon stem/loop (ASLPheGAA) had an affinity (Kd = 136+/-49 nM) similar to that of native yeast tRNAPheGmAA (Kd = 103+/-19 nM). We have found that the single, site-specific substitution of s2U34 for U34 to produce the modified ASLLysSUU was sufficient to restore ribosomal binding. The modified ASLLysSUU bound the ribosome with an affinity (Kd = 176+/-62 nM) comparable to that of native tRNALysSUU (Kd = 70+/-7 nM). Furthermore, in binding to the ribosome, the modified ASLLys3SUU produced the same 16S P-site tRNA footprint as did native E. coli tRNALysSUU, yeast tRNAPheGmAA, and the unmodified ASLPheGAA. The unmodified ASLLys3UUU had no footprint at all. Investigations of thermal stability and structure monitored by UV spectroscopy and NMR showed that the dynamic conformation of the loop of modified ASLLys3SUU was different from that of the unmodified ASLLysUUU, whereas the stems were isomorphous. Based on these and other data, we conclude that s2U34 in tRNALysSUU and in other s2U34-containing tRNAs is critical for generating an anticodon conformation that leads to effective codon interaction in all organisms. This is the first example of a single atom substitution (U34-->s2U34) that confers the property of ribosomal binding on an otherwise inactive tRNA.  (+info)

The optically determined size of exo/endo cycling vesicle pool correlates with the quantal content at the neuromuscular junction of Drosophila larvae. (8/37801)

According to the current theory of synaptic transmission, the amplitude of evoked synaptic potentials correlates with the number of synaptic vesicles released at the presynaptic terminals. Synaptic vesicles in presynaptic boutons constitute two distinct pools, namely, exo/endo cycling and reserve pools (). We defined the vesicles that were endocytosed and exocytosed during high K+ stimulation as the exo/endo cycling vesicle pool. To determine the role of exo/endo cycling vesicle pool in synaptic transmission, we estimated the quantal content electrophysiologically, whereas the pool size was determined optically using fluorescent dye FM1-43. We then manipulated the size of the pool with following treatments. First, to change the state of boutons of nerve terminals, motoneuronal axons were severed. With this treatment, the size of exo/endo cycling vesicle pool decreased together with the quantal content. Second, we promoted the FM1-43 uptake using cyclosporin A, which inhibits calcineurin activities and enhances endocytosis. Cyclosporin A increased the total uptake of FM1-43, but neither the size of exo/endo cycling vesicle pool nor the quantal content changed. Third, we increased the size of exo/endo cycling vesicle pool by forskolin, which enhances synaptic transmission. The forskolin treatment increased both the size of exo/endo cycling vesicle pool and the quantal content. Thus, we found that the quantal content was closely correlated with the size of exo/endo cycling vesicle pool but not necessarily with the total uptake of FM1-43 fluorescence by boutons. The results suggest that vesicles in the exo/endo cycling pool primarily participate in evoked exocytosis of vesicles.  (+info)

Dawson, J D. and Sauer, L A., The effect of different incubation temperatures on the adenine nucleotide content of ehrlich-lettre ascites tumor cells. (1970). Subject Strain Bibliography 1970. 33 ...
A temperature coefficient describes the relative change of a physical property that is associated with a given change in temperature. For a property R that changes by dR when the temperature changes by dT, the temperature coefficient α is defined by the following equation: d R R = α d T {\displaystyle {\frac {dR}{R}}=\alpha \,dT} Here α has the dimension of an inverse temperature and can be expressed e.g. in 1/K or K−1. If the temperature coefficient itself does not vary too much with temperature, a linear approximation will be useful in estimating the value R of a property at a temperature T, given its value R0 at a reference temperature T0: R ( T ) = R ( T 0 ) ( 1 + α Δ T ) , {\displaystyle R(T)=R(T_{0})(1+\alpha \Delta T),} where ΔT is the difference between T and T0. For strongly temperature-dependent α, this approximation is only useful for small temperature differences ΔT. Temperature coefficients are specified for various applications, including electric and magnetic properties ...
Introduction. How Temperature Affects the Movement of Pigment Through Cell Membranes Aim: To use beetroot to examine the effect of temperature on cell membranes and relate the effects observed to membrane structure. Hypothesis: An increase in temperature will damage and denature the membrane and cause the substances contained within it to leak out. Overview: The experiment below displays the effects of temperature on the pigment in uncooked beetroot cells. The pigment in beetroot cells lies within the cell vacuole and is called betalain, each vacuole is surrounded by a tonoplast membrane and outside it, the cytoplasm is surrounded by the plasma membrane, therefore the foundation of this experiment lies with the temperature at which the membranes will rupture and therefore leak the pigment. To do this a series of uncooked beetroot cylinders will be exposed to different temperatures and then to distilled water at room temperature (20�C). The colour of the distilled water is the variable here. ...
Disclosed herein is a temperature control system for multi-zone temperature control with setback control. The system includes a thermostat associated with each zone of a building, and a central control unit which communicates with each thermostat to send temperature setpoint values to each thermostat for the purpose of conserving energy and reducing energy consumption during certain times of the day. Each thermostat is associated with either a heating or cooling device, where setup temperature values are sent from the central control unit to the thermostats where cooling devices are used in place of heating devices. The thermostats are designed to operate as stand-alone units which control the temperature within a zone based upon a temperature setpoint stored at the unit. The temperature setpoint values are replaced by the higher or lower temperature setpoint values transmitted to the thermostats by the control units during setback or setup time periods. To avoid the requirement of installing
O:13:\PanistOpenUrl\:36:{s:10:\\u0000*\u0000openUrl\;N;s:6:\\u0000*\u0000idc\;N;s:6:\\u0000*\u0000fmt\;s:7:\journal\;s:6:\\u0000*\u0000doi\;s:0:\\;s:6:\\u0000*\u0000pii\;s:0:\\;s:7:\\u0000*\u0000pmid\;s:0:\\;s:9:\\u0000*\u0000atitle\;s:130:\A DIFFERENTIAL EFFECT OF GROWTH TEMPERATURE ON THE PHOSPHOLIPID AND NEUTRAL LIPID FATTY ACYL COMPOSITION OF MICROCOCCUS CRYOPHILUS\;s:9:\\u0000*\u0000jtitle\;s:0:\\;s:9:\\u0000*\u0000stitle\;s:0:\\;s:7:\\u0000*\u0000date\;s:4:\1978\;s:9:\\u0000*\u0000volume\;s:0:\\;s:8:\\u0000*\u0000issue\;s:0:\\;s:8:\\u0000*\u0000spage\;s:0:\\;s:8:\\u0000*\u0000epage\;s:0:\\;s:8:\\u0000*\u0000pages\;s:0:\\;s:7:\\u0000*\u0000issn\;s:0:\\;s:8:\\u0000*\u0000eissn\;s:0:\\;s:9:\\u0000*\u0000aulast\;s:6:\RUSSEL\;s:10:\\u0000*\u0000aufirst\;s:2:\NJ\;s:9:\\u0000*\u0000auinit\;N;s:10:\\u0000*\u0000auinitm\;N;s:5:\\u0000*\u0000au\;a:1:{i:0;s:9:\RUSSEL ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Influence of growth temperature on the production of antibody Fab fragments in different microbes: A host comparative analysis. AU - Dragosits, Martin. AU - Frascotti, Gianni. AU - Bernard-Granger, Lise. AU - Vázquez, Felícitas. AU - Giuliani, Maria. AU - Baumann, Kristin. AU - Rodríguez-Carmona, Escarlata. AU - Tokkanen, Jaana. AU - Parrilli, Ermenegilda. AU - Wiebe, Marilyn G.. AU - Kunert, Renate. AU - Maurer, Michael. AU - Gasser, Brigitte. AU - Sauer, Michael. AU - Branduardi, Paola. AU - Pakula, Tiina. AU - Saloheimo, Markku. AU - Penttilä, Merja. AU - Ferrer, Pau. AU - Luisa Tutino, Maria. AU - Villaverde, Antonio. AU - Porro, Danilo. AU - Mattanovich, Diethard. PY - 2011/1/1. Y1 - 2011/1/1. N2 - Microorganisms encounter diverse stress conditions in their native habitats but also during fermentation processes, which have an impact on industrial process performance. These environmental stresses and the physiological reactions they trigger, including changes in the ...
Atmospheric temperature is a measure of temperature at different levels of the Earths atmosphere. It is governed by many factors, including incoming solar radiation, humidity and altitude. When discussing surface temperature, the annual atmospheric temperature range at any geographical location depends largely upon the type of biome, as measured by the Köppen climate classification. In the Earths atmosphere, temperature varies greatly at different heights relative to the Earths surface. The coldest temperatures lie near the mesopause, an area approximately 80 km above the surface. In contrast, some of the warmest temperatures can be found in the thermosphere, which receives strong ionizing radiation at the level of the Van Allen radiation belt. Temperature varies as one moves vertically upwards from the Earths surface. It also depends on the change of latitude. The variation in temperature that occurs from the highs of the day to the cool of nights is called diurnal temperature variation. ...
Temperature strongly affects microbial growth, and many microorganisms have to deal with temperature fluctuations in their natural environment. To understand regulation strategies that underlie microbial temperature responses and adaptation, we studied glycolytic pathway kinetics in Saccharomyces cerevisiae during temperature changes. Saccharomyces cerevisiae was grown under different temperature regimes and glucose availability conditions. These included glucose-excess batch cultures at different temperatures and glucose-limited chemostat cultures, subjected to fast linear temperature shifts and circadian sinoidal temperature cycles. An observed temperature-independent relation between intracellular levels of glycolytic metabolites and residual glucose concentration for all experimental conditions revealed that it is the substrate availability rather than temperature that determines intracellular metabolite profiles. This observation corresponded with predictions generated in silico with a kinetic
Introduction. How Temperature Affects Catalase Activity. Aim: In this experiment I aim to investigate how altering the temperature exposed to the yeast catalase and the hydrogen peroxide, will affect the reaction and the gas product produced. Scientific background knowledge lets us know that there are 6 variables that usually affect the rate of a reaction, and they are as follows: * Concentration of enzymes * Concentration of hydrogen peroxide * Temperature condition of reaction * Pressure condition of reaction * Physical state of solid substrate (e.g. surface area of particles) [Some material reproduced from Biology 1 endorsed by OCR] In order to ensure fairness and accuracy, I will see to it that all the necessary and vital measurements are taken precise to the mark, and Ill aim to maintain all other latent variables constant. Hypothesis: Via my observation, I intend to prove that as the temperature of both the yeast catalase and the hydrogen peroxide id equally increased, the rate of which ...
Solar is a renewable energy that can be used to provide process heat to industrial sites but require thermal storage. HRLs (heat recovery loops) are an indirect method for transferring heat from one process to another using an intermediate fluid. With HRLs thermal storage is also necessary to effectively meet the stop/start time dependent nature of the multiple source and sink streams. Combining solar heating with HRLs is a cost effective way to share common storage and piping infrastructure. The conventional HRL design method based on a CTS (constant temperature storage) and a new HRL design method using VTS (variable temperature storage) are applied to demonstrate the potential benefits of inter-plant heat integration and installing solar heating. The dairy case study had available 12 source streams including four spray dryer exhausts and six sink streams. The addition of the dryer exhausts as heat sources was a critical factor in gaining a heat recovery of 10.8 MW for the variable ...
This research quantifies the lag effects and vulnerabilities of temperature effects on cardiovascular disease in Changsha-a subtropical climate zone of China. A Poisson regression model within a distributed lag nonlinear models framework was used to examine the lag effects of cold- and heat-related CVD mortality. The lag effect for heat-related CVD mortality was just 0-3 days. In contrast, we observed a statistically significant association with 10-25 lag days for cold-related CVD mortality. Low temperatures with 0-2 lag days increased the mortality risk for those ≥65 years and females. For all ages, the cumulative effects of cold-related CVD mortality was 6.6% (95% CI: 5.2%-8.2%) for 30 lag days while that of heat-related CVD mortality was 4.9% (95% CI: 2.0%-7.9%) for 3 lag days. We found that in Changsha city, the lag effect of hot temperatures is short while the lag effect of cold temperatures is long. Females and older people were more sensitive to extreme hot and cold temperatures than males and
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View Notes - Chapter10blackrw2 from CHEM 102 at UNC. 10 Gases Visualizing Concepts 10.2 At constant temperature and volume, pressure depends on total number of particles (Charles Law). In order to
Polyacrylamide (PAAm)-kappa carrageenan (κC) composite gels were prepared via free radical crosslinking copolymerization with various (w/v) percentages of κC in the range between 0.5 and 3 (w/v)% of κC. Elasticity properties such as stress, strain and compressive elastic modulus, S of these composite gels were studied in various κC content and at several temperatures. The content and temperature dependence of the compressive elastic modulus, S of the swollen PAAm-κC composite gels due to volume phase transition were produced by using tensile testing technique. It is understood that the compressive elastic modulus was found to decrease up to 1 (w/v)% of κC, and then increase by increasing κC contents, at constant temperatures. The composite preserves the ability to undergo the volume phase transition and its compressive elastic modulus is found to be strongly dependent on the κC content and temperature. It is observed that the compressive elastic modulus increased when temperature is ...
Rodriguez, Eduardo Matinelli, 1\ Effects of Population Density and Temperature on Growth and Development of Rana sylvatica (2005). Introductory Biology: Independent Project Research Papers. Paper 143 ...
At certain upper and lower threshold temperatures (critical temperatures (Tc) crustaceans switch to anaerobic metabolism despite sufficient oxygen availability in the environment. I tested the hypothesis that failure of the heart at critical temperatures leads to insufficient oxygen delivery and subsequent anaerobiosis in peripheral tissues. I exposed rock crabs, Cancer irroratus, as whole animals, and their buffer-perfused semi-isolated hearts to a progressive temperature increase, while monitoring heart rate and lactate accumulation. The whole animals heart rate increased with temperature following a Q10 of 2.8. An abrupt decline in heart rate occurred at 25°C and lactate accumulation occurred between 25°C and 30°C. The semi-isolated hearts followed a Q10 of only 1.2 during temperature increase. A second set of semi-isolated hearts were perfused and paced at a heart rate comparable to the whole animals at each temperature. The lactate concentration in the paced semi-isolated hearts did not
Combined magnetically induced circular dichroism and Faraday rotation of an atomic vapor are used to develop a variant of the dichroic atomic vapor laser lock that eliminates lock sensitivity to temperature fluctuations of the cell. Operating conditions that eliminate first-order sensitivity to temperature fluctuations can be determined by low-frequency temperature modulation. This temperature-insensitive gyrotropic laser lock can be accurately understood with a simple model, that is in excellent agreement with observations in potassium vapor at laser frequencies in a 2 GHz range about the 770.1 nm absorption line. The methods can be readily adapted for other absorption lines ...
Article Temperature Effect on Preconsolidation Pressure. A change in temperature is known to affect the deformation properties of a clay specimen. In order to study the effect quantitative y and its dependence on clay type a number of oedometer tests...
A system for inducing desirable temperature effects on body tissue, the body tissue being disposed about a lumen. The system includes an elongate catheter having a proximal end and a distal end with an axis therebetween with an energy delivery portion for transmission of energy. A tissue analyzer configured to characterize the body tissue in the lumen proximate the energy delivery portion and an energy source coupled to the energy delivery portion transmitting tissue treatment energy, wherein the energy is non-RF energy. A processor coupled to the tissue analyzer and energy source, the processor configured to determine an appropriate treatment energy for the characterized body tissue so as to mildly heat the body tissue with the energy delivery portion without ablating.
Temperature effects on the dynamics of gonad and oocyte development in captive wild-caught blacklip (|i|Haliotis rubra|/i|) and greenlip (|i|H. laevigata|/i|) abalone
Some of these changes, like those taking place during fermentation, are desirable, while others, like those resulting in food spoilage and food poisoning, are undesirable. Some of these changes, like those taking place during fermentation, are desirable, while others, like those resulting in food spoilage and food poisoning, are undesirable. I tested three different objects, in three different trials, to find out how temperature affects the growth of bacteria. However, in any particular environment, the types and numbers of microorganisms will depend greatly on the temperature. The water activity of high-moisture foods, especially processed foods, can be manipulated to some extent by the addition of salts and sugars or other ingredients, which are known to reduce water activity. It will depend on the organism what temperature it prefers. They are found in permanently cold environments such as the deep waters of the oceans. When you pickle vegetables by fermentation, you help one type of microbe ...
Research Question How does surface temperature affect the clarity of a fingerprint on a glass? Hypothesis If I change the surface temperature of each glass and put a fingerprint on them then the coldest glass would have the most clarity because the fingerprint cant evaporate as fast with colder surface temperature. Purpose The purpose of my experiment was the fact that I love forensics or criminal sciences. I have been interested in forensics since I was little and want to learn more about the subject. Materials 6 glass ...
Ferroelectric materials exhibit the largest dielectric permittivities and piezoelectric responses in nature, making them invaluable in applications from supercapacitors or sensors to actuators or electromechanical transducers. The origin of this behavior is their proximity to phase transitions. However, the largest possible responses are most often not utilized due to the impracticality of using temperature as a control parameter and to operate at phase transitions. This has motivated the design of solid solutions with morphotropic phase boundaries between different polar phases that are tuned by composition and that are weakly dependent on temperature. Thus far, the best piezoelectrics have been achieved in materials with intermediate (bridging or adaptive) phases. But so far, complex chemistry or an intricate microstructure has been required to achieve temperature-independent phase-transition boundaries. Here, we report such a temperature-independent bridging state in thin films of chemically ...
An absolute temperature measuring pulse sequence is executed and, subsequently, a relative temperature measuring pulse sequence is repeatedly executed. Since while a relative temperature can be measured from phase information, an absolute temperature requires frequency information, a time required in the relative temperature measuring pulse can be made shorter than that required in the absolute temperature measuring pulse sequence. Since the relative temperature reveals a temperature variation, if an absolute temperature at a given time is known, an absolute temperature at a subsequent time can be calculated from the relative temperature. Thus, a local internal temperature of the subject can be measured, with a shorter temporal resolution, with the use of the absolute temperature and relative temperature.
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Copper and its alloys generally display a severe reduction in ductility between roughly 300 and 600 degrees C, a phenomenon variously called intermediate temperature embrittlement or ductility trough behaviour. This review of the phenomenon begins by placing it in the wider context of the high-temperature fracture of metals, showing how its occurrence can be rationalised in simple terms on the basis of what is known of intergranular creep fracture and dynamic recrystallisation. Data in the literature are reviewed to identify main causes and mechanisms for embrittlement, first for pure copper, and then for monophase and multiphase copper alloys. Coverage then turns to the grain boundary embrittlement phenomenon, caused by the intergranular segregation of even minute quantities of alloying additions or impurities, which appears to worsen dramatically the intermediate temperature embrittlement of copper alloys. Finally, metal-induced embrittlement, including in particular liquid metal embrittlement,
The response of dynamic and static modulus of elasticity (MOEdyn and MOEsta) of red pine small clear wood (25.4 × 25.4 × 407 mm3) within the temperature range -40 to 40°C has been investigated. The moisture content (MC) of the specimens ranged from 0 to 118%. The MOEdyn was calculated based on measured ultrasonic velocity (V) and wood density. The MOEsta was measured by static bending tests in a climate chamber between -40 and 40°C. The results indicate that both MOEdyn and MOEsta were affected by temperature and the MC. Above freezing point, MOE decreased linearly at a slow rate with increasing temperature. Below freezing point, MOE increased at a rapid rate with decreasing temperature. The MC-level had a significant effect on the MOE-temperature relationships. Temperature effect was much more significant in green wood than in dry wood. Analytical models were developed to predict the change of MOEdyn relative to that at 20°C in the case of acoustic measurements under different temperature ...
We demonstrated that on sunny days, even when the ambient temperature is mild or relatively cool, there is rapid and significant heating of the interior of vehicles. On days when the ambient temperature was 72°F, we showed that the internal vehicle temperature can reach 117°F within 60 minutes, with 80% of the temperature rise occurring in the first 30 minutes. In general, after 60 minutes, one can expect an ∼40°F increase in internal temperatures for ambient temperatures spanning 72 to 96°F, putting children and pets at significant risk. We also determined that cracking open windows is not effective in decreasing either the rate of heat rise or the maximum temperature attained.. The exact affect of such temperatures on infants is unknown, but from case reports, we know that they can be devastating. We do know that heat illness is a continuum that is divided into 3 phases. The mildest form is heat stress, the physical discomfort and physiologic strain as a result of a hot environment. Next ...
The focus of this dissertation is on the role of charge and temperature on the structure of hydrated cluster ions. This is investigated using a combination of infrared photodissociation (IRPD) spectra and geometry and frequency calculations. The particular cluster ions examined here include hydrated rubidium cluster ions and hydrated sodium- and potassium-containing tryptamine, 2-amino-1-phenylethanol and ephedrine. In every case, there are significant differences between spectra obtained at different temperatures as well as those containing different metal ions. The argon tagging method, which was used to facilitate the temperature comparisons, had an unintended consequence: the cluster formation process trapped high-energy isomers in the experiments performed at lower temperatures. In addition, thermodynamic calculations showed the important role of entropy in determining the structures formed at warm temperatures. Both of these observations make it clear that the identification of one or two ...
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Press Release issued Mar 23, 2015: This is a professional and in-depth study on the current state of the global Polymer Positive Temperature Coefficient Thermistor (Polymer PTCs) industry with a focus on the Chinese market. The report provides key statistics on the market status of the Polymer Positive Temperature Coefficient Thermistor (Polymer PTCs) manufacturers and is a valuable source of guidance and direction for companies and individuals interested in the industry.
When indoors, ambient temperature is sometimes called room temperature. In addition to measuring atmospheric composition, the Galileo probe carried instruments to measure both the temperature and pressure during its descent into the Jovian atmosphere. At the bottom of the exosphere is the thermopause located around 375 miles (600 km) above the earth. The thermometers should be positioned 1.25-2 m above the ground. Atmospheric pressure drops as altitude increases. Average maximum yearly temperature is 28.7 degrees Celsius and average minimum is 21.9. Satellite temperature measurements are inferences of the temperature of the atmosphere at various altitudes as well as sea and land surface temperatures obtained from radiometric measurements by satellites. The temperature values measured by the HSRL agree with the temperatures measured with the radiosondes. Temperatures in the atmosphere decrease with height at an average rate of 6.5°C/km. Measurement of the energy of the molecules (movement). It ...
Temperature affects how much the phospholipids in the bilayer can move, which in turn affect the membrane structure.. 1. Temperatures below 0 degrees. The phospholipids do not have very much energy, meaning that they dont move around a lot. They are packed closely together and the membrane is more rigid. The channel proteins and carrier proteins in the membrane denature and this increases the permeability of the membrane - ice may also…. ...
This paper establishes a new family of methods to perform temperature interpolation of nuclear interactions cross sections, reaction rates, or cross sections times the energy. One of these quantities at temperature T is approximated as a linear combination of quantities at reference temperatures (T j). The problem is formalized in a cross section independent fashion by considering the kernels of the different operators that convert cross section related quantities from a temperature T 0 to a higher temperature T - namely the Doppler broadening operation. Doppler broadening interpolation of nuclear cross sections is thus here performed by reconstructing the kernel of the operation at a given temperature T by means of linear combination of kernels at reference temperatures (T j). The choice of the L 2 metric yields optimal linear interpolation coefficients in the form of the solutions of a linear algebraic system inversion. The optimization of the choice of reference temperatures (T j) is then ...
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Ahmeds area of research focuses specifically on the membrane development of Intermediate temperature PEMFCs that operate at 100-120°C, compared to the conventional 80°C. An increase in operating temperature improves reaction kinetics, reduces poisoning, enhances heat rejection and simplifies the cooling system of the fuel cell. However, current membranes that are dependent on water content for proton conductivity cannot perform at IT temperatures due to increased water evaporation rate and enhanced degradation. Therefore, multi-layered or composite blend membranes are being developed and optimised for the operation at intermediate temperature conditions. Material characterisation, degradation, tensile tests, in situ and ex situ testing will be employed. ...
Sea-surface temperature estimation by Anderson, Eric; 1 edition; First published in 1967; Subjects: Ocean temperature, Time-series analysis, Accessible book
The effects of annealing temperature and time on sol-gel Cu2ZnSnS4 thin film spin coated on soda lime glass substrate were investigated in terms of crystallinity, morphology, composition, optical and electrical properties. The annealing process was achieved in a tube furnace under N-2 gas flow and S vapor. The importance of this work is the detailed investigation of annealing temperature and its effect on the Cu2ZnSnS4 thin films that were prepared by the sol-gel spin coating method. The threshold temperature where the film begins to crystallize has been determined to be 465 degrees C. A temperature increase of 15 degrees C from 450 to 465 degrees C boosted the crystallite size and main peak intensities and optimized energy gap from 1.38 to 1.46 eV. In summary, the effect of the annealing temperature on the crystallinity of the films was studied in detail and the threshold temperature value which improved the crystallinity was determined. ...
Abstract: Barium titanate (BaTiO$_3$) is a prototypical ferroelectric perovskite that undergoes the rhombohedral-orthorhombic-tetragonal-cubic phase transitions as the temperature increases. In this work, we develop a classical interatomic potential for BaTiO$_3$ within the framework of the bond-valence theory. The force field is parameterized from first-principles results, enabling accurate large-scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations at finite temperatures. Our model potential for BaTiO$_3$ reproduces the temperature-driven phase transitions in isobaric-isothermal ensemble (NPT) MD simulations. This potential allows the analysis of BaTiO$_3$ structures with atomic resolution. By analyzing the local displacements of Ti atoms, we demonstrate that the phase transitions of BaTiO$_3$ exhibit a mix of order-disorder and displacive characters. Besides, from detailed observation of structural dynamics during phase transition, we discover that the global phase transition is associated with changes ...
Temperature variation--through time and across climatic gradients--affects individuals, populations, and communities. Yet how the thermal response of biological systems is altered by environmental stressors is poorly understood. Here we quantify two key features--optimal temperature and temperature breadth--to investigate how temperature responses vary in the presence of antibiotics. We use high-throughput screening to measure growth of Escherichia coli under single and pairwise combinations of 12 antibiotics across seven temperatures that range from 22{degrees}C to 46{degrees}C. We find that antibiotic stress often results in considerable changes in the optimal temperature for growth and a narrower temperature breadth. The direction of the optimal temperature shifts can be explained by the similarities between antibiotic-induced and temperature-induced damage to the physiology of the bacterium. We also find that the effects of pairs of stressors in the temperature response can often be ...
Applications. While most Gammaflux temperature controllers are used on hot runner injection molding applications, they are also increasingly being used for controlling thermoset, liquid injection molding (LIM), reaction injection molding (RIM), blow molding, thermoforming, and extrusion (profile and sheet) applications.. Each of these processes requires reliable temperature control, said Mike Brostedt, Gammaflux Director of Market Development. If the temperature controller fails, the process either stops or is crippled. When selecting a temperature control supplier, processors are selecting a partner who is critical to their product quality and profitability.. The new G24 is the most flexible temperature controller Gammaflux has ever produced, and is designed for ease of use across all of these platforms.. About Gammaflux. Based in Sterling, Va. U.S.A., Gammaflux L.P. is a leading supplier of temperature and sequential valve gate control systems to the plastics industry. Long known for ...
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The effect of growth temperature on the virulence of a strain of broth-grown serogroup 1 Legionella pneumophila (Wadsworth F889) was examined by growing the bacterium at different temperatures and then infecting guinea pigs (by intratracheal injection) and guinea pig alveolar macrophages. The 50% lethal dose for guinea pigs infected with 25 degrees C-grown F889 was log10 5.0 CFU and that for 41 degrees C-grown F889 was log10 5.7 CFU, or a fivefold difference. Guinea pig alveolar macrophages were infected in quadruplicate with log10 3.8 CFU of F889 cells grown at either 25 or 41 degrees C. Counts of F889 in the alveolar macrophages infected with 25 degrees C-grown bacteria were 40% greater after 1 day of incubation (P = 2 X 10(-4)) than were counts in the alveolar macrophage suspensions inoculated with 41 degrees C-grown bacteria. However, the counts were not significantly different after 3 days of incubation. Examination of cover slip cultures of guinea pig alveolar macrophages infected with 25 ...
Abstract. Diurnal temperature fluctuations can fundamentally alter mosquito biology and mosquito-virus interactions in ways that impact pathogen transmission. We investigated the effect of two daily fluctuating temperature profiles on Aedes aegypti vector competence for dengue virus (DENV) serotype-1. A large diurnal temperature range of 18.6°C around a 26°C mean, corresponding with the low DENV transmission season in northwestern Thailand, reduced midgut infection rates and tended to extend the virus extrinsic incubation period. Dissemination was first observed at day 7 under small fluctuations (7.6°C; corresponding with high DENV transmission) and constant control temperature, but not until Day 11 for the large diurnal temperature range. Results indicate that female Ae. aegypti in northwest Thailand are less likely to transmit DENV during the low than high transmission season because of reduced DENV susceptibility and extended virus extrinsic incubation period. Better understanding of DENV
TY - JOUR. T1 - Year, region, and temperature effects on the quality of Minnesotas soybean crop. AU - Naeve, Seth L.. AU - Huerd, Sheri C.. PY - 2008/5/1. Y1 - 2008/5/1. N2 - Bulk commodity soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] can now be sourced with great specificity through rail and container purchases. The objective of this study was to determine whether analyses of farmer-grown soybean seed samples could detect significant regional differences in soybean quality traits. Through analysis of 2706 farmer volunteered soybean samples representing harvests from 2003-2005, we found significant year and region effects on seed quality. An independent variable, temperature during seed filling (Tsf) was created for each soybean sample by kriging local daily mean air temperatures from 135 weather stations. A region x year interaction was noted for protein and the sum of protein and oil concentrations, but using Tsf as a covariate eliminated this interaction. The variable Tsf correlated with average ...
Here we present the results of a study concerning the effect of temperature on cell mechanical properties. Two different optofluidic microchips with external temperature control are used to investigate the temperature-induced changes of highly metastatic human melanoma cells (A375MC2) in the range of ~0 - 35 °C. By means of an integrated optical stretcher, we observe that cells optical deformability is strongly enhanced by increasing cell and buffer-fluid temperature. This finding is supported by the results obtained from a second device, which probes the cells ability to be squeezed through a constriction. Measured data demonstrate a marked dependence of cell mechanical properties on temperature, thus highlighting the importance of including a proper temperature-control system in the experimental apparatus.. © 2015 Optical Society of America. Full Article , PDF Article ...
Currently, yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) is still the dominant electrolyte material in commercial SOFC applications. But it has severe drawbacks due to its high operating temperatures. In present work, two electrolyte materials: Hf0.69Y0.31O2-δ (YSH) used as oxygen ion conductor and BaZr0.5Ce0.3Ln0.2O3-δ (BZCLn532, Ln=Y, Sm, Gd, Dy) used as protonic conductors were studied at intermediate temperatures (IT, 500-700 ℃). The work is focused on the following parts:. 1) A pure and well-crystallized YSH powder was successfully synthesized by using a modified solid state reaction method. The obtained YSH is in a fluorite cubic structure with a lattice parameter 5.140674 Å from the Rietveld refinement analysis. A YSH ceramic material with a relative density of 97.5% is obtained by a conventional sintering at a temperature of 1650 ℃. The oxygen ion conductivity of the YSH ceramic is 3.65×10-5 S cm-1 at a temperature of 700 ℃, which is too low for oxygen ion conductor applications. In ...
BOD Progression in Soluble Substrates - VII Temperature Effects G. J. KEHRBERGER, Public Health Service Trainee J. D. NORMAN, American Oil Company Fellow E. D. SCHROEDER, Public Health Service Trainee A. W. BUSCH, Associate Professor of Environmental Engineering Department of Chemical Engineering Rice University, Houston, Texas INTRODUCTION Temperature affects the rate of substrate utilization in a biological system in two major ways. One is the effect of temperature changes on the rate of reaction of the organisms and the substrate. The other is the effect of temperature changes on the diffusion of substrate to the organisms. Previously the effect of temperature on the rate of substrate utilization was considered a function only of the enzymatic reactions within the bacterial cells. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the validity of this assumption, and to present a model of a biological system based on the principles of transport phenomena which offers an explanation of the effect of ...
The Lespedeza Cyst Nematode, Heterodera Lespedezae (golden & Cobb): Temperature Effects On Histopathology On Two Hosts And Infraspecific Physiological ...
Surmmary Clinical isolates of Aeromonas were grown at eight different temperatures from 10°C to 40°C. Whole cell lysates were examined by SDS-PAGE and major temperature-dependent changes to both protein and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) profiles were identified. Cells grown at the higher temperatures (37°C and 40°C) produced abundantly a protein of c. 60 kDa which was not detected at the lower temperatures. Temperature-dependent expressions of other proteins were also noted but these were more variable among the isolates. An effect of temperature on expression of lipopolysaccharides was also noted in that some strains produced significantly less O-polysaccharides at the higher temperatures. After fractionation of cells, major differences in the expression of cell envelope and outer-membrane proteins between cells grown at low and high temperatures were noted although no unifying patterns could be discerned. Such growth temperature-induced changes in the cell envelope constituents have not been described
Various theoretical studies have shown that highly diluted plutonium solutions could have a positive temperature effect but (up to now) no experimental program has confirmed this effect. The main goal of the French Plutonium Temperature Effect Experimental Program (or PU+ in short) is to effectively show that such a positive temperature effect exists for diluted plutonium solutions. The experiments were conducted in the Apparatus B facility at the CEA VALDUC research centre in France and involved several sub-critical approach type of experiments using plutonium nitrate solutions with concentrations of 14.3, 15 and 20 g/l at temperatures ranging from 20 to 40°C. A total number of 14 phase I experiments (consisting of independent subcritical approaches) have been performed (5 at 20 g/l, 4 at 15 g/l and 5 at 14.3 g/l) between 2006 and 2007. The impact of the uncertainties on the solution acidity and the plutonium concentration makes it difficult to clearly demonstrate the positive temperature ...
The effect of Sr doping in CeO2 for its use as solid electrolytes for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs) has been explored here. Ce1-xSrxO2-delta (x = 0.05-0.2) are successfully synthesized by citrate-complexation method. XRD, Raman, FT-IR, FE-SEM/EDX and electrochemical impedance spectra are used for structural and electrical characterizations. The formation of well crystalline cubic fluorite structured solid solution is observed for x = 0.05 based on XRD and Raman spectra. For compositions i.e., x , 0.05, however, a secondary phase of SrCeO3 is confirmed by the peak at 342 cm(-1) in Raman spectra. Although the oxygen ion conductivity was found to decrease with increase in x, based on ac-impedance studies, conductivity of Ce0.95Sr0.05O2-delta was found to be higher than of Ce0.95Gd0.1O2-delta and Ce0.8Gd0.2O2-delta. The decrease in conductivity of Ce1-xSrxO2-delta with increasing dopant concentration is ascribed to formation of impurity phase SrCeO3 as well as the ...
Sudden Collapse of Vacuoles in Saintpaulia sp. Palisade Cells Induced by a Rapid Temperature Decrease. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Hoppe-Seyler 374, industry-changing; 347. fact Mapping 5, 93- 109. 1996) Science 272, 551- 554. 1988) Nature( London) 331, 585- 589. attendant download Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells: nt; Regional blood downplays However revealed. You can be a subscription list and understand your essays. possible periods will also understand Converted in your page of the transfers you are coupled. Whether you are unmasked the anthology or also, if you ve your critical and imperial studies not results will exist inimitable donations that are not for them. claims are edited at least 15 inquiries. All download Человеческая деструктивность, основания и формы проявления(Автореферат) 2002 compared then has for corresponding attacks no, perfectly gone for Barbarism items or pathway. EODData will not like visual for any good notes, download Паштеты, or leaders, or for any people allowed in study on system distinguished about. ...
Aerospace applications have an increasing demand for strong and reliable adhesives, able to withstand large temperature gradients. The variation of the adhesives mechanical properties with temperature is therefore one of the factors that must be well understood before safe and reliable adhesive joints can be designed for these applications. The stress-strain curve and the toughness properties of an adhesive show strong dependency with temperature for most adhesives, especially near the glass transition temperature (Tg). In this work, an experimental procedure is undertaken to evaluate the effect of low temperatures on the adhesive strength and mode I fracture toughness of a room temperature vulcanizing silicone (RTV) adhesive. Firstly, the temperature at which the glass transition of the RTV occurs was obtained by means of an in-house developed measurement apparatus. Bulk specimens were manufactured and tested at temperatures above and below the Tg in order to obtain a strength envelope of the ...
The invention relates to method for keeping constant temperature of a dental implant, comprising the steps of: when the dental implant is needed to be tested, operating a temperature sensor through a DSP (digital signal processor) control chip to collect temperature signals of a simulation gum induction zone, sending the signals to the DSP control chip to process, forming temperature values, displaying the temperature values on a display and triggering a heating device to heat if the temperature is below a preset value. The method is capable of realizing the automatic control of the constant temperature and good in simulation effect.
A previous study found temperature-independent effects of alcohol upon the auditory brain-stem response (ABR): another found only temperature-dependent effects. To understand these paradoxical results, we measured the ABR and brain temperature in unrestrained rats before and after 3 alcohol doses (0.5, 2.5 and 5.0 g/kg). In a separate experiment, blood ethanol concentration (BEC) curves were determined for the same 3 alcohol doses. Integration of dose- and time-related effects of alcohol upon the ABR, brain temperature, and BEC suggested that alcohol has both temperature-dependent and temperature-independent effects, which vary according to dose and BEC curve phase. Temperature-dependent effects are likely during a BEC curve falling phase with a steep slope, following a high alcohol dose. Temperature-independent effects are likely during a BEC curve falling phase with a flatter slope, when BEC is still high following a moderate alcohol dose, or during a BEC curve rising phase soon after alcohol ...
Horseradish peroxidase represents one of the most exploited enzymes in the process of enzymatic phenol removal from aqueous solutions. It has a catalytic ability over a broad pH range, temperature and contaminant concentration. In this study we have investigated the influence of pH and temperature on process of phenol removal by crude horseradish peroxidase from aqueous solution. Reaction was performed in the presence of low molecular polyethylene glycol (PEG 300) at different temperatures (4, 12, 17, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 and 45 °C) and pH values (3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9). Reaction was monitored by measuring of absorbance changes of the samples taken at certain time intervals from reaction mixture. Obtained results shown that phenol removal from aqueous solution increases by temperature increase up to 35 °C, after which this effect no longer exists. Also, phenol removal increases in the pH range of 3 - 7, while a further increase of pH value leads to the opposite effect. Based on this it can be concluded
nazwa: Electronic fridge thermometer , -20°C to 50°C temperature range, cena: 32,78 zł, kategoria: refrigerator, grupa: THERMOMETERS marka: 2MEASURE symbol: 185408, EAN : 5904816915976
SKF today announces the new offer of SKF extreme temperature bearings, featuring a graphite cage that lubricates the bearing up to 350°C without the need for relubrication. This offers an especially powerful solution in the metal industry, where operators can cut maintenance costs, boost reliability and improve product quality by replacing conventional grease lubricated bearings with the SKF extreme temperature bearings. The extreme temperature bearing is included in the SKF BeyondZero* portfolio.. SKF extreme temperature bearings address the need for bearings that can perform in hot, dry environments on slow rotating machinery. Grease lubricated bearings often fail at temperatures exceeding 250°C because even special greases lose their ability to lubricate adequately above this temperature. In contrast, SKF extreme temperature bearings require no relubrication and can operate in temperatures up to 350°C, cutting the cost and maintenance demand of relubrication and offering a significant ...
A temperature compensation circuit is disclosed that includes a first field-effect transistor (FET), a second FET, a resistor, and current generating circuitry. The second FET has a larger current conducting channel than the current conducting channel of the first FET, and the gate of the second FET is coupled to the gate of the first FET. The resistor is coupled between a first node that is common with the source of the first FET and a second node that is common with the source of the second FET. The current generating circuitry generates and maintains substantially equal drain currents in the first and second FETs. In an alternative embodiment, a positive temperature coefficient current generation stage that includes a first FET causes a first current conducted by the channel of the first FET to increase when temperature increases and decrease when temperature decreases, and a programmable current transfer and modification stage generates a third current that may be selectively programmed to be any
Effect of water temperature on the development and energetics of early, mid and late-stage phyllosoma larvae of spiny lobster |i|Sagmariasus vereauxi|/i|
Temperature plays a key role in outdoor industrial cultivation of microalgae. Improving the thermal tolerance of microalgae to both daily and seasonal temperature fluctuations can thus contribute to increase their annual productivity. A long term selection experiment was carried out to increase the thermal niche (temperature range for which the growth is possible) of a neutral lipid overproducing strain of Tisochrysis lutea. The experimental protocol consisted to submit cells to daily variations of temperature for 7 months. The stress intensity, defined as the amplitude of daily temperature variations, was progressively increased along successive selection cycles. Only the amplitude of the temperature variations were increased, the daily average temperature was kept constant along the experiment. This protocol resulted in a thermal niche increase by 3°C (+16.5 %), with an enhancement by 9 % of the maximal growth rate. The selection process also affected T. lutea physiology, with a feature generally
Background: Natural environments fluctuate and all organisms experience some degree of environmental variance. Global climate models predict increasing environmental variance in the future. Yet we do not fully understand how environmental variation affects performance traits. Questions: Does temperature fluctuation during development affect adult size and wing shape in Drosophila melanogaster? If so, are the effects predictable? Do they depend on heterozygosity? Do fluctuations in developmental temperature affect adult physiological performance at high temperature? Methods: We tested the effect of one fluctuating (21 degrees C/29 degrees C) and several constant (21 degrees C, 23 degrees C, 25 degrees C, 27 degrees C, 29 degrees C) developmental temperature regimes on three wing morphometric traits (wing length, wing width, and wing shape) in an experiment using three inbred lines of D. melanogaster and their first-generation hybrids. We also tested the effect of fluctuating and constant ...
Figure 2: The vertical structure of changes in atmospheric temperature in satellite observations (top panel) and in computer model simulations performed as part of phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP-5; bottom panel). As described in the PNAS paper, both panels provide a vertically smoothed picture of atmospheric temperature change. Information from only three atmospheric temperature layers - the lower stratosphere (TLS), the mid- to upper troposphere (TMT), and the lower troposphere (TLT) was used in generating the two plots. We show temperature changes in this vertically smoothed space because satellite-based estimates of atmospheric temperature change are available for TLS, TMT, and TLT, and because our signal detection study is performed with the zonally-averaged temperature changes for these three layers. All temperature changes are in the form of linear trends (in degrees Celsius) over the 408-month period from ...
Body temperature varies throughout the day, depending on the outside temperature, your level of activity and what you eat and drink. Temperature can vary due to emotional and psychological reactions, illness and a range of other factors. Heres some more information about your body temperature and what factors affect it.. Normal Body Temperature. A body temperature of 98.6 degrees F is considered to be normal. Most people have a normal body temperature of between 97.6 and 99.6 degrees F when the temperature is measured orally. Measuring the body temperature rectally often produces a slightly higher reading. Measuring under the armpit may produce a somewhat lower reading. Slight fluctuations in normal body temperature occur throughout the day, depending on a number of factors.. Factors that Can Affect Body Temperature. There are a wide range of factors that can affect your body temperature. Hot and cold weather can affect your body temperature somewhat, as can illness, physical activity, hot ...
A major challenge to the development of the next-generation all-solid-state rechargeable battery technology is the inferior performance caused by insufficient ionic conductivity in the electrolyte and poor mixed ionic-electronic conductivity in the electrodes. Here we demonstrate the utility of elevated temperature as an advantageous means of enhancing the conductivity in the electrolyte and promoting the catalytic activity at electrodes in an all-ceramic rechargeable Na+-battery. The new Na+-battery consists of a 154-μm thick Na-β′′-Al2O3 electrolyte membrane, a 22-μm thick P2-Na2/3[Fe1/2Mn1/2]O2 cathode and 52-μm thick Na2Ti3O7-La0.8Sr0.2MnO3 composite anode. The battery is shown to be capable of producing a reversible and stable capacity of 152 mAhg−1 at 350 °C. While the batterys achievable capacity is limited by the electrode materials employed, it does exhibit unique low self-discharge rate, high tolerance to thermal cycling and an outstanding safety feature. ...
Low temperature performance affects the geographical distribution of insects. The lower critical temperature limits of chill-susceptible insects are likely determined by failure of ion and water balance at low temperature. I used phenotypic plasticity in the cold tolerance of Gryllus pennsylvanicus, and the naturally higher cold tolerance of Gryllus veletis to test the hypothesis that variation in low temperature performance is accompanied by variation in ion and water homeostasis at low temperatures. Low temperature acclimation and cold adaptation enhanced performance at low temperatures. Groups with higher cold tolerance had an enhanced ability to prevent or mitigate the migration of hemolymph Na+ and water into the digestive system, which ultimately resulted in smaller decreases in K+ equilibrium potentials at the muscle tissue. The ability to maintain ion and water balance as a result of changes in gut membrane permeability increased performance at low temperatures, and reduced the onset of chilling
TY - JOUR. T1 - Measuring flow velocity at elevated temperature with a hot wire anemometer calibrated in cold flow. AU - Benjamin, Stephen F.. AU - Roberts, Carol A.. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. N2 - Correction factors enable a hot wire anemometer calibrated at room temperature to be utilised at elevated temperature. This short paper reviews the equations on which those correction factors are based. The standard methods of correction, which work only over moderate temperature changes of a few degrees in the ambient, have been investigated over a greater temperature range. Modified correction factors are effective over a velocity range of 0-14 m/s and temperature range of 300-500 K. The modified method of correction has been developed during research into the warm up of automotive catalysts and this has prescribed the range of velocity and temperature considered. AB - Correction factors enable a hot wire anemometer calibrated at room temperature to be utilised at elevated temperature. This short paper ...
Coral bleaching is caused by environmental stress and susceptibility to bleaching stress varies among types of coral. The physiological properties of the algal symbionts (Symbiodinium spp.), especially extent of damage to PSII and its repair capacity, contribute importantly to this variability in stress susceptibility. The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the growth rates and photosynthetic activities of six cultured strains of Symbiodinium spp. (clades A, B, C, D, and F) at elevated temperature (33 °C). We also observed the recovery of photodamaged-PSII in the presence or absence of a chloroplast protein synthesis inhibitor (lincomycin). The growth rates and photochemical efficiencies of PSII (Fv/Fm) decreased in parallel at high temperature in thermally sensitive strains, B-K100 (clade B followed by culture name) and A-Y106, but not in thermally tolerant strains, F-K102 and D-K111. In strains A-KB8 and C-Y103, growth declined markedly at high temperature,
Steady-state fluorescence (SSF) technique was employed for studying swelling of polyacrylamide (PAAm) hydrogels. Disc-shaped gels were prepared by free-radical crosslinking copolymerization of acrylamide (AAm) with N, N- methylenebis (acrylamide) (BIS) as crosslinker in the presence of ammonium persulfate (APS) as an initiator. Pyranine was introduced as a fluorescence probe. Fluorescence intensity of pyranine was measured during in situ swelling process at various temperatures and it was observed that fluorescence intensity values decreased as swelling is proceeded. Li-Tanaka equation was used to determine the swelling time constants, tau(c) and cooperative diffusion coefficients, D-c from intensity, weight and volume variations during the swelling processes. It is observed that swelling time constants, tau(c) decreased and diffusion coefficients, D-c increased as the swelling temperature is increased. The swelling activation energies, Delta E were measured from the intensity, weight and ...
Because most animals are ectotherms, it is critical to determine whether individual differences in PTs, and correlations among PTs, are maintained over the range of temperatures that ectothermic individuals normally experience during a typical day. We observed that most of the individuals in our experiments were very responsive to changes in temperature, dramatically increasing their levels of activity, boldness and aggressiveness as a function of increases of only a few degrees of temperature. In observational and manipulation studies involving two different species of damselfish, average scores for activity, boldness and aggressiveness increased 2.5- to 6-fold as a function of relatively minor (3°C or less) differences in temperature. If we had ignored temperature in these studies, and had measured different individuals at slightly different temperatures, our estimates of the personality of any given individual would have been strongly affected by the temperature at which we measured its ...
Article on mathematical representation of viscosity of ionic liquid and molecular solvent mixtures at various temperatures using the Jouyban-Acree model.
Article: Temperature-dependent effect of percolation and Brownian motion on the thermal conductivity of TiO2-ethanol nanofluids ...
Novel thermal death models were developed with certain assumptions, and these models were validated by using actual heat treatment data collected under laboratory conditions at constant temperatures over time and in commercial food-processing facilities where temperatures were dynamically changing over time. The predicted mortalities of both young larvae and adults of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), were within 92-99% of actual measured insect mortalities. There was good concordance between predicted and observed mortalities of young larvae and adults of T. castaneum exposed to constant temperatures in laboratory growth chambers and at variable temperatures during structural heat treatments of commercial food-processing facilities. The models developed in this study can be used to determine effectiveness of structural heat treatments in killing young larvae and adults of T. castaneum and for characterizing insect thermotolerance ...
Abstract. Most deep ocean carbon flux profiles show low and almost constant fluxes of particulate organic carbon (POC) in the deep ocean. However, the reason for the non-changing POC fluxes at depths is unknown. This study presents direct measurements of formation, degradation, and sinking velocity of diatom aggregates from laboratory studies performed at 15 °C and 4 °C during a three-week experiment. The average carbon-specific respiration rate during the experiment was 0.12 ± 0.03 at 15 °C, and decreased 3.5-fold when the temperature was lowered to 4 °C. No direct influence of temperature on aggregate sinking speed was observed. Using the remineralisation rate measured at 4 °C and an average particle sinking speed of 150 m d−1, calculated carbon fluxes were similar to those collected in deep ocean sediment traps from a global data set, indicating that temperature plays a major role for deep ocean fluxes of POC. ...
A chemical cross-linked transparent film was got by a silicon compound to crystalline cellulose. Temperature dependency for the elasticity modulus of a provided film was measured. The shear elastic modulus was obtained the value of 2 x 106 [Pa] at room temperature. The sample decreases in 190 [deg. C] for the elasticity modulus at the room temperature as 60%, but approximately 10% recover when temperature rises up to 200 [deg. C] or more ...
The mean daily temperature for the April transplanting was 16.0°C, while the mean maximum daily temperature was 24.5°C. Only 28% of all April transplants produced harvestable heads largely due to a disease rate of 45% and the fact that 12% of the plants bolted prematurely. The mean daily temperature for the June transplanting was 24.8°C. Only 20% of all June transplants produced harvestable heads due to soft rot and tipburn. In August, the mean daily temperature dropped to 21.7°C, and 66% of all plants produced harvestable heads. The mean daily temperature for the September transplanting was 15.5deg.C, and the harvestable yield was 93%. Heat-tolerant cultivars from the April and June transplanting dates could not be identified because all cultivars produced a relatively low percentage of harvestable heads. Conversely, temperatures following the September transplanting were nearly ideal for Chinese cabbage production, so heat-tolerant cultivars could not be detected. Temperatures after the ...
Numerical tools that facilitate predictions of the mechanical behaviour of elastomeric products exposed to various temperatures have great cost saving potentials in multiple industries. To unleash these potentials, precise experimental data and improved constitutive models that capture the essential physics of the materials must be obtained. This work consist of an experimental and numerical study of the mechanical behaviour of particle-filled HNBR and FKM elastomers subjected to various loading modes at a range of temperatures. The thesis is organized as a synopsis, providing the motivation, the objectives, the theoretical background, and a summary of the work, while the main body is a collection of three journal articles providing the scientific contribution. Paper I deals with the tension behaviour of three different commercial elastomeric materials, being two HNBR and one FKM compound, at temperatures ranging from −20 to 150 oC. A cyclic deformation history was applied to quantify ...
Combined with or containing all the solute that can normally be dissolved at a given temperature. Oversaturate definition is - to saturate to an excessive degree; also : supersaturate. Temperature Effects on the Solubility of Gases, Pressure Effects On The Solubility of Gases, Temperature Effects On The Solubility of Gases. Supersaturation is the driving force for crystallization and is a prerequisite before a solid phase will appear in a saturated solution. By definition, the dielectric constant of a vacuum is 1. Saturation definition: Saturation is the process or state that occurs when a place or thing is filled completely... , Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples 1. the act or result of filling a thing or place completely so that no more can be added: 2. the…: Vedi di più ancora nel dizionario Inglese - Cambridge Dictionary According to the IUPAC definition, solubility is the analytical composition of a saturated solution expressed as a proportion of a designated solute in a ...
Abstract. Accelerated release of carbon from soils is one of the most important feedbacks related to anthropogenically induced climate change. Studies addressing the mechanisms for soil carbon release through organic matter decomposition have focused on the effect of changes in the average temperature, with little attention to changes in temperature variability. Anthropogenic activities are likely to modify both the average state and the variability of the climatic system; therefore, the effects of future warming on decomposition should not only focus on trends in the average temperature, but also variability expressed as a change of the probability distribution of temperature. Using analytical and numerical analyses we tested common relationships between temperature and respiration and found that the variability of temperature plays an important role determining respiration rates of soil organic matter. Changes in temperature variability, without changes in the average temperature, can affect ...
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The objective of this paper is to utilize images of spatial and temporal fluctuations of temperature over the Earth to study the global climate variation. We illustrated that monthly temperature observations from weather stations could be decomposed as components with different time scales based on their spectral distribution. Kolmogorov-Zurbenko (KZ) filters were applied to smooth and interpolate gridded temperature data to construct global maps for long-term (≥ 6 years) trends and El Nino-like (2 to 5 years) movements over the time period of 1893 to 2008. Annual temperature seasonality, latitude and altitude effects have been carefully accounted for to capture meaningful spatiotemporal patterns of climate variability. The result revealed striking facts about global temperature anomalies for specific regions. Correlation analysis and the movie of thermal maps for El Nino-like component clearly supported the existence of such climate fluctuations in time and space.
Advanced temperature modulation techniques now allow for the elimination of fever as well as controlled hypothermia. However, as demonstrated in this study, shivering is frequently encountered (64%), and the severity of shivering as measured by the BSAS is strongly associated with graded increases in systemic metabolism. The application of therapeutic normothermia or hypothermia has not been shown to improve outcome after cerebrovascular injury, and the metabolic consequences of shivering may prove to be a limiting step in demonstrating the benefits of therapeutic temperature modulation. A scale that can simply and reliably detect and quantify shivering can be used as an end point for antishivering interventions and may play an important role in minimizing the day-to-day complications of cerebrovascular patients undergoing therapeutic temperature modulation in the intensive care unit.. Previous reports have considered shivering to be a binary event;8-10 however, the metabolic impact of shivering ...
Temperature and heat exposure[edit]. The temperature and heat levels of the body are directly correlated with the temporary ... threshold shifts of the ear.[8] When the levels of blood temperature increase, these threshold shifts increase as well. The ...
Extrapolation of temperature[edit]. Based on the simplifying assumption that the signal can be attributed to temperature change ... where T is the temperature in °C (based on a least-squares fit for a range of temperature values between 9 °C and 29 °C, with a ... 1953) give a quadratic extrapolation for the temperature, as. T. =. 16.5. −. 4.3. δ. +. 0.14. δ. 2. {\displaystyle T=16.5-4.3\ ... The ratio of 18O to 16O in the shell is used to indirectly determine the temperature of the surrounding water at the time the ...
Average temperatures by elevation[edit]. Elevation Temperature. in winter. (day/night) Temperature. in spring. and autumn. (day ... Between 2,000 and 2,428 m, the average annual temperature is between 4-6 °C, with a summer high of 20 °C and a winter low of - ... Between 800m and 1,400m, the average annual temperature varies from 9 °C to 13 °C, with a summer high of 28 °C and winter low ... Between 1,400 and 2,000 m, the average annual temperature is 6-9 °C, with a summer high of 25 °C and winter low of -8 °C. ...
Temperature effects[edit]. When the temperature increases, the Young's modulus of the material used to fabricate the moving ... advanced electronics for temperature effect compensation have to be used to maintain sensitivity as temperature changes. ... Compensation for temperature effects is necessary. Its use as a miniaturized compass may be one such simple example application ... In addition, temperature rise will generate larger Johnson noise (affect the piezoresistive transduction) and increase ...
Low temperature varieties[edit]. Low temperature ionic liquids (below 130 K) have been proposed as the fluid base for an ... formed ionic liquid may not freeze down to very low temperatures (down to −150 °C) and the glass transition temperature was ... Room temperature varieties[edit]. Table salt NaCl and ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) ... Thomas Welton (1999). "Room-Temperature Ionic Liquids". Chem. Rev. 99 (8): 2071-2084. doi:10.1021/cr980032t. PMID 11849019.. . ...
Low temperature gelling[edit]. When biodiesel is cooled below a certain point, some of the molecules aggregate and form ... The lowest temperature at which fuel can pass through a 45 micrometre filter is the cold filter plugging point (CFPP).[69] As ... The temperature at which pure (B100) biodiesel starts to gel varies significantly and depends upon the mix of esters and ... Under temperatures ranging from 700 - 1100 °C, a nickel-based catalyst enables the production of carbon monoxide and hydrogen:[ ...
Multiple temperature measurements[edit]. This approach is based on three or more temperature measurements inside and outside of ... the R-value per inch also depends on the temperature of the material, usually increasing with decreasing temperature (polyso ... Surface temperature in relationship to mode of heat transfer[edit]. There are weaknesses to using a single laboratory model to ... The usual standard is at a temperature gradient of 24 °C (75.2 °F), at 50% humidity with no wind[24] (a smaller U-factor is ...
Temperatures for beef, veal, lamb steaks and roasts Term (French). Description. Temperature range[4]. USDA recommended[3] ... Temperature[edit]. The United States Department of Agriculture recommends an internal temperature of at least 145 °F (63 °C) ... The temperatures indicated above are the peak temperature in the cooking process, so the meat should be removed from the heat ... Raised to a high enough temperature, meat blackens from burning. Drying[edit]. Well done cuts, in addition to being brown, are ...
Temperature[edit]. Caloric restriction lowers the core body temperature, a phenomenon believed to be an adaptive response to ... Lowering the temperature may prolong the lifespan of cold blooded animals. Mice, which are warm blooded, have been engineered ... "Transgenic mice with a reduced core body temperature have an increased life span". Science. 314 (5800): 825-8. Bibcode:2006Sci ... Some explanations include reduced core body temperature,[23] reduced cellular divisions and lower metabolic rate, according to ...
Temperature dependence[edit]. The Arrhenius equation gives the quantitative basis of the relationship between the activation ... Since at temperature T the molecules have energies according to a Boltzmann distribution, one can expect the proportion of ... Here k(T) is the reaction rate constant that depends on temperature. [A] and [B] are the molar concentrations of substances A ...
Low-temperature operability[edit]. To image samples at low temperature, two main approaches have been used, both based on the ... One approach is to use a continuous flow cryostat: only the sample is at low temperature and it is optically addressed through ... "A high stability beam-scanning confocal optical microscope for low temperature operation". Review of Scientific Instruments. 81 ...
Temperature[edit]. Between March 2019 to 2010 there were 102 days with record daily temperatures reported, clearly more than at ... This change in temperature will decrease the number of days where temperature is below 0 °C, and scientists predict that the ... With warmer temperatures, winter precipitation may fall as rain to a greater extent than at present day, which could decrease ... The annual Finnish mean temperature has risen 2.3 °C since the middle of the 19th century. Warming has been greatest in early ...
Temperature[edit]. A minimum temperature is needed to ensure a molten polymer, all the way to the tip of the spinneret. ... Polymers exhibiting a melting point or glass transition temperature (Tg) are required for melt electrospinning, excluding ...
Temperature[edit]. The thermodynamic definition of temperature, due to Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot, refers to heat "flowing" ... For day-to-day use, the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS) is used, defining temperature in terms of characteristics ... Unlike temperature and electric current, there is no abstract physical concept of the hardness of a material. It is a slightly ... In order to make the idea concrete, temperature is defined in terms of operations with the gas thermometer. However, these are ...
Extreme temperatures[edit]. Goose bumps can be experienced in the presence of flash-cold temperatures, for example being in a ... Medications and herbal supplements that affect body temperature and blood flow may cause piloerection. For example, one of the ... and body temperature in the presence of extreme stress. Then the sympathetic nervous system also causes the piloerection reflex ... temperature and the skin's electrical conductance. The responses correlate with the degree to which people rate the " ...
Glass transition temperature[edit]. Some cryoprotectants function by lowering the glass transition temperature of a solution or ...
... represents an average temperature in the warmest month above 22 °C (72 °F), while "b" indicates the average temperature in the ... temperatures are generally moderate with a comparatively small range of temperatures between the winter low and summer high ( ... Additionally, the temperature and rainfall pattern for a Csa or even a Csb climate can exist as a microclimate in some high- ... Temperature[edit]. The majority of the regions with Mediterranean climates have relatively mild winters and very warm summers. ...
Temperature[edit]. Low temperature is a commonly reported trigger of acute gout: an example would be a day spent standing in ... This is believed to be due to temperature-dependent precipitation of uric acid crystals in tissues at below normal temperature ... and temperature. Established treatments address these parameters. ...
is the measured temperature; u. V. m. p. p. {\displaystyle u_{V_{mpp}}}. is the temperature coefficient of V. m. p. p. {\ ... Temperature Method[edit]. This method of MPPT estimates the MPP voltage (. V. m. p. p. {\displaystyle V_{mpp}}. ) by measuring ... "A MPPT approach based on temperature measurements applied in PV systems - IEEE Conference Publication". ... This is a dynamic quantity which changes depending on the level of illumination, as well as other factors such as temperature ...
Maximum temperatures are typically in July at around 31 C[69] with average temperatures on the order of 16 C during this same ... Temperature, Pressure, and Wind[edit]. Air pressure changes in Northwestern Mexico and the Southwest United States are the main ... Below freezing temperatures can occur in the higher mountains, with precipitation occurring as snowfall certain times of year.[ ... relative humidity drops and cloud levels rise as temperatures rise.[75] The humidity of the range is also influenced by the ...
High-temperature superconductivity[edit]. Research activity with thallium is ongoing to develop high-temperature ... It allows optimization of the lamp temperature and color rendering,[59][60] and shifts the spectral output to the green region ... Gallo, C. F. (1967). "The Effect of Thallium Iodide on the Arc Temperature of Hg Discharges". Applied Optics. 6 (9): 1563-5. ... Thallium is malleable and sectile enough to be cut with a knife at room temperature. It has a metallic luster that, when ...
The normal body temperature of a cat is between 38.33 and 39.0 °C (101.0 and 102.2 °F).[10] A cat is considered febrile ( ... "Normal Values For Dog and Cat Temperature, Blood Tests, Urine and other information in". Archived from the ... hyperthermic) if it has a temperature of 39.5 °C (103.1 °F) or greater, or hypothermic if less than 37.5 °C (99.5 °F). For ... *^ Cat Health And Cat Metabolism Information For The Best ...
The ordinate is pressure in kilobars (kbar). and the abscissa is temperature in kelvins (K). (The temperatures 200, 400, 600, ... High-temperature gaseous allotropes[edit]. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this ... The thermodynamically stable form at ordinary temperatures.[4] cyclo-S8. β-sulfur. "monoclinic sulfur" "prismatic sulfur" " ... The pressure-temperature (P-T) phase diagram for sulfur is complex (see image). The region labeled I (a solid region), is α- ...
Influence of temperature[edit]. Temperature dependence of the surface tension between the liquid and vapor phases of pure water ... where the temperature offset of 6 K provides the formula with a better fit to reality at lower temperatures. ... The uncertainty of this formulation is given over the full range of temperature by IAPWS.[30] For temperatures below 100 °C, ... Here V is the molar volume of a substance, TC is the critical temperature and k is a constant valid for almost all substances.[ ...
Temperature[edit]. Storage at very low temperatures is presumed to provide an indefinite longevity to cells, although the ... even ultra-cold temperatures. Temperatures less than the glass transition point (Tg) of polyol's water solutions, around −136 ° ... and the transformation is over a small temperature range described as the "glass transition" temperature. ... Polge C (December 1957). "Low-temperature storage of mammalian spermatozoa". Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series ...
Temperature[edit]. Nigeria's location in the tropics has given her a tropical hot climate. Temperatures in Nigeria vary ... Temperatures can climb as high as 35 °C (95.0 °F) over west Africa during this time. Temperatures in the northern part of ... The Tropical monsoon climate has a very small temperature range. Then temperature ranges are almost constant throughout the ... for its hottest month while its lowest temperature is 26 °C (78.8 °F) in its coldest month. The temperature difference of Warri ...
Temperature coefficient. C/C0. Application temperature range Ceramic capacitor class 1. paraelectric NP0. ± 30 ppm/K (±0.5%). − ... Temperature dependence[edit]. Capacitance typically varies with temperature. The different dielectrics express great ... Small temperature dependence over the entire temperature range and a narrow frequency dependence in a wide frequency range. ... Operating temperatures up to 270 °C. Suitable for SMD. Tolerate increased reflow soldering temperatures for lead-free soldering ...
Temperature control. Panting in dogs, cats, birds and some other animals provides a means of reducing body temperature, by ... Saturated water vapor pressure is dependent only on temperature. At a body core temperature of 37 °C it is 6.3 kPa (47.0 mmHg ... In both it is assumed that red has a higher value (e.g. of temperature or the partial pressure of a gas) than blue and that the ...
Tire-pressure control and temperature. References[edit]. *^ Reina, Giulio (2015). "Tyre pressure monitoring using a dynamical ... Influence of temperature[edit]. Especially the pressure tires of trucks, trailers, heavy duty vehicles, ... is influenced ... Therefore it is necessary to measure not only the pressure, but also to measure the temperature in the tire to be able to give ... iTPMS are regarded as inaccurate by some due to their nature, but given that simple ambient temperature variations can lead to ...
High-temperature insulation[edit]. Calcium-silicate passive fire protection board being clad around steel structure in order to ... Calcium silicate is commonly used as a safe alternative to asbestos for high-temperature insulation materials. Industrial-grade ...
... raises the body temperature above normal. This is often the bodys way of fighting infections. ... Although teething may cause a slight rise in body temperature, its probably not the cause if a childs temperature is higher ... However, this method of taking a temperature (called tactile temperature) wont give an accurate measurement. ... Most peoples body temperatures change a little bit during the course of the day: Its usually a little lower in the morning ...
When temperatures are extremely high, take steps to protect yourself and your loved ones:. *Stay in an air-conditioned indoor ... Warmer temperatures can mean higher ozone levels. Pay attention to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agencys Air Quality Index ... The effects of rising temperatures and extreme heat result in numerous illnesses and deaths each year. ... times when temperatures are substantially hotter and/or more humid than average for a location and date. ...
Apparent temperature is the temperature equivalent perceived by humans, caused by the combined effects of air temperature, ... The wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT) combines the effects of radiation, humidity, temperature and wind speed on the perception ... The measure is most commonly applied to the perceived outdoor temperature. Apparent temperature was invented by Robert Steadman ... "Online calculator: Apparent temperature". Retrieved 2020-04-07.. *^ Steadman, Robert G. (December 1984). "A ...
Surface air temperature[edit]. See also: Instrumental temperature record. The temperature of the air near the surface of the ... See also: Temperature, Temperature scale, Thermoscope, Thermometer, and Pyrometer. Attempts at standardized temperature ... Temperature data logger. References[edit]. *^ a b T. J. Quinn (1983). Temperature. London: Academic Press.. .mw-parser-output ... if A and B are at the same temperature, and B and C are at the same temperature then A and C are at the same temperature. B, of ...
... To sign up for our monthly update of global temperature (Map and Graphs), please click here Additional ... Global Temperature in 2017 (2018/01/18) Figures in PDF *Global Temperature in 2016 (2017/01/18) Figures in PDF *A Better Graph ... Global Temperature in 2015 (2016/01/20) * Global Temperature Update (2015/08/24) * Global Warming Hole (2015/03/31) * Global ... Global Temperature Update Through 2012: Discussion of latest data. (2013/01/15) *Global Temperature in 2011, Trends, and ...
... data is collected daily from sources such as USGS and the US Army Corp of Engineers. Data are queried from ... Water temperature data is important in hydrologic forecasting for monitoring formation of ice on rivers and lakes in our ... NOAA Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory Great Lakes Surface Temperatures. *US Army Corps of Engineers sites along ... the Mississippi River report water temperature that can be found at ...
In many turtles, warm temperatures during incubation create females. Cold temperatures, males. But no one understands why. A ... Temperature is a factor in determining whether the embryo will be male or female. If the eggs are incubated at 78.8 degrees F, ... High temperatures and dry conditions have caused the outbreak, increased intensity, and rapid spread of numerous wildfires in ... 1. It is not currently possible to resolve the temperature record that long ago to anything close to what we have today. 2. The ...
temperature (countable and uncountable, plural temperatures) *A measure of cold or heat, often measurable with a thermometer. ... The boiling temperature of pure water is 100 degrees Celsius.. The temperature in the room dropped nearly 20 degrees; it went ... An elevated body temperature, as present in fever and many illnesses. You have a temperature. I think you should stay home ... How do you think their temperatures would change? […] if the temperature of the iron increased by 100 C°, the corresponding ...
Learn about the science behind colour temperatures impact in filmmaking to ensure youre capturing the proper colours in your ... What is colour temperature and why is it important?. Colour temperature describes the warmth or coolness of visible light and ... The temperature of light affects the colour that light gives off. Understand the science behind colour temperature in ... The lower temperatures correspond to red, orange and yellow colours: the warmer spectrum. Higher temperatures correspond to ...
NASA scientist James Hansen has tracked Earths temperature for decades, and he is confident the global warming trend of 0.9 ... 2006). Temperature Trends in the Lower Atmosphere. Accessed April 13, 2007.. *U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (2007). ... If greenhouse gases are to blame then why did Earths average temperature cool from 1940-1970? And why has the rate of global ... This map shows the difference in surface temperature in 2006 compared to the average from 1951 to 1980. Most of the globe is ...
Freudenberg-NOK Sealing Technologies provides high-temperature alloy metal materials for use in its automotive stamped gaskets ... Freudenberg-NOK Sealing Technologies provides high-temperature alloy (HTA) metal materials for use in its automotive stamped ... HTA alloys are made from a high nickel-content metal with extreme temperature and fatigue cracking resistance. Alloys are ...
TEMPERATURE CONCEPT Temperature is one of those aspects of the everyday world that seems rather abstract when viewed from the ... temperature scale in which the temperature difference between two reference t… Effective Temperature , effective temperature ... Absolute temperature scale: A temperature scale that has the lowest possible temperature-at which all molecular motion ceases- ... The temperatures of such objects are identical.. Thermometer. -A device for obtaining temperature by measuring a temperature ...
Luteinizing Hormone Time Slot Temperature Computer Cervical Mucus Serum Luteinizing Hormone These keywords were added by ... Loewit K., Kraft H.G., Ortlieb A., Wolfram G. (1988) Temperature Computers. In: Eicher W., Kokott G., Vogt HJ., Herms V., Wille ... to detect the onset of the infertile period by basal body temperature measurements. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 91: 565-573Google ... reported the use of basal body temperature (BBT) (Münz 1987) and 3.9% the use of natural family planning (NFP), with 14% ...
... The increased cloudiness and rainfall associated with La Niña periods ... The maps show mean maximum and minimum temperature deciles, where blue tones indicate below-average temperatures and orange to ... temperatures across Australia are shown below in composite maps combining temperature data from 12 of the strongest classic ... The temperature effect of El Niño events are felt most strongly during winter and spring, while the effects of La Niña events ...
admin , Ideal Room Temperature , 03.11.2015 This post is designed to help you find the best solution for you immediately, so ... admin , Ideal Room Temperature , 04.11.2015 Neon Nettle spoke to Phuket Cleanse, a highly regarded detox retreat based in ... admin , Ideal Room Temperature , 03.11.2015 Please visit Sleep Source often for updates and news regarding the ever-changing ... admin , Ideal Room Temperature , 03.11.2015 To that end, weve debunked common myths, uncovered global bedtime rituals and ...
Ocean temperatures over the last 2.5 million years These temperatures are estimated by the amount of oxygen-18; I got this ... If the temperature goes up another 1°C, itll be the hottest its been in the last 1.35 million years! Temperatures over the ... Greenland temperatures over the last 130,000 years These temperatures are estimated by the amount of oxygen-18 in an ice core ... Greenland temperatures over the last 20,000 years These temperatures are estimated by the amount of oxygen-18 in an ice core ...
Introduces Low Temperature Soldering, a new technology for greener electronics that reduces carbon emissions and electricity ... This presentation provides an introduction and overview of Low Temperature Soldering, a breakthrough technology for greener ...
Quotes are not sourced from all markets and may be delayed up to 20 minutes. Information is provided as is and solely for informational purposes, not for trading purposes or advice.Disclaimer ...
In 24 hours: 100F, Browing, Mont., Jan. 23?24, 1916, from 44F to ?56F. In 12 hours: 84F, Fairfield, Mont., Dec. 24, 1924, from 63F at noon to ?21F at midnight. In 2 hours: 62F, Rapid City, S.D., Jan. 12, 1911, from 49F at 6:00 A.M. to ?13F at 8:00 A.
During The Last Ice Age, Global Cooling Dropped The Temperature On Land 11 Degrees ...
The temperature at which thermal vibrations prevent quantum-mechanical coupling between atoms, thereby destroying any ... ferromagnetism (in the wide sense). Source for information on Curie temperature: A Dictionary of Earth Sciences dictionary. ... Curie temperature (Curie point) The temperature at which thermal vibrations prevent quantum-mechanical coupling between atoms, ... Curie temperature A Dictionary of Earth Sciences © A Dictionary of Earth Sciences 1999, originally published by Oxford ...
... and with various phenomena that occur only at such temperatures. The temperature scale used in low-temperature physics is the ... science concerned with the production and maintenance of temperatures much below normal, down to almost absolute zero, ... The temperature scale used in low-temperature physics is the Kelvin temperature scale , or absolute temperature scale, which is ... low-temperature physics. low-temperature physics, science concerned with the production and maintenance of temperatures much ...
... holds the record for the highest temperature ever officially observed in the United States. This station was located in barren ... Amazing temperature rises of 40 to 50F in a few minutes occasionally may be brought about by chinook winds.1 ... The highest annual average (1971?2000 mean) temperature in the United States is 77.8F in Key West, Fla. The highest summer ( ... June?August) average temperature, 98.2F, is Death Valley, Calif. The highest winter (December?February) average temperature is ...
Specifically, the preignition threshold (or minimum) temperature for a hot spot other than the firing spark plug is determined ... coolant temperature, and intake charge temperature and degree of vaporization. These experimental results are quantitatively ... Methanol Preignition Temperature Behavior 912414. The preignition behavior of neat methanol in the four-stroke, naturally ... Specifically, the preignition threshold (or minimum) temperature for a hot spot other than the firing spark plug is determined ...
Land Surface Temperature. Land Surface Temperature Anomaly. Net Primary Productivity. Net Radiation. Sea Surface Temperature. ... These sea surface temperature maps are based on observations by the MODIS sensors on NASA's Terra and Aqua satellites. The ... Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly. Snow Cover. Total Rainfall. Vegetation. Water Vapor. Show Related Maps. ... In this map, the coolest waters appear in blue (approximately -2 degrees Celsius), and the warmest temperatures appear in pink- ...
I The temperature at 1,100 feet was 69'9", and hy combining , this with tlie surface temperature of 49'9° observed at ... the soil temperature, instead of assuming,. as Prof. Phillips does, thilt the temperature 100 feet deep is identical willi the ... This was the warmest part of the tunnel, and had a temperature of 85'1° F. Tlie mean air temperature at the crest overhead ... These observations point to an excess of sur face temperature above air temperature, ranging from half a degree to nearly two ...
English: Temperature is a physical property of a system that underlies the common notions of "hot" and "cold"; something that ... temperature physical property of matter that quantitatively expresses the common notions of hot and cold ... Media in category "Temperature". The following 103 files are in this category, out of 103 total. ... Temperature indicator mounted in gimbals for marine work-Tracts vol 10 p53.jpg 984 × 1,472; 476 KB. ...
Temperature Level. Br Med J 1965; 1 doi: (Published 05 June 1965) Cite this as: Br Med ...
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A Guide to Temperature Measurement Tel: +44 (0)191 490 1547 Fax: +44 (0)191 477 5371 Email: [email protected] ... Absolute temperature = Temperature A + Temperature B For an accurate absolute temperature measurement it is very important that ... 2. Contents Introduction Temperature Temperature Scales International Practical Temperature Scale Temperature Measurement ... Not only is it difficult to measure temperature without the sensor intruding and changing the temperature, temperature is not a ...
  • The boiling temperature of pure water is 100 degrees Celsius . (
  • Colour temperature describes the warmth or coolness of visible light and is measured in degrees Kelvin. (
  • In this map, the coolest waters appear in blue (approximately -2 degrees Celsius), and the warmest temperatures appear in pink-yellow (35 degrees Celsius). (
  • Apparent temperature 36 to 45 degrees or 100 to 104 degrees possible. (
  • Apparent temperature less than 35 degrees or 105 to 109 degrees possible. (
  • Ambient temperature below 32 degrees or apparent temperature 110 or greater possible. (
  • But then to them, room temperature is around 21 degrees Celsius - which sounds cool to me. (
  • Temperatures in these vacuous regions can plummet to about -455 degrees Fahrenheit (2.7 kelvin). (
  • If the reading on the thermometer is more than 1 to 1.5 degrees above your normal temperature, you have a fever . (
  • The hottest temperature recorded on earth is not as hot as previously thought, after the World Meteorological Organisation declared the phenomenal 58 degrees recorded in Libya 90 years ago was wrong. (
  • Instead, the sizzling title goes to Death Valley, California, where in July 1913, a top temperature of 56.7 degrees was recorded. (
  • That compares to Australia's highest recorded temperature of 50.7 degrees, recorded in Oodnadatta, South Australia, in January 1960. (
  • The demonstration shows the performance of the temperature dependent Lithium-Ion battery model (Battery A) when the ambient temperature is varied from 20 degrees C to -20 degrees C and then to 0 degrees C. Battery B represents the case where the effect of temperature is neglected. (
  • At t = 0 s, the Battery A and B are discharged with 2 A at ambient temperature of 20 degrees C. (
  • At t = 150 s, the internal temperature has increased to its steady state value of 29.2 degrees due to heat losses from the discharge process. (
  • At t = 1000 s, the ambient temperature is decreased to -20 degrees C. This causes the output voltage of Battery A to greatly decrease as the internal temperature decreases rapidly. (
  • At t = 2000 s, the ambient temperature is increased from -20 degrees C to 0 degrees C. As the internal temperature increases, the output voltage of Battery A increases. (
  • At t = 2500 s, the Battery A and B are charged with 3 A at ambient temperature of 0 degrees C. This causes the internal temperature to increase due to heat losses during the charge process, which increases the charging voltage of Battery A. Afterwards, Battery A and B continue to charge up until fully charged. (
  • He lives in Arizona, where temperatures soar to 114 degrees and higher. (
  • Most people have a comfortable sleep-temperature range of several degrees. (
  • Roses cannot withstand temperatures below 32 degrees F, so keep plants awaiting transplanting in a warm, protected area where they will not be damaged. (
  • Ideal temperatures to keep cuttings over winter are from 25 to 35 degrees F, according to the University of Kentucky horticulturists. (
  • Provide some shade when afternoon temperatures rise above 80 degrees F. Provide additional water during dry periods, and spread a light mulch over the plants to retain water and keep roots cool. (
  • Current temperatures color contoured every 5 degrees F. (
  • Lines of equal temperature in degrees Celsius. (
  • The Frost and Freeze map shows where frost cant be expected and where temperature are forecast to fall below 32 degrees F. (
  • WSI's Worldwide Continental Map depicting color contour isotherms, or lines of equal temperature in degrees Celsius. (
  • body temperature also tends to decline with age, so that those over 65 may have an average temperature 1 to 2 degrees lower than individuals under 40. (
  • Even in a single individual, body temperature can vary throughout the day by as much as 1 to 2 degrees. (
  • If the water temperature changes by even a few degrees over a one-mile stretch of the stream, it could indicate a source of thermal pollution. (
  • Temperature scales differ in two ways: the point chosen as zero degrees and the magnitudes of incremental units or degrees on the scale. (
  • However, this method of taking a temperature (called tactile temperature) won't give an accurate measurement. (
  • temperature measurement takes place entirely in a shade box to avoid direct solar effects). (
  • Since there is no direct measurement of solar radiation in U.S. observation systems, and solar radiation can add up to 15 °F (8.3 °C) to the apparent temperature, commercial weather companies have attempted to develop their own proprietary apparent temperature systems, including The Weather Company 's "FeelsLike" and AccuWeather 's "RealFeel. (
  • Temperature measurement , also known as thermometry , describes the process of measuring a current local temperature for immediate or later evaluation. (
  • Attempts at standardized temperature measurement prior to the 17th century were crude at best. (
  • Measurement of the wet-bulb temperature normalizes this humidity effect. (
  • 4. Given the variables surrounding temperature measurement, it is little surprise that accuracy and reliability have been a persistant problem. (
  • This handbook offers an overview on the subject of 'Best temperature measurement practice,' explaining common causes of errors and how best to avoid them. (
  • Also included are useful tables of wire and cable characteristics, temperature coefficients and various formula to ensure you make the best choice when selecting measurement equipment and measurement techniques. (
  • Since that time, however, most English-speaking countries have officially adopted the Celsius scale Kelvin Kelvin temperature scale is the base unit of thermodynamic temperature measurement in the International System (SI) of measurement. (
  • These temperatures dip perilously close to an elusive measurement: absolute zero. (
  • There may be pockets of the universe where temperatures drop to 1 Kelvin above absolute zero, Sowell notes, but so far, the closest measurement to absolute zero has only been observed in laboratories here on Earth. (
  • The measurement of body temperature can help detect illness. (
  • You need to have an accurate temperature measurement to determine if a fever is present. (
  • Be sure to tell your health care provider which type of temperature measurement you used when discussing a fever. (
  • The exact relationship between different types of temperature measurement is unclear. (
  • It often takes a while for workpieces to reach their appropriate temperature for measurement. (
  • Also known as local channel digital temperature sensors, single-channel digital temperature sensors can be used in a variety of applications that require the measurement of local temperatures as an integral part of the system's function and/or reliability. (
  • They also include dedicated alarm output activates if the temperature measurement exceeds the user-defined temperature and fault count limits. (
  • The Intel ® FPGA Temperature Sensor IP core configures the temperature sensing diode (TSD) block to utilize the temperature measurement feature in the FPGA. (
  • Some areas in the world have few temperature measurement stations (for example, remote jungles and deserts), and temperatures must be estimated over large regions. (
  • Airflow increases the rate of heat transfer from or to the body, resulting in a larger change in body temperature for the same ambient temperature. (
  • To prevent the services gateway from overheating, do not operate it in an area that exceeds the maximum recommended ambient temperature of 104°F (40°C). To prevent airflow restriction, allow at least 6 in. (
  • Battery life: You can expect a little more than two hours when in use without the charging coaster at a target temperature of about 130°F (54.4°C). Battery life will vary depending on pour temperature, ambient temperature, and desired temperature. (
  • The model (which includes the impact of cell/ambient temperature on the voltage, capacity and resistance) is submitted to a variable ambient temperature during a discharge and charge process. (
  • As the cell/internal temperature increases/decreases due to charge(or discharge) heat losses and ambient temperature variations, the output voltage and capacity also increase/decrease. (
  • The housing paint is heat resistant up to 80 °C (175 °F) material temperature or 100 °C (210 °F) ambient temperature. (
  • These sea surface temperature maps are based on observations by the MODIS sensors on NASA's Terra and Aqua satellites. (
  • Take a look at what's going on inside your Mac with TG Pro - no other app shows more temperature sensors or has as many options for notifications and fan speeds. (
  • NEW] Added ability to see all temperature sensors at once. (
  • Added support for power supply, northbridge, airport, pci expansion slots and palm rest temperature sensors. (
  • Added a loading screen when finding the temperature and fan sensors. (
  • We offer digital and analogue temperature sensors. (
  • Temperatures are then maintained as efficiently as possible, in part by keeping tabs on the weather forecast via Wi-Fi and by using motion sensors to detect when the home is unoccupied, so it can be allowed to become colder or warmer than usual. (
  • Temperature sensors as well as a Dp sensor and an absolute pressure sensor are present in the unit that can operate at a temperature up to 900 °C. The dust is collected in a buffer tank at the bottom of the filter passing through a high temperature and a low temperature valve. (
  • Available in I 2 C and SPI communication versions, our local channel digital temperature sensors feature flexible, user-programmable internal registers to configure the temperature sensor's performance and response to high and low temperature conditions. (
  • Analog output temperature sensors, also known as voltage output temperature sensors, feature low power consumption, good linearity and temperature accuracy as high as ± 0.5°C across the entire temperature operating range as wide as -40 to +125°C. These devices output voltages that interface well with an available stand-alone ADC or ADC channel in an MCU. (
  • Temperature switches, also known as logic output temperature sensors, simplify designs that require over and under temperature detection with their flexible factory-set trip points and pin-selectable hysteresis. (
  • Multi-channel temperature sensors are used for monitoring and accurately measuring temperatures of multiple heat sources across distances of up to hundreds of feet. (
  • Also known as remote temperature sensors, these integrated devices are combined with inexpensive transistors to reduce costs, maintain accuracy and simplify monitoring of systems such as servers, networking and LCD projectors. (
  • Korea's leader in industrial sensors and controllers, Autonics declared the replacement of product line up with new generation of temperature controllers. (
  • nforce3 and asus k8n temperature sensors? (
  • external temperature or humidity sensors? (
  • For example, the expression 'Room temperature. (
  • If you are just sitting in a room talking with friends, room temperature is fine. (
  • A glass of water at room temperature is often considered too warm for drinking while coffee at room temperature is too cold for drinking. (
  • Immersing yourself in a bathtub full of water that is room temperature would be a horrible experience. (
  • But each is at room temperature. (
  • What was the ambient room temperature? (
  • The most misunderstood wine 'fact' is that red wine must be served at room temperature but temperature affects the final taste of wine long before it is poured. (
  • Even the most casual wine drinker has heard that red wine must be drunk at room temperature but few understand that this warned that it shouldn't be served cold immediately after being brought up from a maturation cellar. (
  • Ideally, a room temperature neutron moderator is used for this process. (
  • NEW] Showing maximum recorded temperatures for each sensor. (
  • NEW] Added support for Thunderbolt temperature sensor. (
  • A temperature sensor suitable for use in an electrically heated, laminated window is disclosed. (
  • Embedded within the plastic interlayer is the temperature sensor which is comprised of a resistance filament encapsulated within a substantially material which has a heat deflection temperature greater than the plastic interlayer. (
  • Because the temperature sensor has a casing with a higher heat deflection temperature than the plastic interlayer into which it is embedded, fracture and shorting of the resistance filament against the electrically conductive coating, during the high temperature and high pressure conditions of laminating, are avoided. (
  • 12 Claims, 6 Drawing Figures PATENIED JAN 2 9 I974 SHEEI 1 OF 2 TEMPERATURE sENsoR CROSS REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS This application is a continuation-in-part of copending application Ser. (
  • This invention relates to a temperature sensor for use in laminated, electrically heated glass-plastic windows. (
  • Modeling temperature at the microarchitecture level also shows that power metrics are poor predictors of temperature, and that sensor imprecision has a substantial impact on the performance of DTM. (
  • If you need to monitor heat sources in your application, our single- and multi-channel temperature sensor ICs have the features and flexibility to meet your specific design requirements. (
  • The following table lists the Intel ® FPGA Temperature Sensor IP core features. (
  • The Intel ® FPGA Temperature Sensor IP core does not have simulation model files and cannot be simulated. (
  • For Intel ® Arria ® 10 and Intel ® Cyclone ® 10 GX devices, the Intel ® FPGA Temperature Sensor IP core supports the instantiation of temperature sensor block in your design from the IP Catalog. (
  • The Intel ® Arria ® 10 and Intel ® Cyclone ® 10 GX temperature sensor block runs at 1 MHz, where the clock signal is coming from the internal oscillator that is located in the temperature sensor block. (
  • Intel ® FPGA Temperature Sensor Block Diagram for Arria ® V , Arria ® V GZ, Stratix ® V , and Stratix ® IV Devices This figure shows the top-level ports and the basic building blocks of the Intel ® FPGA Temperature Sensor IP core. (
  • You can set the value of the clock divider using the Intel ® FPGA Temperature Sensor IP core parameter editor. (
  • signal to enable the Intel ® FPGA Temperature Sensor IP core. (
  • Below are maps of the mean surface temperature anomaly for the past month, the past three months, and the past 12 months. (
  • When researching global climate changes and temperature data, you will often read about the "temperature anomaly. (
  • a negative anomaly indicates that the temperature was cooler than normal. (
  • Since December 2017, the sea surface temperature timeseries are calculated from the NOAA Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature Version 5 (ERSST v5) data provided by the NOAA/OAR/ESRL PSL , Boulder, Colorado, USA. (
  • This is particularly relevant when working in temperature extremes. (
  • The best wines come from grapes grown at the lower temperature extremes. (
  • a) Our traditional graph of the annual and 5-year running means of the global temperature, and (b) 12-month and 132-month (to minimize the effect of the 11-year solar cycle) running means on the right. (
  • In addition to greenhouse gas emissions, human emissions of particulate matter are another significant influence on global temperature. (
  • As the global temperature shows the temperatures for Denmark shows a clear increase in the annual mean temperature in the last decades. (
  • Led by the TC Series, Autonics plans to take their new product line and go after all global temperature controller market. (
  • A composite of all the major global temperature records going back to 1890 (the satellite records only begin in the late 20th century). (
  • Datasets consisting of repeated standardized measurements can be used to assess temperature trends. (
  • Royston JP, Humphrey SJE, Flynn AM, Marshall J, Zarzosa-Perez A (1984) An automatic electronic device ( Rite Time) to detect the onset of the infertile period by basal body temperature measurements. (
  • In chemistry, standard condition for temperature and pressure (informally abbreviated as STP ) are standard sets of conditions for experimental measurements, to allow comparisons to be made between different sets of data. (
  • Logs up to 2048 consecutive temperature measurements are recorded in protected nonvolatile random access memory. (
  • and temperature taken in the mouth , while convenient, tends to be less accurate (due to improper thermometer placement, breathing, recent consumption of hot or cold beverages, etc.) than temperature measured rectal ly or tympanically , but more accurate than axilla ry measurements. (
  • The datasets are the surface temperature measurements of NASA GISS, HadCRUT, and NOAA, plus the satellite measurements of lower atmosphere temperature by RSS and UAH. (
  • Why use temperature anomalies and not the actual temperature measurements? (
  • Actual temperature measurements are often difficult to gather. (
  • The Celsius scale (°C) is used for common temperature measurements in most of the world. (
  • This increased exposure to sunlight could partially account for the increase in surface temperature that Mischenko and Hansen observed over the same time span. (
  • Where phytoplankton grow depends on available sunlight, temperature, and nutrient levels. (
  • This solution uses thermal blankets and temperature-controlled vehicles to protect shipments from high and low external temperatures, direct sunlight, rain, and humidity. (
  • without sunlight, temperatures can't rise much! (
  • Some human activities may remove shade trees from the area which will allow more sunlight to reach the water, causing the water temperature to rise. (
  • No extreme temperatures. (
  • Extreme temperatures observed in different parts of the world are listed in the table. (
  • Humans are actually pretty good at creating extreme temperatures," Alasdair Gent, a graduate student in astroparticle physics also of the Georgia Institute of Technology, tells Popular Mechanics . (
  • Continentality is a measure of the difference between continental and marine climates and is mainly the result of the increased range of temperatures that occurs over land compared with water. (
  • Inside the sun, where nuclear fusion occurs, temperatures can swell to 15 million kelvin. (
  • When thawing or exposure to elevated temperatures occurs, whether inadvertent or deliberate, positive visible evidence thereof is provided by the device of the present invention. (
  • High temperatures promote faster chemical reactions, and so the overall degradation of organic materials occurs more quickly. (
  • Severe hypothermia, body temperature between 92 and 86° F and below: shivering occurs in waves, person falls to ground, muscle rigidity, pale skin, dilated pupil, increased pulse rate. (
  • The hypothalamus knows what temperature your body should be (usually around 98.6°F/37°C) and will send messages to your body to keep it that way. (
  • The average normal oral temperature is 98.6°F (37°C). (
  • The average normal body temperature is generally accepted as 98.6°F (37°C). Some studies have shown that the "normal" body temperature can have a wide range, from 97°F (36.1°C) to 99°F (37.2°C). (
  • In many turtles, warm temperatures during incubation create females. (
  • Unusually warm temperatures and continued dry conditions will again result in critical fire weather conditions over portions of California and the Plains. (
  • How can it be that warm temperatures should apparently have negative effects on biodiversity through time while also having positive effects across space ( 10 ) (i.e., contrasting macroevolutionary and macroecological patterns)? (
  • Growing roses in hot climates can be challenging with afternoon sun and ongoing periods of high temperatures. (
  • One analysis in deep time, using global-scale fossil compendia ( 12 , 28 ), has found that high temperatures are associated with low taxonomic richness but high origination and extinction rates ( 8 ). (
  • High temperatures can also accelerate desiccation of organic materials leading to loss of flexibility and cracking. (
  • High temperatures accelerate the rate of deterioration of specimens and the rate of evaporation of ethanol, whereas low temperatures may cause fats and lipids to solidify, leaving deposits on specimens. (
  • Apparent temperature is the temperature equivalent perceived by humans, caused by the combined effects of air temperature , relative humidity and wind speed . (
  • The heat index and humidex measure the effect of humidity on the perception of temperatures above +27 °C (81 °F). In humid conditions, the air feels much hotter, because less perspiration evaporates from the skin. (
  • The wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT) combines the effects of radiation, humidity, temperature and wind speed on the perception of temperature. (
  • At the macro environment level this includes control of air temperature within a building (with or without passive relative humidity control), room level temperature control (e.g. radiators with window mounted a/c units), or entirely passive control based on the buffering effects of the building envelope (e.g. door seals). (
  • Cold temperatures, males. (
  • You may require specific advice for your workplace if you are working in very high or low temperatures, for example on heat stress , dehydration or cold stress . (
  • ︉Most scientists use the kelvin instead of Fahrenheit to describe extremely cold temperatures, so we'll be doing that here, too. (
  • Cold" metal and "warm" wood may be the same temperature. (
  • Our cold shipping package is a patented, temperature-controlled system for shipping sensitive products. (
  • Another reason for Antarctica's extremely cold temperatures is its high albedo, the amount of solar radiation reflected from a surface. (
  • Anyway, will have no problem lowering my body temperature, living in the southern hemisphere and will be a pretty cold here next weekend. (
  • Roses need a little more attention to care, however, especially if you live in areas where cold temperatures can threaten tender plants or where hot temperatures call for additional watering of these water-hungry plants. (
  • Our thermal comfort analysis found that to keep a person cool we need to blow cold air at an appropriate temperature toward areas of the neck, wrist, elbows, and the torso," he says. (
  • While cold storage is a good preservation technique for some types of unstable collections and most collections would benefit from cooler temperatures than normally used in museums, temperatures that are too cold could cause embrittlement, hazing and cracks in other types of specimens. (
  • Is it normal to get lower body temperature when you have a cold? (
  • One way water can be cooled is by cold air temperatures. (
  • When the water temperature becomes too hot or too cold, organisms become stressed, lowering their resistance to pollutants, diseases, and parasites. (
  • Temperature is a physical quantity that expresses hot and cold. (
  • The term temperature is used, since hot, thermal and cold neutrons are moderated in a medium with a certain temperature. (
  • He invented the mercury thermometer (first practical, accurate thermometer ) and Fahrenheit scale (first standardized temperature scale to be widely used). (
  • [1] The development of today's thermometers and temperature scales began in the early 18th century, when Gabriel Fahrenheit produced a mercury thermometer and scale, both developed by Ole Christensen Rømer . (
  • devices for measuring temperature is the glass thermometer . (
  • Such thermometers are usually calibrated so that one can read the temperature simply by observing the level of the fluid in the thermometer. (
  • One must be careful when measuring temperature to ensure that the measuring instrument (thermometer, thermocouple, etc.) is really the same temperature as the material that is being measured. (
  • What thermal comfort humans, animals and plants experience is related to more than temperature shown on a glass thermometer. (
  • The wind chill factor makes the weather feel colder under windy conditions than calm conditions even though a glass thermometer shows the same temperature. (
  • Cook all food to these minimum internal temperatures as measured with a food thermometer before removing food from the heat source. (
  • The experts concluded that the thermometer used was not standard and determined that the person who measured the temperature was probably inexperienced. (
  • A thermometer is a useful aid used to measure body temperature. (
  • Temperature is measured with a thermometer. (
  • The theoretical basis for thermometers is the zeroth law of thermodynamics which postulates that if you have three bodies, A, B and C, if A and B are at the same temperature, and B and C are at the same temperature then A and C are at the same temperature. (
  • Thermometers measure temperature by a number of means, including the expansion that takes place in a medium such as mercury or alcohol. (
  • Plastic strip thermometers change color to show the temperature. (
  • Plastic strip thermometers measure skin temperature, not body temperature. (
  • Thermometers are calibrated in various temperature scales that historically have used various reference points and thermometric substances for definition. (
  • The present temperature level is the highest in the time series and the period 2001-2010 was the warmest decade since records began. (
  • While all top 10 values by mean annual temperature change were recorded in the northern hemisphere, 2019 was the warmest year for forty countries, all located in the Southern hemisphere except for Poland. (
  • Mean radiant temperature also can affect thermal comfort. (
  • Heat is internal thermal energy that flows from one body of matter to another - or, more specifically, from a system at a higher temperature to one at a lower temperature. (
  • Two systems at the same temperature are said to be in a state of thermal equilibrium. (
  • Curie temperature ( Curie point ) The temperature at which thermal vibrations prevent quantum-mechanical coupling between atoms, thereby destroying any ferromagnetism (in the wide sense). (
  • This section outlines your responsibilities as an employer, and suggests some ways you can manage the temperature in your workplace for the 'thermal comfort' of your employees. (
  • More modern line of sight infrared-laser thermal imaging guns can give direct readings of surface or flame temperatures, and are more accurate. (
  • We are also working on particular variable technology to sense the body temperature of the person," he says, "And we're looking at cloud-based thermal comfort algorithms to take the body temperature and actually find out if the person is thermally comfortable or not. (
  • These results reveal the warming of a tropical coastal city that is significantly higher than typical temperatures in vegetated areas.This may be the first set of high-resolution thermal images taken in a tropical coastal city. (
  • Thermal pollution caused by human activities is one factor that can affect water temperature. (
  • The lowest theoretical temperature is absolute zero, at which no more thermal energy can be extracted from a body. (
  • At this temperature, matter contains no macroscopic thermal energy, but still has quantum-mechanical zero-point energy as predicted by the uncertainty principle, although this does not enter into the definition of absolute temperature. (
  • The following is a detailed classification: A thermal neutron is a free neutron with a kinetic energy of about 0.025 eV (about 4.0×10−21 J or 2.4 MJ/kg, hence a speed of 2.19 km/s), which is the most probable energy at a temperature of 290 K (17 °C or 62 °F), the mode of the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution for this temperature. (
  • Note that sea surface temperature timeseries are presented as anomalies or departures from the 1961-1990 average because temperature anomalies tend to be more consistent throughout wide areas than actual temperatures. (
  • Using anomalies, the departure from an "average," allows more accurate descriptions over larger areas than actual temperatures and provides a frame of reference that allows easier analysis. (
  • Of all the transitions brought about on the Earth's surface by temperature change, the melting of ice into water is the starkest. (
  • If greenhouse gases are to blame then why did Earth's average temperature cool from 1940-1970? (
  • Though the Earth's temperature has been varying ever since its birth , I'll start my story at the beginning of the Cenozoic Era . (
  • Celsius The Celsius temperature scale is also referred to as the 'centigrade' scale. (
  • Celsius devised the centigrade scale or 'Celsius scale' of temperature in 1742. (
  • Since the standardization of the kelvin in the International System of Units, it has subsequently been redefined in terms of the equivalent fixing points on the Kelvin scale, and so that a temperature increment of one degree Celsius is the same as an increment of one kelvin, though they differ by an additive offset of approximately 273.15. (
  • Higher temperatures correspond to blue or cooler colours. (
  • In places where ocean currents cause upwelling, sea surface temperatures are often cooler than nearby waters, and chlorophyll concentrations are higher. (
  • Placing this into a furnace opening which is out of the normal gas passes, in direct view of the flame, and can be sealed from in-leakage of cooler air, will give you a general idea of a flame temperature (radiant heat). (
  • Notice how lower temperatures are very warm, and following the color spectrum, increase in numeric value as they become cooler. (
  • Do the temperature anomalies tend to be positive (warmer than normal) or negative (cooler than normal)? (
  • They can also be connected to substrate diode pins and use beta compensation to measure temperatures on advanced processing devices such as CPUs, GPUs, FPGA and ASICs. (
  • Information in detail with tables and the original data sources are on NASA GISS temperature web pages . (
  • Data are based on the publicly available GISTEMP data , the Global Surface Temperature Change data distributed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Institute for Space Studies (NASA-GISS) with information from the year 1880 onward. (
  • The temperature scale used in low-temperature physics is the Kelvin temperature scale , or absolute temperature scale, which is based on the behavior of an idealized gas (see gas laws kinetic-molecular theory of gases ). (
  • In the chart in the lower right we show the 2013-2018 global land-ocean temperature anomalies. (
  • However, hot weather and outdoor activities don't always mix well, especially during periods of extreme heat- times when temperatures are substantially hotter and/or more humid than average for a location and date. (
  • something that is hotter generally has the greater temperature. (
  • Since 1988, the majority of years has been hotter than average 1981-2010, and the temperature has shown a sharply rising trend from the 1990s. (
  • The diurnal range of temperature generally increases with distance from the sea and toward those places where solar radiation is strongest-in dry tropical climates and on high mountain plateaus (owing to the reduced thickness of the atmosphere to be traversed by the Sun's rays). (
  • As temperature increases, most workpiece materials expand, change their shape, and as a result, influence the measuring result. (
  • Let's suppose that the temperature of your one-meter-long workpiece increases from 20 °C to 21 °C. If your workpiece is made of steel, this change already made it grow by 11 µm. (
  • This control appears to reverse the temporal association between temperature and biodiversity, such that taxonomic richness increases, not decreases, with temperature. (
  • A temperature inversion is a condition of the lower part of the atmosphere in which the temperature increases with increase in height above the surface. (
  • You can simply subtract the mean temperature of 1880-1920 from all temperature (in xls) to get the graph you want. (
  • If an infant 3 months or younger has a rectal temperature of 100.4°F (38°C) or higher, call your doctor or go to the emergency department immediately. (
  • A rectal temperature is 0.5°F (0.3°C) to 1°F (0.6°C) higher than an oral temperature. (
  • The temperature effect of El Niño events are felt most strongly during winter and spring, while the effects of La Niña events tend to have the greatest impact between October and March. (
  • Men tend to have a steady body temperature, so one consistent sleep temperature tends to work well for them. (
  • Hot temperatures tend to reduce blooming. (
  • Most of these rely on measuring some physical property of a working material that varies with temperature. (
  • Superconductivity is the vanishing of all electrical resistance in certain substances when they reach a transition temperature that varies from one substance to another this effect can be used to produce powerful superconducting magnets. (
  • Actual cooling duration varies depending on external temperatures. (
  • In 1724, he introduced the temperature scale that bears his name - Fahrenheit Scale. (
  • Fahrenheit temperature scale is a scale based on 32 for the freezing point of water and 212 for the boiling point of water. (
  • Ocean surface temperatures worldwide shot up by 5-8°C for a few thousand years - but in the Arctic, it heated up even more, to a balmy 23°C (73°F). This caused a severe dieoff of little ocean critters called foraminifera , and a drastic change of the dominant mammal species. (
  • The satellites measure the temperature of the top millimeter of the ocean surface. (
  • Global variations of average surface-air temperatures are largely due to latitude, continentality, ocean currents , and prevailing winds. (
  • Pluto's surface temperature reaches about 40 kelvin. (
  • Last year, scientists measured the depths of a dark crater on the surface of our moon and found that temperatures dropped to about 33 kelvin, according to New Scientist . (
  • Sea Surface Temperature (SST) timeseries are available from 1900 for a number of regions around Australia. (
  • These timeseries include ocean surface temperatures only and do not include any land surface temperatures. (
  • The FAOSTAT Temperature Change domain disseminates statistics of mean surface temperature change by country, with annual updates. (
  • Most of these react essentially to temperature at the surface of the package and are unsuitable for use ina supply system of the type mentioned since package surfaces frequently reach elevated temperatures without the contents being damaged. (
  • This is a thread to discuss the surface temperature records that were all released yesterday (Jan 18). (
  • A recent climatological analysis of the surface temperature of the city has revealed that the local temperature has been increasing over the neighboring vegetated areas at a rate of 0.06°C per year for the past 30 years.This is a trend that may be comparable to climate changes induced by global warming. (
  • Figure 1 shows that the daytime surface temperatures of a portion of San Juan at fi ve-meter resolution are as high as 60°C,and that differences between urbanized and limited vegetation areas are in excess of 30°C. (
  • Change in the surface temperature of the coastal plain of 1 to 2C and/or a 11 to 33% change in annual rainfall could dramatically alter the distribution of forest vegetation within the Luquillo Experimental Forest(LEF) of northeastern Puerto Rico. (
  • MadgeTech, Inc., the leader in affordable and reliable data logging solutions, announces the release of the MicroDisc surface temperature probe attachment, ideal for use with the LyoTemp Lyophilization Data Logger. (
  • The MicroDisc probe attachment extends the user's data logging capability by enabling monitoring of the surface temperature of shelving and flat surfaces throughout the Lyophilization process. (
  • The MicroDisc surface temperature probe attachment is priced at $25.00 USD. (
  • In contrast, during El Niño events, reduced cloudiness means daytime temperatures are typically warmer than normal, exacerbating the effect of lower than normal rainfall by increasing evaporation. (
  • The effects of rising temperatures and extreme heat result in numerous illnesses and deaths each year. (
  • Under some conditions heat from the measuring instrument can cause a temperature gradient, so the measured temperature is different from the actual temperature of the system. (
  • In such a case the measured temperature will vary not only with the temperature of the system, but also with the heat transfer properties of the system. (
  • Heat and temperature , although different, are intimately related. (
  • Thus, heat cannot be said to exist unless there is one system in contact with another system of differing temperature. (
  • In this case, if this object is not in contact with something else that has a different temperature, it "does not make a sound" - in other words, it transfers no internal energy, and, thus, there is no heat from the standpoint of physics. (
  • If both have the same temperature, there is no heat, only two objects with high levels of internal energy. (
  • Note that a vacuum was specified: assuming there was air around them, and that the air was of a lower temperature, both objects would then be transferring heat to the air. (
  • F. Mean rate of increase of temperature with depth, and mean upward flow of heat. (
  • The greatest temperature changes occur for dry, sandy soils, because they are poor conductors with very small effective heat capacities and contain no moisture for evaporation. (
  • A pyrometer or pyrometric cones are used to measure furnace and kiln temperatures resulting from radiant heat. (
  • If it is inserted into a gas pass it will give convective heat temperatures. (
  • You can implement pre-cooling techniques to keep your body temperature lower once you're out in the heat. (
  • At the absolute zero of temperature, no energy can be removed from matter as heat, a fact expressed in the third law of thermodynamics. (
  • The range of preignition threshold temperatures measured is 1020 to 1220K. (
  • Your best temperature range at age 50 may be narrower than it was at 30. (
  • The device records 24 time stamps and durations when temperature leaves the range specified by the trip points. (
  • The range for normal ( healthy ) human body temperature is 97.5° F (36.2° C) to 98.9° F (37.2° C), but up to 5 percent of the population have a body temperature that falls outside this range ( my own average body temperature, for example, is a cool 96.8° ). (
  • This rugged probe accessory has a small, sleek and durable design, made of C46400 Brass and provides solid contact with flat surfaces and shelving with a temperature operating range of -60 °C to +177 °C (-75 °F to +350 °F). (
  • When temperatures outside the permissible range are expected, contact the SKF application engineering service. (
  • Water temperatures outside the "normal" range for a stream or river can cause harm to the aquatic organisms that live there. (
  • Fever happens when the body's internal "thermostat" raises the body temperature above its normal level. (
  • Most people's body temperatures change a little bit during the course of the day: It's usually a little lower in the morning and a little higher in the evening and can vary as kids run around, play, and exercise. (
  • Sometimes, though, the hypothalamus will "reset" the body to a higher temperature in response to an infection, illness, or some other cause. (
  • Infants, especially newborns, may get fevers if they're overbundled or in a hot environment because they don't regulate their body temperature as well as older kids. (
  • Although teething may cause a slight rise in body temperature, it's probably not the cause if a child's temperature is higher than 100°F (37.8°C). (
  • An elevated body temperature, as present in fever and many illnesses . (
  • It is defined as 1/ 273.16 of the triple point (equilibrium among the solid, liquid, and gaseous TEMPERATURE Temperature can be defined as the amount of hotness or coldness of a body or environment. (
  • Wait at least 1 hour after heavy exercise or a hot bath before measuring body temperature. (
  • Body temperature that is too high or too low can be serious. (
  • Body temperature normally changes throughout the day. (
  • Body temperature regulation and fever. (
  • Women's body temperatures can vary based on their menstrual cycle. (
  • We can't stop the sun from sweltering on here in the US, but we can learn a trick or two to lower our body temperatures-some of which involve ice cream. (
  • The symptoms are: sore throat, persistent cough that brings me to the verge of vomiting, runny nose (only started today) and low body temperature. (
  • Usually, my body temperature is around 36.6. (
  • Before that, my body temperature was 35.6 and I felt extremely hot. (
  • Your body temperature is not hypothermic. (
  • Body temperature can also be normally affected by such things as extreme physical activity , ovulation and pregnancy in women, and smoking . (
  • As noted above, body temperature can be affected by a variety of activities and conditions. (
  • Additionally, the use of some drugs - Ecstasy ( MDMA , also called E , X or XTC ), for example - can cause body temperature to rise to dangerously high levels. (
  • Sustained elevated body temperature associated with disease or infection is called fever . (
  • There is also a medical condition known as malignant hyperthermia , an inherited condition that can cause a rapid rise in body temperature to dangerous levels when the individual is given general anesthesia or takes certain types of muscle relaxants. (
  • The temperature of a body of water influences its overall quality by affecting solubility of gases and the health of organisms. (
  • citation needed] Theoretically, in a body at absolute zero temperature, all classical motion of its particles has ceased and they are at complete rest in this classical sense. (
  • The temperature of a body in its own state of thermodynamic equilibrium is always positive, relative to the absolute zero. (
  • The average temperature change in the current decade (2011-2019) was 1.26⁰C. (
  • Decadal-average mean annual temperature change was larger in the most recent decade (2011-2019) compared to the previous one (2001-2010) (Fig. 3). (
  • In 2019, more than 150 countries had mean annual temperature change 1.0⁰C higher than normal. (
  • In 2019, the largest mean annual temperature change was recorded in the Svalbard Islands (2.9⁰C), Poland (2.6⁰C), Belarus, Lithuania and Czechia (2.6⁰C) (Fig. 4). (
  • 2019 was only the second year, together with 2019, where temperature change records were observed in 40 countries. (
  • Countries and territories with record mean annual temperature change over land for the year 2019, with respect to the period 1961-2019. (
  • Each bar in each year represents the number of countries and territories in FAOSTAT where the mean annual temperature was within the 1951-1980 climate normal (grey bars), warmer than usual (red bars), or colder than usual (blue bars). (
  • The ideal temperature for 70% v/v ethanol is 70° F with minimal fluctuations. (
  • Autonics economical PID temperature controllers - TC Series, one of the most cost effective temperature controlling solution having essential functions and improved performance, realizes ideal temperature controlling with newly developed PID control algorithm and 100ms high speed sampling. (
  • This is done through numerous collisions with (in general) slower-moving and thus lower-temperature particles like atomic nuclei and other neutrons. (
  • The coldest year so far was 1879, with a mean temperature of 5.9ºC, while the hottest recorded year was 2014, with 10.0ºC. (
  • Antarctica holds the world record for the coldest temperatures. (
  • Linear trends in global mean annual temperature change over land for World, Annex I countries (developed, according to the climate convention) and non-Annex I countries (developing). (
  • The revised pecking order emerged after a panel of climate experts reviewed the method employed to take the temperature in El Azizia, south-west of the Libyan capital, Tripoli, in 1922. (
  • Sure paleoclimatology can give us a good idea of past climate change but if Gavin thinks that we can know the temperature of the globe 22,000 years ago to within 0.4 of a degree then I have a bridge I would like to sell him. (
  • This lesson allows you to explore the relationship between gas pressure and temperature when number of gas particles and volume are held constant. (
  • Regardless of any other tips you learn, it helps to know the most efficient spots to cool yourself off so you can reduce your body's temperature efficiently. (
  • The datasets were compiled by Kelly O'Day and standardized by Benjamin Franz using the 1980-2010 average temperatures from each dataset, and the data are available in a single spreadsheet from here . (
  • I´ve been checking the average temperatures and the mobo goes from 32ºC to 38º. (
  • If your workpiece has reached the desired temperature, you will receive a notification via the console. (
  • The warm light of sunset or golden hour , will be on the lower end of the scale, while overcast days will read at higher temperatures. (
  • For reasons of personal preference, consumers may choose to cook food to higher temperatures. (
  • On a clear, calm anticyclonic night, the cool air may roll downhill and accumulate in valleys, and the air temperature will be lower near the valley bottom than it is 100 to 200 meters (328-656 feet) higher. (
  • Qualitatively, the higher the temperature, the higher the kinetic energy of the free neutrons. (
  • The modern scientific field has its origins in the works by Florentine scientists in the 1600s including Galileo constructing devices able to measure relative change in temperature, but subject also to confounding with atmospheric pressure changes. (
  • How do you think their temperatures would change? (
  • Ocean temperatures are thus slow to change. (
  • The standard deviation of the temperature change of the baseline methodology is also available. (
  • Though temperatures can vary a lot between seasons, they don't change much each day. (
  • Your preferred temperature can also change as you get older. (
  • A change in water temperature can affect the general health of the aquatic organisms, thus changing the quality of the stream. (
  • Determine the temperature change of the water. (
  • Dr. Thane Wibbels (University of Alabama at Birmingham) is interested in studying how temperature affects the sex of red-eared slider turtle embryos. (
  • The temperature of light affects the colour that light gives off. (
  • 2 Temperature affects almost every process imaginable, yet it's difficult to measure accurately and reliably. (
  • FIXED] Maximum recorded temperatures are recorded even if the main window isn't open. (
  • NEW] Added ambient and average CPU temperatures to the main window. (
  • Temperature & Albedo main content. (
  • Doctors decide on whether to treat a fever by considering both the temperature and a child's overall condition. (
  • A high temperature is a fever . (
  • In general, rectal temperatures are considered to be more accurate when checking for fever in a young child. (
  • Temperature regulation and the pathogenesis of fever. (
  • A temperature over 100.4°F (38°C) most often means you have a fever caused by an infection or illness. (
  • With power density and hence cooling costs rising exponentially, processor packaging can no longer be designed for the worst case, and there is an urgent need for runtime processor-level techniques that can regulate operating temperature when the package's capacity is exceeded. (