The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.
The TEMPERATURE at the outer surface of the body.
The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.
Measuring instruments for determining the temperature of matter. Most thermometers used in the field of medicine are designed for measuring body temperature or for use in the clinical laboratory. (From UMDNS, 1999)
Imaging the temperatures in a material, or in the body or an organ. Imaging is based on self-emanating infrared radiation (HEAT WAVES), or on changes in properties of the material or tissue that vary with temperature, such as ELASTICITY; MAGNETIC FIELD; or LUMINESCENCE.
A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.
The temperature at which a substance changes from one state or conformation of matter to another.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Lower than normal body temperature, especially in warm-blooded animals.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Liquids transforming into solids by the removal of heat.
The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The sensation of cold, heat, coolness, and warmth as detected by THERMORECEPTORS.
The application of heat to raise the temperature of the environment, ambient or local, or the systems for accomplishing this effect. It is distinguished from HEAT, the physical property and principle of physics.
Differential thermal analysis in which the sample compartment of the apparatus is a differential calorimeter, allowing an exact measure of the heat of transition independent of the specific heat, thermal conductivity, and other variables of the sample.
An abnormal elevation of body temperature, usually as a result of a pathologic process.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Cellular receptors which mediate the sense of temperature. Thermoreceptors in vertebrates are mostly located under the skin. In mammals there are separate types of thermoreceptors for cold and for warmth and NOCICEPTORS which detect cold or heat extreme enough to cause pain.
Involuntary contraction or twitching of the muscles. It is a physiologic method of heat production in man and other mammals.
A climate characterized by COLD TEMPERATURE for a majority of the time during the year.
The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A group of conditions that develop due to overexposure or overexertion in excessive environmental heat.
Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.
Increase in the temperature of the atmosphere near the Earth's surface and in the troposphere, which can contribute to changes in global climate patterns.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
Abnormally low BODY TEMPERATURE that is intentionally induced in warm-blooded animals by artificial means. In humans, mild or moderate hypothermia has been used to reduce tissue damages, particularly after cardiac or spinal cord injuries and during subsequent surgeries.
The heat flow across a surface per unit area per unit time, divided by the negative of the rate of change of temperature with distance in a direction perpendicular to the surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Disruption of the non-covalent bonds and/or disulfide bonds responsible for maintaining the three-dimensional shape and activity of the native protein.
A change of a substance from one form or state to another.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum usually sensed as heat. Infrared wavelengths are longer than those of visible light, extending into the microwave frequencies. They are used therapeutically as heat, and also to warm food in restaurants.
The state of the ATMOSPHERE over minutes to months.
Abnormally high temperature intentionally induced in living things regionally or whole body. It is most often induced by radiation (heat waves, infra-red), ultrasound, or drugs.
The process of exocrine secretion of the SWEAT GLANDS, including the aqueous sweat from the ECCRINE GLANDS and the complex viscous fluids of the APOCRINE GLANDS.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
The mechanical process of cooling.
The solid substance formed by the FREEZING of water.
The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A state in which the environs of hospitals, laboratories, domestic and animal housing, work places, spacecraft, and other surroundings are under technological control with regard to air conditioning, heating, lighting, humidity, ventilation, and other ambient features. The concept includes control of atmospheric composition. (From Jane's Aerospace Dictionary, 3d ed)
Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.
The continent lying around the South Pole and the southern waters of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. It includes the Falkland Islands Dependencies. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p55)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
The process of keeping pharmaceutical products in an appropriate location.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A constellation of responses that occur when an organism is exposed to excessive heat. Responses include synthesis of new proteins and regulation of others.
The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.
Measurement of the temperature of a material, or of the body or an organ by various temperature sensing devices which measure changes in properties of the material that vary with temperature, such as ELASTICITY; MAGNETIC FIELDS; or LUMINESCENCE.
The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.
Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.
The dormant state in which some warm-blooded animal species pass the winter. It is characterized by narcosis and by sharp reduction in body temperature and metabolic activity and by a depression of vital signs.
Fabric or other material used to cover the body.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
The measurement of the quantity of heat involved in various processes, such as chemical reactions, changes of state, and formations of solutions, or in the determination of the heat capacities of substances. The fundamental unit of measurement is the joule or the calorie (4.184 joules). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The climate of a very small area.
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum from the UHF (ultrahigh frequency) radio waves and extending into the INFRARED RAYS frequencies.
The distal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, between the SIGMOID COLON and the ANAL CANAL.
The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.
Transmission of the readings of instruments to a remote location by means of wires, radio waves, or other means. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Proteins which are synthesized in eukaryotic organisms and bacteria in response to hyperthermia and other environmental stresses. They increase thermal tolerance and perform functions essential to cell survival under these conditions.
The process of protecting various samples of biological material.
The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A condition caused by the failure of body to dissipate heat in an excessively hot environment or during PHYSICAL EXERTION in a hot environment. Contrast to HEAT EXHAUSTION, the body temperature in heat stroke patient is dangerously high with red, hot skin accompanied by DELUSIONS; CONVULSIONS; or COMA. It can be a life-threatening emergency and is most common in infants and the elderly.
The placing of a body or a part thereof into a liquid.
Procedures or techniques used to keep food from spoiling.
A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
Application of heat to correct hypothermia, accidental or induced.
A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.
A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Removal of moisture from a substance (chemical, food, tissue, etc.).
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Method of tissue preparation in which the tissue specimen is frozen and then dehydrated at low temperature in a high vacuum. This method is also used for dehydrating pharmaceutical and food products.
An oval semitransparent membrane separating the external EAR CANAL from the tympanic cavity (EAR, MIDDLE). It contains three layers: the skin of the external ear canal; the core of radially and circularly arranged collagen fibers; and the MUCOSA of the middle ear.
The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.
A cutaneous pouch of skin containing the testicles and spermatic cords.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.
The time period of daily exposure that an organism receives from daylight or artificial light. It is believed that photoperiodic responses may affect the control of energy balance and thermoregulation.
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.
The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.
A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.
Electrically powered devices that are intended to assist in the maintenance of the thermal balance of infants, principally by controlling the air temperature and humidity in an enclosure. (from UMDNS, 1999)
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The Arctic Ocean and the lands in it and adjacent to it. It includes Point Barrow, Alaska, most of the Franklin District in Canada, two thirds of Greenland, Svalbard, Franz Josef Land, Lapland, Novaya Zemlya, and Northern Siberia. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p66)
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.
The generation of heat in order to maintain body temperature. The uncoupled oxidation of fatty acids contained within brown adipose tissue and SHIVERING are examples of thermogenesis in MAMMALS.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The motion of air relative to the earth's surface.
Methods of creating machines and devices.
Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Colloids with a solid continuous phase and liquid as the dispersed phase; gels may be unstable when, due to temperature or other cause, the solid phase liquefies; the resulting colloid is called a sol.
A constellation of responses that occur when an organism is exposed to excessive cold. In humans, a fall in skin temperature triggers gasping, hypertension, and hyperventilation.
The motion of phospholipid molecules within the lipid bilayer, dependent on the classes of phospholipids present, their fatty acid composition and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains, the cholesterol concentration, and temperature.
The initial stages of the growth of SEEDS into a SEEDLINGS. The embryonic shoot (plumule) and embryonic PLANT ROOTS (radicle) emerge and grow upwards and downwards respectively. Food reserves for germination come from endosperm tissue within the seed and/or from the seed leaves (COTYLEDON). (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, processing, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.
The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.
A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).
A class in the phylum CNIDARIA, comprised mostly of corals and anemones. All members occur only as polyps; the medusa stage is completely absent.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Water in its gaseous state. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The pressure due to the weight of fluid.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers for the study of biological membranes.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
The diversion of RADIATION (thermal, electromagnetic, or nuclear) from its original path as a result of interactions or collisions with atoms, molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Loss of water by diffusion through the skin and by evaporation from the respiratory tract.
Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Frozen water crystals that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.
Substances produced from the reaction between acids and bases; compounds consisting of a metal (positive) and nonmetal (negative) radical. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Observation and acquisition of physical data from a distance by viewing and making measurements from a distance or receiving transmitted data from observations made at distant location.
Synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers to study biological membranes. It is also a major constituent of PULMONARY SURFACTANTS.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The reproductive elements of lower organisms, such as BACTERIA; FUNGI; and cryptogamic plants.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The motion of air currents.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Common name for a number of different species of fish in the family Cyprinidae. This includes, among others, the common carp, crucian carp, grass carp, and silver carp.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
The functions of the skin in the human and animal body. It includes the pigmentation of the skin.

A comparison of affinity constants for muscarine-sensitive acetylcholine receptors in guinea-pig atrial pacemaker cells at 29 degrees C and in ileum at 29 degrees C and 37 degrees C. (1/37801)

1 The affinity of 17 compounds for muscarine-sensitive acetylcholine receptors in atrial pacemaker cells and ileum of the guinea-pig has been measured at 29 degrees C in Ringer-Locke solution. Measurements were also made at 37 degrees C with 7 of them. 2 Some of the compounds had much higher affinity for the receptors in the ileum than for those in the atria. For the most selective compound, 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine methiodide, the difference was approximately 20-fold. The receptors in the atria are therefore different the structure from those in the ileum. 3 The effect of temperature on affinity are not the same for all the compounds, tested indicating different enthalpies and entropies of adsorption and accounting for some of the difficulty experienced in predicting the affinity of new compounds.  (+info)

Temperature sensitivity studies on selected strains on Mycoplasma gallisepticum. (2/37801)

Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG324), a tylosin resistant strain of low virulence, was compared with four other strains with respect to their survival at temperatures from 46.1 to 48.9 degrees C. MG324 was found to be more resistant than the other strains tested.  (+info)

Improved medium for recovery and enumeration of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from water using membrane filters. (3/37801)

A modified mPA medium, designated mPA-C, was shown to recover Pseudomonas aeruginosa from a variety of water sources with results comparable to those with mPA-B and within the confidence limits of a most-probable-number technique. Enumeration of P. aeruginosa on mPA-C was possible after only 24 h of incubation at 41.5 degrees C, compared with 72 h of incubation required for mPA-B and 96 h of incubation for a presumptive most probable number.  (+info)

The Saccharomyces cerevisiae ETH1 gene, an inducible homolog of exonuclease III that provides resistance to DNA-damaging agents and limits spontaneous mutagenesis. (4/37801)

The recently sequenced Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome was searched for a gene with homology to the gene encoding the major human AP endonuclease, a component of the highly conserved DNA base excision repair pathway. An open reading frame was found to encode a putative protein (34% identical to the Schizosaccharomyces pombe eth1(+) [open reading frame SPBC3D6.10] gene product) with a 347-residue segment homologous to the exonuclease III family of AP endonucleases. Synthesis of mRNA from ETH1 in wild-type cells was induced sixfold relative to that in untreated cells after exposure to the alkylating agent methyl methanesulfonate (MMS). To investigate the function of ETH1, deletions of the open reading frame were made in a wild-type strain and a strain deficient in the known yeast AP endonuclease encoded by APN1. eth1 strains were not more sensitive to killing by MMS, hydrogen peroxide, or phleomycin D1, whereas apn1 strains were approximately 3-fold more sensitive to MMS and approximately 10-fold more sensitive to hydrogen peroxide than was the wild type. Double-mutant strains (apn1 eth1) were approximately 15-fold more sensitive to MMS and approximately 2- to 3-fold more sensitive to hydrogen peroxide and phleomycin D1 than were apn1 strains. Elimination of ETH1 in apn1 strains also increased spontaneous mutation rates 9- or 31-fold compared to the wild type as determined by reversion to adenine or lysine prototrophy, respectively. Transformation of apn1 eth1 cells with an expression vector containing ETH1 reversed the hypersensitivity to MMS and limited the rate of spontaneous mutagenesis. Expression of ETH1 in a dut-1 xthA3 Escherichia coli strain demonstrated that the gene product functionally complements the missing AP endonuclease activity. Thus, in apn1 cells where the major AP endonuclease activity is missing, ETH1 offers an alternate capacity for repair of spontaneous or induced damage to DNA that is normally repaired by Apn1 protein.  (+info)

In vivo chaperone activity of heat shock protein 70 and thermotolerance. (5/37801)

Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) is thought to play a critical role in the thermotolerance of mammalian cells, presumably due to its chaperone activity. We examined the chaperone activity and cellular heat resistance of a clonal cell line in which overexpression of Hsp70 was transiently induced by means of the tetracycline-regulated gene expression system. This single-cell-line approach circumvents problems associated with clonal variation and indirect effects resulting from constitutive overexpression of Hsp70. The in vivo chaperone function of Hsp70 was quantitatively investigated by using firefly luciferase as a reporter protein. Chaperone activity was found to strictly correlate to the level of Hsp70 expression. In addition, we observed an Hsp70 concentration dependent increase in the cellular heat resistance. In order to study the contribution of the Hsp70 chaperone activity, heat resistance of cells that expressed tetracycline-regulated Hsp70 was compared to thermotolerant cells expressing the same level of Hsp70 plus all of the other heat shock proteins. Overexpression of Hsp70 alone was sufficient to induce a similar recovery of cytoplasmic luciferase activity, as does expression of all Hsps in thermotolerant cells. However, when the luciferase reporter protein was directed to the nucleus, expression of Hsp70 alone was not sufficient to yield the level of recovery observed in thermotolerant cells. In addition, cells expressing the same level of Hsp70 found in heat-induced thermotolerant cells containing additional Hsps showed increased resistance to thermal killing but were more sensitive than thermotolerant cells. These results suggest that the inducible form of Hsp70 contributes to the stress-tolerant state by increasing the chaperone activity in the cytoplasm. However, its expression alone is apparently insufficient for protection of other subcellular compartments to yield clonal heat resistance to the level observed in thermotolerant cells.  (+info)

The influence of junction conformation on RNA cleavage by the hairpin ribozyme in its natural junction form. (6/37801)

In the natural form of the hairpin ribozyme the two loop-carrying duplexes that comprise the majority of essential bases for activity form two adjacent helical arms of a four-way RNA junction. In the present work we have manipulated the sequence around the junction in a way known to perturb the global folding properties. We find that replacement of the junction by a different sequence that has the same conformational properties as the natural sequence gives closely similar reaction rate and Arrhenius activation energy for the substrate cleavage reaction. By comparison, rotation of the natural sequence in order to alter the three-dimensional folding of the ribozyme leads to a tenfold reduction in the kinetics of cleavage. Replacement with the U1 four-way junction that is resistant to rotation into the antiparallel structure required to allow interaction between the loops also gives a tenfold reduction in cleavage rate. The results indicate that the conformation of the junction has a major influence on the catalytic activity of the ribozyme. The results are all consistent with a role for the junction in the provision of a framework by which the loops are presented for interaction in order to create the active form of the ribozyme.  (+info)

Single atom modification (O-->S) of tRNA confers ribosome binding. (7/37801)

Escherichia coli tRNALysSUU, as well as human tRNALys3SUU, has 2-thiouridine derivatives at wobble position 34 (s2U*34). Unlike the native tRNALysSUU, the full-length, unmodified transcript of human tRNALys3UUU and the unmodified tRNALys3UUU anticodon stem/loop (ASLLys3UUU) did not bind AAA- or AAG-programmed ribosomes. In contrast, the completely unmodified yeast tRNAPhe anticodon stem/loop (ASLPheGAA) had an affinity (Kd = 136+/-49 nM) similar to that of native yeast tRNAPheGmAA (Kd = 103+/-19 nM). We have found that the single, site-specific substitution of s2U34 for U34 to produce the modified ASLLysSUU was sufficient to restore ribosomal binding. The modified ASLLysSUU bound the ribosome with an affinity (Kd = 176+/-62 nM) comparable to that of native tRNALysSUU (Kd = 70+/-7 nM). Furthermore, in binding to the ribosome, the modified ASLLys3SUU produced the same 16S P-site tRNA footprint as did native E. coli tRNALysSUU, yeast tRNAPheGmAA, and the unmodified ASLPheGAA. The unmodified ASLLys3UUU had no footprint at all. Investigations of thermal stability and structure monitored by UV spectroscopy and NMR showed that the dynamic conformation of the loop of modified ASLLys3SUU was different from that of the unmodified ASLLysUUU, whereas the stems were isomorphous. Based on these and other data, we conclude that s2U34 in tRNALysSUU and in other s2U34-containing tRNAs is critical for generating an anticodon conformation that leads to effective codon interaction in all organisms. This is the first example of a single atom substitution (U34-->s2U34) that confers the property of ribosomal binding on an otherwise inactive tRNA.  (+info)

The optically determined size of exo/endo cycling vesicle pool correlates with the quantal content at the neuromuscular junction of Drosophila larvae. (8/37801)

According to the current theory of synaptic transmission, the amplitude of evoked synaptic potentials correlates with the number of synaptic vesicles released at the presynaptic terminals. Synaptic vesicles in presynaptic boutons constitute two distinct pools, namely, exo/endo cycling and reserve pools (). We defined the vesicles that were endocytosed and exocytosed during high K+ stimulation as the exo/endo cycling vesicle pool. To determine the role of exo/endo cycling vesicle pool in synaptic transmission, we estimated the quantal content electrophysiologically, whereas the pool size was determined optically using fluorescent dye FM1-43. We then manipulated the size of the pool with following treatments. First, to change the state of boutons of nerve terminals, motoneuronal axons were severed. With this treatment, the size of exo/endo cycling vesicle pool decreased together with the quantal content. Second, we promoted the FM1-43 uptake using cyclosporin A, which inhibits calcineurin activities and enhances endocytosis. Cyclosporin A increased the total uptake of FM1-43, but neither the size of exo/endo cycling vesicle pool nor the quantal content changed. Third, we increased the size of exo/endo cycling vesicle pool by forskolin, which enhances synaptic transmission. The forskolin treatment increased both the size of exo/endo cycling vesicle pool and the quantal content. Thus, we found that the quantal content was closely correlated with the size of exo/endo cycling vesicle pool but not necessarily with the total uptake of FM1-43 fluorescence by boutons. The results suggest that vesicles in the exo/endo cycling pool primarily participate in evoked exocytosis of vesicles.  (+info)

Hypothermia can be mild, moderate, or severe. Mild hypothermia is characterized by shivering and a body temperature of 95 to 97 degrees Fahrenheit (32 to 36.1 degrees Celsius). Moderate hypothermia has a body temperature of 82 to 94 degrees Fahrenheit (28 to 34 degrees Celsius), and the person may appear lethargic, drowsy, or confused. Severe hypothermia is characterized by a body temperature below 82 degrees Fahrenheit (28 degrees Celsius) and can lead to coma and even death if not treated promptly.

Treatment for hypothermia typically involves warming the person up slowly, using blankets or heating pads, and providing warm fluids to drink. In severe cases, medical professionals may use a specialized warm water bath or apply warm packs to specific areas of the body.

Preventing hypothermia is important, especially in cold weather conditions. This can be done by dressing appropriately for the weather, staying dry and avoiding wet clothing, eating regularly to maintain energy levels, and seeking shelter if you become stranded or lost. It's also essential to recognize the signs of hypothermia early on so that treatment can begin promptly.

There are different types of fever, including:

1. Pyrexia: This is the medical term for fever. It is used to describe a body temperature that is above normal, usually above 38°C (100.4°F).
2. Hyperthermia: This is a more severe form of fever, where the body temperature rises significantly above normal levels.
3. Febrile seizure: This is a seizure that occurs in children who have a high fever.
4. Remittent fever: This is a type of fever that comes and goes over a period of time.
5. Intermittent fever: This is a type of fever that recurs at regular intervals.
6. Chronic fever: This is a type of fever that persists for an extended period of time, often more than 3 weeks.

The symptoms of fever can vary depending on the underlying cause, but common symptoms include:

* Elevated body temperature
* Chills
* Sweating
* Headache
* Muscle aches
* Fatigue
* Loss of appetite

In some cases, fever can be a sign of a serious underlying condition, such as pneumonia, meningitis, or sepsis. It is important to seek medical attention if you or someone in your care has a fever, especially if it is accompanied by other symptoms such as difficulty breathing, confusion, or chest pain.

Treatment for fever depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the symptoms. In some cases, medication such as acetaminophen (paracetamol) or ibuprofen may be prescribed to help reduce the fever. It is important to follow the recommended dosage instructions carefully and to consult with a healthcare professional before giving medication to children.

In addition to medication, there are other ways to help manage fever symptoms at home. These include:

* Drinking plenty of fluids to stay hydrated
* Taking cool baths or using a cool compress to reduce body temperature
* Resting and avoiding strenuous activities
* Using over-the-counter pain relievers, such as acetaminophen (paracetamol) or ibuprofen, to help manage headache and muscle aches.

Preventive measures for fever include:

* Practicing good hygiene, such as washing your hands frequently and avoiding close contact with people who are sick
* Staying up to date on vaccinations, which can help prevent certain infections that can cause fever.

There are several types of heat stress disorders, including:

1. Heat exhaustion: This is a condition that occurs when the body loses too much water and salt, usually through excessive sweating, and is unable to cool itself effectively. Symptoms include dizziness, nausea, headaches, fatigue, and cool, clammy skin.
2. Heat stroke: This is a more severe condition that occurs when the body's temperature control system fails, causing the body temperature to rise rapidly. Symptoms include high fever (usually over 103°F), confusion, slurred speech, and seizures.
3. Heat rash: This is a common condition that occurs when the skin's sweat glands become blocked and swell, causing inflammation and discomfort.
4. Sunburn: This is a condition that occurs when the skin is exposed to too much ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun or other sources, leading to redness, pain, and peeling skin.
5. Heat-related illnesses: These are conditions that occur when the body is unable to cool itself effectively in hot environments, leading to symptoms such as dizziness, nausea, headaches, and fatigue.

Heat stress disorders can be caused by a variety of factors, including high temperatures, humidity, intense physical activity, and wearing heavy or dark clothing that traps heat. They can also be caused by certain medications, alcohol consumption, and certain medical conditions, such as diabetes or heart disease.

Treatment for heat stress disorders usually involves moving to a cooler location, drinking plenty of fluids, taking a cool bath or shower, and resting in a shaded area. In severe cases, medical attention may be necessary to treat symptoms such as dehydration, heat exhaustion, or heat stroke.

Prevention is key when it comes to heat stress disorders. This can be achieved by taking steps such as wearing lightweight, loose-fitting clothing, staying in shaded areas, and drinking plenty of fluids. It is also important to avoid strenuous activity during the hottest part of the day (usually between 11am and 3pm) and to take regular breaks to cool off in a shaded area.

Overall, heat stress disorders can be serious conditions that require prompt medical attention. By understanding the causes, symptoms, and prevention methods for these disorders, individuals can stay safe and healthy during the hot summer months.

Symptoms of heat stroke may include:

* High body temperature (usually above 104°F)
* Confusion or altered mental state
* Slurred speech
* Seizures or convulsions
* Dry, flushed skin with no sweating
* Rapid heartbeat
* Shallow breathing
* Nausea and vomiting

If you suspect someone has heat stroke, it is important to seek medical attention immediately. Treatment typically involves moving the person to a cooler location, removing excess clothing, and providing cool liquids to drink. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat the condition.

Prevention is key in avoiding heat stroke, so it is important to take precautions during hot weather such as:

* Staying in air-conditioned spaces when possible
* Wearing lightweight, loose-fitting clothing
* Avoiding strenuous activity during the hottest part of the day (usually between 11am and 3pm)
* Drinking plenty of water to stay hydrated
* Taking regular breaks in shaded or cool areas
* Avoiding alcohol and caffeine, which can exacerbate dehydration.

By understanding the definition of heat stroke and taking preventative measures, you can help protect yourself and others from this potentially life-threatening condition.

There are many potential causes of dehydration, including:

* Not drinking enough fluids
* Diarrhea or vomiting
* Sweating excessively
* Diabetes (when the body cannot properly regulate blood sugar levels)
* Certain medications
* Poor nutrition
* Infections
* Poor sleep

To diagnose dehydration, a healthcare provider will typically perform a physical examination and ask questions about the patient's symptoms and medical history. They may also order blood tests or other diagnostic tests to rule out other conditions that may be causing the symptoms.

Treatment for dehydration usually involves drinking plenty of fluids, such as water or electrolyte-rich drinks like sports drinks. In severe cases, intravenous fluids may be necessary. If the underlying cause of the dehydration is a medical condition, such as diabetes or an infection, treatment will focus on managing that condition.

Preventing dehydration is important for maintaining good health. This can be done by:

* Drinking enough fluids throughout the day
* Avoiding caffeine and alcohol, which can act as diuretics and increase urine production
* Eating a balanced diet that includes plenty of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains
* Avoiding excessive sweating by dressing appropriately for the weather and taking breaks in cool, shaded areas when necessary
* Managing medical conditions like diabetes and kidney disease properly.

In severe cases of dehydration, complications can include seizures, organ failure, and even death. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.

Body weight is an important health indicator, as it can affect an individual's risk for certain medical conditions, such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Maintaining a healthy body weight is essential for overall health and well-being, and there are many ways to do so, including a balanced diet, regular exercise, and other lifestyle changes.

There are several ways to measure body weight, including:

1. Scale: This is the most common method of measuring body weight, and it involves standing on a scale that displays the individual's weight in kg or lb.
2. Body fat calipers: These are used to measure body fat percentage by pinching the skin at specific points on the body.
3. Skinfold measurements: This method involves measuring the thickness of the skin folds at specific points on the body to estimate body fat percentage.
4. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA): This is a non-invasive method that uses electrical impulses to measure body fat percentage.
5. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA): This is a more accurate method of measuring body composition, including bone density and body fat percentage.

It's important to note that body weight can fluctuate throughout the day due to factors such as water retention, so it's best to measure body weight at the same time each day for the most accurate results. Additionally, it's important to use a reliable scale or measuring tool to ensure accurate measurements.

Some common types of fish diseases include:

1. Bacterial infections: These are caused by bacteria such as Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, and Mycobacterium. Symptoms can include fin and tail rot, body slime, and ulcers.
2. Viral infections: These are caused by viruses such as viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS) and infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN). Symptoms can include lethargy, loss of appetite, and rapid death.
3. Protozoan infections: These are caused by protozoa such as Cryptocaryon and Ichthyophonus. Symptoms can include flashing, rapid breathing, and white spots on the body.
4. Fungal infections: These are caused by fungi such as Saprolegnia and Achlya. Symptoms can include fuzzy growths on the body and fins, and sluggish behavior.
5. Parasitic infections: These are caused by parasites such as Ichthyophonus and Cryptocaryon. Symptoms can include flashing, rapid breathing, and white spots on the body.

Diagnosis of fish diseases is typically made through a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests, and observation of the fish's behavior and environment. Treatment options vary depending on the type of disease and the severity of symptoms, and can include antibiotics, antifungals, and medicated baths. Prevention is key in managing fish diseases, and this includes maintaining good water quality, providing a balanced diet, and keeping the fish in a healthy environment.

Note: The information provided is a general overview of common fish diseases and their symptoms, and should not be considered as professional medical advice. If you suspect your fish has a disease, it is recommended that you consult with a veterinarian or a qualified aquarium expert for proper diagnosis and treatment.

The exact cause of Raynaud disease is not fully understood, but it is believed to be related to an autoimmune disorder, in which the body's immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissue. The condition can occur on its own or as a secondary symptom of another underlying medical condition such as scleroderma or rheumatoid arthritis.

Symptoms of Raynaud Disease:

1) Discoloration: Raynaud disease causes the affected areas to turn white or blue in response to cold temperatures or stress.

2) Pain: The constriction of blood vessels can cause pain in the affected areas.

3) Numbness or tingling: The lack of blood flow can cause numbness or tingling sensations in the fingers and toes.

4) Swelling: In severe cases, swelling may occur in the affected areas.

5) Burning sensation: Some people with Raynaud disease may experience a burning sensation in their hands and feet.

Diagnosis of Raynaud Disease:

1) Medical history: A doctor will ask about symptoms, medical history, and any triggers that may cause the condition.

2) Physical examination: The doctor will perform a physical examination to look for signs of discoloration or swelling in the affected areas.

3) Tests: Additional tests such as nailfold capillary microscopy, pulse volume recording and thermography may be ordered to confirm the diagnosis.

Treatment options for Raynaud Disease:

1) Medications: Drugs such as calcium channel blockers, alpha-blockers, and anticoagulants can help to relax blood vessels and improve blood flow.

2) Lifestyle changes: Avoiding triggers such as cold temperatures and taking steps to keep hands and feet warm can help manage the condition.

3) Alternative therapies: Some people with Raynaud disease may find relief with alternative therapies such as acupuncture or biofeedback.

It is important to note that in some cases, Raynaud disease can be a symptom of an underlying autoimmune disorder, such as lupus or scleroderma. If you suspect you have Raynaud disease, it is essential to seek medical attention to rule out any other conditions.

Some common examples of respiratory tract diseases include:

1. Pneumonia: An infection of the lungs that can be caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi.
2. Bronchitis: Inflammation of the airways (bronchi) that can cause coughing, wheezing, and difficulty breathing.
3. Asthma: A chronic condition that causes inflammation and narrowing of the airways, leading to symptoms such as wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath.
4. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): A progressive condition that makes it difficult to breathe due to damage to the lungs over time.
5. Tuberculosis: An infectious disease caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis that primarily affects the lungs.
6. Laryngitis: Inflammation of the voice box (larynx) that can cause hoarseness and difficulty speaking.
7. Tracheitis: Inflammation of the trachea, or windpipe, that can cause coughing, fever, and difficulty breathing.
8. Croup: An infection of the throat and lungs that can cause a barky cough and difficulty breathing.
9. Pleurisy: Inflammation of the lining around the lungs (pleura) that can cause chest pain, fever, and difficulty breathing.
10. Pertussis (whooping cough): An infectious disease caused by the bacteria Bordetella pertussis that can cause coughing fits and difficulty breathing.

These are just a few examples of the many different types of respiratory tract diseases that exist. Each one has its own unique symptoms, causes, and treatment options.

1. Sudden, brief episodes of shivering or trembling, often accompanied by feelings of coldness or a raised temperature. Chills can be a symptom of infection, inflammation, or other medical conditions.
2. A feeling of intense coldness or shivering that is not related to an actual drop in body temperature. This type of chill can be caused by emotional factors, such as anxiety or fear, or by certain medications.
3. A sudden, brief episode of trembling or shaking, often accompanied by feelings of nervousness or apprehension. Chills can be a symptom of neurological conditions, such as Parkinson's disease or multiple sclerosis.
4. In medicine, chills can also refer to a type of seizure that is characterized by shivering or trembling movements. These types of seizures are often seen in people with epilepsy.
5. Chills can also be a symptom of withdrawal from certain substances, such as alcohol or drugs.
6. In some cases, chills can be a symptom of a more serious underlying medical condition, such as a severe infection, inflammatory disorder, or blood disorder. It is important to seek medical attention if you experience persistent or severe chills, especially if they are accompanied by other symptoms such as fever, pain, or difficulty breathing.
7. Chills can also be a side effect of certain medications, such as antidepressants or antipsychotics.
8. Some people may experience chills as a result of exposure to cold temperatures or changes in weather. This is usually not a cause for concern and can be treated with warm clothing, blankets, or other forms of heat therapy.

In general, chills are a symptom that can have many different causes, and it is important to seek medical attention if they persist or worsen over time.

1. Activation of oncogenes: Some viruses contain genes that code for proteins that can activate existing oncogenes in the host cell, leading to uncontrolled cell growth.
2. Inactivation of tumor suppressor genes: Other viruses may contain genes that inhibit the expression of tumor suppressor genes, allowing cells to grow and divide uncontrollably.
3. Insertional mutagenesis: Some viruses can insert their own DNA into the host cell's genome, leading to disruptions in normal cellular function and potentially causing cancer.
4. Epigenetic changes: Viral infection can also cause epigenetic changes, such as DNA methylation or histone modification, that can lead to the silencing of tumor suppressor genes and the activation of oncogenes.

Viral cell transformation is a key factor in the development of many types of cancer, including cervical cancer caused by human papillomavirus (HPV), and liver cancer caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV). In addition, some viruses are specifically known to cause cancer, such as Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV).

Early detection and treatment of viral infections can help prevent the development of cancer. Vaccines are also available for some viruses that are known to cause cancer, such as HPV and hepatitis B. Additionally, antiviral therapy can be used to treat existing infections and may help reduce the risk of cancer development.

First-degree burns are the mildest form of burn and affect only the outer layer of the skin. They are characterized by redness, swelling, and pain but do not blister or scar. Examples of first-degree burns include sunburns and minor scalds from hot liquids.

Second-degree burns are more severe and affect both the outer and inner layers of the skin. They can cause blisters, redness, swelling, and pain, and may lead to infection. Second-degree burns can be further classified into two subtypes: partial thickness burns (where the skin is damaged but not completely destroyed) and full thickness burns (where the skin is completely destroyed).

Third-degree burns are the most severe and affect all layers of the skin and underlying tissues. They can cause charring of the skin, loss of function, and may lead to infection or even death.

There are several ways to treat burns, including:

1. Cooling the burn with cool water or a cold compress to reduce heat and prevent further damage.
2. Keeping the burn clean and dry to prevent infection.
3. Applying topical creams or ointments to help soothe and heal the burn.
4. Taking pain medication to manage discomfort.
5. In severe cases, undergoing surgery to remove damaged tissue and promote healing.

Prevention is key when it comes to burns. Some ways to prevent burns include:

1. Being cautious when handling hot objects or substances.
2. Keeping a safe distance from open flames or sparks.
3. Wearing protective clothing, such as gloves and long sleeves, when working with hot materials.
4. Keeping children away from hot surfaces and substances.
5. Installing smoke detectors and fire extinguishers in the home to reduce the risk of fires.

Overall, burns can be a serious condition that requires prompt medical attention. By understanding the causes, symptoms, and treatments for burns, individuals can take steps to prevent them and seek help if they do occur.

Early Postmortem Changes:

1. Cessation of metabolic processes: After death, the body's metabolic processes come to a standstill, leading to a decrease in body temperature, cellular respiration, and other physiological functions.
2. Decline in blood pressure: The heart stops pumping blood, causing a rapid decline in blood pressure.
3. Cardiac arrest: The heart stops beating, leading to a lack of oxygen supply to the body's tissues.
4. Brain death: The brain ceases to function, causing a loss of consciousness and reflexes.
5. Rigor mortis: The muscles become stiff and rigid due to the buildup of lactic acid and other metabolic byproducts.
6. Livor mortis: Blood settles in the dependent parts of the body, causing discoloration and swelling.
7. Algor mortis: The body's temperature cools, causing the skin to feel cool to the touch.

Late Postmortem Changes:

1. Decomposition: Bacteria and other microorganisms begin to break down the body's tissues, leading to putrefaction and decay.
2. Autolysis: Enzymes within the body's cells break down cellular components, causing self-digestion and softening of the tissues.
3. Lipid decomposition: Fats and oils in the body undergo oxidation, leading to the formation of offensive odors.
4. Coagulative necrosis: Blood pools in the body's tissues, causing damage to the cells and tissues.
5. Putrefaction: Bacteria in the gut and other parts of the body cause the breakdown of tissues, leading to the formation of gases and fluids.

It is important to note that postmortem changes can significantly impact the interpretation of autopsy findings and the determination of cause of death. Therefore, it is essential to consider these changes when performing an autopsy and interpreting the results.

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The term temperature is used, since hot, thermal and cold neutrons are moderated in a medium with a certain temperature. The ... Ideally, a room temperature neutron moderator is used for this process. In reactors, heavy water, light water, or graphite are ... The neutron detection temperature, also called the neutron energy, indicates a free neutron's kinetic energy, usually given in ... Qualitatively, the higher the temperature, the higher the kinetic energy of the free neutrons. The momentum and wavelength of ...
... the temperature at which a substance changes from solid to liquid state Melting temperature, the temperature at which a DNA ... This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Melting temperature. If an internal link led you here, you ... Melting temperature may refer to: Melting point, ...
... is the temperature of the outermost surface of the body. Normal human skin temperature on the trunk of the ... Temperatures of these parts typically are consistent with internal body temperature. Patterns in skin temperature often provide ... Surface skin temperature in humans varies alongside ambient temperature, internal temperature and conditions affecting both the ... At a given core temperature, higher skin temperature improves the sweat rate, whilst cooler skin temperature inhibits sweat ...
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... with maximum acceptable temperatures between 25-32 °C (77-90 °F). Temperature ranges are defined as room temperature for ... The ambient temperature (e.g. an unheated room in winter) may be very different from an ideal room temperature. The American ... In contrast, ambient temperature is the actual temperature, as measured by a thermometer, of the air (or other medium and ... Colloquially, "room temperature" is a range of air temperatures that most people prefer for indoor settings. It feels ...
... and thus lower than the Doppler temperature. An example of a process where the recoil temperature can be reached is Sisyphus ... The recoil temperature is T recoil = ℏ 2 k 2 m k B {\displaystyle T_{\text{recoil}}={\frac {\hbar ^{2}k^{2}}{mk_{\text{B ... In laser cooling, the Boltzmann constant times the recoil temperature is equal to the recoil energy deposited in a single atom ... The recoil temperature for the D2 lines of alkali atoms is typically on the order of 1 μK, ...
The term degree is used in several scales of temperature, with the notable exception of kelvin, primary unit of temperature for ... F Room temperature: 20-25 °C / 68-77 °F All three of the major units of temperature are linearly dependent, and so the ... is a former name for the SI unit of temperature on the thermodynamic (absolute) temperature scale. Since 1967, it has been ... Comparison of temperature scales International System of Units "Unit of thermodynamic temperature (kelvin) (International ...
... may refer to: Highest temperature recorded on Earth Maximum safe storage temperature, the highest ... temperature at which a chemical may safely be stored Maximum operating temperature, the highest temperature at which a piece of ... which includes the maximum temperatures recorded in various places on Earth Maximum surface temperature of an asteroid, a ... This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Maximum temperature. If an internal link led you here, you ...
A temperature gradient is a physical quantity that describes in which direction and at what rate the temperature changes the ... The temperature gradient is a dimensional quantity expressed in units of degrees (on a particular temperature scale) per unit ... Clearly, the temperature gradient may change substantially in time, as a result of diurnal or seasonal heating and cooling for ... As the day shifts over to night the temperature might drop rapidly while at other places on the land stay warmer or cooler at ...
Temperature scales are numerical. The numerical zero of a temperature scale is not bound to the absolute zero of temperature. ... SI temperature is conceptually far different from thermodynamic temperature. Thermodynamic temperature was rigorously defined ... Examples are the International SI temperature scale, the Rankine temperature scale, and the thermodynamic temperature scale. ... a temperature of 295 K is equal to 21.85 °C and 71.33 °F. Thermodynamic temperature, as distinct from SI temperature, is ...
The vibrational temperature is commonly used in thermodynamics, to simplify certain equations. It has units of temperature and ... The vibrational temperature is used commonly when finding the vibrational partition function. Statistical thermodynamics ... University Arizona Rotational temperature Rotational spectroscopy Vibrational spectroscopy Infrared spectroscopy Spectroscopy v ...
... , also known as feels like, is the temperature equivalent perceived by humans, caused by the combined ... The measure is most commonly applied to the perceived outdoor temperature. Apparent temperature was invented by Robert Steadman ... The wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT) combines the effects of radiation (typically sunlight), humidity, temperature and wind ... to the apparent temperature, commercial weather companies have attempted to develop their own proprietary apparent temperature ...
Conversion of scales of temperature Color temperature Planck temperature Temperature data logger Satellite temperature ... if A and B are at the same temperature, and B and C are at the same temperature then A and C are at the same temperature. B, of ... so the measured temperature is different from the actual temperature of the system. In such a case the measured temperature ... Temperature increase causes the fluid to expand, so the temperature can be determined by measuring the volume of the fluid. ...
... may refer to: Temperature Rising (album), a 2006 album by Tata Young Temperature's Rising, an album by ... Loverboy "Temperature's Rising" (song), a 1995 song by Mobb Deep from The Infamous Temperatures Rising, an American television ... situation comedy This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Temperature Rising. If an internal link led ...
... is a process in which change of temperature of a space (and objects collectively there within), or of a ... depending on the difference between the required temperature (the "setpoint") and the actual temperature. This minimizes over/ ... If, in a place or thing, more energy is received than is lost, its temperature increases. If the amount of energy coming in and ... Heat flows from one place to another (always from a higher temperature to a lower one) by up to three processes: conduction, ...
The Curie temperature is named after Pierre Curie, who showed that magnetism was lost at a critical temperature. The force of ... Magnetism depends on temperature and spontaneous magnetism occurs below the Curie temperature. An accurate model of critical ... The structure is built up of high and low bulk Curie temperatures, however will only have one mean-field Curie temperature. A ... The hysteresis loop depends on temperature and as a result as the temperature is increased and reaches T0 the two curves become ...
Polymers with high ceiling temperatures are often commercially useful. Polymers with low ceiling temperatures are more readily ... The ceiling temperature can be defined by T c = Δ H p Δ S p {\displaystyle T_{c}={\frac {\Delta H_{p}}{\Delta S_{p}}}} This ... At low temperatures, the enthalpy term is greater than the T Δ S p {\displaystyle T\Delta S_{p}} term, which allows ... Ceiling temperature ( T c {\displaystyle T_{c}} ) is a measure of the tendency of a polymer to revert to its constituent ...
... "the temperature becomes stuck at a limiting value". Hagedorn temperature is the temperature TH above which the partition sum ... The Hagedorn temperature, TH, is the temperature in theoretical physics where hadronic matter (i.e. ordinary matter) is no ... This temperature is extremely high (1030 K) and thus of mainly theoretical interest. The Hagedorn temperature was discovered by ... The Hagedorn temperature is only a maximum temperature in the physically unrealistic case of exponentially many species with ...
... is defined as the minimum temperature from which the micelle formation takes place. It is named after German ... The Krafft temperature is a point of phase change below which the surfactant remains in crystalline form, even in an aqueous ... Increasing the length of the hydrocarbon chain increases the Krafft temperature because it improves Van der Waals forces. ... IUPAC Gold book - Krafft temperature v t e (Colloidal chemistry, Physical chemistry, All stub articles, Chemistry stubs). ...
... is the temperature at a surface. Specifically, it may refer to: Surface air temperature, the temperature of ... the combined global average of Surface air temperature and Sea surface temperature Surface temperature of a star, often the ... the temperature of water close to the ocean's surface Global surface temperature, ... effective temperature Instrumental temperature record, the historical record of in situ measurements of surface air and sea ...
... , short for transistor junction temperature, is the highest operating temperature of the actual ... Every time the temperature sensing network determines that a rise above the specified junction temperature ( T J {\displaystyle ... Because of this temperature sensitivity, LED measurement standards, like IESNA's LM-85, require that the junction temperature ... In operation, it is higher than case temperature and the temperature of the part's exterior. The difference is equal to the ...
... or radiance temperature is the temperature at which a black body in thermal equilibrium with its ... The brightness temperature is not a temperature as ordinarily understood. It characterizes radiation, and depending on the ... As detailed below, the real temperature of a surface can in some cases be calculated by dividing the brightness temperature by ... heat up by a source of radiation with some brightness temperature to the actual temperature equal to brightness temperature). ...
... expresses the thermodynamic temperature of a material as a fraction of the thermodynamic temperature of ... the homologous temperature of lead at room temperature (25 °C) is approximately 0.50 (TH = T/Tmp = 298 K/601 K = 0.50). The ... The upper temperature is high relative to the melting point; from this we can deduce that solder will have limited mechanical ... v t e v t e (Articles with short description, Short description is different from Wikidata, Scales of temperature, All stub ...
Thus it doesn't make sense to talk about the noise temperature of a capacitor or of a voltage source. The noise temperature of ... If that amplifier is used to amplify a source having a noise temperature of about room temperature (290 K), as many sources do ... is the noise temperature (K, kelvin) Thus the noise temperature is proportional to the power spectral density of the noise, P N ... resulting noise temperature referred to the input T 1 {\displaystyle T_{1}} = noise temperature of the first component in the ...
... is a compilation album released in 1995 by the Canadian rock band Loverboy. The album was the third ...
The effective temperature of a body such as a star or planet is the temperature of a black body that would emit the same total ... which increases the average temperature of the Earth's surface. Star portal Brightness temperature Color temperature List of ... Effective temperature scale for solar type stars Surface Temperature of Planets Planet temperature calculator (Articles with ... The effective temperature of a star is the temperature of a black body with the same luminosity per surface area (FBol) as the ...
In fluid thermodynamics, the film temperature (Tf ) is an approximation of the temperature of a fluid inside a convection ... The film temperature is often used as the temperature at which fluid properties are calculated when using the Prandtl number, ... 4th Ed Film Temperature Archived 2009-02-22 at the Wayback Machine Bulk and Film Temperatures (Webarchive template wayback ... It is calculated as the arithmetic mean of the temperature at the surface of the solid boundary wall (Tw) and the free-stream ...
Graphical representation of potential temperature will always be less than the actual temperature line in a temperature vs ... the potential temperature referenced to the surface will be slightly less than the in-situ temperature (the temperature that a ... The potential temperature of a parcel of fluid at pressure P {\displaystyle P} is the temperature that the parcel would attain ... Potential temperature is a more dynamically important quantity than the actual temperature. This is because it is not affected ...
... is the temperature at which a material changes from one crystal state (allotrope) to another. More ... In the case of ferroelectric or ferromagnetic crystals, a transition temperature may be known as the Curie temperature. Crystal ... Another example is tin, which transitions from a cubic crystal below 13.2 °C to a tetragonal crystal above that temperature. ... Threshold temperatures, All stub articles, Materials science stubs, Thermodynamics stubs). ...
Body temperature continues to decrease, depending on ambient temperatures. As core body temperature falls, neurologic function ... If a thermometer is available, a rectal temperature is the safest and most reliable way to check the temperature of someone ... The rate of change of temperature, not the absolute temperature, induces this form of skin lesion. If cold urticaria occur ... Temperature and heart rate increase in direct proportion to the level of dehydration. Sweat is a hypotonic fluid containing ...
CDC Temperature Extremes Resources:. *Extreme Cold - Prepare for winter storms, prevent cold temperature-related health ... learn how the CRSCI Grant Recipients are preparing for and responding to increasing temperatures ...
We set a temperature target of 81C, and automatically suspend the GPUs work when this temperature is reached. The thresholds ... Message boards : Questions and problems : Automatic Temperature regulation. Message board moderation To post messages, you must ... TThrottle The way to control your CPU and GPU temperature.. BoincTasks The best view of BOINC.. My other activities ... TThrottle The way to control your CPU and GPU temperature.. BoincTasks The best view of BOINC.. My other activities ...
The Kelvin and Temperature Measurements, Journal of Research of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (Accessed ...
Portable Refuge Alternatives Temperature and Humidity Tests. *Prediction of Human Core Temperature Rise and Moisture Loss in ... Effects of Mine Strata Thermal Behavior and Mine Initial Temperatures on Mobile Refuge Alternative Temperature ... If a mine can be assumed to behave as an infinite heat sink, then the temperature rise within an RA would be significantly less ... Could occupancy derating values be used for RAs that are rated and approved for use at one mine ambient temperature, but are ...
They exposed freshly laid eggs to ten different temperatures ranging from 12 to 32°C, the upper and lower limit of survival for ... Moreover, animals exposed to either extreme did not live as long as animals exposed to more moderate temperatures during ... By measuring changes in metabolites with each temperature, they were able to identify several target molecules that may play ... Metabolic and functional characterization of effects of developmental temperature in Drosophila melanogaster. American Journal ...
This summers hot temperatures can cause deleterious effects on people with diabetes. Akshay Jain, MD, explains why its ... At ambient temperatures , 30 °C (86 °F), there can be a decrease in potency of insulin in vials by about 5% in 4 weeks. ... We know that insulin is best stored at about 4 °C (39 °F) with a certain shelf life at room temperature. ... Studies show that changes in temperature from colder to warmer may increase the rate of disappearance of rapid-acting insulin ...
Polyimide Tape 7413D with polyimide film and silicone adhesive used for PCB solder masking and other high temperature ... 3M™ High Temperature Polyimide Tape 7413D with polyimide film and silicone adhesive used for PCB solder masking and other high ... temperature applications. Amber.. Halogen Free refers to the International Electrochemical Commissions Definition, IEC 61249 ...
... 3 June 2013, Milton Keynes, United Kingdom ... high final inlet temperatures, large volume injections and additional techniques like thermal desorption and extraction. The ...
The detrimental effects of incorrect temperatures are often observed after considerable time has passed. ... Temperature and Collections. The detrimental effects of incorrect temperatures (too high or too low) result in slow ... High temperatures accelerate deterioration in specimens and evaporation of ethanol, while low temperatures may cause fats and ... While most collections could benefit from cooler storage temperatures than those normally used in museums, temperatures that ...
Optimal Temperature There isnt a single, "ideal" temperature for bathwater-it comes down to personal preference and the ... Taking a bath in water thats a neutral temperature-meaning that its similar to the temperature of the human body, or around ... Specific Temperature Guidelines How to Get Squeaky Clean If your bathtime goal is to get as clean as possible, then Melissa ... How to Measure the Ideal Bath Temperature Because most standard bathtubs dont come with a built-in thermometer, the ...
Minnesota Principal Goes Viral With Sub-Zero Temperature Videos. Nathan Ziegler jumps on a frozen trampoline and more in the ... This morning, the temperature, according to Ziegler, was negative 1 degree in Minneapolis. ...
... "temperatures" is that satellites do not measure temperature, not even color temperature, but for a specific layer of atmosphere ... johnd writes: Arent satellite based temperature measurement equipment calibrated against "known" conventional temperature ... Then you can look at the lower troposphere temperature of the model and call it temperature. However, with no further ... Understanding adjustments to temperature data, Zeke Hausfather. Explainer: How data adjustments affect global temperature ...
This Trigger fires every time the temperature drops below a threshold you specify. ... Temperature threshold Text input. Label. Temperature threshold. Helper text. e.g. 72. Slug. temperature_threshold. Required. ... Temperature units Dropdown list. Label. Degrees in. Slug. temperature_units. Required. true. Can have default value. true. ... Target temperature cThe target temperature in Celsius. Slug. TargetTemperatureC. Filter code. NestThermostat.tempDropsBelow. ...
Remote diode temperature sensors. Remote temperature sensors measure the temperature of external PN junctions such as diodes or ... Digital temperature sensors TMP1827 ACTIVE 1-Wire®, ±0.2°C accurate digital temperature sensor with authentication, 2-Kbit ... Digital temperature sensors TMP4718 PREVIEW High-accuracy remote and local temperature sensor with pin-programmable alert ... Digital temperature sensors Simplify designs with small, easy-to-use, accurate digital temperature sensors. parametric-filter. ...
... Logged in as: Guest Viewers: 545 You can click here to see Todays Posts , Most Active Topics , Posts ... All Forums ,, [PC hardware] ,, Motherboards/CPU ,, internal temperatures Page: [1] Login Message. ,, Older Topic Newer Topic ,, ... All Forums ,, [PC hardware] ,, Motherboards/CPU ,, internal temperatures Page: [1] Jump to: Select a Forum. All Forums. ... In your case 80 degrees is way too much if it is the true temperature. My overclocked [email protected] woking now at 3.2, reaches 50 ...
Question about SOZ operation temperature: I built SOZ with the following: -230V~25-0-25V 600VA toroidal transformer; -2 x ... I spent a long time in the ceramics kiln business, and we considered that temperature as starting to get warm. ... The temperature at the heatsink after 30mins of operation is about 100ºC!!!. What do you guys think of this?. Will it burn up ... My guess, the temperature ive measured off my heatsinks (where its hottest) is no more than 40°C at room temp. I can keep my ...
Entries Tagged as temperature. Donna, bring a sweater. March 8th, 2016 · 33 Comments. Our submitter spotted this namanasty- ... Mara in Minneapolis ( average temperature in January: 12° F/-11° C) says the worst job shes ever had was at a local thrift ... Tags: blitzkrieg approach · exclamation-point happy!!!! · Providence · San Francisco · South Carolina · temperature · touching ... Tags: CAPS LOCK · New Jersey · old folks · spelling and grammar police · temperature · your/youre ...
Sea surface temperature (SST) rise between the 1990s and the 2000s caused new trends in wind patterns in the US.. Pinpointing ... Scientists speculated that the upsurge in cases was related to ocean temperatures rising. That seems a huge leap in logic, ... Why are dust storms on the rise? Climatology data analyses indicate that sea surface temperatures in the North Pacific were ... Spatial Analysis Ties Valley Fever Increase to Sea Temperature Rise. By Dawn Wright. ...
He will check temperatures, require face masks and take one customer each hour. Customers will have to make an appointment and ... Goble said his firm will conduct forehead temperature checks as part of a screening process to allow patients to enter the ... Shampoo, a trim, a temperature check: What getting your hair cut will be like when barbershops and salons reopen. ... Many of those businesses are implementing protocols that include taking clients temperatures, requiring face masks, limiting ...
Water Temperature at buoy 45137 (45.540N 81.020W) - Georgian Bay. ...
Monitoring and maintaining an optimal temperature is crucial for ensuring smooth and reliable operation. ... CPU Temperature refers to the heat generated by the central processing unit, which can impact the performance and stability of ... What CPU temperature range should my computer stay in?. The temperature range for your laptop or desktop computer varies. ... Understanding what the ideal temperature range is for your computers CPU and how to check your CPU temperature in BIOS/UEFI is ...
The site navigation utilizes arrow, enter, escape, and space bar key commands. Left and right arrows move across top level links and expand / close menus in sub levels. Up and Down arrows will open main level menus and toggle through sub tier links. Enter and space open menus and escape closes them as well. Tab will move on to the next part of the site rather than go through menu items.. ...
TEHELKA is the fastest growing national news group for English & Hindi news magazines. The core value of the brand is to uphold the truth with a free, fair and fearless attitude. The company has a high standard of excellence in journalism and a commitment to assist in Indias fight against corruption. News is published in the maximum number of languages to maintain a stronger circulation base across the country ...
Most kids can have their temperature taken this way when theyre about 4-5 years old. Heres how to do it. ... Taking an oral temperature is easy in an older, cooperative child. ... Taking an oral temperature is easy in an older, cooperative child. Most kids can have their temperature taken this way when ... Taking Your Childs Temperature Your child feels warm, but is it a fever? Now, more than never, its important to know. Heres ...
The soaring temperatures this year in Indias northern state of Kashmir are proving calamitous for the regions farming ... Soaring Temperatures Devastate Kashmir Farmers. By Umar Manzoor Shah Reprint , , Print , Mumtaza Bano (centre), is ploughing ... "Similarly, the annual temperature is likely to increase in the next century compared to the base period of 1970. An increasing ... "And then, the mercury surged again, and within a mere one week, the temperatures surged to almost 37 degrees. Where will we get ...
Controlling Temperature in Component Cabinet. 405 Views 2 Replies 3 Participants Last post by DoyleS, Oct 12, 2004. ... When I keep the doors closed the temperature goes as high as 104F in the coat closet.. I need some help to cool my coat closet ...
Extreme Temperatures on Signs of the Times: The World for People who Think ... 9/11 Animals Comets Comets and Catastrophe Series Drought Earthquakes Extreme Temperatures Fireballs Floods JFK Series Plagues ... 9/11 Animals Comets Comets and Catastrophe Series Drought Earthquakes Extreme Temperatures Fireballs Floods JFK Series Plagues ... Freezing temperatures have also forced more than 8,500 pre-school and primary school students to cease their schooling. ...
... the first molecular evidence that two anciently conversed proteins with shared biological ancestry regulate body temperature ... Previous studies indicate fruit flies seek colder temperature in the morning and warmer temperature in the evening, which sets ... Mammals, on the other hand, control body temperature rhythm through internal heat generation. Body temperature in humans is ... they rely on external sources for body heat so their body temperature is close to surrounding temperatures. ...
DOE Patents Patent: Temperature compensated and self-calibrated current sensor Title: Temperature compensated and self- ... Temperature compensated and self-calibrated current sensor. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. ... Temperature compensated and self-calibrated current sensor using reference magnetic field Patent Yakymyshyn, Christopher Paul [ ... Temperature compensated and self-calibrated current sensor using reference current Patent Yakymyshyn, Christopher Paul [ ...
  • Berkeley Earth Surface Temperatures' study (BEST) is a well-known example and was carried out at the University of California, starting in 2010. (
  • Climatology data analyses indicate that sea surface temperatures in the North Pacific were warmer during the 2000s than during the 1990s. (
  • The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data available on CDC WONDER are daytime and nighttime geographically aggregated land surface temperatures (LST) spanning the years 2003-2008. (
  • Reported measures are the average daily temperature, the number of observations, the range for the daily maximum and minimum land surface temperatures, and the percent coverage for the both the day and night land surface temperatures. (
  • Obtain average temperature , the number of observations , range , and percent coverage for the day (1:30 pm local time) or night (1:30 am local time) daily land surface temperatures, in Fahrenheit or Celsius. (
  • Select specific criteria to produce cross-tabulated average land surface temperatures measures for day or night. (
  • In your case 80 degrees is way too much if it is the true temperature. (
  • My overclocked [email protected] woking now at 3.2, reaches 50 under full load during summertime (30-40 degrees ambient temperature). (
  • We are witnessing the temperatures spiking as high as 37 degrees Celsius. (
  • Mir says the water canals were never as dry as they are today, and in the first three months after spring - from March to June, there was no rainfall, and then it rained heavily for four days, suddenly plummeting the temperatures to mere 15 degrees Celsius. (
  • And then, the mercury surged again, and within a mere one week, the temperatures surged to almost 37 degrees. (
  • If the reading on the thermometer is more than 1 to 1.5 degrees above your normal temperature, you have a fever . (
  • Continue to monitor the temperatures until they reach the normal 2-8 degrees Celsius range in the refrigerator, or -15 degrees C or less in the freezer. (
  • 2. If you receive vaccine from your state or local health department, they may be contacting you with guidance on collecting information on vaccine exposed to extreme temperatures. (
  • The major means of heat dissipation are radiation while at rest and evaporation of sweat during exercise, both of which become minimal when air temperatures are above 95°F (35°C) and humidity is high. (
  • Relative humidity (RH) is the amount of water vapor present in air expressed as a percentage of the greatest amount the air can absorb at that temperature. (
  • In addition to temperature and humidity extremes, rapid fluctuation presents risk to collections. (
  • This includes control of air temperature within a building (with or without passive relative humidity control), room-level temperature control (e.g., radiators with window mounted a/c units), or entirely passive control based on the buffering effects of the building envelope (e.g., door seals). (
  • The annual average temperature is about 25°C, with permanent atmospheric humidity. (
  • Also, humidity resulting from evaporation due to elevation of temperature may play an important role in the occurrence of many diseases. (
  • Temperature-stable vaccines for developing countries : significance and development strategies, summary of a workshop, Institute of Medicine, Division of International Health. (
  • a recent innovation in support of the final segment of the immunization supply chain is licensing certain vaccines for use in a controlled temperature chain (CTC), which allows excursions into ambient temperatures up to 40°C for a specific number of days immediately prior to administration . (
  • Most refrigerated vaccines are relatively stable at room temperature for limited periods of time. (
  • The vaccines of most concern are MMR and Varivax, which are sensitive to elevated temperatures. (
  • If transporting vaccine, measure the temperature of the refrigerator(s) and freezer(s) when the vaccines are removed. (
  • Could occupancy derating values be used for RAs that are rated and approved for use at one mine ambient temperature, but are deployed in a mine with a higher ambient temperature? (
  • There are special considerations for people on insulin therapy during higher ambient temperature conditions. (
  • Studies in people with type 1 diabetes show that the rate of absorption of insulin can be accelerated by up to 60% at an ambient temperature of 35 °C (95 °F) compared with 20 °C (68 °F), related to increased blood flow in the skin with vasodilatation. (
  • Temperature data are available in Fahrenheit or Celsius. (
  • Fluke offers temperature calibration tools well suited to the rigorous demands of industry, including specialty handheld temperature calibrators and the more advanced - but still portable - dry-block metrology wells with accredited calibration accuracy. (
  • Most advanced Fluke documenting process calibrators can also test and calibrate both temperature and pressure instruments. (
  • Srinagar, Indian Kashmir, Jul 13 2022 (IPS) - The soaring temperatures this year in India's northern state of Kashmir are proving calamitous for the region's farming community. (
  • Regions with wide temperature fluctuation present risk for both heat and cold problems. (
  • High temperatures accelerate deterioration in specimens and evaporation of ethanol, while low temperatures may cause fats and lipids to solidify, leaving deposits on specimens. (
  • We know that insulin is best stored at about 4 °C (39 °F) with a certain shelf life at room temperature. (
  • TOKYO - The average global land temperature is likely to rise 0.67 degree Celsius in 2007 from that of the 30 years starting 1971, reaching a new high in the mankind's recorded history, the Japan Meteorological Agency said in a preliminary report on Thursday. (
  • While taking into sea areas, the global average temperature may rise 0.29 degree Celsius from the 30-year basis, the sixth highest since 1891, said the report based on statistics from more than 1, 200 observation points all over the world until November. (
  • How Do I Take an Oral Temperature? (
  • Taking an oral temperature is easy in an older, cooperative child. (
  • Wait 20-30 minutes after your child finishes eating or drinking to take an oral temperature, and make sure there's no gum or candy in your child's mouth. (
  • The average normal oral temperature is 98.6°F (37°C). (
  • A rectal temperature is 0.5°F (0.3°C) to 1°F (0.6°C) higher than an oral temperature. (
  • From finding the ideal bath timing and water temperature to using bath bombs and oils, below are some science-based strategies and guidelines to improve your experience in the bathtub. (
  • Meanwhile, if you're in the bath for relaxation purposes, the correct water temperature is simply the one that feels right to you. (
  • There are two dry seasons (low temperatures, with no rainfall) and two rainy seasons (high temperatures, with very heavy rainfall). (
  • Finally, there have been independent analyses of global temperature datasets that had very similar results to NASA. (
  • High temperatures accelerate chemical reactions driving up the rate of overall degradation of organic materials. (
  • Degradation of sensors, which can be exposed to temperature cycling as well as vibration, can be accounted for during the tests. (
  • If possible transport the vaccine following proper cold chain procedures for storage and handling or try to the record the temperature the vaccine is exposed to during transport. (
  • 4. Keep exposed vaccine separated from any new product you receive and continue to store at the proper temperature if possible. (
  • You can test the entire tempeloop-the temperature sensor and all measurement electronics-in order to optimize performance. (
  • While most collections could benefit from cooler storage temperatures than those normally used in museums, temperatures that are too cold can cause embrittlement, hazing and cracks in some materials. (
  • Cooler storage temperatures inhibit pest infestation. (
  • In a new study published in the American Journal of Physiology- Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology , researchers were curious how exposure to varying temperatures would affect developing ectotherms. (
  • Interestingly, developing flies exposed to cold temperatures were less tolerant of cold exposure as adults. (
  • In addition, exposure to elevated temperatures can affect the accuracy of testing strips, particularly at low glucose levels, and hence the test results may not be reliable at the time of hypoglycemia . (
  • Unfortunately, some of the symptoms of hypoglycemia (eg, sweating, tiredness, dizziness, headache) might be mistaken for effects of exposure to high ambient temperatures, and hence episodes of hypoglycemia may not be treated in a timely manner in many individuals. (
  • Be sure to record the duration of increased temperature exposure and the maximum temperature observed. (
  • Because most standard bathtubs don't come with a built-in thermometer, the temperature is something you'd have to measure on your own (if you really want to be scientific about it). (
  • A thermometer is a useful aid used to measure body temperature. (
  • The measurement of body temperature can help detect illness. (
  • You need to have an accurate temperature measurement to determine if a fever is present. (
  • Be sure to tell your health care provider which type of temperature measurement you used when discussing a fever. (
  • The exact relationship between different types of temperature measurement is unclear. (
  • Moreover, animals exposed to either extreme did not live as long as animals exposed to more moderate temperatures during development. (
  • Our digital temperature sensor ICs provide ultra-high accuracy down to ±0.1°C, low-power consumption and ease-of-use required for any temperature sensing application, while taking up the smallest packaging footprint. (
  • Find devices that fit the temperature sensor accuracy requirements of your design. (
  • Address thermal challenges with various digital temperature sensor types. (
  • Design big to small with a variety of temperature sensor package options. (
  • Covering temperature sensor error and repeatability, sensitivity and gain and recommended operating points. (
  • Whether a PRT, TC or RTD, testing the sensor is an important practice in complete temperature calibration. (
  • In programmable logic controllers (PLCs) and industrial PCs, TI's highly linear integrated circuit temperature sensors eliminate the complexity of discrete components and help identify system failures in real time, reducing maintenance costs and downtime. (
  • Indeed, the cost of not calibrating temperature equipment can be extreme-inferior products, unscheduled equipment downtime, regulatory penalties and even potentially tragic accidents with tremendous legal liability. (
  • Part of the day will be spent looking at the theory and advantages of cold split and cold splitless injections and the uses for cold-trapping, high final inlet temperatures, large volume injections and additional techniques like thermal desorption and extraction. (
  • In geology and paleontology collections, incorrect temperatures can lead to changes in the crystalline structure of minerals, and temperatures that are too cold can promote thermal shock, in which a specimen becomes brittle and cracks or shatters. (
  • Extreme Cold - Prepare for winter storms, prevent cold temperature-related health problems, and protect yourself during all stages of a winter storm. (
  • The agency ascribed the temperature climb mainly to increased greenhouse gases emissions, cyclical temperature fluctuations and less cold air generated from the Arctic. (
  • Studies show that changes in temperature from colder to warmer may increase the rate of disappearance of rapid-acting insulin from the subcutaneous site after injections. (
  • Many of those businesses are implementing protocols that include taking clients' temperatures, requiring face masks, limiting the number of customers in waiting rooms and rearranging furniture to support 6-foot social distancing. (
  • The detrimental effects of incorrect temperatures (too high or too low) result in slow deterioration that may only evident with the passage of time and thus the results may be underestimated. (
  • There isn't a single, "ideal" temperature for bathwater-it comes down to personal preference and the purpose of your time in the tub. (
  • This Trigger fires every time the temperature drops below a threshold you specify. (
  • I spent a long time in the ceramics kiln business, and we considered that temperature as 'starting to get warm. (
  • No matter which part of the world you're in as you read this, chances are that in the preceding 60 days you read local news warnings of how local temperatures are higher than previous averages for this time of the year. (
  • Data are available by place (combined 48 contiguous states plus the District of Columbia, region, division, state, county), time (year, month, day) and specified average land surface temperature value for day (1:30 pm local time) and night (1:30 am local time). (
  • We found 68 stations located at wastewater treatment plants, where the process of waste digestion causes temperatures to be higher than in surrounding areas. (
  • Conclusion: No increase in pulp chamber temperature was higher than 2°C. (
  • The agency recorded previous highest global and land average temperatures in 1998. (
  • A changing climate has the potential to greatly impact ectotherms, which depend on the environment to regulate their own body temperatures. (
  • Even a mild increase in body temperature leads to an increase in counterregulatory hormones and also levels of free fatty acids, 3-hydroxybutyrate, glycerol, and lactate. (
  • Wait at least 1 hour after heavy exercise or a hot bath before measuring body temperature. (
  • Plastic strip thermometers measure skin temperature, not body temperature. (
  • Body temperature that is too high or too low can be serious. (
  • One of the initial and persistent concerns over the use of mobile refuge alternatives (RA) is the temperature rise inside the RA from the metabolic heat of the occupants and the heat released by the CO 2 scrubbing system. (
  • Metabolic and functional characterization of effects of developmental temperature in Drosophila melanogaster . (
  • TThrottle The way to control your CPU and GPU temperature. (
  • Or, if you're in the market for a new tub, there are newer varieties with digital valves that let you set and control the temperature of the water. (
  • Just wondering if anyone knows what the safe temperatures are for hardware components, i recently d/loaded 'speedfan' which gives detailed info on temperatures and gives fan control. (
  • As a control, the temperature was measured with the application of light, without applying any gel. (
  • The study determined the variations of carbon dioxide and temperature within south-south and south-eastern parts of Nigeria from January 2009 to December 2014. (
  • The results revealed that rise in temperature within these regions could significantly be dependent on the increase in CO2 emissions and other greenhouse gases. (
  • Remote temperature sensors measure the temperature of external PN junctions such as diodes or transistors and measure FPGA temperature directly. (
  • Though she doesn't reveal how she arrived at this temperature, in an interview with the Wall Street Journal, she explains that bathing in water 112°F or lower is the optimal temperature for washing away environmental dirt and bacteria. (
  • The factors that influence attachment include temperature, pH and nutrient concentration [8]. (
  • Temperature and heart rate increase in direct proportion to the level of dehydration. (
  • Similarly, the annual temperature is likely to increase in the next century compared to the base period of 1970. (
  • It was also observed from the results that no gaseous pollutant or greenhouse gas can have 100% influences on climatic parameters like temperature. (
  • Does the facility in which the test is conducted impact the resulting temperature rise? (
  • Each of the studies contributed incrementally to the overall understanding of the problem, and the knowledge gained in one step was applied in the next to further the understanding of temperature rise in RAs. (
  • Sea surface temperature (SST) rise between the 1990s and the 2000s caused new trends in wind patterns in the US. (
  • Do not open units to check temperatures during the power outage. (
  • Select temperature sensors by interface. (
  • The logic behind this, they thought, was that if temperature records from a number of U.S. sites could be discredited, then global warming could be declared a hoax. (
  • An increasing trend in annual maximum and minimum temperature, as well as precipitation, has also been predicted for the region under Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES). (
  • This will provide data on the maximum temperature and maximum duration of exposures to elevated temperatures. (
  • A high temperature is a fever . (
  • In general, rectal temperatures are considered to be more accurate when checking for fever in a young child. (