An instrument for reproducing sounds especially articulate speech at a distance. (Webster, 3rd ed)
A direct communication system, usually telephone, established for instant contact. It is designed to provide special information and assistance through trained personnel and is used for counseling, referrals, and emergencies such as poisonings and threatened suicides.
Consultation via remote telecommunications, generally for the purpose of diagnosis or treatment of a patient at a site remote from the patient or primary physician.
Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.
The functions and activities carried out by the U.S. Postal Service, foreign postal services, and private postal services such as Federal Express.
Analog or digital communications device in which the user has a wireless connection from a telephone to a nearby transmitter. It is termed cellular because the service area is divided into multiple "cells." As the user moves from one cell area to another, the call is transferred to the local transmitter.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.
The giving of advice and assistance to individuals with educational or personal problems.
Medical care provided after the regular practice schedule of the physicians. Usually it is designed to deliver 24-hour-a-day and 365-day-a-year patient care coverage for emergencies, triage, pediatric care, or hospice care.
Delivery of health services via remote telecommunications. This includes interactive consultative and diagnostic services.
The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.
The different methods of scheduling patient visits, appointment systems, individual or group appointments, waiting times, waiting lists for hospitals, walk-in clinics, etc.
Systems used to prompt or aid the memory. The systems can be computerized reminders, color coding, telephone calls, or devices such as letters and postcards.
The sorting out and classification of patients or casualties to determine priority of need and proper place of treatment.
The term "United States" in a medical context often refers to the country where a patient or study participant resides, and is not a medical term per se, but relevant for epidemiological studies, healthcare policies, and understanding differences in disease prevalence, treatment patterns, and health outcomes across various geographic locations.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.
Transmission of information over distances via electronic means.
Discontinuation of the habit of smoking, the inhaling and exhaling of tobacco smoke.
Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).
Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.
The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.
The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.
The practice of sending a patient to another program or practitioner for services or advice which the referring source is not prepared to provide.
A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.
A telecommunication system combining the transmission of a document scanned at a transmitter, its reconstruction at a receiving station, and its duplication there by a copier.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "California" is a place, specifically a state on the western coast of the United States, and not a medical term or concept. Therefore, it doesn't have a medical definition.
Studies in which a number of subjects are selected from all subjects in a defined population. Conclusions based on sample results may be attributed only to the population sampled.
Performance of activities or tasks traditionally performed by professional health care providers. The concept includes care of oneself or one's family and friends.
A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.
The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)
Hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of immediate medical or surgical care to the emergency patient.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Visits to the patient's home by professional personnel for the purpose of diagnosis and/or treatment.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Colorado" is a place, specifically a state in the United States, and does not have a medical definition. If you have any questions about medical conditions or terminology, I would be happy to help with those!
#### My apologies, but the term 'Washington' is not a medical concept or condition that has a defined meaning within the medical field. It refers to various concepts, primarily related to the U.S. state of Washington or the District of Columbia, where the nation's capital is located. If you have any questions about medical topics or conditions, please feel free to ask!
Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.
The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.
Interaction between the patient and nurse.
Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but 'England' is not a medical term and does not have a medical definition. England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom, known for its rich history, cultural heritage, and contributions to medical science. However, in a medical context, it may refer to the location of a patient, healthcare provider, or research study, but it is not a term with a specific medical meaning.
Counseling during which a professional plays an active role in a client's or patient's decision making by offering advice, guidance, and/or recommendations.
Delivery of nursing services via remote telecommunications.
The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.
Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.
Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.
The use of communication systems, such as telecommunication, to transmit emergency information to appropriate providers of health services.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
The interactions between physician and patient.
Customer satisfaction or dissatisfaction with a benefit or service received.
A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.
Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.
Economic aspects of the nursing profession.
A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.
Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.
The attitude of a significant portion of a population toward any given proposition, based upon a measurable amount of factual evidence, and involving some degree of reflection, analysis, and reasoning.
Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.
The care and treatment of a convalescent patient, especially that of a patient after surgery.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
A province of Canada lying between the provinces of Manitoba and Quebec. Its capital is Toronto. It takes its name from Lake Ontario which is said to represent the Iroquois oniatariio, beautiful lake. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p892 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p391)
Facilities for collecting and organizing information. They may be specialized by subject field, type of source material, persons served, location, or type of services.
Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.
Patient involvement in the decision-making process in matters pertaining to health.
Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.
Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).
Great Britain is not a medical term, but a geographical name for the largest island in the British Isles, which comprises England, Scotland, and Wales, forming the major part of the United Kingdom.
The organization and operation of the business aspects of a physician's practice.
Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.
Equipment that sends digital information over telephone lines. The term Modem is a short form of the phrase modulator-demodulator.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Printed publications usually having a format with no binding and no cover and having fewer than some set number of pages. They are often devoted to a single subject.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.
Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.
Health care services provided to patients on an ambulatory basis, rather than by admission to a hospital or other health care facility. The services may be a part of a hospital, augmenting its inpatient services, or may be provided at a free-standing facility.
Health insurance plans intended to reduce unnecessary health care costs through a variety of mechanisms, including: economic incentives for physicians and patients to select less costly forms of care; programs for reviewing the medical necessity of specific services; increased beneficiary cost sharing; controls on inpatient admissions and lengths of stay; the establishment of cost-sharing incentives for outpatient surgery; selective contracting with health care providers; and the intensive management of high-cost health care cases. The programs may be provided in a variety of settings, such as HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS and PREFERRED PROVIDER ORGANIZATIONS.
Organized services in a hospital which provide medical care on an outpatient basis.
Health care provided on a continuing basis from the initial contact, following the patient through all phases of medical care.
Any deviation of results or inferences from the truth, or processes leading to such deviation. Bias can result from several sources: one-sided or systematic variations in measurement from the true value (systematic error); flaws in study design; deviation of inferences, interpretations, or analyses based on flawed data or data collection; etc. There is no sense of prejudice or subjectivity implied in the assessment of bias under these conditions.
Care given to patients by nursing service personnel.
A voluntary contract between two or more doctors who may or may not share responsibility for the care of patients, with proportional sharing of profits and losses.
Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.
A state in southeastern Australia. Its capital is Sydney. It was discovered by Captain Cook in 1770 and first settled at Botany Bay by marines and convicts in 1788. It was named by Captain Cook who thought its coastline resembled that of South Wales. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p840 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p377)
Organized services to provide information on any questions an individual might have using databases and other sources. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Patterns of practice in nursing related to provision of services including diagnosis and treatment.
Registered nurses who hold Master's degrees in nursing with an emphasis in clinical nursing and who function independently in coordinating plans for patient care.
Epidemiologic investigations designed to test a hypothesized cause-effect relation by modifying the supposed causal factor(s) in the study population.
The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.
Those physicians who have completed the education requirements specified by the American Academy of Family Physicians.
whoa, buddy! I'm just a friendly AI and I don't have access to real-time databases or personal data, so I can't provide medical definitions or any other specific information about individuals, places, or things. But I can tell you that I couldn't find any recognized medical definition for "Wisconsin" - it's a state in the United States, not a medical term!
Those factors, such as language or sociocultural relationships, which interfere in the meaningful interpretation and transmission of ideas between individuals or groups.
Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.
Communication services provided by a person or a machine to record and relay the message from the caller.
Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.
Services specifically designed, staffed, and equipped for the emergency care of patients.
Organized systems for providing comprehensive prepaid health care that have five basic attributes: (1) provide care in a defined geographic area; (2) provide or ensure delivery of an agreed-upon set of basic and supplemental health maintenance and treatment services; (3) provide care to a voluntarily enrolled group of persons; (4) require their enrollees to use the services of designated providers; and (5) receive reimbursement through a predetermined, fixed, periodic prepayment made by the enrollee without regard to the degree of services provided. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Electromagnetic waves with frequencies between about 3 kilohertz (very low frequency - VLF) and 300,000 megahertz (extremely high frequency - EHF). They are used in television and radio broadcasting, land and satellite communications systems, radionavigation, radiolocation, and DIATHERMY. The highest frequency radio waves are MICROWAVES.
(Disclaimer: This is a playful and fictitious response, as there isn't a medical definition for 'New York City'.)
A state in south central Australia. Its capital is Adelaide. It was probably first visited by F. Thyssen in 1627. Later discoveries in 1802 and 1830 opened up the southern part. It became a British province in 1836 with this self-descriptive name and became a state in 1901. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1135)
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Kansas" is a geographical location and not a medical term or condition. It's a state located in the Midwestern United States. If you have any questions related to medical topics, I'd be happy to help!
Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)
A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.
The application of nutritional principles to regulation of the diet and feeding persons or groups of persons.
A state in southeastern Australia, the southernmost state. Its capital is Melbourne. It was discovered in 1770 by Captain Cook and first settled by immigrants from Tasmania. In 1851 it was separated from New South Wales as a separate colony. Self-government was introduced in 1851; it became a state in 1901. It was named for Queen Victoria in 1851. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1295 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, p574)
An enduring, learned predisposition to behave in a consistent way toward a given class of objects, or a persistent mental and/or neural state of readiness to react to a certain class of objects, not as they are but as they are conceived to be.
Evaluation procedures that focus on both the outcome or status (OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT) of the patient at the end of an episode of care - presence of symptoms, level of activity, and mortality; and the process (ASSESSMENT, PROCESS) - what is done for the patient diagnostically and therapeutically.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Michigan" is not a medical concept or condition that has a defined meaning within the medical field. It refers to a state in the United States, and does not have a direct medical connotation.
The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.
Community or individual involvement in the decision-making process.
Revenues or receipts accruing from business enterprise, labor, or invested capital.
I must apologize, but "Ireland" is not a term that has a medical definition to the best of my knowledge and medical databases. It is a country located in Northern Europe, known for its lush green landscapes, rich history, and distinctive culture. If you have any medical terms or concepts you would like me to define, I'd be happy to help!
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
The expected function of a member of the nursing profession.
Communication between persons or between institutions or organizations by an exchange of letters. Its use in indexing and cataloging will generally figure in historical and biographical material.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Patient-based medical care provided across age and gender or specialty boundaries.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Massachusetts" is a geographical location and not a medical term or concept. It is a state located in the northeastern region of the United States. If you have any medical questions or terms you would like me to define, please let me know!
A medical specialty concerned with maintaining health and providing medical care to children from birth to adolescence.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Minnesota" is a state located in the Midwestern United States and not a term with a medical definition. If you have any medical questions or terms you would like defined, I'd be happy to help!
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.
Radiographic examination of the breast.
A system of medical care regulated, controlled and financed by the government, in which the government assumes responsibility for the health needs of the population.
(Note: 'North Carolina' is a place, not a medical term. However, I can provide a fun fact related to health and North Carolina.)
Community health and NURSING SERVICES providing coordinated multiple services to the patient at the patient's homes. These home-care services are provided by a visiting nurse, home health agencies, HOSPITALS, or organized community groups using professional staff for care delivery. It differs from HOME NURSING which is provided by non-professionals.
Freedom from exposure to danger and protection from the occurrence or risk of injury or loss. It suggests optimal precautions in the workplace, on the street, in the home, etc., and includes personal safety as well as the safety of property.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Arkansas" is a place name and does not have a medical definition. It is a state located in the southern region of the United States.
A province of eastern Canada. Its capital is Quebec. The region belonged to France from 1627 to 1763 when it was lost to the British. The name is from the Algonquian quilibek meaning the place where waters narrow, referring to the gradually narrowing channel of the St. Lawrence or to the narrows of the river at Cape Diamond. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p993 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p440)
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Situations or conditions requiring immediate intervention to avoid serious adverse results.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Maryland" is not a recognized medical term with a specific definition in the medical field. It refers to a state in the United States. If you have any questions about a medical condition or treatment, I would be happy to try and help answer those!
Discontinuance of care received by patient(s) due to reasons other than full recovery from the disease.
**I'm really sorry, but I can't fulfill your request.**
Patterns of practice related to diagnosis and treatment as especially influenced by cost of the service requested and provided.
A willingness to reveal information about oneself to others.
Communication between CELL PHONE users via the Short Message Service protocol which allows the interchange of short written messages.
A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.
A state in northeastern Australia. Its capital is Brisbane. Its coast was first visited by Captain Cook in 1770 and its first settlement (penal) was located on Moreton Bay in 1824. The name Cooksland was first proposed but honor to Queen Victoria prevailed. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p996 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p441)
The transfer of information from experts in the medical and public health fields to patients and the public. The study and use of communication strategies to inform and influence individual and community decisions that enhance health.
Cognitive mechanism based on expectations or beliefs about one's ability to perform actions necessary to produce a given effect. It is also a theoretical component of behavior change in various therapeutic treatments. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)
The total amount of work to be performed by an individual, a department, or other group of workers in a period of time.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
Precise and detailed plans for the study of a medical or biomedical problem and/or plans for a regimen of therapy.
The act or practice of calling public attention to a product, service, need, etc., especially by paid announcements in newspapers, magazines, on radio, or on television. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The privacy of information and its protection against unauthorized disclosure.
Fields representing the joint interplay of electric and magnetic forces.
Professionals qualified by graduation from an accredited school of nursing and by passage of a national licensing examination to practice nursing. They provide services to patients requiring assistance in recovering or maintaining their physical or mental health.
Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.
Persons who have experienced a prolonged survival after serious disease or who continue to live with a usually life-threatening condition as well as family members, significant others, or individuals surviving traumatic life events.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "New Hampshire" is a geographical location and not a medical term or concept, so it doesn't have a medical definition. It is a state in the northeastern United States, known for its scenic beauty and the White Mountains. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or healthcare services in the state of New Hampshire, I would be happy to help with those!
Services for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health.
The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.
The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.
The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "London" is a place name and not a medical term, so it doesn't have a medical definition. It's the capital city of England and the United Kingdom, known for its rich history, culture, and landmarks. If you have any questions related to health or medicine, I'd be happy to help answer those!
A detailed review and evaluation of selected clinical records by qualified professional personnel for evaluating quality of nursing care.
Individuals who receive patients in a medical office.
Instruments or technological means of communication that reach large numbers of people with a common message: press, radio, television, etc.

Preliminary report: symptoms associated with mobile phone use. (1/1291)

Mobile phone use is ubiquitous, although the alleged health effects of low level radio-frequency radiation (RFR) used in transmission are contentious. Following isolated reports of headache-like symptoms arising in some users, a survey has been conducted to characterize the symptoms sometimes associated with mobile phone usage. A notice of interest in cases was placed in a major medical journal and this was publicized by the media. Respondents were interviewed by telephone using a structured questionnaire. Forty respondents from diverse occupations described unpleasant sensations such as a burning feeling or a dull ache mainly occurring in the temporal, occipital or auricular areas. The symptoms often began minutes after beginning a call, but could come on later during the day. The symptoms usually ceased within an hour after the call, but could last until evening. Symptoms did not occur when using an ordinary handset, and were different from ordinary headaches. There were several reports suggestive of intra-cranial effects. Three respondents reported local symptoms associated with wearing their mobile phone on their belts. There was one cluster of cases in a workplace. Seventy-five per cent of cases were associated with digital mobile phones. Most of the respondents obtained relief by altering their patterns of telephone usage or type of phone. Cranial and other diverse symptoms may arise associated with mobile phone usage. Physicians and users alike should be alert to this. Further work is needed to determine the range of effects, their mechanism and the possible implications for safety limits of RFR.  (+info)

Trends in body weight among American Indians: findings from a telephone survey, 1985 through 1996. (2/1291)

OBJECTIVES: This study compared trends in body mass index for American Indian men and women across selected regions of the United States. METHODS: Self-reported data were collected from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. RESULTS: Among women in the Dakotas, New Mexico and Arizona, and Washington and Oregon, average adjusted body mass index increased significantly by 0.1 to 0.2 units per year. Among men in Alaska and the Dakotas, average adjusted body mass index also increased significantly by 0.1 to 0.2 units each year. CONCLUSIONS: Because of rapid increases in average body mass index, some American Indian populations could be burdened by an increased incidence of chronic disease.  (+info)

Disease management interventions to improve outcomes in congestive heart failure. (3/1291)

This study is part of a planned 24-month, multicenter, longitudinal comparison of a comprehensive congestive heart failure (CHF) disease management program and was designed to determine effectiveness after 12 months of implementation. The impact of interventions such as telemonitoring of patients, post-hospitalization follow-up, and provider education on selected primary outcomes (hospital admission and readmission rates, length of stay, total hospital days, and emergency room utilization) in a managed care setting was evaluated. Subjects in the study included all participants in the managed care plan, as well as 149 selected program participants. The effects of the program were analyzed for pure CHF and CHF-related diagnoses, with outcomes for the third quarter of 1996 (postintervention follow-up) being compared with those for the third quarter of 1995 (preintervention baseline). Overall, the data demonstrated significantly reduced admission and readmission rates for patients with the pure CHF diagnosis. Among the entire CHF patient population, the third quarter admission rate declined 63% (P = 0.00002), and the 30-day and 90-day readmission rates declined 75% (P = 0.02) and 74% (P = 0.004), respectively. Among program participants with pure CHF diagnoses, the 30-day readmission rate was reduced to 0, and an 83% reduction occurred for both the third quarter admission (P = 0.008) and 90-day readmission (P = 0.06) rates. In addition, the average length of stay for patients with CHF-related diagnoses was significantly reduced among both plan participants (P = 0.03) and program participants (P = 0.001). Reductions were also seen in total hospital days and emergency room utilization. These data thus indicate that a comprehensive disease management program can reduce healthcare utilization not only among CHF patients in the program but also among the entire managed care plan population.  (+info)

Episodes of illness and access to care in the inner city: a comparison of HMO and non-HMO populations. (4/1291)

Using data from a 1974 household survey, accessibility to ambulatory care is compared for residents of an inner-city area (East Baltimore) whose usual source of care is an HMO (the East Baltimore Medical Plan) and residents of the same area with other usual sources of care. Accessibility is measured by the probability of receiving care for an episode of illness. Results from multivariate linear and probit regressions indicate that children using the HMO are more likely to receive care than are children with other usual care sources, but no significant differences in the probability of receiving care are found among adults. Evidence of a substitution of telephone care for in-person care is also found among persons using the HMO. Data from a 1971 household survey of the same area suggest that selectivity is not an important confounding factor in the analysis.  (+info)

Provision of telephone advice from accident and emergency departments: a national survey. (5/1291)

This study sought to gain a national picture of the provision of telephone advice using a postal survey of senior nurses from accident and emergency (A&E) and minor injury units (MIUs). In all, 268/313 (85%) of hospitals/units responded. The average number of calls reported as received per day was 15.5 (median 12; quartiles 6, 20) for weekdays and 21.0 (median 17; quartiles 10, 29) for weekends. Most (89%) viewed the provision of telephone advice as an important component of their work, but few units offered staff training for this role or had implemented protocols or guidelines. Only 5.4% units included the number of calls received in their department in their workload figures, but 91.9% felt that they should be. Extrapolation of the data from this study to all 313 A&E and MIUs in the UK suggests that just under two million calls for telephone advice are currently made to units each year. Recognition and formalization of this aspect of work is likely to be of increasing importance given the constraints on services and the need to manage demand effectively. Future integration of A&E telephone advice calls with NHS Direct should be considered as a means of managing demand and avoiding duplication of service provision.  (+info)

Can patients predict which consultations can be dealt with by telephone? (6/1291)

The use of telephone consultations to reduce the workload of general practitioners is well established both in this country and abroad. The principal aim of this study was to discover the proportion of consultations currently carried out in the surgery that would be suitable, for both doctor and patient, to be managed over the telephone. The second aim was to establish what proportion of such consultations could be predicted.  (+info)

Prevention of relapse in women who quit smoking during pregnancy. (7/1291)

OBJECTIVES: This study is an evaluation of relapse prevention interventions for smokers who quit during pregnancy. METHODS: Pregnant smokers at 2 managed care organizations were randomized to receive a self-help booklet only, prepartum relapse prevention, or prepartum and postpartum relapse prevention. Follow-up surveys were conducted at 28 weeks of pregnancy and at 8 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months postpartum. RESULTS: The pre/post intervention delayed but did not prevent postpartum relapse to smoking. Prevalent abstinence was significantly greater for the pre/post intervention group than for the other groups at 8 weeks (booklet group, 30%; prepartum group, 35%; pre/post group, 39%; P = .02 [different superscripts denote differences at P < .05]) and at 6 months (booklet group, 26%, prepartum group, 24%; pre/post group, 33%; P = .04) postpartum. A nonsignificant reduction in relapse among the pre/post group contributed to differences in prevalent abstinence. There was no difference between the groups in prevalent abstinence at 12 months postpartum. CONCLUSIONS: Relapse prevention interventions may need to be increased in duration and potency to prevent post-partum relapse.  (+info)

Responding to out-of-hours demand: the extent and nature of urgent need. (8/1291)

BACKGROUND: Little research has been undertaken concerning GPs' perceptions about urgent or 'appropriate' out-of-hours demand. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to measure GPs' perceptions about patients' need for urgent out-of-hours general medical help according to indicators of physical, psychological/emotional and social need, and the medical necessity of a home visit. METHODS: Twenty-five practices participated in an audit and research study whereby GPs completed an audit form for all contacts during November/December 1995 and February/March 1996. Each contact was assessed according to the indicators of urgent need and GPs commented on reasons for making such assessments. RESULTS: Audit forms were completed on 1862 patients, and GPs considered that 66.6% (1027) of contacts had either a physically, psychologically/emotionally or socially urgent need for help and were uncertain about a further 10.7% (165). Over half (53.0%) were considered to have an urgent physical need, almost one-third (31.0%) to have an urgent psychological/emotional need and 10.1% (119) to have an urgent social need for help. Over half (55.2%) of visits were considered to be medically necessary, the majority of which (89.9%) were assessed as having an urgent physical need for help. CONCLUSIONS: The findings raise questions about the strategic direction of newer forms of service delivery (GP Co-operatives) and suggest the need for further research to inform the strategic reduction in home visiting, particularly in inner-city areas where many residents have little access to transport out-of-hours to enable them to attend a primary care centre. GP co-operatives are, however, well placed to improve interagency working and cross-referral to other health and social service personnel, and respond more 'appropriately' to some psychological/emotional and social problems.  (+info)

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "telephone" is not a medical term. In general, it refers to a communication device that converts sound into electrical signals that can be transmitted over distances and then converts received electrical signals back into sounds. It allows people to communicate with each other remotely by speaking and listening.

However, in the context of healthcare, "telephone" may refer to a method of delivering healthcare services remotely through voice communication. This is often a part of telemedicine or telehealth services, where patients can consult with healthcare professionals over the phone.

I apologize for any confusion, but "hotlines" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. Generally, a hotline refers to a direct communication link, often a telephone number, that provides immediate access to certain services or information. In a medical context, there could be various hotlines such as poison control hotline, mental health crisis hotline, or a hotline for reporting adverse effects of medications. However, the term "hotlines" itself is not a medical term with a specific definition.

A remote consultation, also known as teleconsultation or virtual consultation, is a healthcare service where a patient and a healthcare professional communicate remotely, using various technologies such as telephone, video conferencing, or secure messaging. This type of consultation aims to provide medical advice, diagnosis, treatment plan, or follow-up care without the need for physical presence in a clinical setting. Remote consultations can increase accessibility to healthcare services, reduce travel time and costs, and minimize the risk of infection transmission during pandemics or in situations where in-person visits are not feasible. However, remote consultations may also present challenges related to establishing rapport, conducting physical examinations, ensuring privacy, and managing technology.

I'm happy to help, but it seems there might be some confusion in your question. "Interviews" is a broad topic that isn't typically a medical term or subject. However, interviews can certainly be a part of medical settings and procedures, such as job interviews for healthcare positions, patient interviews during medical consultations, or research interviews in clinical studies.

In the context of medical education, an interview might refer to the process by which medical schools evaluate applicants for admission, known as the medical school interview. This is a critical component of the application process and typically involves one-on-one conversations between the applicant and an admissions committee member or a series of multiple mini-interviews (MMIs) with various evaluators.

If you could provide more context or clarify what you mean by "Interviews as Topic" in a medical setting, I'd be happy to help further!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Postal Service" is not a term used in medical definitions. It generally refers to the system for delivering mail and packages, such as the United States Postal Service (USPS). If you have any questions about medical terminology or concepts, I'd be happy to help answer those!

A cellular phone, also known as a mobile phone, is a portable device that uses wireless cellular networks to make and receive voice, video, and data communications. The term "cellular" refers to the way that the network is divided into small geographical areas, or cells, each served by a low-power transmitter/receiver. As a user moves from one cell to another, the phone automatically connects to the nearest cell site, allowing for uninterrupted communication as long as the user remains within the coverage area of the network.

Cellular phones typically use digital technology and operate on a variety of frequency bands, depending on the region and the specific carrier. They are equipped with a rechargeable battery, an antenna, a display screen, and a keypad or touchscreen interface for dialing numbers, sending messages, and accessing various features and applications.

Modern cellular phones offer a wide range of functions beyond basic voice communication, including text messaging, multimedia messaging, email, web browsing, social media, gaming, and photography. They may also include features such as GPS navigation, music players, and mobile payment systems. Some high-end models even serve as portable computing devices, with powerful processors, large memory capacities, and advanced software applications.

A questionnaire in the medical context is a standardized, systematic, and structured tool used to gather information from individuals regarding their symptoms, medical history, lifestyle, or other health-related factors. It typically consists of a series of written questions that can be either self-administered or administered by an interviewer. Questionnaires are widely used in various areas of healthcare, including clinical research, epidemiological studies, patient care, and health services evaluation to collect data that can inform diagnosis, treatment planning, and population health management. They provide a consistent and organized method for obtaining information from large groups or individual patients, helping to ensure accurate and comprehensive data collection while minimizing bias and variability in the information gathered.

Data collection in the medical context refers to the systematic gathering of information relevant to a specific research question or clinical situation. This process involves identifying and recording data elements, such as demographic characteristics, medical history, physical examination findings, laboratory results, and imaging studies, from various sources including patient interviews, medical records, and diagnostic tests. The data collected is used to support clinical decision-making, inform research hypotheses, and evaluate the effectiveness of treatments or interventions. It is essential that data collection is performed in a standardized and unbiased manner to ensure the validity and reliability of the results.

Counseling is a therapeutic intervention that involves a trained professional working with an individual, family, or group to help them understand and address their problems, concerns, or challenges. The goal of counseling is to help the person develop skills, insights, and resources that will allow them to make positive changes in their thoughts, feelings, and behaviors, and improve their overall mental health and well-being.

Counseling can take many forms, depending on the needs and preferences of the individual seeking help. Some common approaches include cognitive-behavioral therapy, psychodynamic therapy, humanistic therapy, and solution-focused brief therapy. These approaches may be used alone or in combination with other interventions, such as medication or group therapy.

The specific goals and techniques of counseling will vary depending on the individual's needs and circumstances. However, some common objectives of counseling include:

* Identifying and understanding the underlying causes of emotional or behavioral problems
* Developing coping skills and strategies to manage stress, anxiety, depression, or other mental health concerns
* Improving communication and relationship skills
* Enhancing self-esteem and self-awareness
* Addressing substance abuse or addiction issues
* Resolving conflicts and making difficult decisions
* Grieving losses and coping with life transitions

Counseling is typically provided by licensed mental health professionals, such as psychologists, social workers, marriage and family therapists, and professional counselors. These professionals have completed advanced education and training in counseling techniques and theories, and are qualified to provide a range of therapeutic interventions to help individuals, families, and groups achieve their goals and improve their mental health.

After-hours care refers to medical services provided during the evening, overnight, and weekend hours when most primary care practices are closed. This care may be provided in a variety of settings, including urgent care centers, retail clinics, hospital emergency departments, or through telemedicine services. After-hours care is intended to provide patients with access to medical treatment for acute illnesses or injuries that cannot wait until regular business hours. It is important for patients to understand the level of care provided during after-hours visits and to follow up with their primary care provider as needed.

Telemedicine is the use of digital information and communication technologies, such as computers and mobile devices, to provide healthcare services remotely. It can include a wide range of activities, such as providing patient consultations via video conferencing, monitoring a patient's health and vital signs using remote monitoring tools, or providing continuing medical education to healthcare professionals using online platforms.

Telemedicine allows patients to receive medical care from the comfort of their own homes, and it enables healthcare providers to reach patients who may not have easy access to care due to geographical distance or mobility issues. It can also help to reduce the cost of healthcare by decreasing the need for in-person visits and reducing the demand on hospital resources.

Telemedicine is an important tool for improving access to healthcare, particularly in rural areas where there may be a shortage of healthcare providers. It can also be used to provide specialty care to patients who may not have easy access to specialists in their local area. Overall, telemedicine has the potential to improve the quality and efficiency of healthcare while making it more convenient and accessible for patients.

Patient satisfaction is a concept in healthcare quality measurement that reflects the patient's perspective and evaluates their experience with the healthcare services they have received. It is a multidimensional construct that includes various aspects such as interpersonal mannerisms of healthcare providers, technical competence, accessibility, timeliness, comfort, and communication.

Patient satisfaction is typically measured through standardized surveys or questionnaires that ask patients to rate their experiences on various aspects of care. The results are often used to assess the quality of care provided by healthcare organizations, identify areas for improvement, and inform policy decisions. However, it's important to note that patient satisfaction is just one aspect of healthcare quality and should be considered alongside other measures such as clinical outcomes and patient safety.

The term "appointments and schedules" is commonly used in the medical field to refer to the planned or designated times for patients to see healthcare professionals for medical services. Here are the definitions of each term:

1. Appointment: A prearranged meeting between a patient and a healthcare professional at a specific time and date. An appointment is typically made in advance, either by the patient or the healthcare professional's office staff, to ensure that both parties are available to meet at the designated time.
2. Schedule: A list of appointments or activities that are planned for a specific period, such as a day, week, or month. In a medical setting, a schedule may include appointments for patients to see their healthcare professionals, as well as times for procedures, tests, and other medical services.

Together, appointments and schedules help ensure that healthcare professionals can provide timely and efficient care to their patients. They also allow patients to plan their visits to the doctor's office or hospital around their own busy schedules.

A reminder system in a medical context is a tool or service that helps individuals or healthcare providers remember and adhere to certain health-related tasks or appointments. These systems can be manual, such as written reminders or calendar alerts, or automated, such as electronic messaging services, mobile apps, or wearable devices.

Reminder systems are often used to help patients remember to take their medications at the right time and dose, keep track of medical appointments, perform self-care activities, or monitor their health status. They can also be used by healthcare providers to remind patients about upcoming appointments, follow-up care, or test results.

Effective reminder systems have been shown to improve medication adherence, reduce missed appointments, and enhance overall patient outcomes.

Triage is a medical term that refers to the process of prioritizing patients based on the severity of their condition or illness, and the resources available. The goal of triage is to ensure that the most critical patients receive care first, which can help reduce morbidity and mortality in emergency situations. This process is typically used in settings where there are more patients than can be treated immediately, such as during mass casualty incidents or in busy emergency departments. Triage nurses or doctors quickly assess each patient's condition, often using a standardized system, to determine the urgency of their medical needs and allocate resources accordingly.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "United States" is a geopolitical entity, specifically the name of the country consisting of 50 states, and it is not a medical term or concept. Therefore, I can't provide a medical definition for it. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or biology, I would be happy to try to help answer those!

Health surveys are research studies that collect data from a sample population to describe the current health status, health behaviors, and healthcare utilization of a particular group or community. These surveys may include questions about various aspects of health such as physical health, mental health, chronic conditions, lifestyle habits, access to healthcare services, and demographic information. The data collected from health surveys can be used to monitor trends in health over time, identify disparities in health outcomes, develop and evaluate public health programs and policies, and inform resource allocation decisions. Examples of national health surveys include the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS).

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "telecommunications" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. Telecommunications refers to the transmission of information over long distances through electronic means, such as telephone, television, radio, and internet. It is a broader term used in various fields including engineering, technology, and communications.

However, in the context of healthcare, you might be referring to "telemedicine" or "e-health," which are subsets of telecommunications. Telemedicine involves the use of telecommunication and information technologies to provide healthcare services remotely, allowing patients and providers to interact virtually. E-health is a broader concept that encompasses telemedicine as well as other electronic processes related to health, such as electronic health records and health information systems.

Smoking cessation is the process of discontinuing tobacco smoking. This can be achieved through various methods such as behavioral modifications, counseling, and medication. The goal of smoking cessation is to improve overall health, reduce the risk of tobacco-related diseases, and enhance quality of life. It is a significant step towards preventing lung cancer, heart disease, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and other serious health conditions.

Health care surveys are research tools used to systematically collect information from a population or sample regarding their experiences, perceptions, and knowledge of health services, health outcomes, and various other health-related topics. These surveys typically consist of standardized questionnaires that cover specific aspects of healthcare, such as access to care, quality of care, patient satisfaction, health disparities, and healthcare costs. The data gathered from health care surveys are used to inform policy decisions, improve healthcare delivery, identify best practices, allocate resources, and monitor the health status of populations. Health care surveys can be conducted through various modes, including in-person interviews, telephone interviews, mail-in questionnaires, or online platforms.

"Health Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices" (HKAP) is a term used in public health to refer to the knowledge, beliefs, assumptions, and behaviors that individuals possess or engage in that are related to health. Here's a brief definition of each component:

1. Health Knowledge: Refers to the factual information and understanding that individuals have about various health-related topics, such as anatomy, physiology, disease processes, and healthy behaviors.
2. Attitudes: Represent the positive or negative evaluations, feelings, or dispositions that people hold towards certain health issues, practices, or services. These attitudes can influence their willingness to adopt and maintain healthy behaviors.
3. Practices: Encompass the specific actions or habits that individuals engage in related to their health, such as dietary choices, exercise routines, hygiene practices, and use of healthcare services.

HKAP is a multidimensional concept that helps public health professionals understand and address various factors influencing individual and community health outcomes. By assessing and addressing knowledge gaps, negative attitudes, or unhealthy practices, interventions can be designed to promote positive behavior change and improve overall health status.

Patient compliance, also known as medication adherence or patient adherence, refers to the degree to which a patient's behavior matches the agreed-upon recommendations from their healthcare provider. This includes taking medications as prescribed (including the correct dosage, frequency, and duration), following dietary restrictions, making lifestyle changes, and attending follow-up appointments. Poor patient compliance can negatively impact treatment outcomes and lead to worsening of symptoms, increased healthcare costs, and development of drug-resistant strains in the case of antibiotics. It is a significant challenge in healthcare and efforts are being made to improve patient education, communication, and support to enhance compliance.

Patient education, as defined by the US National Library of Medicine's Medical Subject Headings (MeSH), is "the teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs. It includes the patient's understanding of his or her condition and the necessary procedures for self, assisted, or professional care." This encompasses a wide range of activities and interventions aimed at helping patients and their families understand their medical conditions, treatment options, self-care skills, and overall health management. Effective patient education can lead to improved health outcomes, increased patient satisfaction, and better use of healthcare resources.

Patient acceptance of health care refers to the willingness and ability of a patient to follow and engage in a recommended treatment plan or healthcare regimen. This involves understanding the proposed medical interventions, considering their potential benefits and risks, and making an informed decision to proceed with the recommended course of action.

The factors that influence patient acceptance can include:

1. Patient's understanding of their condition and treatment options
2. Trust in their healthcare provider
3. Personal beliefs and values related to health and illness
4. Cultural, linguistic, or socioeconomic barriers
5. Emotional responses to the diagnosis or proposed treatment
6. Practical considerations, such as cost, time commitment, or potential side effects

Healthcare providers play a crucial role in facilitating patient acceptance by clearly communicating information, addressing concerns and questions, and providing support throughout the decision-making process. Encouraging shared decision-making and tailoring care plans to individual patient needs and preferences can also enhance patient acceptance of health care.

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

An "attitude to health" is a set of beliefs, values, and behaviors that an individual holds regarding their own health and well-being. It encompasses their overall approach to maintaining good health, preventing illness, seeking medical care, and managing any existing health conditions.

A positive attitude to health typically includes:

1. A belief in the importance of self-care and taking responsibility for one's own health.
2. Engaging in regular exercise, eating a balanced diet, getting enough sleep, and avoiding harmful behaviors such as smoking and excessive alcohol consumption.
3. Regular check-ups and screenings to detect potential health issues early on.
4. Seeking medical care when necessary and following recommended treatment plans.
5. A willingness to learn about and implement new healthy habits and lifestyle changes.
6. Developing a strong support network of family, friends, and healthcare professionals.

On the other hand, a negative attitude to health may involve:

1. Neglecting self-care and failing to take responsibility for one's own health.
2. Engaging in unhealthy behaviors such as sedentary lifestyle, poor diet, lack of sleep, smoking, and excessive alcohol consumption.
3. Avoidance of regular check-ups and screenings, leading to delayed detection and treatment of potential health issues.
4. Resistance to seeking medical care or following recommended treatment plans.
5. Closed-mindedness towards new healthy habits and lifestyle changes.
6. Lack of a support network or reluctance to seek help from others.

Overall, an individual's attitude to health can significantly impact their physical and mental well-being, as well as their ability to manage and overcome any health challenges that may arise.

**Referral:**
A referral in the medical context is the process where a healthcare professional (such as a general practitioner or primary care physician) sends or refers a patient to another healthcare professional who has specialized knowledge and skills to address the patient's specific health condition or concern. This could be a specialist, a consultant, or a facility that provides specialized care. The referral may involve transferring the patient's care entirely to the other professional or may simply be for a consultation and advice.

**Consultation:**
A consultation in healthcare is a process where a healthcare professional seeks the opinion or advice of another professional regarding a patient's medical condition. This can be done in various ways, such as face-to-face meetings, phone calls, or written correspondence. The consulting professional provides their expert opinion to assist in the diagnosis, treatment plan, or management of the patient's condition. The ultimate decision and responsibility for the patient's care typically remain with the referring or primary healthcare provider.

Family practice, also known as family medicine, is a medical specialty that provides comprehensive and continuous care to patients of all ages, genders, and stages of life. Family physicians are trained to provide a wide range of services, including preventive care, diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic illnesses, management of complex medical conditions, and providing health education and counseling.

Family practice emphasizes the importance of building long-term relationships with patients and their families, and takes into account the physical, emotional, social, and psychological factors that influence a person's health. Family physicians often serve as the primary point of contact for patients within the healthcare system, coordinating care with other specialists and healthcare providers as needed.

Family practice is a broad and diverse field, encompassing various areas such as pediatrics, internal medicine, obstetrics and gynecology, geriatrics, and behavioral health. The goal of family practice is to provide high-quality, patient-centered care that meets the unique needs and preferences of each individual patient and their family.

A cross-sectional study is a type of observational research design that examines the relationship between variables at one point in time. It provides a snapshot or a "cross-section" of the population at a particular moment, allowing researchers to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition and identify potential risk factors or associations.

In a cross-sectional study, data is collected from a sample of participants at a single time point, and the variables of interest are measured simultaneously. This design can be used to investigate the association between exposure and outcome, but it cannot establish causality because it does not follow changes over time.

Cross-sectional studies can be conducted using various data collection methods, such as surveys, interviews, or medical examinations. They are often used in epidemiology to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition in a population and to identify potential risk factors that may contribute to its development. However, because cross-sectional studies only provide a snapshot of the population at one point in time, they cannot account for changes over time or determine whether exposure preceded the outcome.

Therefore, while cross-sectional studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying potential associations between variables, further research using other study designs, such as cohort or case-control studies, is necessary to establish causality and confirm any findings.

Health behavior can be defined as a series of actions and decisions that individuals take to protect, maintain or promote their health and well-being. These behaviors can include activities such as engaging in regular exercise, eating a healthy diet, getting sufficient sleep, practicing safe sex, avoiding tobacco and excessive alcohol consumption, and managing stress.

Health behaviors are influenced by various factors, including knowledge and attitudes towards health, beliefs and values, cultural norms, social support networks, environmental factors, and individual genetic predispositions. Understanding health behaviors is essential for developing effective public health interventions and promoting healthy lifestyles to prevent chronic diseases and improve overall quality of life.

Telefacsimile, often abbreviated as "fax," is not typically considered a medical term. However, it is widely used in the medical field as a means of transmitting documents electronically. Here's a general definition:

A telefacsimile (fax) is an electronic communication system that can transmit and receive fixed or document images via telephone lines or other communication networks. It allows for the conversion of physical documents into digital form, their transmission to a remote location, and subsequent conversion back into physical form through a printer. In healthcare settings, fax machines are often used to send patient records, referrals, prescriptions, and other sensitive documents between healthcare providers, hospitals, laboratories, and insurance companies.

Smoking is not a medical condition, but it's a significant health risk behavior. Here is the definition from a public health perspective:

Smoking is the act of inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning tobacco that is commonly consumed through cigarettes, pipes, and cigars. The smoke contains over 7,000 chemicals, including nicotine, tar, carbon monoxide, and numerous toxic and carcinogenic substances. These toxins contribute to a wide range of diseases and health conditions, such as lung cancer, heart disease, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and various other cancers, as well as adverse reproductive outcomes and negative impacts on the developing fetus during pregnancy. Smoking is highly addictive due to the nicotine content, which makes quitting smoking a significant challenge for many individuals.

Socioeconomic factors are a range of interconnected conditions and influences that affect the opportunities and resources a person or group has to maintain and improve their health and well-being. These factors include:

1. Economic stability: This includes employment status, job security, income level, and poverty status. Lower income and lack of employment are associated with poorer health outcomes.
2. Education: Higher levels of education are generally associated with better health outcomes. Education can affect a person's ability to access and understand health information, as well as their ability to navigate the healthcare system.
3. Social and community context: This includes factors such as social support networks, discrimination, and community safety. Strong social supports and positive community connections are associated with better health outcomes, while discrimination and lack of safety can negatively impact health.
4. Healthcare access and quality: Access to affordable, high-quality healthcare is an important socioeconomic factor that can significantly impact a person's health. Factors such as insurance status, availability of providers, and cultural competency of healthcare systems can all affect healthcare access and quality.
5. Neighborhood and built environment: The physical conditions in which people live, work, and play can also impact their health. Factors such as housing quality, transportation options, availability of healthy foods, and exposure to environmental hazards can all influence health outcomes.

Socioeconomic factors are often interrelated and can have a cumulative effect on health outcomes. For example, someone who lives in a low-income neighborhood with limited access to healthy foods and safe parks may also face challenges related to employment, education, and healthcare access that further impact their health. Addressing socioeconomic factors is an important part of promoting health equity and reducing health disparities.

"California" is a geographical location and does not have a medical definition. It is a state located on the west coast of the United States, known for its diverse landscape including mountains, beaches, and forests. However, in some contexts, "California" may refer to certain medical conditions or situations that are associated with the state, such as:

* California encephalitis: a viral infection transmitted by mosquitoes that is common in California and other western states.
* California king snake: a non-venomous snake species found in California and other parts of the southwestern United States, which can bite and cause allergic reactions in some people.
* California roll: a type of sushi roll that originated in California and is made with avocado, cucumber, and crab meat, which may pose an allergy risk for some individuals.

It's important to note that these uses of "California" are not medical definitions per se, but rather descriptive terms that refer to specific conditions or situations associated with the state.

"Sampling studies" is not a specific medical term, but rather a general term that refers to research studies in which a sample of individuals or data is collected and analyzed to make inferences about a larger population. In medical research, sampling studies can be used to estimate the prevalence of diseases or risk factors within a certain population, to evaluate the effectiveness of treatments or interventions, or to study the relationships between various health-related variables.

The sample for a sampling study may be selected using various methods, such as random sampling, stratified sampling, cluster sampling, or convenience sampling. The choice of sampling method depends on the research question, the characteristics of the population of interest, and practical considerations related to cost, time, and feasibility.

It is important to note that sampling studies have limitations and potential sources of bias, just like any other research design. Therefore, it is essential to carefully consider the study methods and limitations when interpreting the results of sampling studies in medical research.

Self care is a health practice that involves individuals taking responsibility for their own health and well-being by actively seeking out and participating in activities and behaviors that promote healthy living, prevent illness and disease, and manage existing medical conditions. Self care includes a wide range of activities such as:

* Following a healthy diet and exercise routine
* Getting adequate sleep and rest
* Managing stress through relaxation techniques or mindfulness practices
* Practicing good hygiene and grooming habits
* Seeking preventive care through regular check-ups and screenings
* Taking prescribed medications as directed by a healthcare provider
* Monitoring symptoms and seeking medical attention when necessary

Self care is an important part of overall health and wellness, and can help individuals maintain their physical, emotional, and mental health. It is also an essential component of chronic disease management, helping people with ongoing medical conditions to manage their symptoms and improve their quality of life.

A research design in medical or healthcare research is a systematic plan that guides the execution and reporting of research to address a specific research question or objective. It outlines the overall strategy for collecting, analyzing, and interpreting data to draw valid conclusions. The design includes details about the type of study (e.g., experimental, observational), sampling methods, data collection techniques, data analysis approaches, and any potential sources of bias or confounding that need to be controlled for. A well-defined research design helps ensure that the results are reliable, generalizable, and relevant to the research question, ultimately contributing to evidence-based practice in medicine and healthcare.

Logistic models, specifically logistic regression models, are a type of statistical analysis used in medical and epidemiological research to identify the relationship between the risk of a certain health outcome or disease (dependent variable) and one or more independent variables, such as demographic factors, exposure variables, or other clinical measurements.

In contrast to linear regression models, logistic regression models are used when the dependent variable is binary or dichotomous in nature, meaning it can only take on two values, such as "disease present" or "disease absent." The model uses a logistic function to estimate the probability of the outcome based on the independent variables.

Logistic regression models are useful for identifying risk factors and estimating the strength of associations between exposures and health outcomes, adjusting for potential confounders, and predicting the probability of an outcome given certain values of the independent variables. They can also be used to develop clinical prediction rules or scores that can aid in decision-making and patient care.

Program Evaluation is a systematic and objective assessment of a healthcare program's design, implementation, and outcomes. It is a medical term used to describe the process of determining the relevance, effectiveness, and efficiency of a program in achieving its goals and objectives. Program evaluation involves collecting and analyzing data related to various aspects of the program, such as its reach, impact, cost-effectiveness, and quality. The results of program evaluation can be used to improve the design and implementation of existing programs or to inform the development of new ones. It is a critical tool for ensuring that healthcare programs are meeting the needs of their intended audiences and delivering high-quality care in an efficient and effective manner.

Health services accessibility refers to the degree to which individuals and populations are able to obtain needed health services in a timely manner. It includes factors such as physical access (e.g., distance, transportation), affordability (e.g., cost of services, insurance coverage), availability (e.g., supply of providers, hours of operation), and acceptability (e.g., cultural competence, language concordance).

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), accessibility is one of the key components of health system performance, along with responsiveness and fair financing. Improving accessibility to health services is essential for achieving universal health coverage and ensuring that everyone has access to quality healthcare without facing financial hardship. Factors that affect health services accessibility can vary widely between and within countries, and addressing these disparities requires a multifaceted approach that includes policy interventions, infrastructure development, and community engagement.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

Primary health care is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as:

"Essential health care that is based on practical, scientifically sound and socially acceptable methods and technology made universally accessible to individuals and families in the community through their full participation and at a cost that the community and country can afford. It forms an integral part both of the country's health system, of which it is the central function and main focus, and of the overall social and economic development of the community. It is the first level of contact of individuals, the family and community with the national health system bringing health care as close as possible to where people live and work, and constitutes the first element of a continuing health care process."

Primary health care includes a range of services such as preventive care, health promotion, curative care, rehabilitation, and palliative care. It is typically provided by a team of health professionals including doctors, nurses, midwives, pharmacists, and other community health workers. The goal of primary health care is to provide comprehensive, continuous, and coordinated care to individuals and families in a way that is accessible, affordable, and culturally sensitive.

An emergency service in a hospital is a department that provides immediate medical or surgical care for individuals who are experiencing an acute illness, injury, or severe symptoms that require immediate attention. The goal of an emergency service is to quickly assess, stabilize, and treat patients who require urgent medical intervention, with the aim of preventing further harm or death.

Emergency services in hospitals typically operate 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, and are staffed by teams of healthcare professionals including physicians, nurses, physician assistants, nurse practitioners, and other allied health professionals. These teams are trained to provide rapid evaluation and treatment for a wide range of medical conditions, from minor injuries to life-threatening emergencies such as heart attacks, strokes, and severe infections.

In addition to providing emergency care, hospital emergency services also serve as a key point of entry for patients who require further hospitalization or specialized care. They work closely with other departments within the hospital, such as radiology, laboratory, and critical care units, to ensure that patients receive timely and appropriate treatment. Overall, the emergency service in a hospital plays a crucial role in ensuring that patients receive prompt and effective medical care during times of crisis.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

'House calls' is a term used in the medical field to refer to healthcare services provided by a physician or other healthcare professional who visits a patient in their home, instead of the patient traveling to a medical office or clinic. This practice was more common in the past, but has become less so with the advent of modern medical technology and the increased emphasis on outpatient care. However, house calls are still practiced today, particularly for patients who are homebound due to illness or disability, or for those who require palliative or end-of-life care. House calls can help improve access to care for these vulnerable populations and enhance patient satisfaction by providing personalized, convenient, and compassionate care in the comfort of their own homes.

I believe you are looking for a medical condition or term related to the state of Colorado, but there is no specific medical definition for "Colorado." However, Colorado is known for its high altitude and lower oxygen levels, which can sometimes affect visitors who are not acclimated to the elevation. This can result in symptoms such as shortness of breath, fatigue, and headaches, a condition sometimes referred to as "altitude sickness" or "mountain sickness." But again, this is not a medical definition for Colorado itself.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Washington" is not a medical term. It is a place name, referring to the U.S. state of Washington or the city of Washington, D.C., the capital of the United States. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I would be happy to help answer those for you!

Medical mass screening, also known as population screening, is a public health service that aims to identify and detect asymptomatic individuals in a given population who have or are at risk of a specific disease. The goal is to provide early treatment, reduce morbidity and mortality, and prevent the spread of diseases within the community.

A mass screening program typically involves offering a simple, quick, and non-invasive test to a large number of people in a defined population, regardless of their risk factors or symptoms. Those who test positive are then referred for further diagnostic tests and appropriate medical interventions. Examples of mass screening programs include mammography for breast cancer detection, PSA (prostate-specific antigen) testing for prostate cancer, and fecal occult blood testing for colorectal cancer.

It is important to note that mass screening programs should be evidence-based, cost-effective, and ethically sound, with clear benefits outweighing potential harms. They should also consider factors such as the prevalence of the disease in the population, the accuracy and reliability of the screening test, and the availability and effectiveness of treatment options.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Australia" is not a medical term or concept. It is the world's largest island and smallest continent, located in the Southern Hemisphere, surrounded by the Pacific and Indian Oceans. It is composed of many diverse ecosystems, including deserts, rainforests, and coastal areas, and is home to a wide variety of unique plant and animal species.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to try and help answer them for you!

Nurse-patient relations refer to the interactions and relationships between registered nurses (RNs) or licensed practical nurses (LPNs) and their patients. This relationship is based on trust, respect, and collaboration, with the goal of providing safe, effective, and compassionate care that promotes the physical, emotional, and psychological well-being of the patient.

The nurse-patient relationship involves several key elements, including:

1. Communication: Effective communication is essential in the nurse-patient relationship. Nurses must listen actively to their patients, understand their needs and concerns, and provide clear and concise information about their care.
2. Empathy: Nurses should demonstrate empathy and compassion towards their patients, recognizing their feelings and emotions and providing emotional support when needed.
3. Autonomy: Nurses should respect their patients' autonomy and self-determination, involving them in decision-making about their care and promoting their independence whenever possible.
4. Confidentiality: Nurses must maintain confidentiality and protect their patients' privacy, ensuring that sensitive information is shared only with those who have a legitimate need to know.
5. Advocacy: Nurses should advocate for their patients, ensuring that they receive the care and resources they need to achieve optimal health outcomes.

Overall, nurse-patient relations are critical to the delivery of high-quality healthcare and can significantly impact patient satisfaction, adherence to treatment plans, and clinical outcomes.

Health promotion is the process of enabling people to increase control over their health and its determinants, and to improve their health. It moves beyond a focus on individual behavior change to include social and environmental interventions that can positively influence the health of individuals, communities, and populations. Health promotion involves engaging in a wide range of activities, such as advocacy, policy development, community organization, and education that aim to create supportive environments and personal skills that foster good health. It is based on principles of empowerment, participation, and social justice.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "England" is not a medical term or concept. It is one of the four constituent countries that make up the United Kingdom, along with Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland. England is located in the southern part of Great Britain, which is the largest island of the British Isles.

If you have any questions related to medicine or healthcare, I would be happy to try to help answer them for you!

Directive counseling is a type of counseling approach where the therapist takes an active and direct role in guiding the therapeutic process. The therapist provides clear directions, sets specific goals, and offers practical solutions to help the client overcome their problems or challenges. This approach is often used when the client is seeking advice or guidance on a specific issue, or when they are having difficulty making decisions or taking action.

In directive counseling, the therapist may provide education, offer suggestions, and assign homework or tasks for the client to complete between sessions. The therapist's role is to help the client identify their goals, develop a plan to achieve them, and provide support and guidance along the way. This approach can be particularly effective for clients who are seeking concrete solutions to practical problems, such as time management, career development, or relationship issues.

It's important to note that directive counseling is not appropriate for all clients or situations. Some clients may prefer a more collaborative or exploratory approach, where they have more control over the therapeutic process. In these cases, non-directive or client-centered approaches may be more appropriate. Ultimately, the choice of counseling approach should be based on the individual needs and preferences of the client.

Telenursing is a type of telehealth practice that uses information and communication technologies to deliver nursing services and facilitate access to nursing care when distance separates the nurse from the patient. It can include activities such as remote patient monitoring, patient education, case management, and triage. The goal of telenursing is to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of nursing care, particularly for patients who have limited access to healthcare services due to geographical or mobility constraints.

Telenursing can be delivered through various modalities such as videoconferencing, store-and-forward technologies (e.g., email, text messaging), and remote patient monitoring devices that transmit physiological data to nurses in real-time. It is a rapidly growing field that has the potential to transform the way nursing care is delivered, particularly in rural or underserved areas where access to healthcare can be limited.

In the medical context, communication refers to the process of exchanging information, ideas, or feelings between two or more individuals in order to facilitate understanding, cooperation, and decision-making. Effective communication is critical in healthcare settings to ensure that patients receive accurate diagnoses, treatment plans, and follow-up care. It involves not only verbal and written communication but also nonverbal cues such as body language and facial expressions.

Healthcare providers must communicate clearly and empathetically with their patients to build trust, address concerns, and ensure that they understand their medical condition and treatment options. Similarly, healthcare teams must communicate effectively with each other to coordinate care, avoid errors, and provide the best possible outcomes for their patients. Communication skills are essential for all healthcare professionals, including physicians, nurses, therapists, and social workers.

A feasibility study is a preliminary investigation or analysis conducted to determine the viability of a proposed project, program, or product. In the medical field, feasibility studies are often conducted before implementing new treatments, procedures, equipment, or facilities. These studies help to assess the practicality and effectiveness of the proposed intervention, as well as its potential benefits and risks.

Feasibility studies in healthcare typically involve several steps:

1. Problem identification: Clearly define the problem that the proposed project, program, or product aims to address.
2. Objectives setting: Establish specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, and time-bound (SMART) objectives for the study.
3. Literature review: Conduct a thorough review of existing research and best practices related to the proposed intervention.
4. Methodology development: Design a methodology for data collection and analysis that will help answer the research questions and achieve the study's objectives.
5. Resource assessment: Evaluate the availability and adequacy of resources, including personnel, time, and finances, required to carry out the proposed intervention.
6. Risk assessment: Identify potential risks and challenges associated with the implementation of the proposed intervention and develop strategies to mitigate them.
7. Cost-benefit analysis: Estimate the costs and benefits of the proposed intervention, including direct and indirect costs, as well as short-term and long-term benefits.
8. Stakeholder engagement: Engage relevant stakeholders, such as patients, healthcare providers, administrators, and policymakers, to gather their input and support for the proposed intervention.
9. Decision-making: Based on the findings of the feasibility study, make an informed decision about whether or not to proceed with the proposed project, program, or product.

Feasibility studies are essential in healthcare as they help ensure that resources are allocated efficiently and effectively, and that interventions are evidence-based, safe, and beneficial for patients.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "pilot projects" is not a medical term per se. Instead, it is a general term used in various fields, including healthcare and medicine, to describe a small-scale initiative that is implemented on a temporary basis to evaluate its feasibility, effectiveness, or impact before deciding whether to expand or continue it.

In the context of healthcare, pilot projects might involve testing new treatment protocols, implementing innovative care models, or introducing technology solutions in a limited setting to assess their potential benefits and drawbacks. The results of these projects can help inform decisions about broader implementation and provide valuable insights for improving the quality and efficiency of healthcare services.

Emergency Medical Service (EMS) communication systems are networks and technologies used to facilitate the communication and coordination of emergency medical services. These systems typically include dispatch centers, radio and telephone communications, computer-aided dispatch (CAD) systems, and other technologies that enable EMS personnel to quickly and effectively respond to medical emergencies.

The primary goal of an EMS communication system is to ensure that the right resources are dispatched to the right location in a timely manner, and that EMS providers have the information they need to provide appropriate care. This may include transmitting patient information, such as medical history and symptoms, from the dispatch center to the responding EMS personnel, as well as coordinating the response of multiple agencies, such as fire departments and law enforcement, to a single incident.

EMS communication systems are an essential component of emergency medical services, as they help ensure that patients receive the care they need as quickly and efficiently as possible.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Internet" is a term that pertains to the global network of interconnected computers and servers that enable the transmission and reception of data via the internet protocol (IP). It is not a medical term and does not have a specific medical definition. If you have any questions related to medicine or health, I'd be happy to try to help answer them for you!

Physician-patient relations, also known as doctor-patient relationships, refer to the interaction and communication between healthcare professionals and their patients. This relationship is founded on trust, respect, and understanding, with the physician providing medical care and treatment based on the patient's needs and best interests. Effective physician-patient relations involve clear communication, informed consent, shared decision-making, and confidentiality. A positive and collaborative relationship can lead to better health outcomes, improved patient satisfaction, and increased adherence to treatment plans.

Consumer satisfaction in a medical context refers to the degree to which a patient or their family is content with the healthcare services, products, or experiences they have received. It is a measure of how well the healthcare delivery aligns with the patient's expectations, needs, and preferences. Factors that contribute to consumer satisfaction may include the quality of care, communication and interpersonal skills of healthcare providers, accessibility and convenience, affordability, and outcomes. High consumer satisfaction is associated with better adherence to treatment plans, improved health outcomes, and higher patient loyalty.

Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is a systematic process used to compare the costs and benefits of different options to determine which one provides the greatest net benefit. In a medical context, CBA can be used to evaluate the value of medical interventions, treatments, or policies by estimating and monetizing all the relevant costs and benefits associated with each option.

The costs included in a CBA may include direct costs such as the cost of the intervention or treatment itself, as well as indirect costs such as lost productivity or time away from work. Benefits may include improved health outcomes, reduced morbidity or mortality, and increased quality of life.

Once all the relevant costs and benefits have been identified and quantified, they are typically expressed in monetary terms to allow for a direct comparison. The option with the highest net benefit (i.e., the difference between total benefits and total costs) is considered the most cost-effective.

It's important to note that CBA has some limitations and can be subject to various biases and assumptions, so it should be used in conjunction with other evaluation methods to ensure a comprehensive understanding of the value of medical interventions or policies.

Health education is the process of providing information and strategies to individuals and communities about how to improve their health and prevent disease. It involves teaching and learning activities that aim to empower people to make informed decisions and take responsible actions regarding their health. Health education covers a wide range of topics, including nutrition, physical activity, sexual and reproductive health, mental health, substance abuse prevention, and environmental health. The ultimate goal of health education is to promote healthy behaviors and lifestyles that can lead to improved health outcomes and quality of life.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Economics, Nursing" is not a standard medical or nursing term or concept. Economics is the social science that deals with the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services, while nursing is a field of healthcare concerned with the care of individuals, families, and communities to achieve, maintain, or recover optimal health and quality of life.

If you're looking for information on how economics intersects with nursing or healthcare more broadly, there is a subfield of study known as "health economics" that examines issues related to the financing, delivery, and consumption of healthcare resources. However, I would need more context to provide a more specific definition or explanation.

Quality of Life (QOL) is a broad, multidimensional concept that usually includes an individual's physical health, psychological state, level of independence, social relationships, personal beliefs, and their relationship to salient features of their environment. It reflects the impact of disease and treatment on a patient's overall well-being and ability to function in daily life.

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines QOL as "an individual's perception of their position in life in the context of the culture and value systems in which they live and in relation to their goals, expectations, standards and concerns." It is a subjective concept, meaning it can vary greatly from person to person.

In healthcare, QOL is often used as an outcome measure in clinical trials and other research studies to assess the impact of interventions or treatments on overall patient well-being.

Costs refer to the total amount of resources, such as money, time, and labor, that are expended in the provision of a medical service or treatment. Costs can be categorized into direct costs, which include expenses directly related to patient care, such as medication, supplies, and personnel; and indirect costs, which include overhead expenses, such as rent, utilities, and administrative salaries.

Cost analysis is the process of estimating and evaluating the total cost of a medical service or treatment. This involves identifying and quantifying all direct and indirect costs associated with the provision of care, and analyzing how these costs may vary based on factors such as patient volume, resource utilization, and reimbursement rates.

Cost analysis is an important tool for healthcare organizations to understand the financial implications of their operations and make informed decisions about resource allocation, pricing strategies, and quality improvement initiatives. It can also help policymakers and payers evaluate the cost-effectiveness of different treatment options and develop evidence-based guidelines for clinical practice.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "public opinion" is not a term that has a medical definition. Public opinion refers to the collective views, attitudes, and beliefs held by a group or society about a particular issue or topic. It is typically formed through interaction, discussion, and various forms of communication within a community or population. If you have any questions related to healthcare or medicine, I'd be happy to help with those!

Population surveillance in a public health and medical context refers to the ongoing, systematic collection, analysis, interpretation, and dissemination of health-related data for a defined population over time. It aims to monitor the health status, identify emerging health threats or trends, and evaluate the impact of interventions within that population. This information is used to inform public health policy, prioritize healthcare resources, and guide disease prevention and control efforts. Population surveillance can involve various data sources, such as vital records, disease registries, surveys, and electronic health records.

Aftercare, in a medical context, refers to the ongoing care and support provided to a patient following a medical treatment, procedure, or hospitalization. The goal of aftercare is to promote recovery, prevent complications, manage symptoms, and ensure the overall well-being of the patient. Aftercare may include follow-up appointments with healthcare providers, medication management, physical therapy, wound care, lifestyle modifications, and psychological support. It is an essential part of the treatment process that helps patients transition back to their normal lives and maintain their health and wellness in the long term.

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Ontario" is not a medical term. It is the name of a province in Canada, similar to how "California" is the name of a state in the United States. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health conditions, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Information Centers" is not a medical term per se. However, in a broad context, information centers can refer to organized locations that provide specific health-related or medical information to patients, healthcare professionals, or the general public. These can be found in hospitals, clinics, universities, government agencies, and other organizations. They offer access to various resources such as books, pamphlets, databases, and online tools, with the aim of promoting evidence-based practices, enhancing knowledge, and supporting decision-making.

The "attitude of health personnel" refers to the overall disposition, behavior, and approach that healthcare professionals exhibit towards their patients or clients. This encompasses various aspects such as:

1. Interpersonal skills: The ability to communicate effectively, listen actively, and build rapport with patients.
2. Professionalism: Adherence to ethical principles, confidentiality, and maintaining a non-judgmental attitude.
3. Compassion and empathy: Showing genuine concern for the patient's well-being and understanding their feelings and experiences.
4. Cultural sensitivity: Respecting and acknowledging the cultural backgrounds, beliefs, and values of patients.
5. Competence: Demonstrating knowledge, skills, and expertise in providing healthcare services.
6. Collaboration: Working together with other healthcare professionals to ensure comprehensive care for the patient.
7. Patient-centeredness: Focusing on the individual needs, preferences, and goals of the patient in the decision-making process.
8. Commitment to continuous learning and improvement: Staying updated with the latest developments in the field and seeking opportunities to enhance one's skills and knowledge.

A positive attitude of health personnel contributes significantly to patient satisfaction, adherence to treatment plans, and overall healthcare outcomes.

Prevalence, in medical terms, refers to the total number of people in a given population who have a particular disease or condition at a specific point in time, or over a specified period. It is typically expressed as a percentage or a ratio of the number of cases to the size of the population. Prevalence differs from incidence, which measures the number of new cases that develop during a certain period.

In the context of healthcare and medical psychology, motivation refers to the driving force behind an individual's goal-oriented behavior. It is the internal or external stimuli that initiate, direct, and sustain a person's actions towards achieving their desired outcomes. Motivation can be influenced by various factors such as biological needs, personal values, emotional states, and social contexts.

In clinical settings, healthcare professionals often assess patients' motivation to engage in treatment plans, adhere to medical recommendations, or make lifestyle changes necessary for improving their health status. Enhancing a patient's motivation can significantly impact their ability to manage chronic conditions, recover from illnesses, and maintain overall well-being. Various motivational interviewing techniques and interventions are employed by healthcare providers to foster intrinsic motivation and support patients in achieving their health goals.

Patient participation refers to the active involvement of patients in their own healthcare process. This includes:

1. Making informed decisions about their health and treatment options in partnership with healthcare professionals.
2. Communicating effectively with healthcare providers to ensure their needs, preferences, and values are taken into account.
3. Monitoring their own health status and seeking appropriate care when needed.
4. Providing feedback on the quality of care they receive to help improve healthcare services.

Patient participation is considered a key component of patient-centered care, which aims to treat patients as whole persons with unique needs, values, and preferences, rather than simply treating their medical conditions. It is also an essential element of shared decision-making, where patients and healthcare providers work together to make informed decisions based on the best available evidence and the patient's individual circumstances.

Electronic mail, often abbreviated as email or e-mail, is a method of exchanging digital messages between people using computer networks. The term "electronic mail" is a direct comparison to traditional paper-based mail systems and has been in use since the creation of the first email system in 1971.

In medical terms, email is commonly used as a means of communication between healthcare professionals, patients, and other stakeholders in the healthcare industry. For example, physicians may use email to communicate with colleagues or staff members, while hospitals and clinics may use email to send appointment reminders or test results to patients.

Email messages can include text, images, videos, and attachments, making them a versatile tool for communication. However, it is important to note that email is not considered a secure means of transmitting sensitive medical information due to the risk of interception or unauthorized access. As such, healthcare professionals must follow established guidelines and regulations when using email to communicate protected health information (PHI) in order to maintain patient privacy and confidentiality.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Great Britain" is not a medical concept or condition. It is a geographical and political term referring to the largest island in the British Isles, on which the majority of England, Scotland, and Wales are located. It's also used to refer to the political union of these three countries, which is called the United Kingdom. Therefore, it doesn't have a medical definition.

Medical practice management refers to the administrative and operational aspects of running a healthcare organization or medical practice. It involves overseeing and coordinating various business functions such as finance, human resources, marketing, patient scheduling, billing and coding, compliance with regulations, and information technology systems. The goal of medical practice management is to ensure that the practice runs efficiently, effectively, and profitably while delivering high-quality care to patients.

Medical practice managers may be responsible for developing policies and procedures, hiring and training staff, managing patient flow, ensuring regulatory compliance, implementing quality improvement initiatives, and overseeing financial performance. They must have a strong understanding of medical billing and coding practices, healthcare regulations, and electronic health record (EHR) systems. Effective communication skills, leadership abilities, and attention to detail are also important qualities for successful medical practice managers.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "parents" is not a term that has a medical definition. In general usage, parents are the two people (typically) who bring up and care for a child, or who have given birth to or adopted a child. They are responsible for the child's housing, food, clothing, education, and medical care. Is there a specific medical or healthcare-related context you had in mind? I would be happy to help further if I can.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "modems" is not a term that has a medical definition. A modem is a piece of hardware that allows a computer to transmit and receive data over a telephone or cable network. It converts digital data from a computer into analog signals that can travel over communication lines, and also converts incoming analog signals back into digital data.

If you have any questions about medical terminology or concepts, I would be happy to help!

"Age factors" refer to the effects, changes, or differences that age can have on various aspects of health, disease, and medical care. These factors can encompass a wide range of issues, including:

1. Physiological changes: As people age, their bodies undergo numerous physical changes that can affect how they respond to medications, illnesses, and medical procedures. For example, older adults may be more sensitive to certain drugs or have weaker immune systems, making them more susceptible to infections.
2. Chronic conditions: Age is a significant risk factor for many chronic diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes, cancer, and arthritis. As a result, age-related medical issues are common and can impact treatment decisions and outcomes.
3. Cognitive decline: Aging can also lead to cognitive changes, including memory loss and decreased decision-making abilities. These changes can affect a person's ability to understand and comply with medical instructions, leading to potential complications in their care.
4. Functional limitations: Older adults may experience physical limitations that impact their mobility, strength, and balance, increasing the risk of falls and other injuries. These limitations can also make it more challenging for them to perform daily activities, such as bathing, dressing, or cooking.
5. Social determinants: Age-related factors, such as social isolation, poverty, and lack of access to transportation, can impact a person's ability to obtain necessary medical care and affect their overall health outcomes.

Understanding age factors is critical for healthcare providers to deliver high-quality, patient-centered care that addresses the unique needs and challenges of older adults. By taking these factors into account, healthcare providers can develop personalized treatment plans that consider a person's age, physical condition, cognitive abilities, and social circumstances.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "pamphlets" is not a medical term. It refers to a small paper booklet or leaflet that can be used to provide information on various topics, including non-medical subjects. If you have any questions about medical terminology or concepts, I'd be happy to help with those!

Reproducibility of results in a medical context refers to the ability to obtain consistent and comparable findings when a particular experiment or study is repeated, either by the same researcher or by different researchers, following the same experimental protocol. It is an essential principle in scientific research that helps to ensure the validity and reliability of research findings.

In medical research, reproducibility of results is crucial for establishing the effectiveness and safety of new treatments, interventions, or diagnostic tools. It involves conducting well-designed studies with adequate sample sizes, appropriate statistical analyses, and transparent reporting of methods and findings to allow other researchers to replicate the study and confirm or refute the results.

The lack of reproducibility in medical research has become a significant concern in recent years, as several high-profile studies have failed to produce consistent findings when replicated by other researchers. This has led to increased scrutiny of research practices and a call for greater transparency, rigor, and standardization in the conduct and reporting of medical research.

I apologize, but "Canada" is not a medical term or concept. It is a country located in North America, known for its vast wilderness, multicultural cities, and significant natural resources. If you have any questions related to healthcare or medical terms, I would be happy to help answer those!

Educational status refers to the level or stage of education that a person has reached. It can be used to describe an individual's educational background, achievements, and qualifications. Educational status can be categorized in various ways, including by level (e.g., elementary school, high school, college, graduate school), years of schooling completed, or type of degree earned (e.g., bachelor's, master's, doctoral).

In medical settings, educational status may be used as a demographic variable to describe the characteristics of a patient population or to identify potential disparities in health outcomes based on education level. Research has shown that higher levels of education are often associated with better health outcomes, including lower rates of chronic diseases and improved mental health. Therefore, understanding a patient's educational status can help healthcare providers tailor their care and education strategies to meet the unique needs and challenges of each individual.

Ambulatory care is a type of health care service in which patients are treated on an outpatient basis, meaning they do not stay overnight at the medical facility. This can include a wide range of services such as diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up care for various medical conditions. The goal of ambulatory care is to provide high-quality medical care that is convenient, accessible, and cost-effective for patients.

Examples of ambulatory care settings include physician offices, community health centers, urgent care centers, outpatient surgery centers, and diagnostic imaging facilities. Patients who receive ambulatory care may have a variety of medical needs, such as routine checkups, chronic disease management, minor procedures, or same-day surgeries.

Overall, ambulatory care is an essential component of modern healthcare systems, providing patients with timely and convenient access to medical services without the need for hospitalization.

Managed care programs are a type of health insurance plan that aims to control healthcare costs and improve the quality of care by managing the utilization of healthcare services. They do this by using a network of healthcare providers who have agreed to provide services at reduced rates, and by implementing various strategies such as utilization review, case management, and preventive care.

In managed care programs, there is usually a primary care physician (PCP) who acts as the patient's main doctor and coordinates their care within the network of providers. Patients may need a referral from their PCP to see specialists or access certain services. Managed care programs can take various forms, including Health Maintenance Organizations (HMOs), Preferred Provider Organizations (PPOs), Point-of-Service (POS) plans, and Exclusive Provider Organizations (EPOs).

The goal of managed care programs is to provide cost-effective healthcare services while maintaining or improving the quality of care. They can help patients save money on healthcare costs by providing coverage for a range of services at lower rates than traditional fee-for-service plans, but they may also limit patient choice and require prior authorization for certain procedures or treatments.

An outpatient clinic in a hospital setting is a department or facility where patients receive medical care without being admitted to the hospital. These clinics are typically designed to provide specialized services for specific medical conditions or populations. They may be staffed by physicians, nurses, and other healthcare professionals who work on a part-time or full-time basis.

Outpatient clinics offer a range of services, including diagnostic tests, consultations, treatments, and follow-up care. Patients can visit the clinic for routine checkups, management of chronic conditions, rehabilitation, and other medical needs. The specific services offered at an outpatient clinic will depend on the hospital and the clinic's specialty.

Outpatient clinics are often more convenient and cost-effective than inpatient care because they allow patients to receive medical treatment while continuing to live at home. They also help reduce the burden on hospitals by freeing up beds for patients who require more intensive or emergency care. Overall, outpatient clinics play an essential role in providing accessible and high-quality healthcare services to patients in their communities.

Continuity of patient care is a concept in healthcare that refers to the consistent and seamless delivery of medical services to a patient over time, regardless of changes in their location or healthcare providers. It emphasizes the importance of maintaining clear communication, coordination, and information sharing among all members of a patient's healthcare team, including physicians, nurses, specialists, and other caregivers.

The goal of continuity of patient care is to ensure that patients receive high-quality, safe, and effective medical treatment that is tailored to their individual needs and preferences. This can help to reduce the risk of medical errors, improve patient outcomes, enhance patient satisfaction, and decrease healthcare costs.

There are several types of continuity that are important in patient care, including:

1. Relational continuity: This refers to the ongoing relationship between a patient and their primary care provider or team, who knows the patient's medical history, values, and preferences.
2. Management continuity: This involves the coordination and management of a patient's care across different settings, such as hospitals, clinics, and long-term care facilities.
3. Informational continuity: This refers to the sharing of accurate and up-to-date information among all members of a patient's healthcare team, including test results, medication lists, and treatment plans.

Continuity of patient care is particularly important for patients with chronic medical conditions, who require ongoing monitoring and management over an extended period. It can also help to reduce the risk of fragmented care, which can occur when patients receive care from multiple providers who do not communicate effectively with each other. By promoting continuity of care, healthcare systems can improve patient safety, quality of care, and overall health outcomes.

'Nursing care' is not a medical term, but rather a general term used to describe the overall process and services provided by registered nurses, licensed practical nurses, and other nursing professionals to promote, maintain, or restore the health of individuals, families, or communities. Nursing care involves various activities such as:

1. Assessment: Collecting and analyzing data related to the patient's physical, psychological, social, and emotional status to identify their healthcare needs.
2. Diagnosis: Identifying the patient's nursing diagnoses based on the assessment data.
3. Outcome identification: Determining the desired outcomes for the patient's health based on their diagnosis and individual needs.
4. Planning: Developing a plan of care that outlines the interventions, resources, and actions required to achieve the identified outcomes.
5. Implementation: Carrying out the planned interventions, including administering medications, providing wound care, educating patients and families, and collaborating with other healthcare professionals.
6. Evaluation: Monitoring and evaluating the patient's progress towards achieving the desired outcomes and modifying the plan of care as needed.

Nursing care is a critical component of the overall healthcare system and encompasses various nursing specialties such as pediatrics, gerontology, critical care, oncology, and mental health, among others.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Partnership Practice" is not a standard medical term or concept in the way that other medical terms like "diagnosis," "treatment," or "disease" are. It seems to be more related to the administration and organization of healthcare services.

In a broad context, a Partnership Practice could refer to a collaborative arrangement between different healthcare providers or organizations, where they work together to provide comprehensive care to patients. This could involve various arrangements, such as:

1. A group of physicians coming together to form a partnership to share resources, expenses, and profits while providing coordinated patient care.
2. Healthcare organizations (e.g., hospitals, clinics, or long-term care facilities) partnering with one another to improve the quality, efficiency, and accessibility of healthcare services in a community.
3. Healthcare providers collaborating with community-based organizations, such as public health departments, social service agencies, or schools, to address the social determinants of health and provide holistic care to patients.

However, without more specific context, it's challenging to provide a precise definition of "Partnership Practice" in the medical field. If you could provide more information about the context in which this term is being used, I would be happy to help further!

Patient selection, in the context of medical treatment or clinical research, refers to the process of identifying and choosing appropriate individuals who are most likely to benefit from a particular medical intervention or who meet specific criteria to participate in a study. This decision is based on various factors such as the patient's diagnosis, stage of disease, overall health status, potential risks, and expected benefits. The goal of patient selection is to ensure that the selected individuals will receive the most effective and safe care possible while also contributing to meaningful research outcomes.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "New South Wales" is not a medical term. It's actually the name of the largest state in Australia, known for its diverse landscapes and wildlife. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I'd be happy to help with those!

In the context of healthcare, "Information Services" typically refers to the department or system within a healthcare organization that is responsible for managing and providing various forms of information to support clinical, administrative, and research functions. This can include:

1. Clinical Information Systems: These are electronic systems that help clinicians manage and access patient health information, such as electronic health records (EHRs), computerized physician order entry (CPOE) systems, and clinical decision support systems.

2. Administrative Information Systems: These are electronic systems used to manage administrative tasks, such as scheduling appointments, billing, and maintaining patient registries.

3. Research Information Services: These provide support for research activities, including data management, analysis, and reporting. They may also include bioinformatics services that deal with the collection, storage, analysis, and dissemination of genomic and proteomic data.

4. Health Information Exchange (HIE): This is a system or service that enables the sharing of clinical information between different healthcare organizations and providers.

5. Telemedicine Services: These allow remote diagnosis and treatment of patients using telecommunications technology.

6. Patient Portals: Secure online websites that give patients convenient, 24-hour access to their personal health information.

7. Data Analytics: The process of examining data sets to draw conclusions about the information they contain, often with the intention of predicting future trends or behaviors.

8. Knowledge Management: The process of identifying, capturing, organizing, storing, and sharing information and expertise within an organization.

The primary goal of healthcare Information Services is to improve the quality, safety, efficiency, and effectiveness of patient care by providing timely, accurate, and relevant information to the right people in the right format.

Health services research (HSR) is a multidisciplinary field of scientific investigation that studies how social factors, financing systems, organizational structures and processes, health technologies, and personal behaviors affect access to healthcare, the quality and cost of care, and ultimately, our health and well-being. The goal of HSR is to inform policy and practice, improve system performance, and enhance the health and well-being of individuals and communities. It involves the use of various research methods, including epidemiology, biostatistics, economics, sociology, management science, political science, and psychology, to answer questions about the healthcare system and how it can be improved.

Examples of HSR topics include:

* Evaluating the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of different healthcare interventions and technologies
* Studying patient-centered care and patient experiences with the healthcare system
* Examining healthcare workforce issues, such as shortages of primary care providers or the impact of nurse-to-patient ratios on patient outcomes
* Investigating the impact of health insurance design and financing systems on access to care and health disparities
* Analyzing the organization and delivery of healthcare services in different settings, such as hospitals, clinics, and long-term care facilities
* Identifying best practices for improving healthcare quality and safety, reducing medical errors, and eliminating wasteful or unnecessary care.

Nurse's practice patterns refer to the professional behaviors and actions exhibited by nurses as they deliver patient care. These patterns are shaped by education, experience, clinical judgment, and evidence-based practice guidelines. They encompass various nursing activities such as assessment, diagnosis, planning, implementation, and evaluation of patient care.

Nurse's practice patterns also include communication with patients, families, and other healthcare providers, as well as the management of nursing interventions and resources. These patterns may vary depending on the nurse's specialty, setting, and population served, but they are all guided by the overall goal of providing safe, effective, and high-quality care to promote positive patient outcomes.

A Nurse Clinician, also known as Clinical Nurse Specialist (CNS), is an advanced practice registered nurse who has completed a master's or doctoral degree in nursing with a focus on clinical expertise. They are experts in their specific clinical specialty area, such as pediatrics, gerontology, critical care, or oncology.

Nurse Clinicians demonstrate advanced levels of knowledge and skills in assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of patients' health conditions. They provide direct patient care, consult with other healthcare professionals, coordinate care, and often serve in leadership and education roles within their healthcare organizations. Their work includes developing and implementing evidence-based practice guidelines, participating in quality improvement initiatives, and mentoring staff nurses.

Nurse Clinicians play a critical role in improving patient outcomes, enhancing the quality of care, and promoting cost-effective care delivery. They are licensed and regulated by their state's Board of Nursing and may hold national certification in their clinical specialty area.

Intervention studies are a type of clinical research design where the investigator assigns participants into comparison groups, typically to receive or not receive an intervention. The intervention could be a new drug, a medical device, a procedure, or a health promotion program. These studies aim to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of the intervention in preventing or treating diseases or conditions.

There are two main types of intervention studies: experimental (or randomized controlled trials) and quasi-experimental designs. In experimental designs, participants are randomly assigned to either the intervention group or the control group, while in quasi-experimental designs, assignment is not random but based on other factors such as geographical location or time period.

Intervention studies provide valuable evidence for informing clinical practice and health policy decisions. However, they require careful planning, execution, and analysis to minimize bias and ensure valid results.

Health status is a term used to describe the overall condition of an individual's health, including physical, mental, and social well-being. It is often assessed through various measures such as medical history, physical examination, laboratory tests, and self-reported health assessments. Health status can be used to identify health disparities, track changes in population health over time, and evaluate the effectiveness of healthcare interventions.

"Family Physicians" are medical doctors who provide comprehensive primary care to individuals and families of all ages. They are trained to diagnose and treat a wide range of medical conditions, from minor illnesses to complex diseases. In addition to providing acute care, family physicians also focus on preventive medicine, helping their patients maintain their overall health and well-being through regular checkups, screenings, and immunizations. They often serve as the patient's main point of contact within the healthcare system, coordinating care with specialists and other healthcare professionals as needed. Family physicians may work in private practices, community health centers, hospitals, or other healthcare settings.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Wisconsin" is a U.S. state located in the Midwest and is not a medical term or condition. If you have any medical questions or terms you would like defined, I'd be happy to help with those!

Communication barriers in a medical context refer to any factors that prevent or hinder the effective exchange of information between healthcare providers and patients, or among healthcare professionals themselves. These barriers can lead to misunderstandings, errors, and poor patient outcomes. Common communication barriers include:

1. Language differences: When patients and healthcare providers do not speak the same language, it can lead to miscommunication and errors in diagnosis and treatment.
2. Cultural differences: Cultural beliefs and values can affect how patients perceive and communicate their symptoms and concerns, as well as how healthcare providers deliver care.
3. Literacy levels: Low health literacy can make it difficult for patients to understand medical information, follow treatment plans, and make informed decisions about their care.
4. Disability: Patients with hearing or vision impairments, speech disorders, or cognitive impairments may face unique communication challenges that require accommodations and specialized communication strategies.
5. Emotional factors: Patients who are anxious, stressed, or in pain may have difficulty communicating effectively, and healthcare providers may be less likely to listen actively or ask open-ended questions.
6. Power dynamics: Hierarchical relationships between healthcare providers and patients can create power imbalances that discourage patients from speaking up or asking questions.
7. Noise and distractions: Environmental factors such as noise, interruptions, and distractions can make it difficult for patients and healthcare providers to hear, focus, and communicate effectively.

Effective communication is critical in healthcare settings, and addressing communication barriers requires a multifaceted approach that includes training for healthcare providers, language services for limited English proficient patients, and accommodations for patients with disabilities.

African Americans are defined as individuals who have ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa. This term is often used to describe people living in the United States who have total or partial descent from enslaved African peoples. The term does not refer to a single ethnicity but is a broad term that includes various ethnic groups with diverse cultures, languages, and traditions. It's important to note that some individuals may prefer to identify as Black or of African descent rather than African American, depending on their personal identity and background.

An answering service, in the context of medical communications, is a third-party agency that provides telephone call handling services for healthcare organizations and professionals. These services typically operate outside of normal business hours and during peak call times to ensure that calls are answered promptly and professionally. They can handle various tasks such as:

1. Call answering: Answering incoming calls, taking messages, and relaying them to the appropriate medical staff.
2. Appointment scheduling: Managing appointments, cancellations, and rescheduling for healthcare providers.
3. Triage services: Assessing the urgency of a caller's medical situation and directing them to the appropriate care or escalating the call to an on-call provider if necessary.
4. Message handling: Ensuring secure and confidential communication of messages between patients, their families, and healthcare providers.
5. HIPAA compliance: Adhering to strict guidelines set by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) to protect patient information and maintain privacy.

Medical answering services are often used by hospitals, clinics, private practices, laboratories, and other healthcare organizations to improve patient communication, reduce administrative burdens, and ensure timely access to care.

Social support in a medical context refers to the resources and assistance provided by an individual's social network, including family, friends, peers, and community groups. These resources can include emotional, informational, and instrumental support, which help individuals cope with stress, manage health conditions, and maintain their overall well-being.

Emotional support involves providing empathy, care, and encouragement to help an individual feel valued, understood, and cared for. Informational support refers to the provision of advice, guidance, and knowledge that can help an individual make informed decisions about their health or other aspects of their life. Instrumental support includes practical assistance such as help with daily tasks, financial aid, or access to resources.

Social support has been shown to have a positive impact on physical and mental health outcomes, including reduced stress levels, improved immune function, better coping skills, and increased resilience. It can also play a critical role in promoting healthy behaviors, such as adherence to medical treatments and lifestyle changes.

Emergency Medical Services (EMS) is a system that provides immediate and urgent medical care, transportation, and treatment to patients who are experiencing an acute illness or injury that poses an immediate threat to their health, safety, or life. EMS is typically composed of trained professionals, such as emergency medical technicians (EMTs), paramedics, and first responders, who work together to assess a patient's condition, administer appropriate medical interventions, and transport the patient to a hospital or other medical facility for further treatment.

The goal of EMS is to quickly and effectively stabilize patients in emergency situations, prevent further injury or illness, and ensure that they receive timely and appropriate medical care. This may involve providing basic life support (BLS) measures such as cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), controlling bleeding, and managing airway obstructions, as well as more advanced interventions such as administering medications, establishing intravenous lines, and performing emergency procedures like intubation or defibrillation.

EMS systems are typically organized and managed at the local or regional level, with coordination and oversight provided by public health agencies, hospitals, and other healthcare organizations. EMS providers may work for private companies, non-profit organizations, or government agencies, and they may be dispatched to emergencies via 911 or other emergency response systems.

In summary, Emergency Medical Services (EMS) is a critical component of the healthcare system that provides urgent medical care and transportation to patients who are experiencing acute illnesses or injuries. EMS professionals work together to quickly assess, stabilize, and transport patients to appropriate medical facilities for further treatment.

A Health Maintenance Organization (HMO) is a type of managed care organization (MCO) that provides comprehensive health care services to its members, typically for a fixed monthly premium. HMOs are characterized by a prepaid payment model and a focus on preventive care and early intervention to manage the health of their enrolled population.

In an HMO, members must choose a primary care physician (PCP) who acts as their first point of contact for medical care and coordinates all aspects of their healthcare needs within the HMO network. Specialist care is generally only covered if it is referred by the PCP, and members are typically required to obtain medical services from providers that are part of the HMO's network. This helps to keep costs down and ensures that care is coordinated and managed effectively.

HMOs may also offer additional benefits such as dental, vision, and mental health services, depending on the specific plan. However, members may face higher out-of-pocket costs if they choose to receive care outside of the HMO network. Overall, HMOs are designed to provide comprehensive healthcare coverage at a more affordable cost than traditional fee-for-service insurance plans.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

Radio waves are not a medical term, but rather a type of electromagnetic radiation with frequencies ranging from about 30 kilohertz (kHz) to 300 gigahertz (GHz). They have longer wavelengths and lower frequencies than other types of electromagnetic radiation such as microwaves, infrared light, visible light, ultraviolet light, X-rays, and gamma rays.

In the medical field, radio waves are used in various diagnostic and therapeutic applications, including:

* Diagnostic imaging: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) uses radio waves in combination with a strong magnetic field to generate detailed images of internal organs and tissues.
* Radiation therapy: High-energy radio waves are used to destroy cancer cells or shrink tumors in radiation therapy.
* Cardiac ablation: Radiofrequency ablation is a medical procedure that uses radio waves to destroy small areas of heart tissue that cause abnormal heart rhythms.

It's important to note that while radio waves have many medical applications, they are not themselves a medical term or condition.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "New York City" is not a medical term or concept. It's a city located in the state of New York, United States. If you have any questions about medical terminology or concepts, I'd be happy to help with those!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "South Australia" is not a medical term or concept. It's actually the name of a region, specifically the Australian state of South Australia. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I'd be happy to try and help with those!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Kansas" is not a medical term. It is a geographical location, being the name of a state in the central United States. If you have any questions about medical terms or conditions, I would be happy to help answer those!

Qualitative research is a methodological approach in social sciences and healthcare research that focuses on understanding the meanings, experiences, and perspectives of individuals or groups within a specific context. It aims to gather detailed, rich data through various techniques such as interviews, focus groups, observations, and content analysis. The findings from qualitative research are typically descriptive and exploratory, providing insights into processes, perceptions, and experiences that may not be captured through quantitative methods.

In medical research, qualitative research can be used to explore patients' experiences of illness, healthcare providers' perspectives on patient care, or the cultural and social factors that influence health behaviors. It is often used in combination with quantitative methods to provide a more comprehensive understanding of complex health issues.

A confidence interval (CI) is a range of values that is likely to contain the true value of a population parameter with a certain level of confidence. It is commonly used in statistical analysis to express the uncertainty associated with estimates derived from sample data.

For example, if we calculate a 95% confidence interval for the mean height of a population based on a sample of individuals, we can say that we are 95% confident that the true population mean height falls within the calculated range. The width of the confidence interval gives us an idea of how precise our estimate is - narrower intervals indicate more precise estimates, while wider intervals suggest greater uncertainty.

Confidence intervals are typically calculated using statistical formulas that take into account the sample size, standard deviation, and level of confidence desired. They can be used to compare different groups or to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions in medical research.

Dietetics is the branch of knowledge concerned with the diet and its effects on health, especially in the prevention and treatment of disease. According to the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, dietetics is defined as "the integration and application of principles derived from nutrition science, biochemistry, food management, and behavioral and social sciences to achieve and maintain people's health."

Dietitians are healthcare professionals who evaluate individual nutritional needs and develop personalized eating plans to promote health and manage medical conditions. They may work in a variety of settings, including hospitals, clinics, long-term care facilities, private practice, community health programs, and food service management. Dietitians often collaborate with other healthcare providers, such as doctors, nurses, and pharmacists, to provide comprehensive care for patients.

The goals of dietetics include promoting optimal nutrition, preventing chronic diseases, managing medical conditions, and enhancing overall health and well-being. Dietitians may provide education and counseling on topics such as healthy eating habits, meal planning, weight management, food safety, and supplement use. They may also conduct research, develop nutrition policies and programs, and advocate for improved food and nutrition policies and practices.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Victoria" is not a medical term or condition. It is a name, which is often used as a place name, such as the capital city of British Columbia, Canada, or Victoria, Australia. If you have any medical concerns or questions, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you.

In the context of medical terminology, "attitude" generally refers to the position or posture of a patient's body or a part of it. It can also refer to the mental set or disposition that a person has towards their health, illness, or healthcare providers. However, it is not a term that has a specific medical definition like other medical terminologies do.

For example, in orthopedics, "attitude" may be used to describe the position of a limb or joint during an examination or surgical procedure. In psychology, "attitude" may refer to a person's feelings, beliefs, and behaviors towards a particular object, issue, or idea related to their health.

Therefore, the meaning of "attitude" in medical terminology can vary depending on the context in which it is used.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Michigan" is not a medical term or concept. It is a geographical location, referring to the state of Michigan in the United States. If you have any questions related to medical topics, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you!

Quality of health care is a term that refers to the degree to which health services for individuals and populations increase the likelihood of desired health outcomes and are consistent with current professional knowledge. It encompasses various aspects such as:

1. Clinical effectiveness: The use of best available evidence to make decisions about prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and care. This includes considering the benefits and harms of different options and making sure that the most effective interventions are used.
2. Safety: Preventing harm to patients and minimizing risks associated with healthcare. This involves identifying potential hazards, implementing measures to reduce errors, and learning from adverse events to improve systems and processes.
3. Patient-centeredness: Providing care that is respectful of and responsive to individual patient preferences, needs, and values. This includes ensuring that patients are fully informed about their condition and treatment options, involving them in decision-making, and providing emotional support throughout the care process.
4. Timeliness: Ensuring that healthcare services are delivered promptly and efficiently, without unnecessary delays. This includes coordinating care across different providers and settings to ensure continuity and avoid gaps in service.
5. Efficiency: Using resources wisely and avoiding waste, while still providing high-quality care. This involves considering the costs and benefits of different interventions, as well as ensuring that healthcare services are equitably distributed.
6. Equitability: Ensuring that all individuals have access to quality healthcare services, regardless of their socioeconomic status, race, ethnicity, gender, age, or other factors. This includes addressing disparities in health outcomes and promoting fairness and justice in healthcare.

Overall, the quality of health care is a multidimensional concept that requires ongoing evaluation and improvement to ensure that patients receive the best possible care.

Consumer participation in the context of healthcare refers to the active involvement and engagement of patients, families, caregivers, and communities in their own healthcare decision-making processes and in the development, implementation, and evaluation of health policies, programs, and services. It emphasizes the importance of patient-centered care, where the unique needs, preferences, values, and experiences of individuals are respected and integrated into their healthcare.

Consumer participation can take many forms, including:

1. Patient-provider communication: Consumers engage in open and honest communication with their healthcare providers to make informed decisions about their health.
2. Shared decision-making: Consumers work together with their healthcare providers to weigh the benefits and risks of different treatment options and make evidence-based decisions that align with their values, preferences, and goals.
3. Patient education: Consumers receive accurate, timely, and understandable information about their health conditions, treatments, and self-management strategies.
4. Patient advocacy: Consumers advocate for their own health needs and rights, as well as those of other patients and communities.
5. Community engagement: Consumers participate in the development, implementation, and evaluation of health policies, programs, and services that affect their communities.
6. Research partnerships: Consumers collaborate with researchers to design, conduct, and disseminate research that is relevant and meaningful to their lives.

Consumer participation aims to improve healthcare quality, safety, and outcomes by empowering individuals to take an active role in their own health and well-being, and by ensuring that healthcare systems are responsive to the needs and preferences of diverse populations.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "income" is not a medical term. Income is an economic term that refers to the inflow of monetary resources or earnings that an individual or household receives from various sources, such as employment, investments, or government benefits. It is typically used in financial and economic contexts rather than medical ones. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or concepts, I would be happy to help with those!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Ireland" is not a medical term or concept. It is a country located in north-western Europe, consisting of 32 provinces; 26 of which are part of the Republic of Ireland and the remaining 6 are part of the United Kingdom (Northern Ireland). If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I'd be happy to help with those.

A cohort study is a type of observational study in which a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure are followed up over time to determine the incidence of a specific outcome or outcomes. The cohort, or group, is defined based on the exposure status (e.g., exposed vs. unexposed) and then monitored prospectively to assess for the development of new health events or conditions.

Cohort studies can be either prospective or retrospective in design. In a prospective cohort study, participants are enrolled and followed forward in time from the beginning of the study. In contrast, in a retrospective cohort study, researchers identify a cohort that has already been assembled through medical records, insurance claims, or other sources and then look back in time to assess exposure status and health outcomes.

Cohort studies are useful for establishing causality between an exposure and an outcome because they allow researchers to observe the temporal relationship between the two. They can also provide information on the incidence of a disease or condition in different populations, which can be used to inform public health policy and interventions. However, cohort studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, and they may be subject to bias if participants are not representative of the population or if there is loss to follow-up.

A nurse's role is not a medical condition or diagnosis, but rather a professional occupation and set of responsibilities in the healthcare system. However, I can provide a general description of the role of a nurse in a medical context:

A nurse is a healthcare professional who provides care, support, and education to patients, families, and communities. Nurses work in a variety of settings, including hospitals, clinics, long-term care facilities, and community health centers. They collaborate with other healthcare professionals, such as physicians, social workers, and therapists, to provide comprehensive care to patients.

The specific duties of a nurse may vary depending on their role and specialty, but some common responsibilities include:

* Administering medications and treatments prescribed by doctors
* Monitoring patients' vital signs and overall health status
* Providing emotional support and education to patients and families
* Collaborating with other healthcare professionals to develop care plans
* Performing diagnostic tests and analyzing results
* Assisting with procedures and surgeries
* Supervising and training nursing assistants and other support staff.

Nurses play a critical role in the healthcare system, providing compassionate care and advocacy for patients and their families.

Correspondence, in a medical context, can refer to the communication between healthcare professionals or between a healthcare professional and a patient. This may include letters, emails, or reports that are sent to share information or updates about a patient's care.

In research, correspondence may also refer to the similarity or agreement between two or more measurements, tests, or observations. For example, a study might examine the correspondence between different methods for diagnosing a particular condition to see how well they agree with one another.

Additionally, correspondence may also refer to the relationship between different parts of the body or between different physiological processes. For example, researchers might study the correspondence between brain activity and behavior to better understand how the two are related.

"Sex factors" is a term used in medicine and epidemiology to refer to the differences in disease incidence, prevalence, or response to treatment that are observed between males and females. These differences can be attributed to biological differences such as genetics, hormones, and anatomy, as well as social and cultural factors related to gender.

For example, some conditions such as autoimmune diseases, depression, and osteoporosis are more common in women, while others such as cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancer are more prevalent in men. Additionally, sex differences have been observed in the effectiveness and side effects of various medications and treatments.

It is important to consider sex factors in medical research and clinical practice to ensure that patients receive appropriate and effective care.

A chronic disease is a long-term medical condition that often progresses slowly over a period of years and requires ongoing management and care. These diseases are typically not fully curable, but symptoms can be managed to improve quality of life. Common chronic diseases include heart disease, stroke, cancer, diabetes, arthritis, and COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). They are often associated with advanced age, although they can also affect children and younger adults. Chronic diseases can have significant impacts on individuals' physical, emotional, and social well-being, as well as on healthcare systems and society at large.

"General practice" in the context of medicine refers to the provision of primary care services that are delivered by a general practitioner (GP) or family physician. These healthcare professionals offer broad-based, first-contact care for a wide range of health issues and conditions, regardless of age, gender, or type of disease. They provide continuous and comprehensive care to individuals and families in their communities, acting as the entry point into the healthcare system and coordinating care with other specialists when needed. General practice emphasizes prevention, health promotion, early intervention, and management of acute and chronic conditions.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Massachusetts" is not a medical term. It is the name of a state located in the northeastern region of the United States. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I would be happy to help clarify those for you.

Pediatrics is a branch of medicine that deals with the medical care and treatment of infants, children, and adolescents, typically up to the age of 18 or sometimes up to 21 years. It covers a wide range of health services including preventive healthcare, diagnosis and treatment of physical, mental, and emotional illnesses, and promotion of healthy lifestyles and behaviors in children.

Pediatricians are medical doctors who specialize in this field and have extensive training in the unique needs and developmental stages of children. They provide comprehensive care for children from birth to young adulthood, addressing various health issues such as infectious diseases, injuries, genetic disorders, developmental delays, behavioral problems, and chronic conditions like asthma, diabetes, and cancer.

In addition to medical expertise, pediatricians also need excellent communication skills to build trust with their young patients and their families, and to provide education and guidance on various aspects of child health and well-being.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Minnesota" is not a medical term or concept. It is a state located in the Midwestern United States, known for its cold winters, beautiful lakes, and friendly people. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I would be happy to help!

The odds ratio (OR) is a statistical measure used in epidemiology and research to estimate the association between an exposure and an outcome. It represents the odds that an event will occur in one group versus the odds that it will occur in another group, assuming that all other factors are held constant.

In medical research, the odds ratio is often used to quantify the strength of the relationship between a risk factor (exposure) and a disease outcome. An OR of 1 indicates no association between the exposure and the outcome, while an OR greater than 1 suggests that there is a positive association between the two. Conversely, an OR less than 1 implies a negative association.

It's important to note that the odds ratio is not the same as the relative risk (RR), which compares the incidence rates of an outcome in two groups. While the OR can approximate the RR when the outcome is rare, they are not interchangeable and can lead to different conclusions about the association between an exposure and an outcome.

Mammography is defined as a specialized medical imaging technique used to create detailed X-ray images of the breast tissue. It's primarily used as a screening tool to detect early signs of breast cancer in women who have no symptoms or complaints, as well as a diagnostic tool for further evaluation of abnormalities detected by other imaging techniques or during a clinical breast exam.

There are two primary types of mammography: film-screen mammography and digital mammography. Film-screen mammography uses traditional X-ray films to capture the images, while digital mammography utilizes digital detectors to convert X-rays into electronic signals, which are then displayed on a computer screen. Digital mammography offers several advantages over film-screen mammography, including lower radiation doses, improved image quality, and the ability to manipulate and enhance the images for better interpretation.

Mammography plays a crucial role in reducing breast cancer mortality by enabling early detection and treatment of this disease. Regular mammography screenings are recommended for women over a certain age (typically starting at age 40 or 50, depending on individual risk factors) to increase the chances of detecting breast cancer at an early stage when it is most treatable.

"State Medicine" is not a term that has a widely accepted or specific medical definition. However, in general terms, it can refer to the organization, financing, and delivery of healthcare services and resources at the national or regional level, overseen and managed by the government or state. This can include public health initiatives, regulation of healthcare professionals and institutions, and the provision of healthcare services through publicly funded programs.

In some contexts, "State Medicine" may also refer to the practice of using medical treatments or interventions as a means of achieving political or social objectives, such as reducing crime rates or improving economic productivity. However, this usage is less common and more controversial.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "North Carolina" is a geographical location and not a medical term or condition. It is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States. If you have any questions about medical terms or conditions, I'd be happy to help with those!

Home care services, also known as home health care, refer to a wide range of health and social services delivered at an individual's residence. These services are designed to help people who have special needs or disabilities, those recovering from illness or surgery, and the elderly or frail who require assistance with activities of daily living (ADLs) or skilled nursing care.

Home care services can include:

1. Skilled Nursing Care: Provided by registered nurses (RNs), licensed practical nurses (LPNs), or licensed vocational nurses (LVNs) to administer medications, wound care, injections, and other medical treatments. They also monitor the patient's health status, provide education on disease management, and coordinate with other healthcare professionals.
2. Therapy Services: Occupational therapists, physical therapists, and speech-language pathologists help patients regain strength, mobility, coordination, balance, and communication skills after an illness or injury. They develop personalized treatment plans to improve the patient's ability to perform daily activities independently.
3. Personal Care/Assistance with Activities of Daily Living (ADLs): Home health aides and personal care assistants provide assistance with bathing, dressing, grooming, toileting, and other personal care tasks. They may also help with light housekeeping, meal preparation, and shopping.
4. Social Work Services: Provided by licensed social workers who assess the patient's psychosocial needs, connect them to community resources, and provide counseling and support for patients and their families.
5. Nutritional Support: Registered dietitians evaluate the patient's nutritional status, develop meal plans, and provide education on special diets or feeding techniques as needed.
6. Telehealth Monitoring: Remote monitoring of a patient's health status using technology such as video conferencing, wearable devices, or mobile apps to track vital signs, medication adherence, and symptoms. This allows healthcare providers to monitor patients closely and adjust treatment plans as necessary without requiring in-person visits.
7. Hospice Care: End-of-life care provided in the patient's home to manage pain, provide emotional support, and address spiritual needs. The goal is to help the patient maintain dignity and quality of life during their final days.
8. Respite Care: Temporary relief for family caregivers who need a break from caring for their loved ones. This can include short-term stays in assisted living facilities or hiring professional caregivers to provide in-home support.

In the context of healthcare, "safety" refers to the freedom from harm or injury that is intentionally designed into a process, system, or environment. It involves the prevention of adverse events or injuries, as well as the reduction of risk and the mitigation of harm when accidents do occur. Safety in healthcare aims to protect patients, healthcare workers, and other stakeholders from potential harm associated with medical care, treatments, or procedures. This is achieved through evidence-based practices, guidelines, protocols, training, and continuous quality improvement efforts.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Arkansas" is a proper noun and refers to a state in the United States. It does not have a medical definition. Arkansas is located in the southern region of the U.S. and is known for its diverse geography, which includes mountains, forests, and lowlands. The capital and largest city of Arkansas is Little Rock.

If you have any questions related to health or medicine, I would be happy to try to help answer them.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Quebec" is not a medical term. It is a place name, referring to the Canadian province of Quebec. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I would be happy to help answer those!

A case-control study is an observational research design used to identify risk factors or causes of a disease or health outcome. In this type of study, individuals with the disease or condition (cases) are compared with similar individuals who do not have the disease or condition (controls). The exposure history or other characteristics of interest are then compared between the two groups to determine if there is an association between the exposure and the disease.

Case-control studies are often used when it is not feasible or ethical to conduct a randomized controlled trial, as they can provide valuable insights into potential causes of diseases or health outcomes in a relatively short period of time and at a lower cost than other study designs. However, because case-control studies rely on retrospective data collection, they are subject to biases such as recall bias and selection bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, it is important to carefully design and conduct case-control studies to minimize these potential sources of bias.

An emergency is a sudden, unexpected situation that requires immediate medical attention to prevent serious harm, permanent disability, or death. Emergencies can include severe injuries, trauma, cardiac arrest, stroke, difficulty breathing, severe allergic reactions, and other life-threatening conditions. In such situations, prompt medical intervention is necessary to stabilize the patient's condition, diagnose the underlying problem, and provide appropriate treatment.

Emergency medical services (EMS) are responsible for providing emergency care to patients outside of a hospital setting, such as in the home, workplace, or public place. EMS personnel include emergency medical technicians (EMTs), paramedics, and other first responders who are trained to assess a patient's condition, provide basic life support, and transport the patient to a hospital for further treatment.

In a hospital setting, an emergency department (ED) is a specialized unit that provides immediate care to patients with acute illnesses or injuries. ED staff includes physicians, nurses, and other healthcare professionals who are trained to handle a wide range of medical emergencies. The ED is equipped with advanced medical technology and resources to provide prompt diagnosis and treatment for critically ill or injured patients.

Overall, the goal of emergency medical care is to stabilize the patient's condition, prevent further harm, and provide timely and effective treatment to improve outcomes and save lives.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Maryland" is a proper noun and does not have a medical definition. It is a state located in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States. However, if you are referring to a specific medical term or concept that includes "Maryland," could you please provide more context? I'll do my best to help with accurate information based on the provided context.

"Patient dropouts" is a term used in clinical research and medical settings to refer to participants who withdraw or discontinue their participation in a treatment plan, clinical trial, or study before its completion. The reasons for patient dropouts can vary widely and may include factors such as adverse effects of the treatment, lack of efficacy, financial constraints, relocation, loss of interest, or personal reasons. High patient dropout rates can impact the validity and generalizability of research findings, making it challenging to assess the long-term safety and effectiveness of a particular intervention or treatment. Therefore, understanding and addressing the factors that contribute to patient dropouts is an important consideration in clinical research and practice.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "New York" is not a medical term or concept. New York refers to a state in the United States, as well as its largest city. If you have any questions about medical terminology or concepts, I would be happy to help with those!

Physician's practice patterns refer to the individual habits and preferences of healthcare providers when it comes to making clinical decisions and managing patient care. These patterns can encompass various aspects, such as:

1. Diagnostic testing: The types and frequency of diagnostic tests ordered for patients with similar conditions.
2. Treatment modalities: The choice of treatment options, including medications, procedures, or referrals to specialists.
3. Patient communication: The way physicians communicate with their patients, including the amount and type of information shared, as well as the level of patient involvement in decision-making.
4. Follow-up care: The frequency and duration of follow-up appointments, as well as the monitoring of treatment effectiveness and potential side effects.
5. Resource utilization: The use of healthcare resources, such as hospitalizations, imaging studies, or specialist consultations, and the associated costs.

Physician practice patterns can be influenced by various factors, including medical training, clinical experience, personal beliefs, guidelines, and local availability of resources. Understanding these patterns is essential for evaluating the quality of care, identifying potential variations in care, and implementing strategies to improve patient outcomes and reduce healthcare costs.

In a medical or healthcare context, self-disclosure generally refers to the act of a patient voluntarily sharing personal, relevant information about themselves with their healthcare provider. This could include details about their lifestyle, thoughts, feelings, experiences, or symptoms that may be pertinent to their health status or treatment. The purpose of self-disclosure is to enhance the provider's understanding of the patient's condition and facilitate more effective care planning, monitoring, and management. It is essential for building trust, fostering open communication, and promoting a strong therapeutic relationship between patients and healthcare providers.

It is important to note that self-disclosure should be encouraged in a safe, respectful, and confidential environment, where the patient feels comfortable sharing personal information without fear of judgment or negative consequences. Healthcare providers must maintain appropriate professional boundaries while still fostering an atmosphere of trust and collaboration with their patients.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Text Messaging" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. Text messaging generally refers to the act of sending short messages, usually comprised of text and/or media, through electronic communication systems, such as mobile phones or online platforms. If you're looking for a term with a medical connotation, perhaps you meant "Telemedicine" or "e-Prescribing," which are medical practices that involve the use of technology for communication and patient care.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "poverty" is not a medical condition or term. It is a social condition defined by the World Bank as "pronounced deprivation in well-being," and measured through indicators such as income, consumption, and access to basic services. Poverty can have significant impacts on health outcomes and healthcare access, but it is not considered a medical diagnosis. If you have any questions related to health or medicine, I'd be happy to try my best to help answer them!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Queensland" is not a medical term. It is the second largest state in Australia, located in the northeastern part of the country. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I would be happy to help with those!

Health communication is the scientific field that uses communication strategies and methods to inform and influence individual health behaviors and organizational, community, and public policies. It combines disciplines such as psychology, sociology, anthropology, and public health to develop and disseminate messages that will improve health literacy, engage individuals in self-care, and promote positive changes in healthcare systems and policy. Health communication can be used to increase awareness of health issues, prevent the spread of diseases, reduce risky behaviors, and promote healthy lifestyles. It encompasses a wide range of activities including interpersonal communication between patients and healthcare providers, mass media campaigns, social marketing, patient education materials, and community-based participatory research.

Self-efficacy is not a medical term per se, but it is widely used in medical and health-related contexts. It is a concept from social cognitive theory that refers to an individual's belief in their ability to successfully perform specific tasks or achieve certain goals, particularly in the face of challenges or adversity.

In medical settings, self-efficacy can refer to a patient's confidence in their ability to manage their health condition, adhere to treatment plans, and engage in healthy behaviors. For example, a person with diabetes who has high self-efficacy may feel confident in their ability to monitor their blood sugar levels, follow a healthy diet, and exercise regularly, even if they encounter obstacles or setbacks.

Research has shown that self-efficacy is an important predictor of health outcomes, as individuals with higher self-efficacy are more likely to engage in positive health behaviors and experience better health outcomes than those with lower self-efficacy. Healthcare providers may seek to enhance patients' self-efficacy through education, counseling, and support to help them manage their health condition more effectively.

In the context of healthcare, workload refers to the amount and complexity of tasks or responsibilities that a healthcare professional is expected to perform within a given period. This can include direct patient care activities such as physical assessments, treatments, and procedures, as well as indirect care activities like documentation, communication with other healthcare team members, and quality improvement initiatives.

Workload can be measured in various ways, including the number of patients assigned to a provider, the amount of time spent on direct patient care, or the complexity of the medical conditions being managed. High workloads can impact the quality of care provided, as well as healthcare professional burnout and job satisfaction. Therefore, it is essential to monitor and manage workload effectively to ensure safe and high-quality patient care.

Multivariate analysis is a statistical method used to examine the relationship between multiple independent variables and a dependent variable. It allows for the simultaneous examination of the effects of two or more independent variables on an outcome, while controlling for the effects of other variables in the model. This technique can be used to identify patterns, associations, and interactions among multiple variables, and is commonly used in medical research to understand complex health outcomes and disease processes. Examples of multivariate analysis methods include multiple regression, factor analysis, cluster analysis, and discriminant analysis.

Clinical protocols, also known as clinical practice guidelines or care paths, are systematically developed statements that assist healthcare professionals and patients in making decisions about the appropriate healthcare for specific clinical circumstances. They are based on a thorough evaluation of the available scientific evidence and consist of a set of recommendations that are designed to optimize patient outcomes, improve the quality of care, and reduce unnecessary variations in practice. Clinical protocols may cover a wide range of topics, including diagnosis, treatment, follow-up, and disease prevention, and are developed by professional organizations, government agencies, and other groups with expertise in the relevant field.

Advertising is a form of communication used to promote or sell products, services, or ideas. In the medical field, advertising is often used by healthcare providers, hospitals, and pharmaceutical companies to reach potential patients or customers. Advertisements may appear in various media formats, such as television, radio, print, online platforms, and outdoor displays.

In the context of medical advertising, it is essential to ensure that all information presented is accurate, balanced, and not misleading. The advertising of prescription medications directly to consumers is regulated by government agencies, such as the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the United States, to ensure that the benefits and risks of the medication are clearly communicated.

Healthcare providers may also engage in advertising to promote their services or expertise. This can include listing their qualifications, areas of specialization, and patient testimonials. However, healthcare providers must adhere to ethical guidelines and avoid making exaggerated claims about their abilities or the outcomes that patients can expect.

Overall, medical advertising plays an essential role in informing the public about available healthcare options and promoting healthy behaviors. Still, it is crucial to ensure that all advertisements are truthful, transparent, and adhere to ethical standards.

Confidentiality is a legal and ethical principle in medicine that refers to the obligation of healthcare professionals to protect the personal and sensitive information of their patients. This information, which can include medical history, diagnosis, treatment plans, and other private details, is shared between the patient and the healthcare provider with the expectation that it will be kept confidential and not disclosed to third parties without the patient's consent.

Confidentiality is a fundamental component of the trust relationship between patients and healthcare providers, as it helps to ensure that patients feel safe and comfortable sharing sensitive information with their doctors, nurses, and other members of their healthcare team. It also helps to protect patients' privacy rights and uphold their autonomy in making informed decisions about their healthcare.

There are some limited circumstances in which confidentiality may be breached, such as when there is a legal obligation to report certain types of information (e.g., suspected child abuse or neglect), or when the disclosure is necessary to protect the health and safety of the patient or others. However, these exceptions are typically narrowly defined and subject to strict guidelines and safeguards to ensure that confidentiality is protected as much as possible.

Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) are invisible forces that result from the interaction between electrically charged objects. They are created by natural phenomena, such as the Earth's magnetic field, as well as by human-made sources, such as power lines, electrical appliances, and wireless communication devices.

EMFs are characterized by their frequency and strength, which determine their potential biological effects. Low-frequency EMFs, such as those produced by power lines and household appliances, have frequencies in the range of 0 to 300 Hz. High-frequency EMFs, such as those produced by wireless communication devices like cell phones and Wi-Fi routers, have frequencies in the range of 100 kHz to 300 GHz.

Exposure to EMFs has been linked to a variety of health effects, including increased risk of cancer, reproductive problems, neurological disorders, and oxidative stress. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential health risks associated with exposure to EMFs and to establish safe exposure limits.

I'm happy to help, but it seems there might be a slight misunderstanding in your question. "Nurses" is not a medical term per se, but rather a job title or professional role within the healthcare field. Here's a brief description of what nurses do:

Nurses are healthcare professionals who work closely with patients to provide and coordinate care, education, and support. They play a critical role in promoting health, preventing illness, and helping patients cope with various medical conditions. Nurses can be found in various settings such as hospitals, clinics, private practices, long-term care facilities, community health centers, and patient homes.

There are different nursing specialties and levels of education, including:

1. Registered Nurse (RN): Typically holds an associate's or bachelor's degree in nursing and has passed a licensing exam. RNs provide direct patient care, administer medications, and coordinate treatment plans.
2. Advanced Practice Registered Nurse (APRN): Has completed additional education and training beyond the RN level, often earning a master's or doctoral degree. APRNs can specialize in areas such as nurse practitioner, clinical nurse specialist, certified registered nurse anesthetist, or certified nurse-midwife.
3. Licensed Practical Nurse (LPN) or Licensed Vocational Nurse (LVN): Holds a diploma or certificate from a practical nursing program and has passed a licensing exam. LPNs/LVNs provide basic patient care under the supervision of RNs and physicians.

These definitions are not exhaustive, but they should give you an idea of what nurses do and their roles within the healthcare system.

Hispanic Americans, also known as Latino Americans, are individuals in the United States who are of Spanish-speaking origin or whose ancestors came from Spain, Mexico, Cuba, the Caribbean, Central and South America. This group includes various cultures, races, and nationalities. It is important to note that "Hispanic" refers to a cultural and linguistic affiliation rather than a racial category. Therefore, Hispanic Americans can be of any race, including White, Black, Asian, Native American, or mixed races.

In a medical context, "survivors" typically refers to individuals who have lived through or recovered from a serious illness, injury, or life-threatening event. This may include people who have survived cancer, heart disease, trauma, or other conditions that posed a significant risk to their health and well-being. The term is often used to describe the resilience and strength of these individuals, as well as to highlight the importance of ongoing support and care for those who have faced serious medical challenges. It's important to note that the definition may vary depending on the context in which it's used.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "New Hampshire" is not a medical term or concept. It is one of the 50 states in the United States of America, located in the New England region. If you have any questions related to medical topics, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you!

Health services refer to the delivery of healthcare services, including preventive, curative, and rehabilitative services. These services are typically provided by health professionals such as doctors, nurses, and allied health personnel in various settings, including hospitals, clinics, community health centers, and long-term care facilities. Health services may also include public health activities such as health education, surveillance, and health promotion programs aimed at improving the health of populations. The goal of health services is to promote and restore health, prevent disease and injury, and improve the quality of life for individuals and communities.

Health care costs refer to the expenses incurred for medical services, treatments, procedures, and products that are used to maintain or restore an individual's health. These costs can be categorized into several types:

1. Direct costs: These include payments made for doctor visits, hospital stays, medications, diagnostic tests, surgeries, and other medical treatments and services. Direct costs can be further divided into two subcategories:
* Out-of-pocket costs: Expenses paid directly by patients, such as co-payments, deductibles, coinsurance, and any uncovered medical services or products.
* Third-party payer costs: Expenses covered by insurance companies, government programs (like Medicare, Medicaid), or other entities that pay for health care services on behalf of patients.
2. Indirect costs: These are the expenses incurred as a result of illness or injury that indirectly impact an individual's ability to work and earn a living. Examples include lost productivity, absenteeism, reduced earning capacity, and disability benefits.
3. Non-medical costs: These are expenses related to caregiving, transportation, home modifications, assistive devices, and other non-medical services required for managing health conditions or disabilities.

Health care costs can vary significantly depending on factors such as the type of medical service, geographic location, insurance coverage, and individual health status. Understanding these costs is essential for patients, healthcare providers, policymakers, and researchers to make informed decisions about treatment options, resource allocation, and health system design.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Urban Population" is not a medical term. It is a demographic term used to describe the portion of a country's population that lives in areas classified as urban. The United Nations defines an urban area as a city, town, or other agglomeration with a population of 20,000 or more. However, the specific definition can vary by country and organization.

In contrast, medical terms typically refer to conditions, diseases, symptoms, treatments, or healthcare-related concepts. If you have any questions related to health or medicine, I'd be happy to help if I can!

Activities of Daily Living (ADL) are routine self-care activities that individuals usually do every day without assistance. These activities are widely used as a measure to determine the functional status and independence of a person, particularly in the elderly or those with disabilities or chronic illnesses. The basic ADLs include:

1. Personal hygiene: Bathing, washing hands and face, brushing teeth, grooming, and using the toilet.
2. Dressing: Selecting appropriate clothes and dressing oneself.
3. Eating: Preparing and consuming food, either independently or with assistive devices.
4. Mobility: Moving in and out of bed, chairs, or wheelchairs, walking independently or using mobility aids.
5. Transferring: Moving from one place to another, such as getting in and out of a car, bath, or bed.

There are also more complex Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADLs) that assess an individual's ability to manage their own life and live independently. These include managing finances, shopping for groceries, using the telephone, taking medications as prescribed, preparing meals, and housekeeping tasks.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "London" is a place and not a medical term or condition. It is the capital city and largest metropolitan area in both England and the United Kingdom. If you have any questions related to medical definitions or health-related topics, I would be happy to help!

A nursing audit is a systematic review and evaluation of nursing practice, care, and outcomes in relation to established standards, policies, and guidelines. It is a quality improvement process that aims to identify strengths, weaknesses, and areas for improvement in nursing care, with the goal of enhancing patient safety, outcomes, and overall healthcare delivery. Nursing audits can focus on various aspects of nursing practice, such as documentation, assessment, care planning, implementation, and evaluation. The findings from a nursing audit are typically used to inform education, policy development, and performance improvement initiatives.

A Medical Receptionist is an administrative professional who works in a healthcare setting, such as a hospital, clinic, or private practice. Their primary responsibilities include managing the front desk, greeting patients, scheduling appointments, maintaining medical records, and handling correspondence and phone calls. They may also perform various clerical tasks, such as billing and insurance processing, filing, and record-keeping. Medical Receptionists are often the first point of contact for patients, so they play a critical role in creating a positive patient experience. They must have strong communication skills, be highly organized, and have a good understanding of medical terminology and confidentiality policies.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Mass Media" is not a term that has a medical definition. Mass media refers to the means of communication that reach large numbers of people simultaneously, such as television, radio, newspapers, and the Internet. It may be used in a public health context to discuss how information about health-related topics is disseminated to the general population. However, it is not a term that is typically used within the field of medicine to describe a specific medical concept or condition.

Look up telephone or cordless telephone in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Early U.S. Telephone Industry Data "Telephone" . ... Telephones portal Telephone in United States history Bell System Bell Telephone Memorial Cellular network Cordless telephone ... Telephone calls are initiated most commonly with a keypad or dial, affixed to the telephone, to enter a telephone number, which ... "The Telephone and Telephone Exchanges" by J. E. Kingsbury published in 1915. Coe, Lewis (1995). The Telephone and Its Several ...
The T65 telephone was introduced in 1965 in the Netherlands as the standard telephone installed by the PTT (today KPN). "The ... Dutch Online Telephone Museum". Telefoonmuseum.com. Archived from the original on 2011-08-01. Retrieved 2011-10-10. v t e (KPN ...
... s featured a large gear rotated by hand with a handle, that drove a much smaller gear on the armature rotor, ... Many early manual telephones had an attached hand-cranked magneto that produced an alternating current (AC) at 50-100 V for ... A telephone magneto is a hand-cranked electrical generator that uses permanent magnets to produce alternating current from a ... The telephone instrument obtained talking current by powering a carbon microphone with a local battery, consisting of "N° 6" ...
A Chatter Telephone appears on the cover of American rock band Thee Oh Sees' 2011 album Castlemania. A Chatter Telephone ... In 2005, the Chatter Telephone was chosen as one of Dr. Toy's Best Classic Toys. Chatter Telephone appears in the 2010 animated ... A Chatter Telephone prominently appears in the 2022 horror film Skinamarink. "Brilliant Basics™ Chatter Telephone®". Fisher- ... In the 1999 movie, The Adventures of Elmo in Grouchland, Elmo owns a chatter telephone. In 2003, the Chatter Telephone was ...
A secure telephone is a telephone that provides voice security in the form of end-to-end encryption for the telephone call, and ... Concerns about massive growth of telephone tapping incidents led to growing demand for secure telephones. The practical ... The NSA, formed after World War II, developed a series of secure telephones, including the STU I, STU II and STU-III, as well ... Telephones portal Microphone blocker Mobile phone tracking Secure Real-time Transport Protocol (SRTP) SCIP TETRA A5/1 ZRTP ...
... refers to any type of psychological service performed over the telephone. Telephone counseling ranges from ... Gregory E. Simon et al., "Telephone Psychotherapy and Telephone Care Management for Primary Care Patients Starting ... Telephone counseling is also provided by crisis hotlines, quitlines, and child helplines. Researchers have begun observing a ... Also research shows telephone counseling to have better results among patients with depression. Being physically present with ...
It takes its name from old wooden wall telephones and candlestick telephones, where the mouthpiece was mounted on the telephone ... but not the telephone from the line or the phone could not ring. When the handset is on the cradle, the telephone is said to be ... When the telephone was not in use, the receiver was hung on a spring-loaded hook; its weight would cause the hook to swing down ... Telephone switchhook separates calling and transmitting circuits of the telephone and closes the battery circuit of transmitter ...
... may refer to: Telephone call Wole_Soyinka#Poetry_collections, a poetical work by Wole Soyinka a 45- ... Money by Frank Zappa and The Mothers of Invention This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Telephone ...
A telephone switchboard was a device used to connect circuits of telephones to establish telephone calls between users or other ... Telephone in United States history G.K. Thompson, R.B. Hill, The First Telephone Switchboard and Its Method of Operation, Bell ... Atlanta Telephone History: Part 1 - Early Telephone Service especially the section from 1905 on. (Articles with short ... Following the invention of the telephone in 1876, the first telephones were rented in pairs which were limited to conversation ...
A courtesy telephone is a telephone located in airport terminals, large train stations, hotel lobbies, and other places where ... White courtesy telephone please." Telephones portal Notes Rick Belliotti (2008), Common use facilities and equipment at ... "courtesy telephones". Courtesy telephones are featured prominently as a running gag in the cult comedy film Airplane!. The ... please pick up the nearest white courtesy telephone." Courtesy telephones may have a distinctive color, which is traditionally ...
... previously had GSM wireless services in place for Dimock, Montrose, Susquehanna, Forest City, and other towns in ... Besides landline telephone, NEP offers Broadband Internet, NEP Datavision IPTV and Wireless Phone Services. In April, 2011 NEP ... North-Eastern Pennsylvania Telephone Company (NEP) is a telecommunications provider headquartered in Forest City, Pennsylvania ... "The North-Eastern Pennsylvania Telephone Company , NEP Happenings". Archived from the original on 2011-07-19. Retrieved 2011-04 ...
An emergency telephone is a phone specifically provided for making calls to emergency services and is most often found in a ... These telephones are almost always marked by a placard or sign indicating a unique serial number or identifier which allows the ... The system Harman envisaged was a series of telephone units in a box on a short post, spaced every 160 metres (0.1 mi) on ... Emergency telephones are commonly found alongside major roads throughout the world. In the United Kingdom, orange "SOS" call ...
The Telephone Hills are a low mountain range in the interior California Coast Ranges, in western Kern County, California. " ... "Telephone Hills". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey, United States Department of the ...
The candlestick telephone (or pole telephone) is a style of telephone that was common from the late 1890s to the 1940s. A ... activating an internal switch connecting the telephone to the telephone line. Candlestick telephones required the nearby ... Candlestick telephone models were produced by many manufacturers. The main producers of these telephones were Western Electric ... Telephones portal "Western Electric #20B Desk Phone". Antique Telephone History. US. Retrieved 2017-01-26. Lienhard, John H. " ...
Fixed telephone lines per hundred inhabitants is calculated by dividing the number of fixed telephone lines by the total ... Telephone density or teledensity is the number of telephone connections for every hundred individuals living within an area. It ... Telephone density has significant correlation with the per capita GDP of the area. It is also used as an indicator of the ... Fixed telephone lines include PSTN, WLL, ISDN and DSL. A single ISDN or DSL subscriber connection may cater to multiple voice ...
... at IMDb Telephone Time (TV series) at CVTA with episode list Video of public domain episode I Am Not Alone on ... Telephone Time is an American anthology drama series that aired on CBS in 1956, and on ABC from 1957 to 1958. The series ... Sinclair, Charles (September 16, 1957). "Telephone Time (Net)". Billboard. p. 16. Retrieved August 26, 2023. ... American Telephone and Telegraph Company sponsored the series. A review of the episode "Revenge" in the trade publication ...
The W48 (from German: Wählfernsprecher 1948) was a version of a desktop telephone lineage developed in the mid-1930s in Germany ... The W48 was approved by the Deutsche Bundespost for use on the German telephone network in 1948. Various manufacturers were ... Because of its former ubiquity, robustness, and elegant industrial design it is regarded in Germany as the classic telephone. ... The principle design features were based on the "classic" W28, the first widely distributed desktop telephone developed by the ...
... may refer to: Call box Courtesy telephone Emergency telephone Payphone Police box Red telephone box Telephone ... a 1980 French documentary film This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Public telephone. If an ...
... which established a dedicated telephone banking service in 1984. Telephone banking saw growth during the 1980s and early 1990s ... Telephone banking is a service provided by a bank or other financial institution that enables customers to perform over the ... However, the development of online banking in the early 2000s started a long-term decline in the use of telephone banking in ... Telephone banking became commercially available in the 1980s, first introduced by Girobank in the United Kingdom, ...
... is the second book of poetry written by American writer John Updike. The collection was published by Knopf in ... In Updike's verse, too, is his wry awareness of the small absurdities we live with daily." X.J. Kennedy, "Telephone Poles and ... The New York Times on Telephone Poles John Updike: The Poetry Foundation, Biography John Updike: The Poetry Foundation, Poems v ...
A telephone line or telephone circuit (or just line or circuit industrywide) is a single-user circuit on a telephone ... Telephone lines are used to deliver landline telephone service and digital subscriber line (DSL) phone cable service to the ... Telephone overhead lines are connected to the public switched telephone network. The voltage at a subscriber's network ... Those copper wires may be connected back to two telephone overhead lines at the local telephone exchange, thus making those ...
A telephone exchange, telephone switch, or central office is a telecommunications system used in the public switched telephone ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Telephone exchanges. Telephone Central Office History and Pictures Telephone World's ... The first experimental telephone exchange was based on the ideas of Puskás, and it was built by the Bell Telephone Company in ... A telephone exchange automatically senses an off-hook condition of the telephone when the user removes the handset from the ...
... s were token coins once widely used for making telephone calls from public telephones in place of ordinary coins ... While most telephone tokens are round, some have different shapes as well. Gettone telefonico Jeton Telephone card Telephones ... The earliest-known telephone token dates from 1885, when it was produced for the PAN Telephone Company in St. Louis, Missouri. ... Telephone tokens were once widely used in Europe, Israel, Japan, and South America, but have since been largely superseded by ...
The rebuilt Telephone made its trial trip to Astoria on Saturday, May 20. The rebuilt Telephone, sometimes known as Telephone ... Telephone at Astoria Telephone docked at Portland Telephone and Morrison Bridge U.B. Scott and business partners on a steamboat ... Telephone also made all the stops along the river, which the Potter did not do. One day in August 1895, Telephone and T.J. ... Telephone No. 1 was much faster than Olympian, so Troup had to resort to strategy to keep ahead. When Telephone would stop at ...
Most modern telephones, both mobile and fixed, have memory locations in which telephone numbers can be stored. Some telephones ... Telephone token Prepaid mobile phone SIM card Telephones portal Wikimedia Commons has media related to Telephone cards. Gosford ... A telephone card, calling card or phonecard for short, is a credit card-size plastic or paper card, used to pay for telephone ... The system for payment and the way in which the card is used to place a telephone call vary from card to card. Calling cards ...
1957 Telephones portal Call completion Call processing Emergency telephone number Pocket dialing Telephone phobia Teletraffic ... A telephone call or telephone conversation (or telcon), also known as a phone call or voice call (or simply a call), is a ... Telephone calls started in the late 19th century. As technology has improved, a majority of telephone calls are made over a ... To place a telephone call, the calling party picks up the telephone's handset, thereby operating a lever that closes the hook ...
The Enhanced Telephone is a telephone developed by Citibank's Enhanced Telephone Services subsidiary in the late 1980s for ... The first version of the Enhanced Telephone, the 99A model, was beige and featured a keyboard and monochrome miniature CRT ... Andrews, Edmund L. (15 March 1992). "All About/Telephone Features; Emboldened Phone Companies Are Pushing the Frills". The New ... Software for the Enhanced Telephone was written in a proprietary language called HAL (Home Application Language). Citibank ...
The Protea telephone plug, sometimes called simply the South African telephone plug, was widely used in South Africa from the ... As of 2004, telephone installations in South Africa use RJ11 plugs (which are sometimes referred to in South Africa as Venus ... Telephone connectors, All stub articles, South Africa stubs, Telephony stubs). ...
"My Telephone" is a song recorded by British band Coldcut featuring Lisa Stansfield, released as a single from Coldcut's debut ... "Coldcut - My Telephone" (in German). GfK Entertainment. Retrieved 20 May 2015. (CS1 German-language sources (de), Use dmy dates ... "Coldcut - My Telephone". Discogs. Retrieved 11 March 2015. Andrew Collins, "Funky, Cold, Modern-ah", New Musical Express, 25 ... The recording provided the basis for the song "Telephone Thing" by post-punk band The Fall, recorded with Coldcut and released ...
A telephone network is a telecommunications network that connects telephones, which allows telephone calls between two or more ... This is known as the public switched telephone network or PSTN. A wireless network where the telephones are mobile and can move ... There are a number of different types of telephone network: A landline network where the telephones must be directly wired into ... A private network where a closed group of telephones are connected primarily to each other and use a gateway to reach the ...
Please send any modification request to [email protected].. ...
... - Public Domain image from section: telephone/ringing phone/ at wpclipart.com ...
OPERATOR TELLS WHITTINGTON GEORGE REEDY IS CALLING FOR LBJ; WHITTINGTON TELLS HER THAT LBJ HAS JUST STEPPED INTO CABINET ROOM AND IS NOT ...
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Look up telephone or cordless telephone in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Early U.S. Telephone Industry Data "Telephone" . ... Telephones portal Telephone in United States history Bell System Bell Telephone Memorial Cellular network Cordless telephone ... Telephone calls are initiated most commonly with a keypad or dial, affixed to the telephone, to enter a telephone number, which ... "The Telephone and Telephone Exchanges" by J. E. Kingsbury published in 1915. Coe, Lewis (1995). The Telephone and Its Several ...
of money and the work would be no heavier than handling freight down at the mills. Youve got to work somewhere through your summer vacation." He made the latter statement as a matter of course for a matter of course it had long since become. Ted always worked when he was not studying. Vacations, holidays, Saturdays, he was always busy earning money for if he had not been, there would have been no chance of his going to school the rest of the time. Sometimes he did errands for one of the dry-goods stores; sometimes, if there were a vacancy, he helped in Fernald and Companys shipping rooms; sometimes he worked at the town market or rode about on the grocers wagon, delivering orders. By one means or another he had usually contrived, since he was quite a small boy, to pick up odd sums that went toward his clothes and "keep." As he grew older, these sums had increased until now they had become a recognized part of the family income. For it was understood that Ted would turn in toward the household ...
Wiretapping involves a secret connection to a telephone line. The connection allows the agency to monitor phone calls over the ... However, police may also access private communications, such as telephone conversations.. This article provides an overview of ...
Java Telephone Call, free java telephone call software downloads ... Java Telephone Call Software. *. VRS Telephone Call Recorder v. ... Related: Java Telephone Call - Call Accounting Telephone - Telephone Call Blocking - Telephone Call Recorder - Logger Telephone ... Fax Voip Softphone - SIP/H.323 software telephone. Call Recording. Playing audio messages into the telephone line. Sending and ... who regularly needs to make a great number of telephone calls.Main features:keeping to information on made telephone calls (the ...
Essential Telephoning in English is a short course in telephoning skills for pre-intermediate to intermediate learners of ... Essential Telephoning in English is a short skills course for adult learners of Business and general English. Its 11 core units ...
"Instead of saying A as in Adam, D as in David, etc. when spelling out names on the telephone, Aryan names should be used," ... The Belgian Nazi paper Volk en Staat, received here today, protests the fact that Jewish names are still used by the telephone ... Belgian Fascist Paper Demands Use of Aryan Names in Telephone Directories. August 2, 1942 ... company in giving instructions in its directories on the correct use of the telephone. " ...
Telephone Mobile Cellular By Country. Telephones - mobile cellular Updated. Rank. The total number of telephone mobile cellular ... Answer: The total number of telephone mobile cellular in use of Comoros is 42,000. Its ranking among other countries is 198. ( ... Exchange Rate Home ,, Data Topics & Statistical Questions ,, Telephone Mobile Cellular >> Comoros , Post , View ... What is the total number of telephone mobile cellular in use of Comoros?. ...
Telephone theatre has a future, created for todays chat mentality, but rooted in the voice and the telephone mediums ... TELEPHONE THEATRE IS EXCLUSIVE AND CONVINCING.. Can you trust the person on the other end of the line? Rimini Protokoll push ... That awareness hit me with a shock when my telephone friend had gotten me to sing a song, and a loud round of applause sounded ... Luckily it turned out to be call center routine: Everyone claps when someone sells a telephone. And Mr. Soup had clapped after ...
Which expenses are deductible as actual telephone expenses?. State agencies must deduct the cost of telephone service that is ... Any of the costs identified above would entitle a household to a telephone allowance the same as actual telephone fees ... like cellular telephones, pre-paid telephone cards, and Voice Over Internet Protocol (VoIP, or internet phone service). There ... either by deducting actual telephone bills or standard telephone allowances. During that time, communications technology has ...
This issue occurs on a Polycom telephone that is running Lync Phone Edition. ... A white screen or a white horizontal line appears on a Polycom telephone that is running Lync Phone Edition. ... Assume that you have a Polycom telephone that is running Microsoft Lync Phone Edition. In this situation, you encounter one of ... A white horizontal line appears in the middle of the telephone screen. ...
To call a number in Kendal, dial 01539 plus the telephone number of the person or business. ... Full example telephone number to dial: 00 44 1539 111111. Dialling Kendal Phone Numbers from the UK. To dial a telephone number ... UK Telephone Numbers - How to Call Numbers in the UK. Find out how to call landline and mobile phone numbers in the UK. ...
At-A-Glance Large Telephone/Address Book - Wire Bound - 5" Sheet Size - Black - Simulated Leather - 1 Each. Item Number: ... Product Name: Large Telephone/Address Book. Marketing Information: Organizing contact information for family, friends and ...
Publicly listed telephone numbers that are not on the National Do Not Call list will be dialed and invited to participate in ... Albertans invited to telephone town hall on royalties Royalty review panel chair Dave Mowat is looking to hear from Albertans ... The telephone town hall gives the panel an opportunity to build on the conversations theyve been having with Albertans across ...
State and Local Area Integrated Telephone Survey (SLAITS) Geocodes. ...
We recognize that identity theft and unlawful debt collection practices continue to cause significant harm to many consumers. Steps like the recent upgrade to IdentityTheft.gov and our leadership of a […]. READ MORE » ...
Telephone Kiosk. Type K6. Designed 1935 by Sir Giles Gilbert Scott. Made by various contractors. Cast iron. Square kiosk with ... Telephone Kiosk. Type K6. Designed 1935 by Sir Giles Gilbert Scott. Made by various contractors. Cast iron. Square kiosk with ...
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Central Regional Communication Center of Russian Railways OJSC we provide the extension of the lines of the domestic telephone ... The extension of numbers can be performed on analog lines, VoIP lines and E1 PRI digital telephone lines. Choose a number from ... Extending telephone lines with RZhD numbering. For internal communications and negotiations with suppliers, partners, clients ... is closely related to the railways cooperate much quicker and easier with RZD employees if they have access to this telephone ...
A results page for the search term telephone
Court Unit Telephone Location COURT UNIT Main Telephone TELEPHONE ...
2d › Volume 234 › Gautier v. General Telephone Co. Gautier v. General Telephone Co.. Annotate this Case ... telephone was disconnected; that plaintiffs were subscribers of defendant telephone company, and that they demanded service and ... 8] In Count III it is alleged that defendant "negligently" failed to transmit certain telephone calls to plaintiffs. [234 Cal. ... HOWARD P. GAUTIER et al., Plaintiffs and Appellants, v. GENERAL TELEPHONE COMPANY, Defendant and Respondent. ...
Philmore GC Electronics 30-9545 25 Foot 4 Conductor RJ11 Male to Spade Lug Telephone Cord. $4.95 ... Philmore Philmore TEC10S, WHITE 7 Foot 4 Conductor RJ11 Male to Male Telephone Cord. $1.99 ... Philmore Philmore TEC10, WHITE 25 Foot 4 Conductor RJ11 Male to Male Telephone Cord. $3.69 ... Philmore Philmore TEC20M, IVORY 14 Foot 4 Conductor RJ11 Male to Male Telephone Cord. $2.95 ...
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Is that the telephone ringing?... Hello?... Oh snap its Charles Bradley! Oooh, and hes doing his LOVE THING. If Soul is your ... Is that the telephone ringing?… Hello?… Oh snap its Charles Bradley! Oooh, and hes doing his LOVE THING. If Soul is your Goal ... Youre viewing: Telephone Song b/w Tired Of Fighting 13,00 €. VAT included ...
Home › News › THE TELEPHONE MAN ANTHOLOGY AVAILABLE FOR PRE-ORDER News THE TELEPHONE MAN ANTHOLOGY AVAILABLE FOR PRE-ORDER. ...
Florida Enacts Significant Amendment to Telephone Solicitation Act. *Eleventh Circuit Vacates TCPA Class Settlement for Lack of ... United States Supreme Court Weighs in on Definition of Automatic Telephone Dialing System in TCPA ...
  • Telephone hotlines and smartphone applications have been made readily accessible throughout Saudi Arabia for people living with NCDs. (who.int)
  • Most telephones also contain an alerting feature, such as a ringer or a visual indicator, to announce an incoming telephone call. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nasaruddin NH binti, Ganapathy SS, Awaluddin SM, Anuar MFM, Nazirah binti Alias, Mang CY, Wan-Fei K. Conducting verbal autopsy by telephone interview during the pandemic to support mortality surveillance: a feasibility study in Malaysia: Verbal autopsy telephone interview. (who.int)
  • Before Bell's patent, the telephone transmitted sound in a way that was similar to the telegraph. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alexander Graham Bell was the first to be awarded a patent for the electric telephone by the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) in March 1876. (wikipedia.org)
  • Telephone inventor Alexander Graham Bell suggested a different greeting for use on his creation: "Ahoy. (mentalfloss.com)
  • The telephone had been patented by Alexander Graham Bell (the contributions of other scientists notwithstanding) in 1876 and spread to the rest of the world, Sweden included, soon thereafter. (lu.se)
  • Convergence in communication services has provided a broad spectrum of capabilities in cell phones, including mobile computing, giving rise to the smartphone, the dominant type of telephone in the world today. (wikipedia.org)
  • Telephone calls are initiated most commonly with a keypad or dial, affixed to the telephone, to enter a telephone number, which is the address of the call recipient's telephone in the telecommunication system, but other methods existed in the early history of the telephone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Telephoning in English is for professionals and trainees in business, commerce and administration who need to be able to receive and make telephone calls. (cambridge.org)
  • A worrying practice in the early 20th century saw folks placing calls and then leaving their telephones to go about their other business, often making a family member or servant tell the person on the other line to wait for the lengthy process of completing the call. (mentalfloss.com)
  • [5] This can be helpful if a person calls but is unable to speak or if the telephone connection line disconnected before the call was ended intentionally. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phone Call Logger if powerful program for recording phone calls via modem PCL is software meant for telephone call logging and recording. (winsite.com)
  • The Calls is intended for relief of the lives of the commercial agents, managers of all types, in general, for any, who regularly needs to make a great number of telephone calls.Main features:keeping to information on made telephone calls (the phone. (winsite.com)
  • This study aims to investigate the feasibility and acceptability of conducting VA interviews via telephone calls, and the quality of the data gathered. (who.int)
  • At this meeting, the otherwise technologically progressive Professor of Botany Fredrik Areschoug declared that he was not in need of a telephone, whereas Professor of Astronomy Axel Möller immediately jumped at the opportunity to make calls to and from the University's observatory. (lu.se)
  • The Royal Telegraph Board was ready to give the University a good deal though - calls, maintenance and the telephones themselves were to be free, as long as the University was ready to pay the connection fee. (lu.se)
  • To analyze the evidence of content validity of telephone messages regarding preventive measures against COVID-19. (bvsalud.org)
  • The telephone messages were developed and showedadequate evidence of content validity. (bvsalud.org)
  • The essential elements of a telephone are a microphone (transmitter) to speak into and an earphone (receiver) which reproduces the voice at a distant location. (wikipedia.org)
  • A sound source such as a microphone, public address system, or home TV or telephone transmits amplified sound through the loop. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A telephone converts sound, typically and most efficiently the human voice, into electronic signals that are transmitted via cables and other communication channels to another telephone which reproduces the sound to the receiving user. (wikipedia.org)
  • The VRS is a multiple channel voice recording application typically used for telephone line recording , radio station logging or control room recording . (winsite.com)
  • Telephone link between Trincomalee District and other parts of the country has been cut off since Saturday morning around 9.a.m due to damage caused to underground cable lines, Sri Lanka Telecom sources in Tincomalee told TamilNet. (tamilnet.com)
  • However, police may also access private communications, such as telephone conversations. (findlaw.com)
  • All telephone conversations will be monitored and recorded after you install the program . (winsite.com)
  • An emergency telephone number is a telephone number that can be used to quickly contact emergency services for assistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many countries' public telephone networks have a single emergency telephone number, sometimes known as the universal emergency telephone number or the emergency services number . (wikipedia.org)
  • In Europe, the telephone number for emergency services is 1-1-2 . (wikipedia.org)
  • At the next board meeting on 22 December 1886, the departments of physics and pathology - headed by Professor Albert Holmgren and Professor Maximilian Victor Odenius, respectively - had jumped on the telephone bandwagon. (lu.se)
  • and as a small bonus Professor Lindgren had managed to add a request for a telephone connection between the Department of Anatomy and his private home! (lu.se)
  • Royal assent was however, perhaps not surprisingly, withheld from Professor Lindgren's request for a free telephone between his home and place of work. (lu.se)
  • Please Note: This unit will NOT work for cordless telephones. (maxiaids.com)
  • The aim of this paper is to discuss methodological characteristics of qualitative studies conducted by Telephone Interviews (ET). (bvsalud.org)
  • These questions on dietary intakes and dietary supplement uses are asked to participants after their visits to the mobile examination center through telephone interviews. (cdc.gov)
  • They conducted VA interviews via telephone and provided feedback through a customized online form. (who.int)
  • Data collected from the form were used to assess the feasibility, acceptability and quality of the telephone interviews using IBM SPSS version 23. (who.int)
  • This study provides preliminary evidence that VA via telephone interview is feasible, acceptable and can be used as an alternative to face-to-face interviews without affecting data quality. (who.int)
  • During times when face-to-face interviews are not advisable, VA telephone interviews can be used for data collection for mortality surveillance. (who.int)
  • [4] When the number is dialed on the phone keypad, the call is routed to the nearest emergency telephone operating center. (wikipedia.org)
  • An early 20th century phone guide for women advised them to handle all quarrels by telephone. (mentalfloss.com)
  • 10. Say your telephone number when you answer the phone. (mentalfloss.com)
  • Establishments primarily engaged in furnishing telephone voice and data communications, except radiotelephone and telephone answering services. (osha.gov)
  • Establishments primarily engaged in furnishing radiotelephone communications are classified in Industry 4812, and those furnishing telephone answering services are classified in Services, Industry 7389. (osha.gov)
  • IVE users receive a host of cool features and unique services.IVE makes video and voice calling from you PC as easy as placing a telephone call - but with the added power of face-to-face communications. (winsite.com)
  • IVM Telephone Answering Attendant is a telephone answering machine, voice mail, call attendant and interactive voice response (ivr) program for your PC. (snapfiles.com)
  • Low Cost and More cost effective than a telephone call - Instant and fast than e-mail - Very secure and private - Co-ordinate events and meetings for corporate, clubs and business - Send messages to customers, friends, family, work colleagues, etc. (winsite.com)
  • Slightly less than a hundred years before ABBA rhetorically asked "why don't you give me a call", and just about seventy years after the real battle of Waterloo, the question of telephone connections wasn't just an issue for pop groups (to the extent that such things existed during the late nineteenth century) but also for Lund University. (lu.se)
  • This industry also includes establishments primarily engaged in leasing telephone lines or other methods of telephone transmission, such as optical fiber lines and microwave or satellite facilities, and reselling the use of such methods to others. (osha.gov)
  • Preliminary results from the July-December 2018 National Health Interview Survey indicate that the number of American homes with only wireless telephones continues to grow. (cdc.gov)
  • Wiretapping involves a secret connection to a telephone line. (findlaw.com)
  • 3) WAVe files playback via telephone line. (winsite.com)
  • Playing audio messages into the telephone line. (winsite.com)
  • He was enthusiastically backed up by the librarian, Elof Tegnér, who declared that the University Library was ready to pay for their own telephone connection. (lu.se)
  • The board, apparently sensing a breath of fresh telephonic air, decided to put the question to all departments of the University, asking them if they were interested in joining in on the request for a telephone connection. (lu.se)
  • One of them is already doing 'Customer Service' apprenticship but their telephone skills don't seem to be improving (and they have almost completed! (trainingzone.co.uk)
  • What sort of telephone skills? (trainingzone.co.uk)
  • What sort of telephone skills are you looking for for your employees? (trainingzone.co.uk)
  • Sorry for being a bit long winded, but they need telephone skills that cover a multitude of situations. (trainingzone.co.uk)
  • If it isn't I'd get in touch with the college to find out what they do cover in terms of telephone skills. (trainingzone.co.uk)
  • Telephoning in English develops and consolidates practical telephone skills in a variety of interesting and relevant contexts. (cambridge.org)
  • Bell found that this method produced a sound through intermittent currents, but in order for the telephone to work a fluctuating current reproduced sounds the best. (wikipedia.org)
  • These exchanges were soon connected together, eventually forming an automated, worldwide public switched telephone network. (wikipedia.org)
  • Before the development of the electric telephone, the term telephone was applied to other inventions, and not all early researchers of the electrical device used the term. (wikipedia.org)
  • This article related to telephone numbers is a stub . (wikipedia.org)
  • Telephones permit transmission in both directions simultaneously. (wikipedia.org)
  • In an effort to encourage people to speak more clearly into their telephones, one California service had to remind male users to keep their mustaches out of the mouthpiece's opening. (mentalfloss.com)
  • A telephone is a telecommunications device that permits two or more users to conduct a conversation when they are too far apart to be easily heard directly. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term telephone was adopted into the vocabulary of many languages. (wikipedia.org)
  • Telephone messages regarding preventive measures against COVID-19. (bvsalud.org)
  • The younger you are, the less likely that you played a parlor game called Telephone, as iPods, gaming devices, PCs, and other technologies crowd out attention spans, and finger control becomes more important than a well-chosen phrase, or a decent memory. (capitolhillblue.com)
  • UK customer support telephone number? (avast.com)