The upper part of the tooth, which joins the lower part of the tooth (TOOTH ROOT) at the cervix (TOOTH CERVIX) at a line called the cementoenamel junction. The entire surface of the crown is covered with enamel which is thicker at the extremity and becomes progressively thinner toward the cervix. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p216)
The part of a tooth from the neck to the apex, embedded in the alveolar process and covered with cementum. A root may be single or divided into several branches, usually identified by their relative position, e.g., lingual root or buccal root. Single-rooted teeth include mandibular first and second premolars and the maxillary second premolar teeth. The maxillary first premolar has two roots in most cases. Maxillary molars have three roots. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p690)
The most posterior teeth on either side of the jaw, totaling eight in the deciduous dentition (2 on each side, upper and lower), and usually 12 in the permanent dentition (three on each side, upper and lower). They are grinding teeth, having large crowns and broad chewing surfaces. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p821)
A hard thin translucent layer of calcified substance which envelops and protects the dentin of the crown of the tooth. It is the hardest substance in the body and is almost entirely composed of calcium salts. Under the microscope, it is composed of thin rods (enamel prisms) held together by cementing substance, and surrounded by an enamel sheath. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p286)
Resorption of calcified dental tissue, involving demineralization due to reversal of the cation exchange and lacunar resorption by osteoclasts. There are two types: external (as a result of tooth pathology) and internal (apparently initiated by a peculiar inflammatory hyperplasia of the pulp). (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p676)
Root Canal Therapy
Dental Restoration, Permanent
Tooth Preparation, Prosthodontic
The selected form given to a natural tooth when it is reduced by instrumentation to receive a prosthesis (e.g., artificial crown or a retainer for a fixed or removable prosthesis). The selection of the form is guided by clinical circumstances and physical properties of the materials that make up the prosthesis. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p239)
Age Determination by Teeth
Cylindrical epithelial cells in the innermost layer of the ENAMEL ORGAN. Their functions include contribution to the development of the dentinoenamel junction by the deposition of a layer of the matrix, thus producing the foundation for the prisms (the structural units of the DENTAL ENAMEL), and production of the matrix for the enamel prisms and interprismatic substance. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
Dental Pulp Cavity
Dental Pulp Necrosis
Dental Stress Analysis
Dental Cavity Preparation
An operation in which carious material is removed from teeth and biomechanically correct forms are established in the teeth to receive and retain restorations. A constant requirement is provision for prevention of failure of the restoration through recurrence of decay or inadequate resistance to applied stresses. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p239-40)
The relationship of all the components of the masticatory system in normal function. It has special reference to the position and contact of the maxillary and mandibular teeth for the highest efficiency during the excursive movements of the jaw that are essential for mastication. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p556, p472)
Dental Enamel Hypoplasia
An acquired or hereditary condition due to deficiency in the formation of tooth enamel (AMELOGENESIS). It is usually characterized by defective, thin, or malformed DENTAL ENAMEL. Risk factors for enamel hypoplasia include gene mutations, nutritional deficiencies, diseases, and environmental factors.
Epithelial cells surrounding the dental papilla and differentiated into three layers: the inner enamel epithelium, consisting of ameloblasts which eventually form the enamel, and the enamel pulp and external enamel epithelium, both of which atrophy and disappear before and upon eruption of the tooth, respectively.
Post and Core Technique
Molecular Sequence Data
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Dental Restoration Failure
Root Canal Filling Materials
Dental cements composed either of polymethyl methacrylate or dimethacrylate, produced by mixing an acrylic monomer liquid with acrylic polymers and mineral fillers. The cement is insoluble in water and is thus resistant to fluids in the mouth, but is also irritating to the dental pulp. It is used chiefly as a luting agent for fabricated and temporary restorations. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p159)
Mesial Movement of Teeth
Root Canal Preparation
Preparatory activities in ROOT CANAL THERAPY by partial or complete extirpation of diseased pulp, cleaning and sterilization of the empty canal, enlarging and shaping the canal to receive the sealing material. The cavity may be prepared by mechanical, sonic, chemical, or other means. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1700)
Denture, Partial, Removable
An artificial replacement for one or more natural teeth or part of a tooth, or associated structures, ranging from a portion of a tooth to a complete denture. The dental prosthesis is used for cosmetic or functional reasons, or both. DENTURES and specific types of dentures are also available. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p244 & Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p643)
MSX1 Transcription Factor
Root Canal Obturation
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Dense fibrous layer formed from mesodermal tissue that surrounds the epithelial enamel organ. The cells eventually migrate to the external surface of the newly formed root dentin and give rise to the cementoblasts that deposit cementum on the developing root, fibroblasts of the developing periodontal ligament, and osteoblasts of the developing alveolar bone.
Denture, Partial, Fixed
Dental Prosthesis Design
Small metal or ceramic attachments used to fasten an arch wire. These attachments are soldered or welded to an orthodontic band or cemented directly onto the teeth. Bowles brackets, edgewise brackets, multiphase brackets, ribbon arch brackets, twin-wire brackets, and universal brackets are all types of orthodontic brackets.
Glass Ionomer Cements
Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental
Acid Etching, Dental
Amino Acid Sequence
An order of wholly aquatic MAMMALS occurring in all the OCEANS and adjoining seas of the world, as well as in certain river systems. They feed generally on FISHES, cephalopods, and crustaceans. Most are gregarious and most have a relatively long period of parental care and maturation. Included are DOLPHINS; PORPOISES; and WHALES. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, pp969-70)
Pit and Fissure Sealants
The formation of dentin. Dentin first appears in the layer between the ameloblasts and odontoblasts and becomes calcified immediately. Formation progresses from the tip of the papilla over its slope to form a calcified cap becoming thicker by the apposition of new layers pulpward. A layer of uncalcified dentin intervenes between the calcified tissue and the odontoblast and its processes. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
Orthodontic Appliance Design
A type of porcelain used in dental restorations, either jacket crowns or inlays, artificial teeth, or metal-ceramic crowns. It is essentially a mixture of particles of feldspar and quartz, the feldspar melting first and providing a glass matrix for the quartz. Dental porcelain is produced by mixing ceramic powder (a mixture of quartz, kaolin, pigments, opacifiers, a suitable flux, and other substances) with distilled water. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
Alveolar Bone Loss
Radiography, Dental, Digital
A rapid, low-dose, digital imaging system using a small intraoral sensor instead of radiographic film, an intensifying screen, and a charge-coupled device. It presents the possibility of reduced patient exposure and minimal distortion, although resolution and latitude are inferior to standard dental radiography. A receiver is placed in the mouth, routing signals to a computer which images the signals on a screen or in print. It includes digitizing from x-ray film or any other detector. (From MEDLINE abstracts; personal communication from Dr. Charles Berthold, NIDR)
Denture, Partial, Fixed, Resin-Bonded
A commonly used prosthesis that results in a strong, permanent restoration. It consists of an electrolytically etched cast-metal retainer that is cemented (bonded), using resins, to adjacent teeth whose enamel was previously acid-treated (acid-etched). This type of bridgework is sometimes referred to as a Maryland bridge.
Microscopy, Electron, Scanning
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
Dental Restoration, Temporary
Dental Marginal Adaptation
In Situ Hybridization
A chronic endemic form of hypoplasia of the dental enamel caused by drinking water with a high fluorine content during the time of tooth formation, and characterized by defective calcification that gives a white chalky appearance to the enamel, which gradually undergoes brown discoloration. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p286)
A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)
Inflammation and loss of connective tissues supporting or surrounding the teeth. This may involve any part of the PERIODONTIUM. Periodontitis is currently classified by disease progression (CHRONIC PERIODONTITIS; AGGRESSIVE PERIODONTITIS) instead of age of onset. (From 1999 International Workshop for a Classification of Periodontal Diseases and Conditions, American Academy of Periodontology)
Bisphenol A-Glycidyl Methacrylate
Dental Caries Activity Tests
Periodontal Attachment Loss
Loss or destruction of periodontal tissue caused by periodontitis or other destructive periodontal diseases or by injury during instrumentation. Attachment refers to the periodontal ligament which attaches to the alveolar bone. It has been hypothesized that treatment of the underlying periodontal disease and the seeding of periodontal ligament cells enable the creating of new attachment.
Dental Pulp Exposure
Analysis of Variance
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Egg teeth. Hatching birds, amphibian and egg-laying reptiles have an egg-tooth used to start an exit hole in the hard ... Mammal eggs. Monotremes, egg-laying mammals, lay soft-shelled eggs similar to those of reptiles. The shell is deposited ...
For marine mammal by-catch, field experiments have shown that the use of pingers on nets resulted in significantly lower ... Tangled - held by teeth, spines, maxillaries, or other protrusions without the body penetrating the mesh. Most often fish are ... However, the issue of concern with this type of net is the bycatch of species that are not targeted, such as marine mammals, ... The tangle net, or tooth net, originated in British Columbia, Canada, as a gear specifically developed for selective fisheries ...
Tiny teeth and their enigmatic owners". Retrieved May 4, 2008. Trevor Dykes. "Gypsonictopidae". Mesozoic Mammals. Archived from ... The name of the species refers to its hypocone, the lower cusp of the molar teeth. Described by J. A. Lillegraven in 1969. It ... Like other mammals prehistorics Upper Cretaceous in North America, Gypsonictops had a particular teething, with five premolars ... Species in this genus were small mammals and the first representatives of the order Leptictida, that appeared during the Upper ...
Jehle, Martin (2007). "Insectivore-like mammals: Tiny teeth and their enigmatic owners". Paleocene Mammals. Martin Jehle. ... The molariform premolar teeth are a characteristic of the genus Leptictidium as a whole which is very marked in the P4 ... Its premolar and molar teeth were quite small in comparison to the dentition as a whole. The name of the species refers to the ... It is known mainly from isolated teeth. It has a P4 with a much reduced paraconid, as well as very distinct entoconids and ...
ISBN 0-231-11640-3. Jehle, Martin (December 8, 2005). "Insectivore-like mammals: Tiny teeth and their enigmatic owners". ... making them relatively large early mammals. They had moderately strong canines and multi-cusped cutting teeth supported by the ... non-placental eutherian mammals that took part in the first placental evolutionary radiation together with other early mammals ... These late Asian forms are thought to be one of the few examples of European mammals dispersing into Asia during the Grande ...
Journal of Mammal Evolution. 22:1-16. Butler, P.M. 1997. An Alternative Hypothesis on the Origin of Docodont Molar Teeth. ... which has the same stratigraphic horizon from a tooth of the Late Triassic Morganucodontid mammal Gonwanadon Tapani was ... The tooth also has a strong and wide lingual and buccal cingula. There are wear facets on the molar to suggest occlusion with ... The tooth is supported by three large roots unlike in Woutersia, which only has two large roots. The smallest root supports the ...
Ungar, P.S. (2010). Mammal Teeth: Origin, Evolution, and Diversity. Baltimore, US: Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 145-6. ... Three-toed sloths have no incisor or canine teeth, just a set of peg-shaped cheek teeth that are not clearly divided into ... and lack homology with those teeth in other mammals, thus are referred to as molariforms. The molariform dentition in three- ... All other mammals have seven cervical vertebrae, other than the two-toed sloth and the manatee, which have only six. Gardner, A ...
During the second phase, the digits develop, and in the last phase, the egg tooth appears. Most mammal zygotes go through ... Ungar, Peter S. (2010). "Monotremata and Marsupialia". Mammal Teeth: Origin, Evolution, and Diversity. The Johns Hopkins ... Similar spurs are found on many archaic mammal groups, indicating that this is an ancient characteristic for mammals as a whole ... while the other teeth have two main cusps. The platypus jaw is constructed differently from that of other mammals, and the jaw- ...
Ungar, P.S. (2010). Mammal Teeth: Origin, Evolution, and Diversity. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 304. ISBN 978 ... Dermotherium is a genus of fossil mammals closely related to the living colugos, a small group of gliding mammals from ... shape of the anterior teeth is a shared characteristic of the colugos and highly unusual among mammals. Dermotherium chimaera ... of cusps at the back of a tribosphenic tooth). There are six cusps on the narrow anterior part of the tooth, and the fifth ( ...
Her earlier publications examine mammal teeth. For example, ungulate teeth changed from low crowned teeth to high crowned ... Janis, C.M. (1988). An estimation of tooth volume and hypsodonty indices in ungulate mammals, and the correlation of these ... 2: Small Mammals, Edentates, and Marine Mammals and Vertebrate Life. Society of Vertebrate Paleontology (USA) The ... She created the Hipsodonty Index, broadly used in mammal paleontology. Her work on the evolution of horns in ungulates won her ...
Ungar, Peter (2010). Mammal Teeth: Origin, Evolution, and Diversity. Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN ... However, the remaining teeth of H. floresiensis show similarities to the bigger tooth sizes of the earlier genera ... While the form of the teeth themselves is not affected by post-canine megadontia, the ratio of molar teeth volume to total ... with average post-canine tooth area ranging from approximately 460mm2 and going all the way up to the largest tooth area, ...
Pygmy three-toed sloth
ISBN 978-0-19-534322-9. Ungar, P.S. (2010). Mammal Teeth: Origin, Evolution, and Diversity. Baltimore, US: Johns Hopkins ... The dental formula of three-toed sloths is: 54-5 Two of the teeth in each jaw are incisor-like, although those in the upper jaw ... Gardner, A.L. (2005). "Order Pilosa". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and ... Reid, F.A. (2009). A Field Guide to the Mammals of Central America & Southeast Mexico (2nd ed.). Oxford, UK: Oxford University ...
Ungar, Peter (2010). Mammal Teeth: Origin, Evolution and Diversity. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 77. Goodrich ... later gnathostome teeth. In this sense, Loganellia may possess the earliest known dental structures related to modern teeth, ...
doi:10.1007/s10914-016-9363-8. Ungar, P. (2010). Mammal Teeth: Origin, Evolution, and Diversity. JHU Press. p. 166. ISBN ...
List of commonly used taxonomic affixes
Examples: Dimetrodon ("two-measures of teeth"), cynodont ("dog tooth") Carcharodontosaurus ("serrated tooth lizard") -oides, - ... Used for therian mammals. Examples: Sinodelphys ("Chinese womb"); Didelphis ("two wombs"); Didelphodon ("two-womb [ie opossum] ... Used for animals with sabre teeth. Examples: Smilodon ("knife tooth"); Smilosuchus ("knife crocodile"); Thylacosmilus ("pouched ... "jagged tooth"), Carcharocles ("glorious shark"), Carcharodontosaurus ("serrated tooth lizard") -cephalus, cephalo-, -cephale, - ...
Though not superficially similar, the triconodont teeth of some early mammals such as eutriconodonts are thought to have had a ... A recent study concludes that these teeth produced the strongest bite of any land mammal in history. Moreover, these carnassial ... These teeth are also referred to as sectorial teeth. The name carnivoran is applied to a member of the order Carnivora. ... Modern carnivorous bats generally lack true carnassial teeth, but the extinct Necromantis had particularly convergent teeth, in ...
In some species, exposed areas of the teeth are dark red due to the presence of iron in the tooth enamel. The iron reinforces ... Shrews are unusual among mammals in a number of respects. Unlike most mammals, some species of shrews are venomous. Shrew venom ... Shrews have sharp, spike-like teeth, not the familiar gnawing front incisor teeth of rodents. Shrews are distributed almost ... a problem made more extreme because they lose their milk teeth before birth, so have only one set of teeth throughout their ...
... of the distinctively shaped teeth. Its teeth indicate that the animal was an omnivore, well-adapted to gnawing both plants and ... The mammal is estimated to have weighed between 65-80 g, about that of an average chipmunk. The generic name Rugosodon (Latin ... Its ankle joints were highly mobile at rotation, a characteristic of mammals living in trees. This means that the ankle is ... The features of Rugosodon also suggest that the animal initiated tree-dwelling habits among mammals. Yuan CX, Ji Q, Meng QJ, ...
List of fossil species in the London Clay
... including shark and ray teeth), reptiles (particularly turtles), and a large diversity of birds. A few mammal remains have also ... Of fish, isolated teeth are very frequent. Bird bones are not infrequently encountered compared to other lagerstätten, but ... pseudo-tooth birds Eocolius - a coliiform Eostrix - an owl Gastornis - from the Isle of Grain, a very large flightless ...
Navy Captain David Porter exposed both the market and the source of the whale teeth, causing a surplus of whale teeth that ... It is prohibited after that year for commercial import in the U.S. under the Marine Mammal Protection Act. Additionally, walrus ... Whale teeth and bones were a highly variable medium, used to produce both practical pieces, such as hand tools, toys and ... It is most commonly made out of the bones and teeth of sperm whales, the baleen of other whales, and the tusks of walruses. It ...
... is a genus of extinct mammal from Portugal. It is a member of the also extinct order of Multituberculata, and ... It is known from isolated fossil teeth. Initially considered Early Cretaceous, Pinheirodon is from the locality of Porto ... Kielan-Jaworowska Z. and Hurum J.H. (2001), "Phylogeny and Systematics of multituberculate mammals". Paleontology 44, p. 389- ... MESOZOIC MAMMALS: Basal Multituberculata, an Internet directory. ...
This mammal sported large canine teeth, probably for defense. However its molars were adapted for chewing plants, not flesh. ... Kopidodon is a genus of extinct squirrel-like mammals belonging to the order Cimolesta. Kopidodon was one of the largest tree- ... dwelling mammals known from Eocene Europe: growing 115 centimeters long (most of that length is tail). ...
In the last phase, the egg tooth appears. The only other egg-laying mammal is the echidna. New science research has been found ... Incubation periods for birds Very few mammals lay eggs. In perhaps the best known example, the platypus, the eggs develop in ... The structure of this shell contains a protein known as osteopontin which is also found in tooth and bone. What researchers ...
The simurgh is inherently benevolent and unambiguously female. Being part mammal, she suckles her young.[ ... citation needed] The simurgh has teeth. It has an enmity towards snakes, and its natural habitat is a place ...
... ('hyrax tooth') is an extinct genus of mammal. It was a lightly built, pony-like mammal of about 1.5 m (5 ft) long. ... This small, fast-running creature was a close relative of the largest land mammal that ever lived, the 20-ton Paraceratherium. ... McKenna, M. C; Bell, S. K. (1997). Classification of Mammals above the Species Level. Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231- ...
Stokstad, E. (2001). "Tooth theory revises history of mammals". Science. 291 (5501): 26. doi:10.1126/science.10.1126/SCIENCE. ... It was a large mammal for the Mesozoic, being 40-50 centimetres (16-20 in) long. The lower molars are 5-7 millimetres (0.20- ... Steropodon galmani is a prehistoric species of monotreme, or egg-laying mammal, that lived about 105 million years ago (mya) in ... It is one of the oldest monotremes discovered, and is one of the oldest Australian mammal discoveries. The dentition of ...
... but unlike other early mammals they developed a more complex tooth shape, allowing them to pierce and crush food. This tooth ... The teeth of the Jurassic mammals. In Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, 109:329-356). Oxford, UK: Blackwell ... A new docodont mammal from the Jurassic Kota Formation of India. Palaeontologia electronica, 10.2: 1-11. Waldman, M and Savage ... They are distinguished from other early mammaliaforms by their relatively complex molar teeth, from which the order gets its ...
The teeth of the Jurassic mammals. In Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, 109:329-356). Oxford, UK: Blackwell ... It is only known from isolated molar teeth found in the mammal bed at Kirtlington cement quarry in Oxfordshire, England (Forest ... However, in 2003, the genus was resurrected and a new species, P. major, was described based on new teeth found at Kirtington ... It remains uncertain whether one or both of these species of Peraiocynodon may be the milk teeth of another genus of docodontan ...
The Corpus mandibulae is the part of the jaw below the tooth row. P3-4 are upper premolars, whilst M1 is an upper molar tooth ... Guimarotodon is an extinct mammal of the Upper Jurassic. It was a relatively early member of the also extinct order of ... Much of this information has been derived from  MESOZOIC MAMMALS; Basal Multituberculata, an internet directory.. ... Kielan-Jaworowska Z & Hurum JH (2001), "Phylogeny and Systematics of multituberculate mammals". Paleontology 44, p. 389-429. ...
"A Jurassic mammal from South America". Nature 416: 165-168. v t e v t e. ... "Mandible and dentition of Asfaltomylos patagonicus (Australosphenida, Mammalia) and the evolution of tribosphenic teeth". ... "New Jurassic Mammals from Patagonia, Argentina: A Reappraisal of Australosphenidan Morphology and Interrelationships". American ... Asfaltomylos is an extinct genus of the primitive mammal subclass Australosphenida from the middle Jurassic of Argentina. The ...
... larger mammals, such as bears, become polyphagic to increase fat stores, whereas smaller mammals prefer to collect and stash ... triangular carnassial teeth meant for grinding food. Hypercarnivores, however, have conical teeth and sharp carnassials meant ... Carnivorous mammals have a simple digestive tract because the proteins, lipids and minerals found in meat require little in the ... "How Do Birds Eat If They Have No Teeth? , Blog , eNature". wild.enature.com. Archived from the original on 14 April 2016. ...
"In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins ... The teeth usually erupt in the autumn of the deer's first year at approximately 6-7 months of age. By early spring the recently ... "European Mammals - Non native and Introduced Species". Hows.org.uk. Retrieved 2018-06-04.. ... The water deer have developed long canine teeth which protrude from the upper jaw like the canines of musk deer. The canines ...
A few basal mammal groups endured into this epoch in southern landmasses, including the south american dryolestoid Necrolestes ... The coevolution of gritty, fibrous, fire-tolerant grasses and long-legged gregarious ungulates with high-crowned teeth, led to ... Mammals and birds were well-established. Whales, pinnipeds, and kelp spread.. The Miocene is of particular interest to ... The expansion of silica-rich C4 grasses led to worldwide extinctions of herbivorous species without high-crowned teeth. ...
Estes, R. D. (1993). The Safari Companion : A Guide to Watching African Mammals, Including Hoofed Mammals, Carnivores and ... at Spioenkop Dam Nature Reserve in South Africa revealed that many had disadvantageous abnormalities relating to their teeth, ... Estes, R. D. (2004). The Behavior Guide to African Mammals : Including Hoofed Mammals, Carnivores, Primates (4. [Dr.]. ed.). ... Estes, R. D. (2004). The Behavior Guide to African Mammals: Including Hoofed Mammals, Carnivores, Primates (4. [Dr.]. ed.). ...
To accommodate their enormous cheek teeth (four times the size of modern human teeth), P. boisei had a wide face, although ... Mammals described in 1959. *Fossil taxa described in 1959. *Pleistocene mammals of Africa ... The molar teeth were very large, with an area over twice that of modern humans. The species is sometimes referred to as " ... "Nutcracker Man" because it had the biggest, flattest cheek teeth and the thickest enamel of any known hominin. P. boisei had ...
... but it has now been shown that minute teeth at the tip of the salivary papilla are involved, and an enzyme in the toxic saliva ... Having independently evolved mammal-like intelligence, octopuses have been compared to hypothetical intelligent ...
The teeth of Herrerasaurus indicate that it was a carnivore; its size indicates it would have preyed upon small and medium- ... Sereno, P.C.; Novas, F.E.; Arcucci, A.B.; C. Yu (1988). "New evidence on dinosaur and mammal origins from the Ischigualasto ... The jaws were equipped with large serrated teeth for biting and eating flesh, and the neck was slender and flexible. ...
Apparato digestive, le encyclopedia libere
Salivary glands, lips, teeth, tongue, epiglottis, thyroid, and parathyroids. Food does not go through these organs. But they ... Animals like worms, insects, mammals, birds, fish, and people all have digestive systems. ...
various features of jaws and teeth. Evolutionary history. Eutheria contains several extinct genera as well as larger ... "Mammal madness: is the mammal tree of life not yet resolved?". Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B. 371 (1699): 20150140. doi:10.1098/rstb. ... Rose, Kenneth D. (2006). The beginning of the age of mammals. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 9780801892219. . ... Luo, Z.; C. Yuan; Q. Meng; Q. Ji (2011). "A Jurassic eutherian mammal and divergence of marsupials and placentals". Nature. 476 ...
"Mammal Species of the World : Lupus". Bucknell University. 2013. Retrieved 14 August 2013.. ... Dingoes are distinguishable from domestic dogs through DNA and through having longer teeth and longer muzzles. ... Robert Armitage Sterndale mentioned experimental golden jackal/dog hybrids from British India in his Natural History of Mammals ... and sharper teeth because it inherited more traits from the wolf parent. ...
African pygmy squirrel
The New Encyclopedia of Mammals. Oxford University Press, Oxford, New York. Nowak, R.M. (ed.) 1999. Walkers Mammals of the ... These pygmy squirrels have longer hind limbs than forelimbs, an arched profile skull, rooted cheek teeth, and ever growing ... Kingdon, J. (1997). The Kingdon Guide to African Mammals. Academic Press Limited, London. ISBN 0-12-408355-2. .. ...
Few studies have found evidence of regular incest avoidance in mammals but banded mongooses are an exception. ... where their cranial bone length in the lower mandibular tooth row has changed. Having a high homozygosity rate is problematic ... many mammal species, including humanity's closest primate relatives, avoid close inbreeding possibly due to the deleterious ... "Evidence for frequent incest in a cooperatively breeding mammal". Biology Letters. 10 (12): 20140898. doi:10.1098/rsbl. ...
Unlike human teeth, which are composed mostly of enamel on the portion of the tooth outside of the gum, whale teeth have ... "Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals. ISBN 978-0-12-373553-9.. *. Whitehead, H. (2003). Sperm Whales: Social Evolution in the Ocean. ... UNEP Marine Mammal Technical Report. pp. 33-65. ASIN B00KX9I8Y8.. *. Skeat, Walter W. (1898). An Etymological Dictionary of the ... Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals (2nd ed.). San Diego: Academic Press. pp. 1005-1011. ISBN 978-0-08-091993-5.. ...
Herbivorous reptiles face the same problems of mastication as herbivorous mammals but, lacking the complex teeth of mammals, ... These are the "mammal-like amniotes", or stem-mammals, that later gave rise to the true mammals. Soon after, another group ... Mammals are a clade, and therefore the cladists are happy to acknowledge the traditional taxon Mammalia; and birds, too, are a ... These pits allow the snakes to sense the body heat of birds and mammals, enabling pit vipers to hunt rodents in the dark.[ ...
... s (from Latin incidere, "to cut") are the front teeth present in most mammals. They are located in the premaxilla above ... Children with a full set of deciduous teeth (primary teeth) also have eight incisors, named the same way as in permanent teeth ... Young children may have from zero to eight incisors depending on the stage of their tooth eruption and tooth development. ... Apart from the first molars, the incisors are also the first permanent teeth to erupt, following the same order as the primary ...
Field Museum of Natural History
Animal exhibitions and dioramas such as Nature Walk, Mammals of Asia, and Mammals of Africa that allow visitors an up-close ... Mammals of Asia Evolving Planet. *Evolving Planet follows the evolution of life on Earth over 4 billion years. The ... For example, Carl Akeley's development of taxidermy excellence produced the first natural-looking mammal and bird specimens for ... A shark tooth weapon from the Gilbert Islands. See also. *. Chicago portal ...
The infolding provides added strength to the young tooth, but offers little advantage when the tooth is mature. Such teeth are ... Class Mammalia - mammals *Subclass Prototheria - egg-laying mammals, including monotremes. *Subclass Allotheria - ... with labyrinthine teeth fitting in a pit-and-tooth arrangement on the palate. A major difference between early tetrapodomorph ... Tetrapods had a tooth structure known as "plicidentine" characterized by infolding of the enamel as seen in cross-section. The ...
In modern humans, lateralisation is weakly associated with language. The tooth rows of H. habilis were V-shaped as opposed ... Mammals described in 1964. *Fossil taxa described in 1964. *Prehistoric Tanzania. *Prehistoric Kenya ... The pattern of striations on the teeth of OH 65 slanting right, which may have been accidentally self-inflicted when the ... the enlarged cheek teeth would suggest marked size-related dimorphism and thus intense male-male conflict over mates and a ...
List of largest mammals
Teeth: Kubanochoerus gigas lii (GUAN). tesorosnaturales.es *^ a b c d e f g h i Wood, Gerald The Guinness Book of Animal Facts ... Monotreme mammals (Monotremata). The largest extant monotreme (egg-bearing mammal) is the western long-beaked echidna ( ... a b Stewart, et al., National Audubon Society Guide to Marine Mammals of the World. Knofp (2002), ISBN 978-0-375-41141-0 ... Heptner, V. G.; Naumov, N. P. (1998). Mammals of the Soviet Union Vol. II Part 1a, Sirenia and Carnivora (Sea cows; Wolves and ...
Hypoplasias on this part of the tooth do not show on the surface of the tooth. Because of this buried enamel, teeth record ... "Preservation of Isotopic Signals (13c, 15n) in Pleistocene Mammals." Biogeochemical Approaches to Paleodietary Analysis. Ed. ... Dental caries, commonly referred to as cavities or tooth decay, are caused by localized destruction of tooth enamel, as a ... Unlike bone, teeth are not remodeled, so they can provide a more reliable indicator of past health events as long as the enamel ...
It is not known whether lithium has a physiological role in any species, but nutritional studies in mammals have indicated ... of it contained in bones and teeth. Phosphorus makes up about 1% of a person's body weight. The other major minerals ( ... No evidence for biological action in mammals, but essential in some lower organisms.. (In the case of lanthanum, the definition ... used by mammals (including humans). By contrast, tungsten, lanthanum, and cadmium have specialized biochemical uses in certain ...
Pygmy ringtail possum
Groves, C. P. (2005). Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M. (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference ( ... teeth which help with "clipping forage from plants" and have "selenodont molars" that help with "shredding ingested foliage."[3 ...
Srinivasulu, C., Srinivasulu, B. (2012). Chapter 3: Checklist of South Asian Mammals in: South Asian Mammals: Their Diversity, ... Indian rhinoceros showing its sharp lower incisor teeth used for fighting. Indian rhinos forms a variety of social groupings. ... Jerdon, T. C. (1867). The Mammals of India: a Natural History of all the animals known to inhabit Continental India. Roorkee: ... "In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins ...
"The Mammal Society. n.d. Retrieved 23 May 2018.. *^ "Brown rat - Rattus norvegicus". Encyclopedia of Life. n.d. Retrieved 23 ... The most commonly heard in domestic rats is bruxing, or teeth-grinding, which is most usually triggered by happiness, but can ... Rats, like most mammals, also form family groups of a mother and her young. This applies to both groups of males and ... Naughton, Donna (2012). The Natural History of Canadian Mammals. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. pp. 204-206. ISBN 978- ...
This prehistoric mammal-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... Similar to Gondwanatherium, this genus had high-crowned teeth, which are very useful for eating grasses. Since there is no ... Sudamerica, literally "South America" in Spanish, is a genus of mammal from the extinct suborder Gondwanatheria that lived in ... 1997) "Classification of Mammals Above the Species Level". Columbia University Press. (ISBN 0-231-11012-X) ...
a b c d e f Merrit, J. (2010). The biology of small mammals. (pp. 89-93). Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins University Press. ... The teeth have a thickened enamel on the exterior, but lack the enamel on the inside creating a tough, chiseling tool. Both the ... so consumption of gums in early mammals or their precursors might be a cause for development of mammary glands in mammals along ... Fork-marked lemurs have more robust toothcombs than most other lemurs and use these specialized teeth to gouge the bark from ...
Manatee - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
When front teeth fall out, the back teeth move forward to take their place. In mammals, only elephants and (quite independently ... All its teeth are shaped like a human's molars. The eight hours of chewing each day wears down on their teeth. In fact, its ... first two pairs of teeth get so worn out that they simply fall out sometimes. However, manatees can grow new teeth. New teeth ... Manatees are large, fully-aquatic marine mammals of the order Sirenia. They are sometimes known as sea cows. The manatees form ...
Anatomical terms of location
Mouth and teeth. Main article: Dental terminology. Special terms are used to describe the mouth and teeth. Fields such ... Rajkumar, K.; Ramya, R. (2017). Textbook of Oral Anatomy, Physiology, Histology and Tooth Morphology. Wolters kluwer india Pvt ... This is because although teeth may be aligned with their main axes within the jaw, some different relationships require special ... terminology as well; for example, teeth also can be rotated, and in such contexts terms like "anterior" or "lateral" become ...
Evolution of Tertiary Mammals of North America. Volume 2: Small Mammals, Xenarthrans, and Marine Mammals. Cambridge, England; ... Sharp cusps on the teeth of some of the smaller adapiforms, such as Anchomomys and Donrussellia, indicate that they were either ... hoofed mammals). Infant care by the mother is relatively prolonged compared to many other mammals, and in some cases, the ... "In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns ...
Aquatic Mammals. 21.3: pg. 195-197 - via Aquatic Mammals Issue Archives.. *^ a b Hartman, K. L.; Visser, F.; Hendriks, A. J.E ... Risso's dolphins do not require cutting teeth to process their cephalopod prey, which has allowed the species to evolve teeth ... "In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins ... Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals (2nd ed.). Burlington Ma.: Academic Press. p. 975. ISBN 978-0-12-373553-9. Archived from the ...
Researchers in Chile unearth 74 million year old mammal teeth - Reuters
Chilean and Argentine researchers have unearthed teeth in far-flung Patagonia belonging to a mammal that lived 74 million years ... SANTIAGO (Reuters) - Chilean and Argentine researchers have unearthed teeth in far-flung Patagonia belonging to a mammal that ... "egg-laying mammals, like the platypus ... and marsupial mammals." ... The small mammal would have lived in southern Patagonia during the late Cretaceous era, alongside dinosaurs, crocodiles, ...
Mammal tooth - Wikipedia
Anatomy of rabbit teeth The incisors and cheek teeth of rabbits are called aradicular hypsodont teeth. Aradicular teeth never ... Mammal teeth include incisors, canines, premolars, and molars, not all of which are present in all mammals. Various ... All therapsid groups with the exception of the mammals are now extinct, but each of these groups possessed different tooth ... These teeth are used for cutting wood, biting through the skin of fruit, or for defense. The teeth have enamel on the outside ...
'Monstrous' new Russian saber-tooth fossils clarify early evolution of mammal lineage | EurekAlert! Science...
... understanding of an important interval in the early evolution of mammals -- a time, between mass extinctions, when the roles of ... Monstrous new Russian saber-tooth fossils clarify early evolution of mammal lineage. North Carolina Museum of Natural Sciences ... Monstrous new Russian saber-tooth fossils clarify early evolution of mammal lineage ... Living mammals are descended from a group of animals called therapsids, a diverse assemblage of "protomammals" that dominated ...
Uprooting our family tree - Ancient Australian teeth are upsetting cherished ideas about the evolution of mammals | New...
The fossils discoverers claim it is 115 million years old and comes from a shrew-like placental mammal. Yet nothing of the ... Uprooting our family tree - Ancient Australian teeth are upsetting cherished ideas about the evolution of mammals. ... placental mammal," says Alfred Crompton of Harvard University.. "Frankly, I think it is something new-not a monotreme, not a ... evolutionary history of mammals on Gondwana," agrees David Krause of the State. University of New York in Stony Brook. ...
CiNii Articles - Toward High Sensitivity ESR Dosimetry of Mammal Teeth : The Effect of Chemical Treatment
Cow teeth could be used as alternative to human teeth for retrospective dosimetry when human teeth are not available. It is ... Toward High Sensitivity ESR Dosimetry of Mammal Teeth : The Effect of Chemical Treatment * * Toyoda Shin TOYODA Shin ... Dose Estimation by ESR on Tooth Enamel from Two Workers Exposed to Radiation due to the JCO accident SHIRAISHI KUNIO , IWASAKI ... Estimation of accumulated dose of radiation by the method of ESR-spectrometry of dental enamel of mammals SEREZHENKOV V. A. ...
Carbon and oxygen stable isotope compositions of late Pleistocene mammal teeth from dolines of Ajoie (Northwestern Switzerland)...
Carbon and oxygen stable isotope compositions of late Pleistocene mammal teeth from dolines of Ajoie (Northwestern Switzerland ... Fricke, H.C., Clyde, W.C., and ONeil, J.R. Intra-tooth variations in δ18OPO4 of mammalian tooth enamel as a record of seasonal ... Carbon and oxygen analyses of enamel were performed on forty-six teeth of large mammals (Equus germanicus, Mammuthus ... Fricke, H.C., and ONeil, J.R. Inter- and intra-tooth variation in the oxygen isotope composition of mammalian tooth enamel ...
Ancient tiny teeth reveal first mammals lived more like reptiles
Pioneering analysis of 200 million-year-old teeth belonging to the earliest mammals suggests they functioned like their cold- ... "They were otherwise quite mammal-like in their skeletons, skulls and teeth. They had specialised chewing teeth, relatively ... Fossils of teeth, the size of a pinhead, from two of the earliest mammals, Morganucodon and Kuehneotherium, were scanned for ... "The little mammals fell into caves and holes in the rock, where their skeletons, including their teeth, fossilised. Thanks to ...
Ancient Reptile Had Mammal-Like Tooth Enamel - "Strangest Teeth Ever Seen"
... TOPICS:EvolutionPaleontologyTeethUniversity of ... The teeth of Priosphenodon show a special type of tooth enamel, similar to that of mammals, with high resistance to wear and ... Be the first to comment on "Ancient Reptile Had Mammal-Like Tooth Enamel - "Strangest Teeth Ever Seen"". ... "Some aspects of their dental anatomy are reminiscent of what happened in the evolution of early mammal teeth." ...
The microstructure of tooth enamel in multituberculate mammals | The Palaeontological Association
The microstructure of tooth enamel in multituberculate mammals. Palaeontology, 28, 3, 435-449. ... The enamel microstructure of single teeth and teeth in situ in whole jaws of late Jurassic, late Cretaceous, and Palaeocene ... For comparison one docodont tooth and some single late Cretaceous and Recent eutherian teeth are included. The enamel of the ... The oldest gigantoprismatic enamel was found in some undescribed multituberculate teeth from the early Cretaceous of Asia. As ...
Re: Nonindependence of tooth characters in mammals (at least!)
... *To: DML ,[email protected],, [email protected] ... Re: Nonindependence of tooth characters in mammals (at least!) *From: K and T Dykes ,[email protected], ... Re: Nonindependence of tooth characters in mammals (at least!) *From: Dann Pigdon ,[email protected], ... Re: Nonindependence of tooth characters in mammals (at least!) *From: Jaime A. Headden ,[email protected], ...
7.5. Mammalian Dentition: My, What Big Teeth You Have! - Week 7 - Cenozoic Mammals and Global Environmental Change | Coursera
... mammals rapidly radiated and diversified during the Cenozoic. The combination of abundant food sources and ... ... And what Id like to define is exactly the different types of teeth that mammals exhibit. And the function of those teeth. And ... So, but the thing to note about a reptile which is different from mammals is that all the teeth are generally shaped the same, ... So this is a great example of a browsers tooth. So another group of mammals that we can distinguish based on their molar ...
Hominin palaeoecology in late Pliocene Malawi: first insights from isotopes (13C, 18O) in mammal teeth
This reconstruction, based on the analysis of δ13C and δ18O values of large herbivorous mammal tooth enamel, was consistent ... The isotopic preservation of tooth enamel carbonate fraction in the fossil mammals of the Chiwondo Beds was sufficient to allow ... Carbon-13 and oxygen-18 abundances were measured in large mammal skeletal remains (tooth enamel, dentine and bone) from the ... 21 Tooth or jawbone fragments with teeth have been selected from the following taxa: proboscidians (Deinotherium sp., Elephas ...
Selected Science News: DINOSAUR-CHEWING MAMMALS LEAVE BEHIND OLDEST KNOWN TOOTH MARKS
DINOSAUR-CHEWING MAMMALS LEAVE BEHIND OLDEST KNOWN TOOTH MARKS 6/29/2010 06:54:00 PM Publicado por Alquimia Etiquetas: ... The researchers believe the marks were made by mammals because they were created by opposing pairs of teeth-a trait seen only ... The pair discovered tooth marks on a femur bone from a Champsosaurus, an aquatic reptile that grew up to five feet long; the ... There are likely many other instances of mammalian tooth marks on other bones that have yet to be identified, including older ...
Rodent Cheek Tooth - Mammals - The Fossil Forum
Tooth Types of Different Mammals (Mammalia), Deluxe Version - 1021046 - T300292 - Comparative Anatomy - 3B Scientific
A comparison of the diﬀerent tooth shapes and types allows conclusions to be drawn about the various sources of nutrition as ... Tooth Types of Different Mammals (Mammalia), Deluxe Version , Comparative Anatomy , ... The deluxe version of this article contains a half set of prepared, real teeth from the upper and lower jaw of a rabbit, a cat ... A comparison of the diﬀerent tooth shapes and types allows conclusions to be drawn about the various sources of nutrition as ...
Mammals: Taffy Teeth
Mammals 7. Ever chomp away on a piece of taffy and wonder if your teeth were going to be pulled out by the roots? Luckily, ... a strip of dentine up the side of a molar helps anchor the tooth until the tooth is fully erupted; by then, the tooth has worn ... A portion of the jawbone has been removed to show the tract clearly; at this stage of tooth wear, only about 1/3 of the tract ... were pretty well rooted, tooth-wise. There are animals, though, that could have a hard time keeping a mouthful of teeth. Some ...
Characteristics of Mammals - WorldAtlas.com
There are only three characteristics that are unique to mammals: the presence of hair in their bodies, three middle ear bones, ... The teeth (deciduous teeth) of young mammals are weaker and smaller. The teeth gradually falls off the young one grows older ... Tooth Replacement Mammals are diphyodont, meaning that they can only replace teeth once. However, this is a characteristic that ... Mammals have a single lower jawbone that attaches directly to the skull. The dentary bone holds the teeth of the lower jaw in ...
Countries With The Most Threatened Mammal Species - WorldAtlas
Extinct mammals formerly found there include the Balinese and Javan tigers.. Related. Which Mammal Has the Most Teeth?. ... Among the endangered mammals in Malaysia, many of the mammals in the list number only in the hundreds, such as the Malayan ... Peru (55 threatened mammal species). Peru has a list of 55 threatened mammal species living in its forests and mountains. ... 6. China (74 threatened mammal species). China has its own set of 74 threatened mammal species in its denuded forests and ...
Eggshell - Wikipedia
Amazing Mammals: A Christian Middle School Biology Lesson | HubPages
Mammal Olympics, & More - A Beka Science Order & Design Grade 7 - Use with your class, homeschool, after-school program, or co- ... Fun hands-on Christian middle school biology lesson on mammals in 55 minutes - Presentations, ... Armadillo (Order Edntata: Without Teeth). *Spanish for "little armored one". *designed with flexible bands that allow it to ... Mammal Olympics. Mammal Olympics. 9. Its time to participate in the Amazing Mammal Olympic Games. There are 2 ways to do this: ...
Mammal Locomotion: 9 Different Modes Of Movement Explained
The Gastropod Radula And Its Teeth. Gastropod Culture: Snails in Jewelry, Art & Literature Throughout History. ... Mammal Locomotion: 9 Different Modes Of Movement Explained. Locomotion In Mammals. Like most reptiles, the majority of mammals ... Finally, some mammals have taken to the air. In fact about 20% of all species of mammals can fly. These are the bats. Apart ... Partly it is also made possible by the way mammals limbs articulate with (join) the body. The result of this is that a mammal ...
Placental Mammals 101: How Reproduction In Mammals Works
The Gastropod Radula And Its Teeth. Gastropod Culture: Snails in Jewelry, Art & Literature Throughout History. ... Home > Mammals > Reproduction. Placental Mammals 101: How Reproduction In Mammals Works. The Placental Mammal and Reproduction ... Placental Mammals vs Non Placental Mammals. The most primitive, non-placental mammals - the monotremes - also lay eggs. ... The placenta is the organ from which our group of mammals takes its name. It is the main reason we, the placental mammals, are ...
Teeth Modifications in Mammals
In omnivorous mammals the incisors are suited for cutting the canines for tearing and cheek teeth with prominent crowns raised ... In the carnivorous mammals, the incisors are either poorly developed or reduced and few in number and the canines are long and ... In Mammals dentition is complete in the first three types. Often incomplete in herbivores where the canines are absent. The ... This is called diastema Rabbit). The canines are small or absent and the cheek teeth have broad grinding surfaces with ...
Mammals Might Have Soared Before Birds | Live Science
A new order of mammals has been named based on a recently discovered fossil of a squirrel-sized animal that lived at least 130 ... "So we can tell that this is a mammal from the dental formula," Meng said. "Also, we can tell from the teeth morphology, because ... "If youre looking for a mammal, the first thing you will look at is the teeth," Meng told LiveScience. ... However, the mammal is not considered a direct ancestor of these or other flying mammals. ...
Hippo history extracted from fossil teeth found in Kenya | Science News
... are filling in some of the mammoth mammals history. ... Hippo history extracted from fossil teeth found in Kenya. ... Fossilized teeth from the newly identified Epirigenys lokonensis, an ancestor of the hippopotamus, ... TOOTHY TALES Fossilized teeth from the newly identified Epirigenys lokonensis suggest that living hippos evolved from the first ...
Wedgefish diet is not what its teeth would have you think | Max-Planck-Gesellschaft
Although wedgefish teeth appear to be designed for eating shellfish, M. Dean from the Max Planck Institute of Colloids and ... From fish- to mammal heart May 24, 2018 Developmental Biology Evolutionary Biology ... Clearly teeth and the masticatory apparatus can tell us a lot about what an animal eats. This is particularly important for ... The diet of some animals is not what the shape of their teeth would have you think. Thats the conclusion from a recent study ...
Earth Times: show/news press release,112282.shtml
First Mammals - after Cynodonts ~ 10cm long 20-30gm long snouts rows of complex teeth - probably insectivorous partially ... pieces breaking off with groups of mammals - different conditions evolved different mammals - geographic isolation Mammals ... Infraclass Metatheria - all marsupial mammals Infraclass Eutheria - all placental mammals NONEUTHERIAN MAMMALS: MONOTREMES AND ... Order Therapsida; Infraorder Cynodontia (dog tooth) - basal stock for mammals - about 2m in length - highly cursorial (limbs ...
Fossil mammal, molar tooth, woolly mammoth, Mammuthus primigenius, - Love Collecting
GEOL G404 - Geobiology
Lab 5 - Mammals and teeth. Diversity of placental mammals, molar morphology, tooth diagrams, tooth formulas. [Download handout ... Origin of birds and mammals, loss of teeth, synapomorhpies of birds and mammals, Mesozoic diversity of birds and mammals.. [ ... Lecture 5 - Jaws and Teeth. Comparative jaw attachments and pharyngeal structure, jaw suspension types, tooth structure, tooth ... Lecture 14 - Histology and geochemistry of bone and teeth. Structure and development of bones and teeth, haversian systems, ...
SpeciesMonotremesReptilesRodentsMammalianEnamelVertebratesMolarsLargest mammalMarsupialGroup of mammalsSpecimenEarliestDentitionDifferent mammalsWarm-bloodednessMarine mammalMarsupialsBoneResearchersMillion year old mammalIncisorsCaninesLower jawJawsDemise of the dinosaursWhalesBonesMammaryBirds and mammals2018EvolutionYoung mammalsLarge mammalsHumansCarnivorous mammalsModern mammalsEndothermicAncestorsAquaticMolarMESOZOIC MAMMALSFossil mammalExtinct mammalsUnlikeTerrestrialCarnivoresInsectsReptilePremolarsMilkMammaliaDinosaurToday'sLineageEvolutionary history of mammalsSmallElephantsMultituberculatesEarlyCarnassialSweat GlandsDinosaurs went extinct
- Scientists uncovered the tiny teeth, which belonged to a species called Magallanodon baikashkenke, on a dig near Torres del Paine National Park, a remote area of Patagonia famous for its glacier-capped Andean spires and frigid ocean waters. (reuters.com)
- These new species improve the scientists' understanding of an important interval in the early evolution of mammals -- a time, between mass extinctions, when the roles of certain carnivores changed drastically. (eurekalert.org)
- The second new species, Nochnitsa geminidens , was a smaller, long-snouted carnivore with needle-like teeth. (eurekalert.org)
- Mean air temperatures (MATs) were inferred using species-specific δ 18 O PO4 -δ 18 O H2O -calibrations for modern mammals and a present-day precipitation δ 18 O H2O -MAT relation for Switzerland. (cambridge.org)
- About 5,000 species of animals are classified as mammals. (worldatlas.com)
- Mammals generally give birth to living young ones except for the two species of monotremes , which are the echidna, and the duck-billed platypus. (worldatlas.com)
- Some species of non-mammalian animals such as sharks replace their teeth throughout their lifetime. (worldatlas.com)
- It shows an additional threatened species of about 2,000, of which 25% are mammals. (worldatlas.com)
- Peru has a list of 55 threatened mammal species living in its forests and mountains. (worldatlas.com)
- Peru has a long list of threatened mammal species, though the country is taking proactive steps to protect its habitats for future conservation, and working to facilitate its endangered mammals' efforts to bounce back. (worldatlas.com)
- Australia has about 56 threatened mammal species within its national borders. (worldatlas.com)
- Malaysia is beset by its prevalence of 70 threatened mammal species, which are mostly listed as such as a result of denuded forests and logging activities. (worldatlas.com)
- China has its own set of 74 threatened mammal species in its denuded forests and mountains. (worldatlas.com)
- Most of the endangered species of mammals in China are on the list only due to the discretion of the local government. (worldatlas.com)
- Brazil has about 82 threatened mammal species throughout its own territories. (worldatlas.com)
- Despite the range of sizes, Dimetrodon species' consistently massive heads suggest that their teeth evolved in response to changes in the food available, rather than evolving in response to changes in the skull's shape. (csmonitor.com)
- By looking at the variety of tooth shapes, we're actually able to pick out differences in the ecology and the roles different species of Dimetrodon played" over the millions of years that passed as the creatures and their ecosystem evolved, Ms. Brink says. (csmonitor.com)
- The older species had smooth teeth, while younger ones sported the serrations. (csmonitor.com)
- By the mid- Triassic , there were many synapsid species that looked like mammals. (wikipedia.org)
- While living mammal species can be identified by the presence of milk-producing mammary glands in the females, other features are required when classifying fossils , because mammary glands and other soft-tissue features are not visible in fossils. (wikipedia.org)
- Mammals first appeared during the Permian Period of the Paleozoic Era - There are more than 6,000 species of mammals! (mixbook.com)
- They calculated the ratio of tooth size to body size for these modern species, and then extrapolated this to extinct mammals. (abc.net.au)
- Different species of mammals have evolved to live in nearly all terrestrial and aquatic habitats on Earth. (eol.org)
- Adults of some species lose most or all of their hair but, even in mammals like whales and dolphins, hair is present at least during some phase of ontogeny. (eol.org)
- The Pacific walrus ( Odobenus rosmarus divergens ) is one of 4 marine mammal species managed by the U.S. Department of Interior. (usgs.gov)
- In the US, marine mammals are protected by the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA). (frontiersin.org)
- All of the marine mammals in the US are protected by the Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973 and the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) of 1972 which have provisions related to controlling trade of marine mammal products. (frontiersin.org)
- There are more than 4,000 species of mammals living in the many ecosystems and environments found across the Earth. (livescience.com)
- There are over 4000 species of mammals worldwide, but all share the same defining characteristics that separate them from other members of the phylum Chord. (reference.com)
- Of the three extant species of zebra, two have 36 or 40 teeth, depending on sex, and one has 42 teeth. (reference.com)
- These different diets proved key to an unexpected finding regarding mammal species going extinct along with the dinosaurs. (uncommondescent.com)
- The temperate forest is home to many different animals including several species of mammals, insects, birds, amphibians and reptiles. (reference.com)
- Some animals that live in the Florida Everglades are reptiles such as alligators, crocodiles and many species of snakes and mammals such as dolphins, manat. (reference.com)
- However, genome sequencing has revealed that many mammal and bird lineages have experienced differential rates of transposable element (TE) accumulation, which would be predicted to cause substantial variation in genome size between species. (pnas.org)
- To test this model, we develop computational methods to quantify the amount of DNA gained by TE expansion and lost by deletion over the last 100 My in the lineages of 10 species of eutherian mammals and 24 species of birds. (pnas.org)
- Mammals encompass some 5,500 species (including Humans), distributed in about 1,200 genera, 152 families and up to 46 orders, though this varies with the classification scheme. (wikipedia.org)
- They predicted that these species would have copies of the gene that codes for the tooth-specific enamelin protein, but this gene would show evidence of molecular decay in these species. (innovations-report.com)
- While a mere 3.5 mm tooth, especially an incomplete one, may seem insufficient to describe a new species of mammal, in actual, fact extinct mammals are frequently described on the basis of a single fossilized tooth. (eurasiareview.com)
- In contrast, many fish species and reptiles, for example, grow new teeth continually throughout their lives. (eurasiareview.com)
- The fact that a single premolar is all that is left of Brasilestes and that it is incomplete prevented the researchers from distinguishing with absolute confidence the group of mammals to which the species belonged. (eurasiareview.com)
- The bone is 16 millimetres long with teeth less than 1.8 millimetres high that are adapted for slicing and crushing food-a feature not found in monotremes. (newscientist.com)
- Most mammals - excepting Monotremes and Marsupials - are placental mammals. (earthlife.net)
- The most primitive, non-placental mammals - the monotremes - also lay eggs. (earthlife.net)
- One such feature available for paleontology , shared by all living mammals (including monotremes ), but not present in any of the early Triassic therapsids , is shown in Figure 1 (on the right), namely: mammals use two bones for hearing that all other amniotes use for eating. (wikipedia.org)
- With the exception of the monotremes , all mammals bear live young. (wikipedia.org)
- 2002). Even more fundamentally, molecular evidence suggests that monotremes (Prototheria, egg-laying mammals) and marsupials (Metatheria) may be more closely related to each other than to placental mammals (Eutheria) (Janke et al. (eol.org)
- Other groups of early mammals include the Monotremes (egg-laying mammals that suckle their young), Metatherians which were marsupials, and the Eutherians also known as Placentals (presence of the placenta allows the mother to nourish the developing embryo in the womb without forcing a developmentally early birth). (paleodirect.com)
- The long-beaked echidna is found only in New Guinea and is a member of the monotremes, a primitive order of mammals that forced zoologists to change their very definitions of what a mammal is. (eurekalert.org)
- Unlike all other mammals, monotremes like the echidna (also called the spiny anteater) and the better known platypus lay eggs. (eurekalert.org)
- Echidnas are members of the monotremes, an order of mammals that lay leathery eggs, as opposed to placental and marsupial mammals, both groups of which give birth to live young. (eurekalert.org)
- Pioneering analysis of 200 million-year-old teeth belonging to the earliest mammals suggests they functioned like their cold-blooded counterparts-reptiles, leading less active but much longer lives. (phys.org)
- A new study by University of Alberta paleontologists shows that one type of ancient reptiles evolved a special type of tooth enamel, similar to that of mammals, with high resistance to wear and tear. (scitechdaily.com)
- Part of a group of reptiles called sphenodontians, these reptiles are unique in that they lost their ability to replace individual teeth. (scitechdaily.com)
- Our results suggest that strong selective pressures can force reptiles to come up with some very innovative solutions to the problems associated with tooth wear and abrasive diets-some of which mirror what happened in our earliest mammal ancestors. (scitechdaily.com)
- Other characteristics of mammals are also found in other animals such as the reptiles, fish, insects, and birds. (worldatlas.com)
- Like most reptiles, the majority of mammals travel across land. (earthlife.net)
- Mammals, however, move much further and more often than reptiles. (earthlife.net)
- Basic structural body plan is inherited from Therapsid mammal-like reptiles. (shsu.edu)
-  The sauropsids are today's reptiles and birds along with all the extinct animals more closely related to them than to mammals. (wikipedia.org)
-  This does not include the mammal-like reptiles , a group more closely related to the mammals. (wikipedia.org)
- The mammal-like reptiles became extinct approximately 160 million years ago, but are considered the ancestors of mammals. (mixbook.com)
- This in comparison to the simplistic peg, spike or knife-shaped teeth of the reptiles where food was swallowed whole. (paleodirect.com)
- The precursors to mammals were mammal-like reptiles called Cynodonts. (paleodirect.com)
- The kinds of animals that live in wetlands include a wide variety of birds, fish, frogs, reptiles and mammals. (reference.com)
- Allin EF (1986) The auditory apparatus of advanced mammal-like reptiles and early mammals. (springer.com)
- In: Hotton N, MacLean PD, Roth JJ, Roth EC (eds) The Ecology and Biology of Mammal-like Reptiles. (springer.com)
- Unlike humans whose ameloblasts die after tooth development, rodents continually produce enamel and must wear down their teeth by gnawing on various materials. (wikipedia.org)
- They think they were most likely made by multituberculates, an extinct order of archaic mammals that resemble rodents and had paired upper and lower incisors. (scitech-news.com)
- During the Triassic, the earliest known mammals looked like small rodents and belong to a subclass called Prototheria. (paleodirect.com)
- Like other rodents, beavers really need their incisors - specialized teeth at the front of your smile. (amnh.org)
- Rodents are gnawing animals and have two pairs of prominent, chisel-shaped incisor teeth. (nps.gov)
- there are not mammals, rodents nor ophidians autochtonous to these islands (Sociedad de Ciencias 1956). (scribd.com)
- Like all rodents, their two front teeth continue to grow throughout their lives. (enchantedlearning.com)
- Mammals (Rodents) Gallery. (mediastorehouse.com)
- Teeth are common to most vertebrates, but mammalian teeth are distinctive in having a variety of shapes and functions. (wikipedia.org)
- Mammalian Dentition: My, What Big Teeth You Have! (coursera.org)
- Paleontologists have discovered the oldest mammalian tooth marks yet on the bones of ancient animals, including several large dinosaurs. (scitech-news.com)
- There are likely many other instances of mammalian tooth marks on other bones that have yet to be identified, including older examples, said Longrich. (scitech-news.com)
- Mammalian teeth have developed into four sets: incisors, canines, premolars and molars. (livescience.com)
- After the Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction event wiped out the non-avian dinosaurs ( birds being the only surviving dinosaurs) and several mammalian groups, placental and marsupial mammals diversified into many new forms and ecological niches throughout the Paleogene and Neogene , by the end of which all modern orders had appeared. (wikipedia.org)
- All mammalian young play, and this is very obvious in the more intelligent mammals ( primates , cats ). (wikipedia.org)
- Hair aids mammals to maintain a constant body temperature which is also a mammalian characteristic. (paleodirect.com)
- Thus, female mammals invest a great deal of energy caring for each of their offspring, which has important ramifications in mammalian evolution, ecology, and behavior (explained in more detail in Development and Reproduction sections). (eol.org)
- Tiarajudens eccentricus , a mammalian forerunner that lived 270 million years ago, was the one with these long, pointy teeth, researchers in Brazil and South Africa have found. (howstuffworks.com)
- This issue includes a rather heterogenous group of mammals, from very common ones like the cottontail rabbit to some of the rarest and oddest of the mammalian world, such as the duckbill platypus. (emporia.edu)
- This is because teeth are the most durable part of the mammalian skeleton. (eurasiareview.com)
- Indeed, mammalian teeth are often the only skeletal remains that stay intact long enough to become fossilized. (eurasiareview.com)
- The teeth have enamel on the outside and exposed dentin on the inside, so they self-sharpen during gnawing. (wikipedia.org)
- In Aardvarks, teeth lack enamel and have many pulp tubules, hence the name of the order Tubulidentata. (wikipedia.org)
- Investigations were conducted into chemical treatments suitable for concentrating enamel from cow teeth. (nii.ac.jp)
- It is essential to remove dentin from tooth enamel for low dose radiation dosimetry in order to avoid interference to the ESR signal from organic radicals. (nii.ac.jp)
- Use of electron paramagnetic resonance dosimetry with tooth enamel for retrospective dose assessment. (nii.ac.jp)
- Carbon and oxygen analyses of enamel were performed on forty-six teeth of large mammals ( Equus germanicus , Mammuthus primigenius , Coelodonta antiquitatis , and Bison priscus ), coming from one doline in Boncourt (~ 80 ka, marine oxygen isotope stage MIS5a) and seven in Courtedoux (51-27 ka, late MIS3), in order to reconstruct the paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental conditions of the region. (cambridge.org)
- Priosphenodon specimens found in Argentina show the Late Cretaceous reptile evolved to have resilient tooth enamel similar to that in mammals. (scitechdaily.com)
- The teeth of Priosphenodon show a special type of tooth enamel, similar to that of mammals, with high resistance to wear and tear. (scitechdaily.com)
- These threads are called enamel prisms, and they are almost exclusively found in mammals," said LeBlanc, who is working under Caldwell's supervision. (scitechdaily.com)
- Reference: " Unique Tooth Morphology and Prismatic Enamel in Late Cretaceous Sphenodontians From Argentina" by Aaron R H LeBlanc, Sebastián Apesteguía, Hans C E Larsson and Michael W Caldwell, 4 May 2020, Current Biology . (scitechdaily.com)
- The enamel microstructure of single teeth and teeth in situ in whole jaws of late Jurassic, late Cretaceous, and Palaeocene multituberculates belonging to the Plagiaulacoidea, Taeniolabidoidea, Ptilo-dontoidea, and Meniscoessus (Cimolomyidae, suborder indet. (palass.org)
- The enamel of the Plagiaulacoidea like that of the docodont tooth is not prismatic, but consists of radially arranged, closely packed 5 um thick columns of crystals, which diverge from the central axis of each column towards the outer enamel surface. (palass.org)
- The oldest gigantoprismatic enamel was found in some undescribed multituberculate teeth from the early Cretaceous of Asia. (palass.org)
- Carbon-13 and oxygen-18 abundances were measured in large mammal skeletal remains (tooth enamel, dentine and bone) from the Chiwondo Beds in Malawi, which were dated by biostratigraphic correlation to ca. 2.5 million years ago. (scielo.org.za)
- The main problem is that the fibers that attach teeth to jawbones can't attach properly to the smooth enamel. (utep.edu)
- In sirenia (sea - Cow and Manatee), the teeth are devoid of enamel. (com.pk)
- Enamel on the tooth surface. (wikipedia.org)
- This thermometer constrains body temperatures of bioapatite-producing organisms with an accuracy of 1-2 °C. Analyses of fossilized tooth enamel of both Pleistocene and Miocene age yielded temperatures within error of those derived from similar modern taxa. (pnas.org)
- Long and sharp, the teeth may have looked fragile, the researchers wrote, but with an extra-strong internal structure, a root that nearly reached the top of its skull and a protective layer of enamel, they were reliable weapons. (howstuffworks.com)
- The researchers were able to correlate the progressive loss of enamel in the fossil record with a simultaneous molecular decay of a gene, called the enamelin gene, that is involved in enamel formation in mammals. (innovations-report.com)
- Enamel is the hardest substance in the vertebrate body, and most mammals have teeth capped with it. (innovations-report.com)
- Mammals without enamel are descended from ancestral forms that had teeth with enamel," Springer said. (innovations-report.com)
- The fossil record demonstrates that the first mammals had teeth with enamel. (innovations-report.com)
- Mammals without enamel therefore must have descended from mammals with enamel-covered teeth. (innovations-report.com)
- We could therefore predict that nonfunctional vestiges of the genes that code for enamel should be found in mammals that lack enamel," Springer said. (innovations-report.com)
- The study led by Springer takes advantage of the hardness of enamel and teeth to provide more robust evidence for the linkage. (innovations-report.com)
- In our research we clearly see the parallel evolution of enamel loss in the fossil record and the molecular decay of the enamelin gene into a pseudogene in representatives of four different orders of mammals that have lost enamel. (innovations-report.com)
- bodies of mammals typically covered with hair, which has no structural homology in other vertebrates. (shsu.edu)
- Researchers have uncovered the earliest fossil evidence yet for serrated teeth in vertebrates. (csmonitor.com)
- Almost all animals can do some learning, but mammals do far more than other vertebrates. (wikipedia.org)
- The word MAMMAL describes the very characteristic that sets this class of vertebrates apart from all others. (paleodirect.com)
- Of all vertebrates, mammals can sustain the longest duration of activity regardless of how adverse the surrounding environment is provided an ample food energy source is available. (paleodirect.com)
- Mammals, including humans, are generally regarded as the most evolved or advanced of the vertebrates (animals with a backbone and spinal cord). (thecanadianencyclopedia.com)
- The study indirectly admitted this in the abstract: "Our discoveries constitute the first direct evidence that some triconodont mammals were carnivorous and fed on small vertebrates, including young dinosaurs, and also show that Mesozoic mammals had a much greater range of body sizes than previously known. (answersingenesis.org)
- the Eutheria (placental mammals) commonly have three pairs of molars and four premolars per jaw, whereas the Metatheria (marsupials) generally have four pairs of molars and between three or two premolars. (wikipedia.org)
- and four upper and four lower molars per side [M = 16], giving the animal a complement of thirty-eight teeth. (wikipedia.org)
- Generally, all male equines also have four canine teeth (called tushes) between the molars and incisors. (wikipedia.org)
- And then molars are the big teeth all the way in the back of the mouth here. (coursera.org)
- In the ever-growing teeth of voles, vertical strips along the sides of the molars work well. (utep.edu)
- The canines are small or absent and the cheek teeth have broad grinding surfaces with transverse ridges - lophodont molars. (com.pk)
- In omnivorous mammals the incisors are suited for cutting the canines for tearing and cheek teeth with prominent crowns raised into rounded tubercles are adapted for crushing bunodont molars. (com.pk)
- In the carnivorous mammals, the incisors are either poorly developed or reduced and few in number and the canines are long and sharp suited for tearing and piercing the flesh But the molars with knife-like edges are modified for scratching the flesh from the bones. (com.pk)
- The first true land mammals also had molars with three inline cusps and are called Triconodonts. (paleodirect.com)
- Mammals' mouths contain up to four main types of teeth: incisors, canines, premolars, and molars. (amnh.org)
- The researchers analysed the molars of hundreds of early mammal specimens in museum fossil collections. (uncommondescent.com)
- 300 of at least 520 days) molars, and that the formation of this crown portion occurred largely after the teeth had already reached functional occlusion. (springer.com)
- The teeth at the back of the mouth, which you cannot see without special equipment, are the molars. (wikihow.com)
- The researchers tracked how mammal body size changed over time by identifying the largest mammal from each geological period since the end of the Cretaceous. (abc.net.au)
- The largest mammal, and indeed the largest animal to ever inhabit the planet, is the blue whale, which can weigh 160 metric tons (160,000 kg). (eol.org)
- Beavers are members of Rodentia, the largest mammal order. (nps.gov)
- and marsupial mammals. (reuters.com)
- Most marsupial and eutherian mammals have a reproductive cycle known as the oestrous cycle (U.S: estrous cycle). (wikipedia.org)
- The long, bony projections on the lower jaw of Thylacosmilus atrox --an extinct saber-toothed South American marsupial--worked like sheaths for a sword, protecting the bladelike upper teeth when the animal's mouth was closed. (amnh.org)
- Its features clearly set it apart from marsupial mammals, which adopt a very different reproductive strategy. (bbc.co.uk)
Group of mammals4
- The placenta is the organ from which our group of mammals takes its name. (earthlife.net)
- Each group of mammals has its own frequency. (wikipedia.org)
- What large group of mammals have large front teeth that never stop growing? (answers.com)
- This major group of mammals is distinguished, among other things, by the possession of an even number of hoofed toes on each foot, and encompasses animals such as camels, pigs, deer, antelope, and many others. (nationalgeographic.com)
- To test the theory, an ancient tooth specimen belonging to Morganucodon was sent to Dr. Ian Corfe, from the University of Helsinki and the Geological Survey of Finland, who scanned it using high-powered Synchrotron X-ray radiation. (phys.org)
- So again, un-differentiated teeth, we have kind of a comparison here, we can take a look at our reptile specimen, and what we notice about a reptile is that all of the teeth are generally shaped the same. (coursera.org)
- So, we'll compare that to our mammal specimen here. (coursera.org)
- Where again, just to briefly review, we have differentiated teeth on the mammal, and so, this is a canine, a dog specimen here. (coursera.org)
- Laboratory for Environmental Biology mammal specimen 4968. (utep.edu)
- The specimen, dubbed Cronopio dentiacutus, is one of the very few mammal fossils to come out of South America from the era when dinosaurs ruled the Earth. (redorbit.com)
- From the Upper Cretaceous deposits of the famous Hell Creek dinosaur beds, we offer an ULTRA RARE specimen from an early mammal. (paleodirect.com)
- Living mammals are descended from a group of animals called therapsids, a diverse assemblage of "protomammals" that dominated terrestrial ecosystems in the Permian Period (~299-252 million years ago), millions of years before the earliest dinosaurs. (eurekalert.org)
- The research, led by the University of Bristol, UK and University of Helsinki, Finland, published today in Nature Communications , is the first time palaeontologists have been able to study the physiologies of early fossil mammals directly, and turns on its head what was previously believed about our earliest ancestors. (phys.org)
- Fossils of teeth, the size of a pinhead, from two of the earliest mammals , Morganucodon and Kuehneotherium, were scanned for the first time using powerful X-rays, shedding new light on the lifespan and evolution of these small mammals, which roamed the earth alongside early dinosaurs and were believed to be warm-blooded by many scientists. (phys.org)
- Previously, the earliest record of flight in mammals was found in fossils of bats dating back to 51 million years ago, said lead study author, Jin Meng from the American Museum of Natural History in New York. (livescience.com)
- Paleontologists have found the earliest evidence yet of serrated teeth, housed in the jaws of a Permian-period creature extinct for millions of years that was a distant cousin of today's mammals. (csmonitor.com)
- This genus also hosts the earliest cusps on teeth, which also would have helped to cut up food as the animals chewed. (csmonitor.com)
- The earliest true mammals were mouse-like, and lived when dinosaurs were dominant. (mixbook.com)
- The earliest predators appeared on Earth 480 million years ago-and they even had teeth capable of repairing themselves. (phys.org)
- Some of these creatures, Van Valen hypothesized, "were mollusk eaters that caught an occasional fish, the broadened phalanges [finger and toe bones] aiding them on damp surfaces", and the resemblance between the teeth of the earliest known whales and mesonychids appeared to support this connection. (nationalgeographic.com)
- So it's very advantageous to a paleontologist or an evolutionary biologist that teeth are resistive to destruction because we can start to think about, and hypothesize, and eventually theorize about the feeding modes of these different mammals. (coursera.org)
- There is however much variation between different mammals. (earthlife.net)
- Broadly, the research involved the following steps: First, Meredith collected the DNA sequences for the enamelin gene in different mammals. (innovations-report.com)
- It was thought the key characteristics of mammals, including their warm-bloodedness, evolved at around the same time," said lead author Dr. Elis Newham, Research Associate at the University of Bristol, and previously Ph.D. student at the University of Southampton during the time when this study was conducted. (phys.org)
- Mammal adaptations for warm-bloodedness include a four-chambered heart, which is able to move blood around the body more efficiently and keep oxygen-poor blood separate from oxygen-rich blood. (reference.com)
- While that is not an easy behavior to teach a wild animal, the Aquarium's marine mammal trainers have found that daily brushing leads to better overall health for their beloved seals. (neaq.org)
- Therefore, commercial sale of unfossilized marine mammal bone is largely prohibited. (frontiersin.org)
- There is an exception that allows extinct marine mammal bone, often worked into products by Alaskan native artisans, to be sold in the US. (frontiersin.org)
- 2002. Alaska Marine Mammal Stock Assessments, 2002. (nap.edu)
- 2006. Stomach temperature telemetry reveals temporal patterns of foraging success in a free-ranging marine mammal. (nap.edu)
- The mammal is a dryolestoid, an extinct group of animals distantly related to today´s marsupials and placentals. (redorbit.com)
- Knowing the timing of the split from marsupials is fundamental to understanding the full story of the evolution of mammals. (bbc.co.uk)
- They know the tooth belonged to a therian, a member of a large subclass of Mammalia that includes marsupials and placentals. (eurasiareview.com)
- The dentary bone holds the teeth of the lower jaw in place. (worldatlas.com)
- But mammals have a different jaw joint, composed only of the dentary (the lower jaw bone, which carries the teeth) and the squamosal (another small skull bone). (wikipedia.org)
- Usually we find teeth or bone fragments of this age. (redorbit.com)
- The stable isotope compositions of biologically precipitated apatite in bone, teeth, and scales are widely used to obtain information on the diet, behavior, and physiology of extinct organisms and to reconstruct past climate. (pnas.org)
- The oxygen isotope composition ( δ 18 O) of the phosphate and carbonate component of bioapatite in bone, teeth, and scales reflects both the body temperature of the animal and the oxygen isotope composition of its body fluids ( 13 - 19 ). (pnas.org)
- Sale of unfossilized bone from marine mammals is generally prohibited. (frontiersin.org)
- Spotted hyenas can crack and crush bone with their powerful carnassial teeth-the last upper premolar and the first lower molar on each side of the jaw. (amnh.org)
- In mammals, the lower jaw is a single bone. (reference.com)
- save Save Mammal Bone Remains from Late Prehistoric Amerindi. (scribd.com)
- This paper presents the zoological identification and contextual association of allochtonous mammal bone remains recovered from late prehistoric Valencioid sites located on the islands of Los Roques Archipelago, Venezuela. (scribd.com)
- However, several mammal bone artifacts have been found during the archaeological excavations. (scribd.com)
- The palpable convexity of the buccal alveolar bone overlying a large tooth root. (avdc.org)
- SANTIAGO (Reuters) - Chilean and Argentine researchers have unearthed teeth in far-flung Patagonia belonging to a mammal that lived 74 million years ago, the oldest such remains yet discovered in the South American country, the Chilean Antarctic Institute reported on Thursday. (reuters.com)
- The journey saw the researchers take some 200 teeth specimens, provided by the Natural History Museum London and University Museum of Zoology Cambridge, to be scanned at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility and the Swiss Light Source, among the world's brightest X-ray light sources, in France and Switzerland, respectively. (phys.org)
- In order to look more closely at the teeth of Priosphenodon, the researchers cut open pieces of jaw and examined tissue-level detail preserved inside the teeth. (scitechdaily.com)
- The researchers believe the marks were made by mammals because they were created by opposing pairs of teeth-a trait seen only in mammals from that time. (scitech-news.com)
- This fossil, found in Inner Mongolia, China, puts the first record of gliding flight for mammals at least 70 million years earlier than had been known, the researchers write in the Dec. 14 issue of the journal Nature . (livescience.com)
- Instead, V. antiquus provides evidence for the independent origin of flight in this now-extinct lineage of mammals, the researchers conclude. (livescience.com)
- This pattern of increasing size in mammals after the demise of the dinosaurs repeated itself across all continents, including North America, Africa, Eurasia and to a lesser extent, South America, say the researchers. (abc.net.au)
- The researchers say that mammal body size will always be limited by environmental temperatures and available land area. (abc.net.au)
- In a paper just published in the journal Science, an international team of researchers has compiled and analyzed an enormous database of information about the largest mammals across time and around the globe, revealing striking patterns in their evolution. (bio-medicine.org)
- In 2007, Springer, along with Robert Meredith and John Gatesy in the Department of Biology at UC Riverside, initiated a study of enamelless mammals in which the researchers focused on the enamelin gene. (innovations-report.com)
- Although there is not enough evidence to support the inclusion of Brasilestes in either infraclass, the researchers believe (but cannot categorically conclude) it was a placental mammal. (eurasiareview.com)
Million year old mammal1
- Our colleague and palaeontologist Thierry Smith has discovered a 70 million year old mammal with red teeth in Transylvania, Romania. (naturalsciences.be)
- Three to four millimeters of tooth is worn away by incisors every week, whereas the posterior teeth require a month to wear away the same amount. (wikipedia.org)
- Anatomy of rabbit teeth The incisors and cheek teeth of rabbits are called aradicular hypsodont teeth. (wikipedia.org)
- Incisors are in the front and considered cutting teeth. (livescience.com)
- In order to keep up with the demands they put on their incisors (eating, felling trees), beavers have evolved these sharp teeth to never stop growing. (amnh.org)
- The skull of a modern deer shows two long incisors teeth. (howstuffworks.com)
- The incisors are the teeth located at the front of the mouth, which the horse uses to chop grass. (wikihow.com)
- Behind the incisors and canines, there were no additional teeth in the jaw. (wikipedia.org)
- Canines are the sharp stabbing teeth. (livescience.com)
- Canines are sharp teeth that tear and stab food. (mixbook.com)
- However, the canines have much less variance than the other kinds of teeth and, therefore, have little effect on the analysis if the variables are not standardized. (sas.com)
- both skulls of Euchambersia show no sign of any replacement teeth developing, suggesting that Euchambersia was reliant on having both canines present and functional simultaneously. (wikipedia.org)
- Where teeth would be located in therocephalians that do have teeth behind the canines, there is instead a large depression, or fossa, on the side of the maxilla, which is also bounded below by part of the lacrimal and possibly part of the jugal. (wikipedia.org)
- The deluxe version of this article contains a half set of prepared, real teeth from the upper and lower jaw of a rabbit, a cat and a pig respectively. (3bscientific.com)
- The ear ossicles are bones which were, long ago, part of the lower jaw in early proto-mammals. (wikipedia.org)
- The teeth on the lower jaw are found towards the middle of the beak and erupt only in mature males. (freerepublic.com)
- Instead, sphenodontians added new teeth to the back ends of their jaws as they grew. (scitechdaily.com)
- Although these batoid fish, i.e. relatives of sharks and rays, have wide teeth and normally eat shellfish and shrimp, fragments of tail spines in their jaws reveal that they also hunt stingrays. (mpg.de)
- Dean believes: "These results are of great interest to palaeontologists, as they show that you can quickly come to the wrong conclusion from analysis of jaws, teeth and the masticatory apparatus. (mpg.de)
- There was the giant cave bear Ursus spelaeus, Canis dirus - the ferocious dire wolf, and most notorious of all, the terrifying saber cats such as Smilodon with a jaw that could open 120 degrees, allowing its massive pair of saber teeth in its upper jaws to be driven into its unfortunate victim. (paleodirect.com)
- The following data set gives the number of teeth of each kind on one side of the top and bottom jaws for 32 mammals. (sas.com)
Demise of the dinosaurs4
- With the demise of the dinosaurs, mammals rapidly radiated and diversified during the Cenozoic. (coursera.org)
- It wasn't until close of the Cretaceous and the final demise of the dinosaurs 65 million years ago that mammals shared the planet with flowering plants, insects, and birds as the dominant life forms. (paleodirect.com)
- Supersized mammals The demise of the dinosaurs kick-started a growth spurt in mammals that would see them become supersized within a mere 25 million years, new research has found. (abc.net.au)
- http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/short/311/5764/1068b Mesozoic mammals have been thought to have been small, nocturnal, and confined to a few niches on land until the demise of the dinosaurs 65 million years ago. (uncommondescent.com)
- Aquatic mammals such as dolphins and whales have hair during the early stages of development, some of these animals retain patches of hair on the upper lips and in the chins while some do not. (worldatlas.com)
- like flying squirrels will glide down from high heights, whales and other marine mammals have front limbs, and no hind limbs, that are flippers for swimming in water. (mixbook.com)
- Consider whales--some have teeth as big as a slice of pizza and others have none at all. (amnh.org)
- Even mammals that do not have hair as adults, such as whales, have hair as tiny embryos, and later lose their hair as they continue to develop. (reference.com)
- Odontocetes bear teeth typically numerous and peglike, although sometimes modified, as in the single tusk of the narwhal or the odd, fanglike lower teeth of the beaked whales. (berkeley.edu)
- Baleen whales lack teeth completely as adults (although teeth are present in fetal baleen whales). (berkeley.edu)
- Modern whales either lack teeth, or have teeth that are all virtually identical in shape and size). (berkeley.edu)
- Early whales such as Rodhocetus show many similarities with an early group of land mammals known as mesonychids , which are also close to the root of the hoofed mammals. (berkeley.edu)
- Most mammals are typically quadrupeds with the feet modified in many ways for terrestrial (running, hopping or leaping), fossorial (digging), arboreal (tree climbing) and aquatic living, but some have developed modified appendages such as the whales, manatees and dugongs, who have lost the rear appendages, modified the tail as horizontally flattened flukes for propulsion and modified the front appendages as flippers. (thecanadianencyclopedia.com)
- Whales are highly-modified, once-hoofed mammals which are entirely aquatic. (nationalgeographic.com)
- Biomolecular and genetic studies repeatedly found that whales were most closely related to the group of hoofed mammals called artiodactyls , particularly hippos. (nationalgeographic.com)
- They also found additional bones displaying tooth marks during fieldwork in Alberta, Canada. (scitech-news.com)
- There are only three characteristics that are unique to mammals: the presence of hair in their bodies, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands. (worldatlas.com)
- The essential bones in mammals are attached to the backbone. (worldatlas.com)
- Bones, teeth and impressions of the soft tissue were preserved. (livescience.com)
- Mammals have three little bones in their inner ear, the ear ossicles . (wikipedia.org)
- In a remote area of Morocco called Jebel Irhoud, in what was once a cave, the team found a skull, bones, and teeth of five individuals who lived about 315,000 years ago. (kpbs.org)
- Land mammal fossils that are most common are teeth and bones. (paleodirect.com)
- All mammals share at least three characteristics not found in other animals: three middle ear bones, hair, and the production of milk by modified sweat glands called mammary glands. (eol.org)
- But, most importantly, the Juramaia fossil also retains a full set of teeth and forepaw bones. (bbc.co.uk)
- Mammals are distinguished from other animals by having mammary glands and complex hair follicles, and by the structure of their skulls, which feature highly modified jaw bones. (reference.com)
- The remaining jaw bones in mammals have evolved to be very tiny and serve as a hearing apparatus inside the ear. (reference.com)
- The fossil record is almost entirely limited to hard tissues such as bones and teeth," said Mark Springer, a professor of biology, who led the study. (innovations-report.com)
- After giving birth, mammals nurse their young ones with milk secreted by the mammary glands. (worldatlas.com)
- Mammals, named after the presence of mammary glands, nurse their young and have fur, but that's where their similarities end. (tradebit.com)
- Although mammary glands are a signature feature of modern mammals, little is known about the evolution of lactation as these soft tissues are not often preserved in the fossil record. (wikipedia.org)
- All mammal young are fed milk made in the mammary glands. (mixbook.com)
- All female mammals produce milk from their mammary glands in order to nourish newborn offspring. (eol.org)
- The feature for which mammals are named is the mammary gland, which is a modified sweat gland that produces milk, a nutritious liquid that helps young mammals grow. (reference.com)
- The word mammal is derived from the milk-producing mammary glands that are unique to the class Mammalia. (thecanadianencyclopedia.com)
Birds and mammals6
- Origin of birds and mammals, loss of teeth, synapomorhpies of birds and mammals, Mesozoic diversity of birds and mammals. (indiana.edu)
- There are marked differences between the physiology of birds and mammals. (frontiersin.org)
- There are analogous organ systems in birds and mammals. (frontiersin.org)
- There is a major difference between birds and mammals is the female reproductive system as birds produce large yolk filled eggs. (frontiersin.org)
- Birds and mammals have been long separated. (frontiersin.org)
- Our data provide evidence for an "accordion" model of genome size evolution in birds and mammals, whereby the amount of DNA gained by transposable element expansion, which greatly varies across lineages, was counteracted by DNA loss through large segmental deletions. (pnas.org)
- The Canadian Encyclopedia http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/en/article/mammal/ (accessed January 22, 2018). (thecanadianencyclopedia.com)
- Elephants are polyphyodonts with teeth are similar to those in manatees, and it is notable that elephants are believed to have undergone an aquatic phase in their evolution. (wikipedia.org)
- Some aspects of their dental anatomy are reminiscent of what happened in the evolution of early mammal teeth. (scitechdaily.com)
- How many times have mammologists, both extant and extinct, remarked that their teeth, their beautiful breeding teeth, were the essence of mammal evolution? (cmnh.org)
- You'll learn why mammals had a distinct advantage over previous groups, and you'll also have the opportunity to explore multiple theories on primate and hominoid evolution in the context of global conditions during this period. (coursera.org)
- And so a lot of mammal Paleontology and evolution is based on fossilized teeth more or less. (coursera.org)
- These creatures and the evolution of their teeth are opening a window on the environment they inhabited during the Permian period, which ended with the largest mass extinction in Earth's history. (csmonitor.com)
- Known as Dimetrodon, these creatures and the evolution of their teeth are opening a window on the environment they inhabited during the Permian period, which opened about 290 million years ago and ended with the largest mass extinction in Earth's history some 38 million years later. (csmonitor.com)
- The evolution of mammals has passed through many stages since the first appearance of their synapsid ancestors in the Pennsylvanian sub-period of the late Carboniferous period. (wikipedia.org)
- Most research concerning the evolution of mammals centers on the shapes of the teeth, the hardest parts of the tetrapod body. (wikipedia.org)
- Teeth are amazing - the product of half a billion years of evolution. (andrewisles.com)
- Evolution of island mammals: adaptation and extinction of placental mammals on islands. (andrewisles.com)
- University of Louisville paleontologist Guillermo Rougier and his team found the fossil, which breaks a roughly 60-million-year gap in what is known about South American mammals and their evolution. (redorbit.com)
- With access to so much information, the group was able to test a hypothesis about the evolution of mammal size. (bio-medicine.org)
- The evolution of milk is probably linked to diphyodonty in mammals. (reference.com)
- Deciphering the forces and mechanisms modulating genome size is central to our understanding of molecular evolution, but the subject has been understudied in mammals and birds. (pnas.org)
- Thus, we hypothesize that there has been covariation between the amount of DNA gained by transposition and lost by deletion during mammal and avian evolution, resulting in genome size equilibrium. (pnas.org)
- The teeth (deciduous teeth) of young mammals are weaker and smaller. (worldatlas.com)
- This clever system allows young mammals to spend longer in their mother's womb. (earthlife.net)
- Once born, young mammals are fed on milk and protected by one or more of their parents until they are able to fend for themselves. (earthlife.net)
- The first teeth, called baby teeth in humans, are relatively weak, as young mammals do not need to chew their food. (reference.com)
- It is possible, and quite common, for humans to have a friendly relationship with another mammal. (wikipedia.org)
- Now we have a mammal as a starting point for further study of the lineage of all mammals, humans included. (redorbit.com)
- Most mammals living today are Eutherians including humans. (paleodirect.com)
- Many such mammals have learned to not only survive but thrive when living close to humans in desert communities. (livescience.com)
- Most modern mammals-including ourselves-are placentals, in which the developing young are nurtured inside the uterus. (newscientist.com)
- However, our findings were that therian mammals, the ancestors of most modern mammals, were already diversifying considerably before the extinction event and the event also had a considerably negative impact on mammal diversity. (uncommondescent.com)
- Modern endothermic mammals and ectotherms, such as alligators and crocodiles, generally have significant differences in average body temperatures. (pnas.org)
- The acquisition of endothermy, the ability to maintain high and stable body temperatures through internal heat production, is a major physiological change that occurred at an unknown stage during the evolutionary transition to mammals and birds from their ancestors among the nonmammalian therapsids and nonavian dinosaurs, respectively ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
- As a result, biting kinematics would be congruent with biting behavior reported for their terrestrial ancestors, thus providing additional evidence that raptorial biting is a conserved behavior even in recently aquatic mammals. (biologists.org)
- Primarily aquatic mammals such as seals, etc., have much more ungainly gaits. (earthlife.net)
- This group of Mesozoic mammals were the most diverse in size ranging from a very small mouse to a beaver. (paleodirect.com)
- Complete isolated teeth from these tiny Mesozoic mammals are rare enough but the discovery of a partial or. (paleodirect.com)
- During the Mesozoic, mammals were small," said Gittleman. (bio-medicine.org)
- The goal of this study is to evaluate the state of preservation of the fossil mammal material for carbonate isotopic investigations and to draw some first conclusions on the palaeoenvironment inhabited by these early hominins in south-east Africa in order to improve our knowledge about their environmental distribution and constraints. (scielo.org.za)
- Once dinosaurs went extinct, mammals evolved to be much larger as they diversified to fill ecological niches that became available. (bio-medicine.org)
- The talonid basin is unlike anything you would expect of a primitive placental mammal," says Alfred Crompton of Harvard University. (newscientist.com)
- Rodhocetus had well-developed hind limbs (although only the thighbone, or femur, has been preserved), but unlike land mammals, Rodhocetus did not have its vertebrae in the pelvic region fused together into a sacrum . (berkeley.edu)
- Most terrestrial mammals can jump or leap, but some use this form of locomotion far more regularly than others. (earthlife.net)
- For most terrestrial mammals, swimming involves walking in the water. (earthlife.net)
- TOOTHY TALES Fossilized teeth from the newly identified Epirigenys lokonensis suggest that living hippos evolved from the first wave of large terrestrial mammals to invade Africa. (sciencenews.org)
- Mammals inhabit every terrestrial biome, from deserts to tropical rainforests to polar icecaps. (eol.org)
- 2015. Stress physiology in marine mammals: How well do they fit the terrestrial model? (nap.edu)
- A comparison of the diﬀerent tooth shapes and types allows conclusions to be drawn about the various sources of nutrition as well as the feeding and hunting behaviour of omnivores (pigs, dogs), carnivores (cats) and herbivores (cows, rabbits, rats). (3bscientific.com)
- Later in the Mesozoic , after theropod dinosaurs replaced rauisuchians as the dominant carnivores, mammals spread into other ecological niches . (wikipedia.org)
- All mammals of the large order Carnivora are carnivores or "meat-eaters" although not all carnivores just eat meat. (paleodirect.com)
- As made famous by an ice age cat, saber teeth are long, flat canine teeth with cutting edges - different from the thick tusks of a walrus - more often found in now-extinct carnivores than in herbivores. (howstuffworks.com)
- So we interpreted it to be a tree-climbing insectivorous mammal hunting insects for living," the Carnegie Museum researcher told BBC News. (bbc.co.uk)
- So, but the thing to note about a reptile which is different from mammals is that all the teeth are generally shaped the same, and that's called un-differentiated teeth. (coursera.org)
- The result of this is that a mammal moves its legs backwards and forwards beneath its body, whereas a reptile has its legs stuck out to the side. (earthlife.net)
- In situ cast of the early Permian Mammal like reptile. (angelfire.com)
- A few horses have one to four wolf teeth, which are vestigial premolars, with most of those having only one or two. (wikipedia.org)
- A large opossum-sized creature called Repenomamus (a mammal) was discovered in China with a juvenile Psittacosaurus (a dinosaur) undigested in its stomach. (answersingenesis.org)
- Dimetrodon is not a direct ancestor to today's mammals, she adds, but is a very distant cousin. (csmonitor.com)
- Details aside, the difference in teeth of Juramaia allow us to identify it as belonging to the eutherian lineage. (bbc.co.uk)
Evolutionary history of mammals1
- This basic but incredibly flexible tool kit evolved early in the evolutionary history of mammals. (amnh.org)
- The small mammal would have lived in southern Patagonia during the late Cretaceous era, alongside dinosaurs, crocodiles, turtles and birds, according to an article published in the bulletin of the Natural History Museum of Chile. (reuters.com)
- Throughout the era of dinosaurs ruling the planet, mammals only existed as small shrew-like creatures. (paleodirect.com)
- What is not commonly known is that during the age of the dinosaurs, small mammals were present scampering about the land no larger than your typical mouse or rat. (paleodirect.com)
- A small, 160-million-year-old Chinese fossil has something big to say about the emergence of mammals on Earth. (bbc.co.uk)
- The old hypothesis hinged upon the fact that many of the early mammal fossils that had been found were from small, insect-eating animals - there didn't seem to be much in the way of diversity. (uncommondescent.com)
- Tree hyraxes are small nocturnal mammals that feed on leaves and fruits and are native to Africa. (thehindu.com)
- This example was upsetting for evolutionists since they had previously presumed that the "early" mammals had been small and herbivorous. (answersingenesis.org)
- 4 In other words, mammals weren't just small and herbivorous as evolutionists had predicted they were. (answersingenesis.org)
- The small collection of teeth attributed to the animal - a creature primarily represented by the back portion of a skull - corresponded to the mesonychid type. (nationalgeographic.com)
- The tooth is small and incomplete: the roots are missing," said paleontologist Mariela Cordeiro de Castro, first author of the paper recently published in Royal Society Open Science . (eurasiareview.com)
- We were visiting Mesozoic outcrops when Júlio Marsola [another member of the team], keen-sighted as a lynx, spotted a small tooth sticking up out of a rock," said Castro, a professor at the Federal University of Goiás (UFG). (eurasiareview.com)
- I bent down to look more closely at a small part of the outcrop to see if there were any eggshells and spotted the tooth. (eurasiareview.com)
- Over millions of years of isolation, exceptional and sometimes bizarre mammals evolved on islands, such as pig-sized elephants and hippos, giant rats and gorilla-sized lemurs. (andrewisles.com)
- Pouches, pockets and sacs in the heads, necks and chests of mammals, part II: elephants have a pouch in the throat. (scienceblogs.com)
- All major mammal groups including elephants, cats and horses were included. (abc.net.au)
- Interestingly, tree hyraxes are relatives of elephants and even have little tusk-like teeth. (thehindu.com)
- It is the southernmost record of Gondwanatheria, a group of long-extinct early mammals that co-existed with dinosaurs. (reuters.com)
- Paleontologists at the University of Bonn have succeeded in reconstructing the chewing motion of an early mammal that lived almost 150 million years ago. (uni-bonn.de)
- Play is a kind of early learning period in which, according to one theory,  mammals develop skills which they will need in life. (wikipedia.org)
- The new fossils provide a sort of Rosetta Stone for understanding the genealogy of early South American mammals, and how they fit in with those known from northern landmasses," said Cifelli, who has spent his career discovering and identifying mammal remains. (redorbit.com)
- These early mammals never gained a dominant presence and broad diversity until the Miocene Period, 15 million years ago. (paleodirect.com)
- An interesting trait that early mammals developed is teeth with multiple cusps. (paleodirect.com)
- However, over the years, more and more early mammals have been found, including some hoofed animal predecessors the size of dogs. (uncommondescent.com)
- Plainly and simply, good oral hygiene begins at home and it begins early--soon after the first primary tooth erupts. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Carnassial teeth are present. (com.pk)
- These unusual mammals also lack sweat glands. (enchantedlearning.com)
Dinosaurs went extinct1
- It wasn't until the dinosaurs went extinct 65 million years ago that larger mammals appeared. (mixbook.com)