Technology: The application of scientific knowledge to practical purposes in any field. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation.Brain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.Brain Injuries: Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.Biomedical Technology: The application of technology to the solution of medical problems.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Technology Assessment, Biomedical: Evaluation of biomedical technology in relation to cost, efficacy, utilization, etc., and its future impact on social, ethical, and legal systems.Technology Transfer: Spread and adoption of inventions and techniques from one geographic area to another, from one discipline to another, or from one sector of the economy to another. For example, improvements in medical equipment may be transferred from industrial countries to developing countries, advances arising from aerospace engineering may be applied to equipment for persons with disabilities, and innovations in science arising from government research are made available to private enterprise.Brain Edema: Increased intracellular or extracellular fluid in brain tissue. Cytotoxic brain edema (swelling due to increased intracellular fluid) is indicative of a disturbance in cell metabolism, and is commonly associated with hypoxic or ischemic injuries (see HYPOXIA, BRAIN). An increase in extracellular fluid may be caused by increased brain capillary permeability (vasogenic edema), an osmotic gradient, local blockages in interstitial fluid pathways, or by obstruction of CSF flow (e.g., obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS). (From Childs Nerv Syst 1992 Sep; 8(6):301-6)Brain Stem: The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Brain Ischemia: Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Brain Abscess: A circumscribed collection of purulent exudate in the brain, due to bacterial and other infections. The majority are caused by spread of infected material from a focus of suppuration elsewhere in the body, notably the PARANASAL SINUSES, middle ear (see EAR, MIDDLE); HEART (see also ENDOCARDITIS, BACTERIAL), and LUNG. Penetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA and NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES may also be associated with this condition. Clinical manifestations include HEADACHE; SEIZURES; focal neurologic deficits; and alterations of consciousness. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp712-6)Medical Laboratory Science: The specialty related to the performance of techniques in clinical pathology such as those in hematology, microbiology, and other general clinical laboratory applications.Educational Technology: Systematic identification, development, organization, or utilization of educational resources and the management of these processes. It is occasionally used also in a more limited sense to describe the use of equipment-oriented techniques or audiovisual aids in educational settings. (Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, December 1993, p132)Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Technology, Dental: The field of dentistry involved in procedures for designing and constructing dental appliances. It includes also the application of any technology to the field of dentistry.Blood-Brain Barrier: Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.Hypoxia, Brain: A reduction in brain oxygen supply due to ANOXEMIA (a reduced amount of oxygen being carried in the blood by HEMOGLOBIN), or to a restriction of the blood supply to the brain, or both. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Technology, High-Cost: Advanced technology that is costly, requires highly skilled personnel, and is unique in its particular application. Includes innovative, specialized medical/surgical procedures as well as advanced diagnostic and therapeutic equipment.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Brain Damage, Chronic: A condition characterized by long-standing brain dysfunction or damage, usually of three months duration or longer. Potential etiologies include BRAIN INFARCTION; certain NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ANOXIA, BRAIN; ENCEPHALITIS; certain NEUROTOXICITY SYNDROMES; metabolic disorders (see BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC); and other conditions.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Medical Informatics: The field of information science concerned with the analysis and dissemination of medical data through the application of computers to various aspects of health care and medicine.Reproductive Techniques, Assisted: Clinical and laboratory techniques used to enhance fertility in humans and animals.Brain Infarction: Tissue NECROSIS in any area of the brain, including the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Brain infarction is the result of a cascade of events initiated by inadequate blood flow through the brain that is followed by HYPOXIA and HYPOGLYCEMIA in brain tissue. Damage may be temporary, permanent, selective or pan-necrosis.Deep Brain Stimulation: Therapy for MOVEMENT DISORDERS, especially PARKINSON DISEASE, that applies electricity via stereotactic implantation of ELECTRODES in specific areas of the BRAIN such as the THALAMUS. The electrodes are attached to a neurostimulator placed subcutaneously.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Biotechnology: Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Nerve Tissue ProteinsDisease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Technology, Pharmaceutical: The application of scientific knowledge or technology to pharmacy and the pharmaceutical industry. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation in the manufacture, preparation, compounding, dispensing, packaging, and storing of drugs and other preparations used in diagnostic and determinative procedures, and in the treatment of patients.Telemedicine: Delivery of health services via remote telecommunications. This includes interactive consultative and diagnostic services.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Self-Help Devices: Devices, not affixed to the body, designed to help persons having musculoskeletal or neuromuscular disabilities to perform activities involving movement.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Technology, Radiologic: The application of scientific knowledge or technology to the field of radiology. The applications center mostly around x-ray or radioisotopes for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes but the technological applications of any radiation or radiologic procedure is within the scope of radiologic technology.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Medical Informatics Applications: Automated systems applied to the patient care process including diagnosis, therapy, and systems of communicating medical data within the health care setting.Alzheimer Disease: A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)Mice, Inbred C57BLGenomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing: Techniques of nucleotide sequence analysis that increase the range, complexity, sensitivity, and accuracy of results by greatly increasing the scale of operations and thus the number of nucleotides, and the number of copies of each nucleotide sequenced. The sequencing may be done by analysis of the synthesis or ligation products, hybridization to preexisting sequences, etc.Diffusion of Innovation: The broad dissemination of new ideas, procedures, techniques, materials, and devices and the degree to which these are accepted and used.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Wireless Technology: Techniques using energy such as radio frequency, infrared light, laser light, visible light, or acoustic energy to transfer information without the use of wires, over both short and long distances.Brain Waves: Wave-like oscillations of electric potential between parts of the brain recorded by EEG.Proteomics: The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.Cellular Phone: Analog or digital communications device in which the user has a wireless connection from a telephone to a nearby transmitter. It is termed cellular because the service area is divided into multiple "cells." As the user moves from one cell area to another, the call is transferred to the local transmitter.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Cerebellum: The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Astrocytes: A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Food Technology: The application of knowledge to the food industry.Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Information Systems: Integrated set of files, procedures, and equipment for the storage, manipulation, and retrieval of information.Nerve Net: A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Brain Injury, Chronic: Conditions characterized by persistent brain damage or dysfunction as sequelae of cranial trauma. This disorder may result from DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; BRAIN EDEMA; and other conditions. Clinical features may include DEMENTIA; focal neurologic deficits; PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE; AKINETIC MUTISM; or COMA.Glioma: Benign and malignant central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells (i.e., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymocytes). Astrocytes may give rise to astrocytomas (ASTROCYTOMA) or glioblastoma multiforme (see GLIOBLASTOMA). Oligodendrocytes give rise to oligodendrogliomas (OLIGODENDROGLIOMA) and ependymocytes may undergo transformation to become EPENDYMOMA; CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS; or colloid cysts of the third ventricle. (From Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p21)Telecommunications: Transmission of information over distances via electronic means.Diagnostic Imaging: Any visual display of structural or functional patterns of organs or tissues for diagnostic evaluation. It includes measuring physiologic and metabolic responses to physical and chemical stimuli, as well as ultramicroscopy.Computer Systems: Systems composed of a computer or computers, peripheral equipment, such as disks, printers, and terminals, and telecommunications capabilities.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.United StatesCells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Computer Communication Networks: A system containing any combination of computers, computer terminals, printers, audio or visual display devices, or telephones interconnected by telecommunications equipment or cables: used to transmit or receive information. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Neuroimaging: Non-invasive methods of visualizing the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the brain, by various imaging modalities.Atrophy: Decrease in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or multiple organs, associated with a variety of pathological conditions such as abnormal cellular changes, ischemia, malnutrition, or hormonal changes.Frontal Lobe: The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.Brain Concussion: A nonspecific term used to describe transient alterations or loss of consciousness following closed head injuries. The duration of UNCONSCIOUSNESS generally lasts a few seconds, but may persist for several hours. Concussions may be classified as mild, intermediate, and severe. Prolonged periods of unconsciousness (often defined as greater than 6 hours in duration) may be referred to as post-traumatic coma (COMA, POST-HEAD INJURY). (From Rowland, Merritt's Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p418)Protein Array Analysis: Ligand-binding assays that measure protein-protein, protein-small molecule, or protein-nucleic acid interactions using a very large set of capturing molecules, i.e., those attached separately on a solid support, to measure the presence or interaction of target molecules in the sample.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Encephalitis: Inflammation of the BRAIN due to infection, autoimmune processes, toxins, and other conditions. Viral infections (see ENCEPHALITIS, VIRAL) are a relatively frequent cause of this condition.Attitude to Computers: The attitude and behavior associated with an individual using the computer.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Systems Integration: The procedures involved in combining separately developed modules, components, or subsystems so that they work together as a complete system. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Cerebral Ventricles: Four CSF-filled (see CEREBROSPINAL FLUID) cavities within the cerebral hemispheres (LATERAL VENTRICLES), in the midline (THIRD VENTRICLE) and within the PONS and MEDULLA OBLONGATA (FOURTH VENTRICLE).Neuroprotective Agents: Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Neuroglia: The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.Drug Delivery Systems: Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.Amyloid beta-Peptides: Peptides generated from AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES PRECURSOR. An amyloid fibrillar form of these peptides is the major component of amyloid plaques found in individuals with Alzheimer's disease and in aged individuals with trisomy 21 (DOWN SYNDROME). The peptide is found predominantly in the nervous system, but there have been reports of its presence in non-neural tissue.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Computers, Handheld: A type of MICROCOMPUTER, sometimes called a personal digital assistant, that is very small and portable and fitting in a hand. They are convenient to use in clinical and other field situations for quick data management. They usually require docking with MICROCOMPUTERS for updates.Autoradiography: The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Nanotechnology: The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.Natriuretic Peptide, Brain: A PEPTIDE that is secreted by the BRAIN and the HEART ATRIA, stored mainly in cardiac ventricular MYOCARDIUM. It can cause NATRIURESIS; DIURESIS; VASODILATION; and inhibits secretion of RENIN and ALDOSTERONE. It improves heart function. It contains 32 AMINO ACIDS.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Stereotaxic Techniques: Techniques used mostly during brain surgery which use a system of three-dimensional coordinates to locate the site to be operated on.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Medical Records Systems, Computerized: Computer-based systems for input, storage, display, retrieval, and printing of information contained in a patient's medical record.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Image Enhancement: Improvement of the quality of a picture by various techniques, including computer processing, digital filtering, echocardiographic techniques, light and ultrastructural MICROSCOPY, fluorescence spectrometry and microscopy, scintigraphy, and in vitro image processing at the molecular level.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Biosensing Techniques: Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Central Nervous System: The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.Neurosciences: The scientific disciplines concerned with the embryology, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology, etc., of the nervous system.Brain Diseases, Metabolic: Acquired or inborn metabolic diseases that produce brain dysfunction or damage. These include primary (i.e., disorders intrinsic to the brain) and secondary (i.e., extracranial) metabolic conditions that adversely affect cerebral function.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Miniaturization: The design or construction of objects greatly reduced in scale.Robotics: The application of electronic, computerized control systems to mechanical devices designed to perform human functions. Formerly restricted to industry, but nowadays applied to artificial organs controlled by bionic (bioelectronic) devices, like automated insulin pumps and other prostheses.Forecasting: The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Corpus Striatum: Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.Neuronal Plasticity: The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Microfluidics: The study of fluid channels and chambers of tiny dimensions of tens to hundreds of micrometers and volumes of nanoliters or picoliters. This is of interest in biological MICROCIRCULATION and used in MICROCHEMISTRY and INVESTIGATIVE TECHNIQUES.Memory: Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.Equipment Failure Analysis: The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.Thalamus: Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Dopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Automatic Data Processing: Data processing largely performed by automatic means.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.Transcriptome: The pattern of GENE EXPRESSION at the level of genetic transcription in a specific organism or under specific circumstances in specific cells.Glioblastoma: A malignant form of astrocytoma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemorrhage, and necrosis. They may arise in any region of the central nervous system, with a predilection for the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, and commissural pathways. Clinical presentation most frequently occurs in the fifth or sixth decade of life with focal neurologic signs or seizures.Astrocytoma: Neoplasms of the brain and spinal cord derived from glial cells which vary from histologically benign forms to highly anaplastic and malignant tumors. Fibrillary astrocytomas are the most common type and may be classified in order of increasing malignancy (grades I through IV). In the first two decades of life, astrocytomas tend to originate in the cerebellar hemispheres; in adults, they most frequently arise in the cerebrum and frequently undergo malignant transformation. (From Devita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2013-7; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1082)Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein: An intermediate filament protein found only in glial cells or cells of glial origin. MW 51,000.ComputersDNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Prefrontal Cortex: The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Proteome: The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.Neurogenesis: Formation of NEURONS which involves the differentiation and division of STEM CELLS in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.Tomography, Emission-Computed: Tomography using radioactive emissions from injected RADIONUCLIDES and computer ALGORITHMS to reconstruct an image.History, 21st Century: Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.Genome, Human: The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Microcomputers: Small computers using LSI (large-scale integration) microprocessor chips as the CPU (central processing unit) and semiconductor memories for compact, inexpensive storage of program instructions and data. They are smaller and less expensive than minicomputers and are usually built into a dedicated system where they are optimized for a particular application. "Microprocessor" may refer to just the CPU or the entire microcomputer.Brain Tissue Transplantation: Transference of brain tissue, either from a fetus or from a born individual, between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.Hospital Information Systems: Integrated, computer-assisted systems designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information concerned with the administrative and clinical aspects of providing medical services within the hospital.Reproductive Techniques: Methods pertaining to the generation of new individuals, including techniques used in selective BREEDING, cloning (CLONING, ORGANISM), and assisted reproduction (REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, ASSISTED).Information Management: Management of the acquisition, organization, storage, retrieval, and dissemination of information. (From Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, 1994)Microfluidic Analytical Techniques: Methods utilizing the principles of MICROFLUIDICS for sample handling, reagent mixing, and separation and detection of specific components in fluids.Sequence Analysis, RNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, sequencing, and information analysis of an RNA SEQUENCE.Prosencephalon: The anterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain arising from the NEURAL TUBE. It subdivides to form DIENCEPHALON and TELENCEPHALON. (Stedmans Medical Dictionary, 27th ed)Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.Cerebral Infarction: The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted: Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.Computer-Assisted Instruction: A self-learning technique, usually online, involving interaction of the student with programmed instructional materials.Behavior: The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.High-Throughput Screening Assays: Rapid methods of measuring the effects of an agent in a biological or chemical assay. The assay usually involves some form of automation or a way to conduct multiple assays at the same time using sample arrays.Neurodegenerative Diseases: Hereditary and sporadic conditions which are characterized by progressive nervous system dysfunction. These disorders are often associated with atrophy of the affected central or peripheral nervous system structures.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Septum of Brain: GRAY MATTER structures of the telencephalon and LIMBIC SYSTEM in the brain, but containing widely varying definitions among authors. Included here is the cortical septal area, subcortical SEPTAL NUCLEI, and the SEPTUM PELLUCIDUM.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Anatomy, Artistic: The study of the structures of organisms for applications in art: drawing, painting, sculpture, illustration, etc.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Seizures: Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."
  • As part of the Human Brain Project, an international team of researchers led by German and Canadian scientists has produced a three-dimensional atlas of the brain that has 50 times the resolution of previous such maps. (technologyreview.com)
  • Advances could come from new techniques that allow scientists to see the arrangement of cells and nerve fibers inside intact brain tissue at very high resolution. (technologyreview.com)
  • And a technique called Clarity, developed in the lab of Karl Deisseroth, a neuroscientist and bioengineer at Stanford University, allows scientists to directly see the structures of neurons and circuitry in an intact brain. (technologyreview.com)
  • In the journal Nature Photonics , scientists from the School of Medicine at Washington University in St. Louis (WUSTL), MO, report how they benchmarked the new technology - called diffuse optical tomography or DOT - against functional MRI (fMRI). (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Scientists have been developing DOT for more than 10 years, but its use has mostly been limited to research, as it has only been able to scan small regions of the brain at a time. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Because of this, scientists cannot use the scanners to unearth links between movement and brain activity. (eurekalert.org)
  • There are so many possibilities," said Brefczynski-Lewis, "Scientists could use AMPET to study Alzheimer's or traumatic brain injuries, or even our sense of balance. (eurekalert.org)
  • I note that scientists recently reported attaching brain cells directly to microchips. (halfbakery.com)
  • Some of the projects resulting from the 2013 government brain map initiative, according to the MIT Technology Review, have the potential to help scientists and physicians gain a better understanding of brain activities. (reference.com)
  • Scientists have made brain cells from human pee. (livescience.com)
  • Next, the scientists injected new genetic instructions to reprogram cells to become brain cells. (livescience.com)
  • Synaptive Medical, a Toronto based company has a talented team of scientists and engineers specifically committed to the development of neurosurgical technologies and therapies. (prnewswire.com)
  • Leading scientists in integrating and visualizing the explosion of information about the brain will convene at a conference commemorating the 10th anniversary of the Human Brain Project (HBP). (news-medical.net)
  • Through the HBP, federal agencies fund a system of web-based databases and research tools that help brain scientists share and integrate their raw, primary research data. (news-medical.net)
  • Within the EU research project "Hybrid MEG-MRI imaging system", scientists at the Aalto University in Helsinki have developed a prototype which combines MEG (magnetoencephalography) and MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) technologies for the first time, producing simultaneous functional and structural images of the brain. (europa.eu)
  • His group continues to mine the natural world for new and even more powerful tools to manipulate brain cell activity - tools that, he hopes, will empower scientists to explore neural circuits in ways never before possible. (photonics.com)
  • Limiting the time kids spend on smartphones to under two hours a day boosts their brain power, scientists found. (thesun.co.uk)
  • The findings enhance scientists' understanding of the forces driving alertness, a brain state that's essential to survival, by showing that diverse cell types throughout the brain together produce this state. (eurekalert.org)
  • Scientists, including one of Indian origin, have for the first time identified a brain hormone that triggers fat burning in the gut, an advance that could have implications for future drug development. (indianexpress.com)
  • Scientists back then believed this was a hormone that connected the brain to the gut, but no one had linked the neuropeptide to fat metabolism in the time since. (indianexpress.com)
  • Budding scientists and engineers will today meet Brains the world s most advanced animated robot at the Big Bang science and engineering fair for young people at the Queen Elizabeth II Conference Centre, London, 4-6 March 2009. (webwire.com)
  • Charitable scientists have scolded a number of celebrities for endorsing Nintendo DS games like Brain Training, in a new report. (bit-tech.net)
  • The scientists from the University of Michigan, Comprehensive Cancer Center, say that the new technology will measure the water movement in the brain to assess the treatment. (medindia.net)
  • Scientists at Duke Medicine have used ultra high-resolution MRI imaging to produce a 3-D model of the brain stem that offers unprecedented detail of neuronal circuitry that could be used to target treatments for conditions such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. (newswise.com)
  • An astonishing number of things that scientists know about brains and behavior are based on small groups of highly educated, mostly white people between the ages of 18 and 21. (sott.net)
  • The results provide a strong argument for scientists to pay more attention to who, exactly, they're studying in their brain imaging experiments. (sott.net)
  • She wondered whether the sampling used in brain imaging studies might affect the results scientists were seeing. (sott.net)
  • To understand her unique vision, scientists at the Western University's Brain and Mind Institute in Canada conducted tests including functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) to examine the real-time structure and workings of her brain. (indianexpress.com)
  • The scientists actually tested two other kinds of brain training too. (sci-tech-today.com)
  • When discovered early enough, brain tumors are usually treatable. (kidshealth.org)
  • There are many different types of brain tumors. (kidshealth.org)
  • Primary brain tumors start in the brain. (kidshealth.org)
  • Secondary brain tumors are made up of cells that have metastasized to the brain from somewhere else in the body. (kidshealth.org)
  • In children, most brain tumors are primary. (kidshealth.org)
  • Medulloblastomas or primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) are cancerous, high-grade tumors that start in the posterior fossa, a part of the brain near the base of the skull. (kidshealth.org)
  • Craniopharyngiomas are non-cancerous tumors that form at the base of the brain near the pituitary gland. (kidshealth.org)
  • Germ cell tumors usually form in the testes or ovaries but can also form in the brain and central nervous system. (kidshealth.org)
  • Some kids who have certain genetic conditions have a greater chance of developing brain tumors. (kidshealth.org)
  • Diseases like neurofibromatosis , von Hippel-Lindau disease, and Li-Fraumeni syndrome are all associated with a higher risk of brain tumors. (kidshealth.org)
  • Because symptoms might develop gradually and can be like those of other common childhood conditions, brain tumors can be difficult to diagnose. (kidshealth.org)
  • The ability to diagnose brain tumors in vivo and reliably identify tumor margins in the course of resection are two innovations that could impact the neurosurgical oncologist's ability to maximize resection and minimize morbidity. (springer.com)
  • Intraoperative confocal microscopy is an emerging and practicable technology for the resection of human brain tumors. (springer.com)
  • Dowling C, Bollen AW, Noworolski SM, McDermott MW, Barbaro NM, Day MR et al (2001) Preoperative proton MR spectroscopic imaging of brain tumors: correlation with histopathologic analysis of resection specimens. (springer.com)
  • Eschbacher J, Martirosyan NL, Nakaji P, Sanai N, Preul MC, Smith KA et al (2012) In vivo intraoperative confocal microscopy for real-time histopathological imaging of brain tumors. (springer.com)
  • Unlike other stem cell technologies, the pee-based brain cells didn't form tumors when implanted into rats. (livescience.com)
  • With better visualization for the surgeons, this new technology will help treat and remove tumors deep inside the brain,' said Gavin Britz, M.D ., chairman of neurosurgery at Houston Methodist Neurological Institute . (prnewswire.com)
  • AutoLITT - Offering new hope to patients with previously inoperable brain tumors. (prweb.com)
  • Cleveland Clinic's Rose Ella Burkhardt Brain Tumor and Neuro-Oncology Center announces the availability of AutoLITT™ advanced laser technology treatment for brain tumors . (prweb.com)
  • AutoLITT now offers patients with previously inoperable brain tumors, such as glioblastomas, a minimally invasive surgical treatment option known as laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT). (prweb.com)
  • Treating patients with tumors and lesions in delicate areas of the brain and spine has traditionally presented risks and challenges. (legacyhealth.org)
  • However, Legacy Health neurosurgeons have advanced technology to expand our ability to treat previously inoperable lesions and tumors. (legacyhealth.org)
  • With the BrightMatter technology, patients with tumors, lesions and strokes in delicate areas of the brain and spine can now benefit with safer and more efficient procedures, shorter hospital stays and better preservation of critically important brain functions. (legacyhealth.org)
  • Legacy Cancer Institute treats brain tumors by using these ultra-precise technologies along with stereotactic radiosurgery and other precision radiation therapies. (legacyhealth.org)
  • 2 The gold standard treatment for brain tumors is based on a multidisciplinary approach applying surgery followed by radiotherapy with or without concurrent and adjuvant chemotherapy. (zeiss.com)
  • Intraoperative radiation therapy for brain tumors is a pragmatic approach to sterilize the margins from persistent tumor cells, abrogate post-injury proliferative stimuli and to bridge the therapeutic gap between surgery and radiochemotherapy. (zeiss.com)
  • Intraoperative radiotherapy using mobile miniture X-ray source in malignant brain tumors. (zeiss.com)
  • Benign brain tumors originate from cells within or surrounding the brain, do not contain cancer cells, grow slowly, and typically have clear borders that do not spread into other tissue. (kxan.com)
  • Even though benign tumors rarely develop into metastatic (cancerous or spreading) tumors, they can be life-threatening because they can compress brain tissue and other structures inside the skull. (kxan.com)
  • Malignant brain tumors contain cancer cells and often do not have clear borders. (kxan.com)
  • Tumors that start in cells of the brain are called primary brain tumors. (kxan.com)
  • Primary brain tumors may spread to other parts of the brain or to the spine, but rarely to other organs. (kxan.com)
  • Metastatic or secondary brain tumors begin in another part of the body and then spread to the brain. (kxan.com)
  • Metastatic tumors are more common than primary brain tumors and are named by the location in which they begin. (kxan.com)
  • Brain tumors are often treated by the CyberKnife® Robotic Radiosurgery System at Austin CyberKnife. (kxan.com)
  • Numerous clinical studies have shown that CyberKnife is an effective treatment option for brain cancer and noncancerous brain tumors, while carrying an extremely low likelihood of negative side effects. (kxan.com)
  • Broadening the awareness of CyberKnife as a treatment option for those with brain tumors who choose not to undergo surgery, or who are not good surgical candidates due to age, health, or other reasons, benefits that patient because it lets them know there is another treatment option, while keeping their current neurosurgeon, who they know and trust, involved in their case. (kxan.com)
  • The concept is rooted in a promising new area of research, called targeted neuroplasticity training, in which activating peripheral nerves -- those outside of the brain and spinal cord -- can promote and strengthen connections of neurons in the brain. (eurekalert.org)
  • During learning, those chemicals, known as neuromodulators, regulate changes in the connections between neurons in the brain -- and brain function improves. (eurekalert.org)
  • The 2005 tool, now widely used, involves a light-activated ion channel, ChR2, that allows light to selectively turn on neurons in the brain. (photonics.com)
  • Distinct from their more binary cousins -- some 98 percent of neurons in the brain act by either exciting or inhibiting downstream neurons -- clusters of neuromodulatory neurons send out projections that branch throughout the brain and act less like on/off switches than like colors on an artist's palate. (eurekalert.org)
  • She showed that FLP-7 was indeed secreted from neurons in the brain in response to elevated serotonin levels. (indianexpress.com)
  • Amunts is developing one such technique, which uses polarized light to reconstruct three--dimensional structures of nerve fibers in brain tissue. (technologyreview.com)
  • The brain, like any other tissue, is usually opaque because the fats in its cells block light. (technologyreview.com)
  • Light transmitted through the head changes color as it passes through brain tissue with different amounts of blood rush, and DOT picks up the dynamic changes in the colors. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Brainstem gliomas form in the tissue of the brainstem, the part of the brain that connects to the spine. (kidshealth.org)
  • A magnetic resonance imaging or MRI is a test that generates images of the brain and adjacent tissue by use of radio waves and magnetic fields, states Medl. (reference.com)
  • This is done using special intra-operative MRI techniques that measure the temperature and show what part of the tumor is really "cooked" while allowing nearby normal brain tissue to be spared. (prweb.com)
  • NDT107 kit is suitable for 4% PFA perfused brains with the optimal preservation of antigenicity of the tissue, which can be co-localized with the iimmunoreactive proteins of interest and Golgi-impregnated neurons. (google.com)
  • A brain tumor is an abnormal growth of tissue in the brain or central spine that can disrupt proper brain function. (kxan.com)
  • They are considered to be life threatening because they grow rapidly and invade surrounding brain tissue. (kxan.com)
  • Using a new method called CLARITY (Clear Lipid-exchanged Acrylamide-hybridized Rigid Imaging/Immunostaining/In situ hybridization-compatible Tissue-hYdrogel), optogeneticist Dr. Karl Deisseroth and a multidisciplinary team have imaged the neurological wiring in a mouse's brain. (photonics.com)
  • We thought that if we could remove the lipids nondestructively, we might be able to get both light and macromolecules to penetrate deep into tissue, allowing not only 3-D imaging, but also 3-D molecular analysis of the intact brain," Deisseroth said. (photonics.com)
  • Then, after the fish's brain tissue was preserved with a fixative without altering relative positions of cells within the fish's head, we could target those neurons with molecular probes and determine their cell types. (eurekalert.org)
  • Dr. Shai Efrati, a member of TAU's Sackler Faculty of Medicine, theorized that high levels of oxygen could reinvigorate dormant neurons in brain tissue chronically damaged by stroke, traumatic brain injury and metabolic disorder. (israelnationalnews.com)
  • At age 14, Aimee Buckley underwent resective brain surgery removing part of her brain tissue, but to no avail. (ksl.com)
  • Functional mapping is performed during the operation, allowing the removal of as much of the abnormal tissue as possible without damaging brain function. (technion.ac.il)
  • The researcher used technology so advanced it was like looking for differences in brain tissue with floodlights rather than a flashlight, he said. (webwire.com)
  • Hemby and his colleagues analyzed thousands of proteins from brain tissue obtained from individuals who died of cocaine overdose and compared these protein profiles with individuals who died of non-drug related causes. (webwire.com)
  • Using post-mortem brain tissue samples from the Brain Endowment Bank at the University of Miami, the investigators analyzed protein expression in the nucleus accumbens, a part of the brain involved in the addictive effects of drugs, in 10 cocaine-overdose victims and 10 drug-free individuals. (webwire.com)
  • She is missing a piece of brain tissue about the size of an apple at the back of her brain - almost her entire occipital lobes, which process vision," said neuropsychologist Jody Culham, Professor at the varsity. (indianexpress.com)
  • capable of weaving the delicate threads throughout brain tissue without damaging blood vessels the neurosurgical robot inserts six threads (192 electrodes) per minute using a 24-micron needle. (designboom.com)
  • The Council, an independent body which looks at ethical issues raised by new developments in biology and medicine, wants to focus on three main areas of neurotechnologies that change the brain: brain-computer interfaces (BCIs), neurostimulation techniques such as deep brain stimulation (DBS) or transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), and neural stem cell therapy. (reuters.com)
  • Boston Scientific Corporation received FDA approval for the Vercise Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) System on December 8, 2017. (sages.org)
  • The ultimate goal of DARPA's program is the development of neural interfaces that would allow the brain to directly communicate with computers, and vice versa. (healthline.com)
  • With up to $9.85 million in funding from the U.S. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), Williams and neuroscience experts from around the country will develop a low-cost, easy-to-use system -- think "learning goggles" -- that aims to accelerate learning by stimulating nerves in the head and neck to boost neural activity in the brain. (eurekalert.org)
  • Williams is among the nation's leaders in neural interface technology research and optimization. (eurekalert.org)
  • Ultimately, they hope to use that knowledge to eventually develop a noninvasive, user-friendly technology that simultaneously delivers a stimulus, monitors neural response and dramatically accelerates learning. (eurekalert.org)
  • These tools will help us understand how to control neural circuits, leading to new understandings and treatments for brain disorders - some of the biggest unmet medical needs in the world. (photonics.com)
  • In this way, the brain can be programmed with different colors of light to identify and possibly correct the corrupted neural computations that lead to disease," explained co-author Brian Chow, postdoctoral associate in Boyden's lab. (photonics.com)
  • Boyden plans to use these super silencers to examine the neural circuits of cognition and emotion and to find targets in the brain that, when shut down, could relieve pain and treat epilepsy. (photonics.com)
  • By developing a novel decoding technology, a team of engineers and physicians at the University of Southern California (USC) and UC San Francisco have discovered how mood variations can be decoded from neural signals in the human brain--a process that has not been demonstrated to date. (news-medical.net)
  • To solve this challenge, we needed to develop new decoding methodologies that incorporate neural signals from distributed brain sites while dealing with infrequent opportunities to measure moods. (news-medical.net)
  • Traditionally, imaging organs like the brain involved a slicing or sectioning approach, which destroys long-distance neural connections. (photonics.com)
  • In preserving the full continuity of neuronal structures, it not only allows tracing of individual neural connections over long distances through the brain, but also provides a way to gather rich molecular information describing a cell's function that is not possible with other methods. (photonics.com)
  • This enabled the investigators to trace neural circuits through the entire brain and explore deeply into the nuances of local circuit wiring. (photonics.com)
  • We're eagerly awaiting results from DARPA's $65 million neural engineering program, which aims to develop a brain implant that can communicate digitally with the outside world. (scientificamerican.com)
  • The Excellence in Science PhD scholarship will be awarded to outstanding applicants interested in pursuing PhD studies in brain repair, neural stem cells and neurogenesis. (edu.au)
  • This month, CTO Matt Grob told an audience at a conference that by next year, Qualcomm would be taking on partners to start building chips that mimic the neural structures and processing methods of the brain. (aol.com)
  • In the newly discovered fat-burning pathway, a neural circuit in the brain produces serotonin in response to sensory cues, such as food availability. (indianexpress.com)
  • It was also assumed that the bigger the brain, the more space was taken up with the hardware for transmission in the form of longer, thicker and better insulated neural pathways. (sott.net)
  • however, none of the existing technologies fit neuralink's goal of directly reading neural spikes in a minimally invasive way. (designboom.com)
  • These technologies are already at various stages of development for use in the treatment of medical conditions including Parkinson's disease, depression and stroke, and experts think they could bring significant benefits, especially for patients with severe brain disease or damage. (reuters.com)
  • It is also ideal for patients with pacemakers, cochlear implants deep brain stimulators (used to treat Parkinson's diseases), and other implanted devices. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • DOT does not use radiation, so multiple scans over time could be used to monitor patients with brain injury, autism or progressive brain diseases such as Parkinson's. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The hope was that these brain cells could be used to treat diseases like Parkinson's and Alzheimer's. (livescience.com)
  • When targeted to specific neurons, these tools potentially could lead to new treatments for the abnormal brain activity associated with disorders such as chronic pain, epilepsy, brain injury and Parkinson's disease. (photonics.com)
  • CNRM director and leading neuroscientist, Professor Bryce Vissel, wants to develop new insights into how the brain encodes memory and controls movement, and discover ways to solve diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's that occur when things in the brain go wrong. (edu.au)
  • However, one of the new faculty will specialize in researching the mechanisms which cause brain diseases, such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. (mit.edu)
  • LOS ANGELES , July 16 /PRNewswire/ -- Human erythropoietin (EPO) is a potent neuroprotective agent for multiple brain disorders, including stroke, brain and spinal cord injury, and Parkinson's disease. (biospace.com)
  • To "write" to them, they would simulate normal brain activity through optogenetics, which involves projecting light patterns onto specific neurons to affect their behavior. (healthline.com)
  • For decades, studying the brain meant recording the sensory input and behavior from single cells or a group of cells, Isacoff told Healthline. (healthline.com)
  • Then optogenetics, developed in the early 2000s, made it possible to "play back" observed patterns to the brain to try to determine which patterns drive perception or behavior. (healthline.com)
  • Is it enough to read or write in one part of the brain, or do you need to do it in [all the places known to participate in a given behavior]? (healthline.com)
  • Like the Human Genome Project, the Human Brain Project is building shared databases in standardized digital form, integrating information from the level of the gene to the level of behavior. (news-medical.net)
  • Rashid wrote in a blog that it was "patterned after human brain behavior," allowing translations that can even retain a speaker's accent and intonation. (aol.com)
  • The technology is still a work in progress, but its sudden success rate is a direct result of abandoning the traditional pattern matching approach to speech translation, and instead patterning it after human brain behavior. (aol.com)
  • Boyden is the Benesse career development professor in the MIT Media Lab and an associate member of the McGovern Institute for Brain Research at MIT. (photonics.com)
  • The donation represents the second major gift MIT has received for brain research since early 2000, when McGovern made his landmark donation establishing the McGovern Institute for Brain Research. (mit.edu)
  • Cells intended to replace visual-processing areas of the brain, for example, need to be trained with signals similar to those sent by the eyes. (technologyreview.com)
  • In military applications, BCIs are being used to develop weapons or vehicles controlled remotely by brain signals, and there is big commercial scope in the gaming industry with the development of computer games controlled by people's thoughts. (reuters.com)
  • and then use those signals to operate a wheelchair or other piece of technology," he said. (reuters.com)
  • Large-scale brain signals were recorded from these electrodes in the volunteers across multiple days at UCSF, while they also intermittently reported their moods using a questionnaire. (news-medical.net)
  • Shanechi and her students, Omid Sani and Yuxiao Yang, used that data to develop a novel decoding technology that could predict mood variations over time from the brain signals in each human subject, a goal unachievable to date. (news-medical.net)
  • Raw brain signals were continuously recorded across distributed brain regions while the patients self-reported their moods through a tablet-based questionnaire. (news-medical.net)
  • Once the decoder was built, it measured the brain signals alone to predict mood variations in each patient over multiple days. (news-medical.net)
  • The firm is New York-based CTRL-labs, which is exploring technology to allow people to control computers using brain signals, by harnessing the signals our nerves send to our limbs, via a wristband. (yahoo.com)
  • In the winning study, Shaked Ron developed a system that enables ECoG mapping of brain activity while synchronizing between the assignment of tasks to the patient and recording of electrical signals from the cortex. (technion.ac.il)
  • Fitted with electrodes in their brains to capture signals for the computer to unravel, three rats were taught to move a robotic arm toward a target with just their thoughts. (techbriefs.com)
  • He and his team at California State University Dominguez Hills have found that when people spend time away from their phones, their brain signals the adrenal gland to produce a burst of the hormone cortisol. (edweek.org)
  • Nissan's pioneering Brain-to-Vehicle (B2V) technology interprets signals from the driver's brain to assist with driving and to help the vehicle's autonomous and manual systems learn from the driver. (tradearabia.com)
  • that is utterly critical" before any device can advance to human trials, said loren frank, a university of california, san francisco neuroscientist developing brain-computer interfaces. (designboom.com)
  • Chevillet joined in 2016 from Johns Hopkins, so 2018 could bring hints that the project is making progress toward turning thoughts into text at the hoped-for 100 words per minute, some 20 times faster than today's brain-machine interfaces. (scientificamerican.com)
  • If brain-computer interfaces are used to control military aircraft or weapons from far away, who takes ultimate responsibility for the actions? (reuters.com)
  • Kernel in Los Angeles, Elon Musk's Neuralink , Facebook , and other startups and tech giants are working on brain-computer interfaces. (healthline.com)
  • Brain-machine interfaces could someday be used routinely to help paralyzed patients and amputees control prosthetic limbs with just their thoughts. (techbriefs.com)
  • The status quo of brain-machine interfaces that are out there have static and fixed decoding algorithms, which assume a person thinks one way for all time," said Justin C. Sanchez, a UF assistant professor of pediatric neurology. (techbriefs.com)
  • MSNBC writes that advanced brain-computer interfaces that are entering human trials may allow patients with severe disabilities to control computerized devices with brain waves. (brainandspinalcord.org)
  • The new technology, involving a six-inch strip fitted inside the headgear, is now being used in preference to earlier technology that tracked eye movements, said Jurgens, who was appointed in 2016 after previous roles with companies including General Motors Corp. and Boeing Co. (information-management.com)
  • Professor Philip Low and his colleagues at Stanford in California have been working with the disabled British theoretical physicist to develop technology that would enable them to communicate with Hawking through brain waves, The Daily Telegraph reported Sunday. (terradaily.com)
  • We'd like to find a way to bypass his body, pretty much hack his brain," said Low, who invented the iBrain, which detects brain waves and communicates with them via computer. (terradaily.com)
  • Brain echoing turns brain waves into music and helps the brain repair itself. (kcra.com)
  • Bloomberg) -- Truck drivers employed by the world's biggest mining company are wearing baseball caps and hard helmets with sensors mounted inside to track their brain waves so they can get early warnings of fatigue and cut accidents. (information-management.com)
  • You can't fool this cap, because it's watching your brain waves and not looking at your eyes -- it's a much better technology," she said. (information-management.com)
  • Nissan will showcase a glimpse of its vision for the future of mobility including technology that reads a driver's brain waves to the world's best-selling electric vehicle at CES, running from January 9 to 12 in Las Vegas, USA. (tradearabia.com)
  • And in coming years, Europe's Human Brain Project will attempt to create a computational simulation of the human brain, while the U.S. BRAIN Initiative will try to create a wide-ranging picture of brain activity. (technologyreview.com)
  • Breakthrough A high-resolution map that shows structures of the human brain as small as 20 micrometers. (technologyreview.com)
  • At the start of the 20th century, a German neuroanatomist named Korbinian Brodmann parceled the human cortex into nearly 50 different areas by looking at the structure and organization of sections of brain under a microscope. (technologyreview.com)
  • LONDON (Reuters) - A British ethics group has launched a debate on the ethical dilemmas posed by new technologies that tap into the brain and could bring super-human strength, highly enhanced concentration or thought-controlled weaponry. (reuters.com)
  • An undated image of the human brain taken through scanning technology. (reuters.com)
  • These challenge us to think carefully about fundamental questions to do with the brain: What makes us human? (reuters.com)
  • The interaction with that many neurons is small, relative to the 86 billion neurons in the average human brain. (healthline.com)
  • We're building technology that will allow humanity to have access to the human brain for the first time," he said. (terradaily.com)
  • It has been tested during some brain surgery but the experiment can't go any further without doing it on live human. (halfbakery.com)
  • Further refinement of this technology may depend upon the approval of tumor-specific fluorescent contrast agents for human use. (springer.com)
  • The complexity of the human brain and how cells interact and communicate with one another has been an ongoing puzzle to some of the greatest scientist in the world, notes CNN. (reference.com)
  • An Australian company on Monday unveiled new computing technology that mimics how the human brain works, saying it could perform complex functions far more cheaply than today's conventional computers. (orlandosentinel.com)
  • We are also actively working to increase efficiency of ES cell chimera generation, optimize genetic backgrounds for manipulating gene expression and establish innovative RNAi knock-down technologies to model human genetic disease. (washington.edu)
  • These resources will ultimately help us better understand the connection between brain function and human health. (news-medical.net)
  • Representatives from all of these organizations comprise the Federal Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Human Brain Project, which is coordinated by the NIMH. (news-medical.net)
  • The first physician worldwide to perform this type of advanced laser therapy for a brain tumor in a human being was Gene Barnett, MD, Director of the Burkhardt Brain Tumor Center. (prweb.com)
  • Privately funded, the company is creating and promoting AGI technologies as a pathway to creating systems on a par with human intelligence. (expertclick.com)
  • The other side of the table presented a plastic, realistic anatomical model of a human brain. (astc.org)
  • Assistant Professor and Viterbi Early Career Chair Maryam Shanechi of the Ming Hsieh Department of Electrical Engineering and the Neuroscience Graduate Program at USC led the development of the decoding technology, and Professor of Neurological Surgery Edward Chang at UCSF led the human implantation and data collection effort. (news-medical.net)
  • The team recruited seven human volunteers among a group of epilepsy patients who already had intracranial electrodes inserted in their brain for standard clinical monitoring to locate their seizures. (news-medical.net)
  • For example, human imaging studies using positron emission tomography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have suggested that several brain regions mediate depression, and thus brain stimulation therapies in which a mood-relevant region is electrically stimulated may be applied to alleviate depressive symptoms. (news-medical.net)
  • 2) A controversial European neuroscience project "Blue Brain Project" aims to simulate the human brain in a supercomputer. (ieet.org)
  • Fast-forward a few years, however, and the human brain mingling with modern technology makes more sense. (aol.com)
  • The new software ecosystem was inspired by the brain -- its size, function, and even minimal use of power -- and has the potential to spawn an entirely new generation of machines that function just like human brains. (aol.com)
  • The grant, "3D Neonatal Photoacoustic Tomography (3D-NPAT) to Detect Hypoxic-Ischemic Brain Injury in Preterm Neonates," was awarded through the National Institutes of Health's BRAIN Initiative (Proof of Concept Development of Early Stage Next Generation Human Brain Imaging) from the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering. (newswise.com)
  • What's so special about the human brain? (sott.net)
  • Meanwhile, a biologist who has compared the number of neurons in the brains of all sorts of animals says there is nothing special about the human brain compared with other primates. (sott.net)
  • No one is doubting the fact of human intelligence, but they say it can no longer be attributed to a "supersized" brain. (sott.net)
  • I looked at the assertion about the human brain and how it's larger than expected and better. (sott.net)
  • Going directly to the heart of the matter, she wanted to know exactly how many neurons are to be found in any given brain and whether human brains are exceptional within their order. (sott.net)
  • It is commonly stated that the human brain contains 100 billion neurons. (sott.net)
  • To understand the brain is to understand what it really means to be human. (mit.edu)
  • The findings provide new insights into the long-term effects and damage that cocaine has on the human brain and will help guide future animal studies to further delineate the biochemical changes that comprise the addicted brain, said Hemby, associate professor of physiology and pharmacology. (webwire.com)
  • In the brain, human versions were favored over Neandertal variants in the cerebellum and basal ganglia. (beforeitsnews.com)
  • The research shows the remarkable plasticity of the human brain in finding work-arounds after catastrophic injuries, suggesting conventional definitions of "sight" and "blindness" are fuzzier than previously believed. (indianexpress.com)
  • To be human is to be caught between competing desires - for new and pleasurable experiences on the one hand, and some stillness and a reprieve from them on the other - and it often feels like tech is only good at serving one half of those wants. (theweek.com)
  • neuralink is currently developing tiny processors that connect to the brain via threads that are thinner than human hair. (designboom.com)
  • ArmaGen Technologies has developed the BBB molecular Trojan horse platform technology for solving the BBB drug delivery problem, and has used this technology to create a brain penetrating form of human EPO. (biospace.com)
  • ArmaGen ® has successfully re-engineered human EPO as an IgG fusion protein that penetrates the brain following intravenous (IV) administration. (biospace.com)
  • EPO-driven neuroprotection in human brain disorders is now possible with systemic administration of the HIRMAb-EPO fusion protein at doses that have minimal effects on erythropoiesis. (biospace.com)
  • Parallel computing will likely expand technological innovation significantly going forward. (aol.com)
  • Richard Hamer, BAE Systems education partnerships director, said: "The UK has a reputation for innovation and creativity, but we need to encourage more young people take up science and technology at school to make sure that they become the ideas people of the future. (webwire.com)
  • Each week, we spotlight a cool innovation recommended by some of the industry's top tech writers. (theweek.com)
  • Work to deploy technology by Barrick Gold Corp. could shave as much as a third from the producer's all-in sustaining costs, Chief Innovation Officer Michelle Ash told the Melbourne forum Wednesday. (information-management.com)
  • Through years of relentless innovation, the technology is now available in smaller, more affordable packages designed for the average person hoping to take control of their own mental and physical health. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Although DOT cannot reveal what is happening deep inside the brain, it is reliable up to around a depth of one centimeter, say the authors. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • If imaging studies reveal a brain tumor, then surgery is likely to be the next step. (kidshealth.org)
  • Those made from the stem cells of patients with inherited psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia promise to reveal what goes wrong in those patients' brain development, but what we're really anticipating are two technical developments. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Brains will invite visitors to learn more about these high-tech gadgets and reveal secrets behind their creation. (webwire.com)
  • at its presentation at the california academy of sciences on tuesday, the brain-computer interface company neuralink stepped out of the shadows to reveal plans to test its neuron-reading technology on humans as early next year. (designboom.com)
  • A scan of your brain would reveal that some parts aren't working at full strength, while others are overactive. (centerpointe.com)
  • Our Narcissistic Politicians - should MRI brain scans be required of all candidates? (ieet.org)
  • It included some then in-progress work from Jack Gallant, a neuroscientist at U.C. Berkeley, in which Gallant was attempting to reconstruct a video by reading the brain scans of someone who watched that video--essentially pulling experiences directly from someone's brain. (popsci.com)
  • Some gadgets already use primitive brain scans to control computers, such as the game Mindball, which uses an EEG-type scannner. (yahoo.com)
  • In contrast to the MRI scans that can be used six weeks after the treatment, the newest scans may be used three weeks into the treatment of the brain affected by tumor growths. (medindia.net)
  • Could High-Tech Brain Scans Help Diagnose ADHD? (additudemag.com)
  • The jury is still out regarding brain scans used to diagnose ADHD. (additudemag.com)
  • Can these brain scans for ADHD really pinpoint the cause of a patient's behavioral and emotional problems, as their proponents claim? (additudemag.com)
  • To work, the electrodes must pass through small nuclei deep in the brain that are about the size of a pea and are not visible in brain scans or to the naked eye. (hoise.com)
  • To develop the system, Benoit Dawant's team, which includes doctoral students Pierre-François D'Haese, Srivatsan Pallavaram and master's student Ebru Cetinkaya, began with the brain scans of 21 post-operative DBS patients. (hoise.com)
  • However, the fact that it is an extremely long, difficult and expensive operation, which involves implanting electrodes deep in the brain, has limited its availability. (hoise.com)
  • Brain fingerprinting was invented by Dr. LawrenceFarwell, The chief scientist and president ofHuman Brain Research Laboratory,USA .He had tested brain Fingerprinting technology inover 170 cases. (slideshare.net)
  • Kevin Warwick, a professor of Cybernetics at the University of Reading and a supporter of more neurotechnology research, said some experimental brain technologies had great potential in medicine. (reuters.com)
  • Low describes the research into biomarkers as an attempt to provide "a window into the brain. (terradaily.com)
  • The new research, published Sunday (Dec. 9) in the journal Nature Methods, could one day provide a quicker way to make brain cells that are unique to an individual, Nature News reported. (livescience.com)
  • CogniFit Personal Coach applies the latest scientific research to brain fitness . (prweb.com)
  • Based on more than 30 years of neuro-scientific research, CogniFit's scientifically validated, patented brain fitness programs are personalized to each user's skills and needs to help enhance their cognitive performance and health. (prweb.com)
  • Shlomo Breznitz, PhD, founded CogniFit in 1999 with the goal of using the latest cognitive research to help people of all ages maintain and improve their quality of life through brain fitness assessment and training. (prweb.com)
  • As seen in The New York Times, The Wall Street Journal, BBC News, CNN, Reuters, SharpBrains is an independent market research firm tracking how brain science can improve our health and our lives. (sharpbrains.com)
  • SharpBrains is an independent market research firm tracking health and performance applications of brain science. (sharpbrains.com)
  • Now, a team of research engineers at the Georgia Tech Research Institute is developing the technology that will enable nearly anyone, with just a few minutes training, to make a reliable diagnosis, possibly saving many lives every year. (go.com)
  • The combination of two brain scanning technologies, which were considered incompatible until recently, could revolutionize brain research and diagnostics. (europa.eu)
  • Being able to determine the molecular structure of various cells and their contacts through antibody staining is a core capability of CLARITY, separate from the optical transparency, which enables us to visualize relationships among brain components in fundamentally new ways," said Deisseroth, who is one of 15 experts on the "dream team" that will map out goals for the $100 million brain research initiative announced April 2 by President Obama. (photonics.com)
  • Backing for innovative research at the Centre for Neuroscience and Regenerative Medicine (CNRM) into the brain and mind has major impact. (edu.au)
  • This ability to bring different disciplines and technology to problems distinguishes UTS from many other research efforts worldwide. (edu.au)
  • While this may seem far-fetched, it's quickly becoming reality as research continues and technology improves. (aol.com)
  • A further $8 million will be used for research, and the remainder will go toward the new building in the Brain and Cognitive Sciences Center. (mit.edu)
  • Meeting with [President Charles M.] Vest, Tonegawa, [Dean of Science Robert J.] Silbey and their colleagues, we learned of MIT's existing commitment to brain research," said Barbara Picower, executive director and trustee of the Picower Foundation, in a statement. (mit.edu)
  • After much investigation, we chose to support MIT in its efforts to build a world-class, cutting-edge research institute devoted to the brain," Picower said. (mit.edu)
  • Tonegawa said that MIT hopes to be the world leader in brain research, a rapidly expanding field. (mit.edu)
  • Tonegawa said that some consider brain research "the last unexplored area" in life science, and that the "time is right for us to be able to make major progress in this area. (mit.edu)
  • Nolan herself has been involved in brain research for most of her scientific career, which started with a degree in biochemistry at NUI Galway, followed by a PhD in neuropharmacology between there and McGill University on how stress and inflammation affects the brain. (siliconrepublic.com)
  • We're lacking high quality evidence to show that brain training has any impact on the risk of dementia, and based on current studies we can't recommend people take it up," said Clare Walton, research manager at the Alzheimer's Society. (sci-tech-today.com)
  • A new map, a decade in the works, shows structures of the brain in far greater detail than ever before, providing neuroscientists with a guide to its immense complexity. (technologyreview.com)
  • Neuroscientists have made remarkable progress in recent years toward understanding how the brain works. (technologyreview.com)
  • Why It Matters As neuroscientists try to understand how the brain works, they need a detailed map of its anatomy. (technologyreview.com)
  • At the conference, eminent neuroscientists and neuroinformatics specialists will recap the field's achievements and forecast its future technological, scientific and social challenges and opportunities. (news-medical.net)
  • CAMBRIDGE, Mass., Jan. 6, 2010 - Neuroscientists at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) have developed a powerful new class of tools using different colors of light to reversibly shut down brain activity. (photonics.com)
  • In an extremely rare case, neuroscientists have mapped the brain of a Scottish woman who is blind but has developed the remarkable ability to see objects in motion, an advance that reveals how visual and cognitive functions go together. (indianexpress.com)
  • It's virtually impossible for any individual researcher to maintain an integrated view of the brain and to relate his or her narrow findings to this whole cloth," he said. (news-medical.net)
  • The USC/UCSF team believe their findings could support the development of new closed-loop brain stimulation therapies for mood and anxiety disorders. (news-medical.net)
  • Brain technology, or self-learning know-how systems, defines a technology that employs latest findings in neuroscience. (wikipedia.org)
  • These findings undermine a fundamental and long-standing belief about our place in the kingdom of life: that Homo sapiens is the greatest species ever to grace the Earth and that we have become the greatest because our brains are the best ever to have evolved. (sott.net)
  • Oversized brains are to humans what trunks are to elephants and elaborate tail feathers are to peacocks - our defining glory. (sott.net)
  • Humans, apparently, are no more than ordinary primates with ordinary-sized brains. (sott.net)
  • She suspected that instead of being special, humans might just be part of a group of species that have particularly efficient brains. (sott.net)
  • Lifestyle factors, too, are going under the microscope, including the effects of physical exercise, which is generally linked with better brain function in humans. (siliconrepublic.com)
  • To replace the damaged areas, the team intends to grow brain cell networks on a scaffold that they will surgically implant in the affected region. (technologyreview.com)
  • The process of learning how to make an implant-which Sur says is "like making a piece of the brain in a dish"-should lead to many basic science breakthroughs about the way brains work and repair themselves. (technologyreview.com)
  • Paradromics has been working on an implant that would connect the brain to microprocessors. (healthline.com)
  • Implant a chip in your brain? (halfbakery.com)
  • This Ambulatory Microdose Positron Emission Tomography ( AMPET ) scanner could launch new psychological and clinical studies on how the brain functions when affected by diseases from epilepsy to addiction, and during ordinary and dysfunctional social interactions. (eurekalert.org)
  • The tool could be useful in diagnosing brain injury from accidents or conditions caused by diseases. (zdnet.com)
  • Beyond military applications, the technology also might be useful, in controlled environments, for people who have learning disorders or who are afflicted with diseases such as Alzheimer's. (eurekalert.org)
  • FUSIN, according to Chen, may be the answer to treating brain-based diseases. (in-pharmatechnologist.com)
  • Neurons are like information highways and they are important mediators of memory, movement and mood - and if they die in key areas of the brain in degenerative diseases, the effects can be devastating. (siliconrepublic.com)
  • The new DOT system covers two-thirds of the skull and for the first time can scan brain activity in several regions and networks, including those involved in language and self-reflection. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • A doctor who thinks a child might have a brain tumor will do a thorough neurological exam and order imaging studies of the brain: a CT (computed tomography) scan , MRI (magnetic resonance imaging , or possibly both. (kidshealth.org)
  • For example, the military is studying whether a souped-up kind of CT scan could help spot TBI by measuring changes in blood flow inside the brain. (cbsnews.com)
  • In the latest application of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan, medical professionals have been able to track the effectiveness of the treatment meted out to brain tumor. (medindia.net)
  • Speaking at a briefing to launch the consultation, Baldwin said the estimated total global market for all neurotechnologies - including pharmaceuticals for the treatment of brain disorders - is around $150 billion. (reuters.com)
  • The tools work on the principle that such disorders might best be treated by silencing, rather than stimulating, brain activity. (photonics.com)
  • Their study, published in Nature Biotechnology , is a significant step towards creating new closed-loop therapies that use brain stimulation to treat debilitating mood and anxiety disorders in millions of patients who are not responsive to current treatments. (news-medical.net)
  • It is now understood that many brain disorders are related to inefficient energy supply to the brain. (israelnationalnews.com)
  • A recent report estimated the direct costs of brain disorders to the EU is in the region of €800bn per year, and in the context of an ageing population that figure is set to rise. (siliconrepublic.com)
  • Shape feature comparisons form the basis of Linnaean taxonomy, and even in cases of convergent evolution or brain disorders, they still provide a wealth of information about the nature of the processes involved. (wikipedia.org)
  • The new study is an example of what happens when epidemiology experiments - studies of patterns in health and disease - crash into studies of brain imaging. (sott.net)
  • Technovelgy.com is devoted to the creative inventions and technology of science fiction authors and movie makers. (technovelgy.com)
  • In 2009, for example, Time magazine included him on its list of the year's 50 best inventions for developing a "thinking cap": a brain-computer interface that allows paralyzed or "locked-in" people to type and send a tweet using only their thoughts. (eurekalert.org)
  • Brain Fingerprinting is a controversial forensic science technique that uses electroencephalography (EEG) to determine whether specific information is stored in a subject's brain. (slideshare.net)
  • The biggest challenge we faced was developing a brain exhibit that appealed to children from ages 3 to 13, the target audience of our science center, Ideaventions. (astc.org)
  • Marshall Brain (b. 1961) has a EE bachelor's degree from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, and a Master's in Computer Science from NCSU. (technovelgy.com)
  • We are extremely interested in solving the biology of the brain, and we are also willing and able to bring together technology, health, and science from across the university to bear on the problems we're facing," says Professor Vissel. (edu.au)
  • The studies will be undertaken under the mentorship of Professor Bryce Vissel, Director of Neuroscience and Regenerative Medicine, Faculty of Science, University of Technology Sydney. (edu.au)
  • A brain-on-a-chip may sound like science fiction now, but Qualcomm has already started on new chips that may turn fiction into fact. (aol.com)
  • Cognition and Brain Science (Ph.D. (gatech.edu)
  • The Cognitive and Brain Science specialty area for the Psychology PhD program trains students to develop a thorough understanding of diverse aspects of cognition. (gatech.edu)
  • We agreed with MIT that neuroscience and the study of the brain and mind will be one of the greatest frontiers of science in the decades ahead. (mit.edu)
  • That's why Nolan is co-leading a new project funded by Science Foundation Ireland with co-investigator Prof John Cryan at UCC - they hope to get a better handle on potential new drug targets and also how lifestyle interventions could prolong brain health in older age and disease. (siliconrepublic.com)
  • The reconstruction (on the right, obviously) was, according to Gallant, "obtained using only each subject's brain activity and a library of 18 million seconds of random YouTube video that did not include the movies used as stimuli. (popsci.com)
  • The intact postmortem brain is immersed in a hydrogel solution and heated slightly to form a mesh that congeals everything in place except the fatty parts. (photonics.com)
  • The National Institutes of Health is funding a search for substances that might leak into the bloodstream after a brain injury, allowing for a blood test that might at least tell "if a kid can go back to sports next week," Koroshetz says. (cbsnews.com)
  • Before the brain cells can be implanted, however, they must be prepared for their new roles, in much the way that high school students must learn calculus if they hope to succeed in an MIT engineering course, says Nathan Wilson, a project collaborator and a postdoc in brain and cognitive sciences who works with Sur. (technologyreview.com)
  • Perhaps most important, they need to find cells the brain will not reject. (technologyreview.com)
  • The result is mesmerizing: a brain model that you can swim through, zooming in or out to see the arrangement of cells and tissues. (technologyreview.com)
  • When brain cells grow abnormally or out of control, a tumor (a mass of cells) can form. (kidshealth.org)
  • These form from star-shaped brain cells called astrocytes. (kidshealth.org)
  • In this case, they transformed the cells into neurons, or brain cells. (livescience.com)
  • With these new genetic instructions, the cells transformed into brain stem cells, which can turn into different types of brain cells. (livescience.com)
  • The transformation from kidney cell to brain stem cell took just 12 days, and within a month, the cells had morphed into full-fledged brain cells. (livescience.com)
  • Brain cells communicate with each other through a system of nerve fibers that act like a telephone network, making up what's called the white matter of the brain. (cbsnews.com)
  • High-dose radiation is delivered directly to the tumor, ablating the cells of the tumor while minimizing radiation exposure to critical areas in the brain and spine. (kxan.com)
  • We looked at every neuron in the fish's brain during life, when those cells were actively firing, and learned which cells were most active at moments when we knew that the fish was most alert," said Deisseroth. (eurekalert.org)
  • Parkinson s disease is a neurodegenerative disease caused by progressive dopamine brain cells loss. (medindia.net)
  • This is partly because counting brain cells is a time-consuming business. (sott.net)
  • Most people who have tried used the stereological method, which involves counting neurons in thin slices of brain, hoping the slices chosen have a representative number of cells, and then extrapolating the neuron content of the entire brain. (sott.net)
  • As you read this article, brain cells called neurons are firing bits of electrical information around inside your head so that you can read the words and make sense of them. (siliconrepublic.com)
  • Up until around 20 years ago, people thought that that when neurons die they die, but now we know that as adults we can produce new neurons from stem cells in some regions of the brain, including one called the hippocampus, which is involved in memory and mood," she says. (siliconrepublic.com)
  • The four-year project will look at neuron growth from the perspective of molecular events happening in cells growing in the lab through to studies of a preclinical model to see how freshly minted neurons are integrated into circuits in the brain. (siliconrepublic.com)
  • Analysis of thousands of proteins revealed differences between the two groups in the amounts of approximately 50 proteins, most of which correspond to changes in the ability of the brain cells to strenghten their connections and communicate with one another. (webwire.com)
  • The KINARM Assessment Station can do for "the diagnosis of brain injury what X-rays did for diagnosing muscular and skeletal injuries. (zdnet.com)
  • This system has the potential to do for the diagnosis of brain injury what X-rays did for diagnosing muscular and skeletal injuries," John Molloy, president and CEO of Queen's University's PARTEQ Innovations said in a statement . (zdnet.com)
  • Brain Injuries in High School Sports Washington student Mikayla Wilson still suffering effects of her concussion. (go.com)
  • CBS/AP) From car wrecks to combat injuries to concussions from playing football, traumatic brain injuries can cause serious damage and leave irreparable harm. (cbsnews.com)
  • That makes it all the more frustrating that these brain injuries are so difficult for doctors to diagnose. (cbsnews.com)
  • A study in the March 1 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine found the flu drug amantadine may boost recovery from brain injuries, HealthPop reported. (cbsnews.com)
  • With an 82-game regular season, not including preseason and playoff games, the Wizards and the tech team want to understand the accumulation of travel, optimization of sleep schedules and determine if adjustments to training schedules can decrease injuries and improve on-court performance. (wtop.com)
  • The proposed 3D-nPAT instrument will provide neonatologists with an affordable, fast, portable and non-invasive functional imaging tool to map hypoxic-ischemic injuries to the neonatal brain that currently requires the use of multiple specialized systems," said Avanaki. (newswise.com)
  • Another scanning method that is commonly used for mapping brain activity is positron emission tomography or PET, which uses radiation. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Hungarian children's book illustrator Gergely Dudás - also known as Dudolf - is the mastermind behind many adorable cartoon brain teasers, and his hidden-image searches are seriously challenging no matter your age. (popsugar.com)
  • There was an approximate 75% overlap between the brain region identified by DOT and that identified by fMRI. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In another test they used DOT and fMRI to detect brain networks that are active during rest or "daydreaming. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Using echo planar imaging (EPI), fMRI vividly distinguishes oxygenated blood funneling into working areas of the brain from deoxygenated blood in less active areas. (medgadget.com)
  • 4. Basic outlineBrain Fingerprinting is a investigative techniquethat measures recognition of familiar stimuli bymeasuring electrical brain wave responses towords, phrases, or pictures that are presentedon a computer screen.The theory is that the suspects reaction to thedetails of an event or activity will reflect if thesuspect had prior knowledge of the event oractivity. (slideshare.net)
  • Muse differentiates itself in the Zen space by offering a hardware device the measures brainwave activity through EEG technology, relays those insights into an app, and sends prompts directly into a wearer's ear to help them re-focus and build a meditation practice. (techvibes.com)
  • They said the extra rest from screens aided brain function and additional outdoors activity also improved the children's physical health. (thesun.co.uk)
  • Technologies to detect brain activity - fine, we'll come right out and call it mind reading - as well as to change it are moving along so quickly that "a bit of a gold rush is happening, both on the academic side and the corporate side," Michel Maharbiz of the University of California, Berkeley, told a recent conference at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. (scientificamerican.com)
  • In a study to be published online Nov. 2 in Cell , Karl Deisseroth, a Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigator and professor of bioengineering and of psychiatry and behavioral sciences at Stanford, and his colleagues describe how they managed to observe activity in nearly every nerve cell, or neuron, in the brains of larval zebrafish while tracking the creatures' reaction times in response to a stimulus. (eurekalert.org)
  • It let them track the activity of nearly every neuron in the zebrafish brain and then identify the cell type of every neuron of interest -- the crucial step in determining which neuronal circuits are participating in the induction of a brain state such as alertness. (eurekalert.org)
  • Brain activity was sampled every one second, and each one-second section of the viewed movie was reconstructed separately. (popsci.com)
  • By stimulating your nervous system, or sensing your brain activity during sleep, the new wave of tech aims to give your body and mind a helping hand to overcome some of the barriers standing in the way of improved health and happiness. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Any piece of technology you're using with the aim of altering brain activity warrants careful consideration. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • But, in part because these tests have their own limitations, a handful of ADHD docs have begun offering high-tech (and high-cost) diagnostic tests - notably a technique known as single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG), which measures brain wave activity. (additudemag.com)
  • elon musk 's latest startup has unveiled a brain-reading device that uses small 'threads' to detect neuron activity so that users can control computers with their mind. (designboom.com)
  • Commonly used imaging technologies include microscopic, endoscopic and intra-operative imaging. (reference.com)
  • The company announced a licensing partnership with the Safilo Group to add the brain-sensing technology to eyewear commonly used by professional athletes. (techvibes.com)
  • Given that the imaging modalities commonly employed for brain morphometric investigations are essentially of a molecular or even sub-atomic nature, a number of factors may interfere with derived quantification of brain structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • This time, the tumor was close to parts of Monica's brain that control language and motor function. (komonews.com)
  • For example, the company released chips that use "neurosynaptic cores" back in 2011, which manage information similarly to the way neurons function in the brain. (aol.com)
  • Tech companies are starting to build neurons instead of simulate them, looking to create supercomputers that function like our biological brains. (aol.com)
  • In fourth place, students Ofri Goldenberg and Yuval Ben Sasson were awarded for the development of technology for the automatic monitoring of a genetic disorder that influences heart function. (technion.ac.il)
  • The results, reported in the current issue of Molecular Psychiatry, released on-line today, show differences in the amounts of 50 proteins and point to profound changes in brain function related to long-term cocaine use, said Scott E. Hemby, Ph.D., of Wake Forest University of Medicine. (webwire.com)
  • The neverending stream of networked information is literally rewiring the way our brains function. (propertycasualty360.com)
  • are the result of less-than- optimal brain function. (centerpointe.com)
  • The morphology and function of a complex organ like the brain are the result of numerous biochemical and biophysical processes interacting in a highly complex manner across multiple scales in space and time (Vallender et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • Opinion: Indian engineers as the entire US technology community hope that this killing is an isolated incident in what is proving to be an increasingly tense atmosphere for immigrant workers in Trump's America. (zdnet.com)
  • By bypassing the blood-brain barrier, the drug can reach the brain stem, which previously has been a challenge, and once doing so it can target the drug delivery to the tumor itself. (in-pharmatechnologist.com)
  • Herculano-Houzel was struck by the fact that, although in general, bigger-brained creatures tend to be more versatile and creative, the correlation does not seem to hold up across taxonomic orders. (sott.net)
  • Nora Volkow, head of Brookhaven's Life Sciences division at the time, came up with the idea to image the brains of awake and moving animals. (eurekalert.org)
  • Awake craniotomy is usually performed in the cases of brain cancer of severe epilepsy," said Shaked Ron. (technion.ac.il)
  • One is computational: Evans says such a map of the brain might contain several petabytes of data, which computers today can't easily navigate in real time, though he's optimistic that they will be able to in the future. (technologyreview.com)
  • How Doctor Who Has Charted Our Fear of New Technology Let us take you on a journey through time with the Doctor to see how this little British show has charted our fear of new technology over the course of five decades and counting. (makeuseof.com)
  • BrightMatter's technology is able to track exactly where their tools are in the patient and visualizes the patients' unique fiber tracts and planned trajectory in real time. (prnewswire.com)
  • Can we optimize the production of neurotransmitters at the right time and in the right place in the brain during a task to enhance learning? (eurekalert.org)
  • 1 Also brain metastases are a common manifestation of systemic cancer with an average survival time for patients of 3-12 months, primarily determined by the status of systemic (non-CNS) disease. (zeiss.com)
  • While open-loop brain stimulation treatments hold some promise, a more precise, effective therapy could necessitate a closed-loop approach in which an objective tracking of mood over time guides how stimulation is delivered. (news-medical.net)
  • Stanford University investigators have for the first time tied several brain circuits to alertness. (eurekalert.org)
  • This time, Dr. Jensen used intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (iMRI), a new technology developed since Monica's first operation. (komonews.com)
  • In 2002, Feinberg [ David Feinberg, physicist and adjunct professor at UC Berkeley and president of the company Advanced MRI Technologies ] proposed using a sequence of two radio pulses to obtain two times the information in the same amount of time. (medgadget.com)
  • In time, this technology may be used as the first point of contact in clinical care. (edu.au)
  • It's a time when the brain is undergoing the most dynamic changes. (edu.au)
  • As well as stimulating your brain many have companion apps loaded with real-time feedback, mentorship, coaching tips and guidance on things like how to eat and exercise to boost the effects of the treatment. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Muse is a $300 brain-sensing headband that's paired with a companion app to give someone real-time feedback during meditative sessions. (techvibes.com)
  • Each time the surgeons are forced to reinsert the electrode, it increases the risk of damage to the brain and the length of the operation. (hoise.com)