Tears: The fluid secreted by the lacrimal glands. This fluid moistens the CONJUNCTIVA and CORNEA.Rotator Cuff: The musculotendinous sheath formed by the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, subscapularis, and teres minor muscles. These help stabilize the head of the HUMERUS in the glenoid fossa and allow for rotation of the SHOULDER JOINT about its longitudinal axis.Tendon Injuries: Injuries to the fibrous cords of connective tissue which attach muscles to bones or other structures.Arthroscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy and surgery of the joint.Menisci, Tibial: The interarticular fibrocartilages of the superior surface of the tibia.Knee Injuries: Injuries to the knee or the knee joint.Lacrimal Apparatus: The tear-forming and tear-conducting system which includes the lacrimal glands, eyelid margins, conjunctival sac, and the tear drainage system.Shoulder Joint: The articulation between the head of the HUMERUS and the glenoid cavity of the SCAPULA.Dry Eye Syndromes: Corneal and conjunctival dryness due to deficient tear production, predominantly in menopausal and post-menopausal women. Filamentary keratitis or erosion of the conjunctival and corneal epithelium may be caused by these disorders. Sensation of the presence of a foreign body in the eye and burning of the eyes may occur.Lipocalin 1: A lipocalin that was orignally characterized from human TEARS. It is expressed primarily in the LACRIMAL GLAND and the VON EBNER GLANDS. Lipocalin 1 may play a role in olfactory transduction by concentrating and delivering odorants to the ODORANT RECEPTORS.Suture Anchors: Implants used in arthroscopic surgery and other orthopedic procedures to attach soft tissue to bone. One end of a suture is tied to soft tissue and the other end to the implant. The anchors are made of a variety of materials including titanium, stainless steel, or absorbable polymers.Lacerations: Torn, ragged, mangled wounds.Ophthalmic Solutions: Sterile solutions that are intended for instillation into the eye. It does not include solutions for cleaning eyeglasses or CONTACT LENS SOLUTIONS.Hip Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the hip.Ligaments, Articular: Fibrous cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE that attach bones to each other and hold together the many types of joints in the body. Articular ligaments are strong, elastic, and allow movement in only specific directions, depending on the individual joint.Shoulder: Part of the body in humans and primates where the arms connect to the trunk. The shoulder has five joints; ACROMIOCLAVICULAR joint, CORACOCLAVICULAR joint, GLENOHUMERAL joint, scapulathoracic joint, and STERNOCLAVICULAR joint.Anterior Cruciate Ligament: A strong ligament of the knee that originates from the posteromedial portion of the lateral condyle of the femur, passes anteriorly and inferiorly between the condyles, and attaches to the depression in front of the intercondylar eminence of the tibia.Retinal Perforations: Perforations through the whole thickness of the retina including the macula as the result of inflammation, trauma, degeneration, etc. The concept includes retinal breaks, tears, dialyses, and holes.Tenodesis: Fixation of the end of a tendon to a bone, often by suturing.Conjunctiva: The mucous membrane that covers the posterior surface of the eyelids and the anterior pericorneal surface of the eyeball.Range of Motion, Articular: The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.Acromion: The lateral extension of the spine of the SCAPULA and the highest point of the SHOULDER.Triangular Fibrocartilage: Fibrocartilage that makes up the triangular fibrocartilage complex which is found in the WRIST JOINT.Episiotomy: An incision of the posterior vaginal wall and a portion of the pudenda which enlarges the vaginal introitus to facilitate delivery and prevent lacerations.Shoulder Pain: Unilateral or bilateral pain of the shoulder. It is often caused by physical activities such as work or sports participation, but may also be pathologic in origin.Tendon Transfer: Surgical procedure by which a tendon is incised at its insertion and placed at an anatomical site distant from the original insertion. The tendon remains attached at the point of origin and takes over the function of a muscle inactivated by trauma or disease.Conjunctivitis, Allergic: Conjunctivitis due to hypersensitivity to various allergens.Arthrography: Roentgenography of a joint, usually after injection of either positive or negative contrast medium.Immunoglobulin A, Secretory: The principle immunoglobulin in exocrine secretions such as milk, respiratory and intestinal mucin, saliva and tears. The complete molecule (around 400 kD) is composed of two four-chain units of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, one SECRETORY COMPONENT and one J chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN J-CHAINS).Retinal Detachment: Separation of the inner layers of the retina (neural retina) from the pigment epithelium. Retinal detachment occurs more commonly in men than in women, in eyes with degenerative myopia, in aging and in aphakia. It may occur after an uncomplicated cataract extraction, but it is seen more often if vitreous humor has been lost during surgery. (Dorland, 27th ed; Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p310-12).Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Eye ProteinsSuture Techniques: Techniques for securing together the edges of a wound, with loops of thread or similar materials (SUTURES).Obstetric Labor Complications: Medical problems associated with OBSTETRIC LABOR, such as BREECH PRESENTATION; PREMATURE OBSTETRIC LABOR; HEMORRHAGE; or others. These complications can affect the well-being of the mother, the FETUS, or both.Sprains and Strains: A collective term for muscle and ligament injuries without dislocation or fracture. A sprain is a joint injury in which some of the fibers of a supporting ligament are ruptured but the continuity of the ligament remains intact. A strain is an overstretching or overexertion of some part of the musculature.Perineum: The body region lying between the genital area and the ANUS on the surface of the trunk, and to the shallow compartment lying deep to this area that is inferior to the PELVIC DIAPHRAGM. The surface area is between the VULVA and the anus in the female, and between the SCROTUM and the anus in the male.Orthopedic Procedures: Procedures used to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM, its articulations, and associated structures.Cartilage Diseases: Pathological processes involving the chondral tissue (CARTILAGE).Meibomian Glands: The sebaceous glands situated on the inner surface of the eyelids between the tarsal plates and CONJUNCTIVA.Cornea: The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Tendons: Fibrous bands or cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE at the ends of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that serve to attach the MUSCLES to bones and other structures.Epithelium, Corneal: Stratified squamous epithelium that covers the outer surface of the CORNEA. It is smooth and contains many free nerve endings.Athletic Injuries: Injuries incurred during participation in competitive or non-competitive sports.Contact Lenses: Lenses designed to be worn on the front surface of the eyeball. (UMDNS, 1999)Baseball: A competitive nine-member team sport including softball.Joint DiseasesJoint Instability: Lack of stability of a joint or joint prosthesis. Factors involved are intra-articular disease and integrity of extra-articular structures such as joint capsule, ligaments, and muscles.Fractures, Cartilage: Breaks in CARTILAGE.Anal Canal: The terminal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, beginning from the ampulla of the RECTUM and ending at the anus.Lactoferrin: An iron-binding protein that was originally characterized as a milk protein. It is widely distributed in secretory fluids and is found in the neutrophilic granules of LEUKOCYTES. The N-terminal part of lactoferrin possesses a serine protease which functions to inactivate the TYPE III SECRETION SYSTEM used by bacteria to export virulence proteins for host cell invasion.Injury Severity Score: An anatomic severity scale based on the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) and developed specifically to score multiple traumatic injuries. It has been used as a predictor of mortality.Tenotomy: Surgical division of a tendon for relief of a deformity that is caused by congenital or acquired shortening of a muscle (Stedman, 27th ed). Tenotomy is performed in order to lengthen a muscle that has developed improperly, or become shortened and is resistant to stretching.Xerophthalmia: Dryness of the eye surfaces caused by deficiency of tears or conjunctival secretions. It may be associated with vitamin A deficiency, trauma, or any condition in which the eyelids do not close completely.Saliva: The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.Reconstructive Surgical Procedures: Procedures used to reconstruct, restore, or improve defective, damaged, or missing structures.Wrist Injuries: Injuries to the wrist or the wrist joint.Blinking: Brief closing of the eyelids by involuntary normal periodic closing, as a protective measure, or by voluntary action.ConjunctivitisShoulder Dislocation: Displacement of the HUMERUS from the SCAPULA.Secretory Component: The extracellular moiety of the POLYMERIC IMMUNOGLOBULIN RECEPTOR found alone or complexed with IGA or IGM, in a variety of external secretions (tears, bile, colostrum.) Secretory component is derived by proteolytic cleavage of the receptor during transcytosis. When immunoglobulins IgA and IgM are bound to the receptor, during their transcytosis secretory component becomes covalently attached to them generating SECRETORY IMMUNOGLOBULIN A or secretory IMMUNOGLOBULIN M.Humeral Head: The portion of the upper rounded extremity fitting into the glenoid cavity of the SCAPULA. (from Stedman, 27th ed)Dacryocystitis: Inflammation of the lacrimal sac. (Dorland, 27th ed)Debridement: The removal of foreign material and devitalized or contaminated tissue from or adjacent to a traumatic or infected lesion until surrounding healthy tissue is exposed. (Dorland, 27th ed)Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Knee Joint: A synovial hinge connection formed between the bones of the FEMUR; TIBIA; and PATELLA.Tendinopathy: Clinical syndrome describing overuse tendon injuries characterized by a combination of PAIN, diffuse or localized swelling, and impaired performance. Distinguishing tendinosis from tendinitis is clinically difficult and can be made only after histopathological examination.

Decreased IgA1 response after primary oral immunization with live typhoid vaccine in primary IgA nephropathy. (1/947)

INTRODUCTION: Patients with primary IgA nephropathy (IgAN) have an increased level of immunological memory to certain parenteral recall antigens. We recently found a deficient IgA1 immune response after intranasal challenge with a neo-antigen: cholera toxin subunit B. In the present study, we assessed the specific IgA1 and IgA2 antibody response in plasma, peripheral blood cells and mucosal secretions after primary enteral immunization. METHODS: Twenty eight IgAN patients, 26 patients with non-immunological renal disease and 32 healthy subjects were immunized orally with three sequential doses of live, attenuated, Salmonella typhi Ty21a. The humoral immune response in body fluids and antibody synthesis by circulating B cells was assessed in specific ELISAs and ELIPSAs respectively. RESULTS: Oral immunization resulted in significantly (P<0.0001) increased IgM, IgG, IgA, IgA1 and IgA2 responses in all groups, both in plasma and in circulating B cells in vitro. The IgA1 response in plasma was significantly (P<0.05) lower in IgAN patients, while no significant differences in IgM (P=0.36), IgG (P= 0.79) or IgA2 (P=0.45) responses were found as compared with matched control groups. The amount of IgA1 synthesized by circulating B cells tended to be lower in IgAN patients. No significant IgA response after oral immunization with S. typhi Ty21a was found in saliva (P=0.11) or tears (P=0.10). CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest an IgA1 hyporesponsiveness in patients with IgAN that is not only apparent after primary challenge of the nasal-associated lymphoid tissue but also after presentation to the gut. Previous results after parenteral recall immunization may be explained by assuming that IgAN patients require more frequent and/or longer exposure to IgA1-inducing antigens on their mucosal surfaces before they reach protective mucosal immunity. As a consequence, overproduction of IgA1 antibodies occurs in the systemic compartment, accompanied by an increased number of IgA1 memory cells.  (+info)

Diseases associated with ocular surface abnormalities: the importance of reflex tearing. (2/947)

AIM: To investigate the correlation between tear function tests and ocular surface integrity in patients with dry eye. METHODS: 297 dry eye patients (55 Sjogren's syndrome, two male and 53 female, average age 52.4 (SD 15.0) years, and 242 non-Sjogren's syndrome, 41 male and 201 female, average age 53.5 (14.1) years) were examined. The following tear function tests were performed: (1) cotton thread test, (2) Schirmer test with topical anaesthesia, (3) Schirmer test without anaesthesia, (4) Schirmer test with nasal stimulation, (5) tear clearance test, and (6) tear break up time (BUT). The ocular surface was evaluated by rose bengal and fluorescein staining. Correlation analysis was performed between each tear function index and vital staining scores. RESULTS: Among the six tear function tests, the Schirmer test with nasal stimulation correlated most with both of the vital stains (rho = 0.530 for rose bengal and 0.393 for fluorescein). The Schirmer test with or without anaesthesia correlated slightly with rose bengal staining, whereas tear clearance test and tear break up time slightly correlated with fluorescein staining. CONCLUSION: Vital staining of the ocular surface correlates most with reflex tearing measured by the Schirmer test with nasal stimulation.  (+info)

Reflective meniscometry: a non-invasive method to measure tear meniscus curvature. (3/947)

AIMS: To devise a method to measure tear meniscus curvature by a non-invasive specular technique. METHODS: A photographic system was devised. The system consisted of a camera and an illuminated target with a series of black and white stripes oriented parallel to the axis of the lower tear meniscus. The target was mounted on a flash gun close to the objective of a Brown macrocamera and calibrated using a graduated series of glass capillaries of known diameter, ground down to expose the inner wall. It was then applied to normal human eyes (n = 45) to measure the tear meniscus curvature. A video system was also assessed which provided qualitative online information about the tear meniscus. RESULTS: Using the photographic system, measured values for capillary radii were in excellent agreement with theoretical calculations (r2 = 0.996, p < 0.0001). The radii of curvature of lower tear menisci in normal human subjects (mean 0.365 (SD 0.153) mm, range 0.128-0.736; n = 45) were similar to those reported in the literature. Both systems demonstrated variations in meniscus shape. The video system provided stable images of human menisci over prolonged periods of time and promises to be useful for the analysis of dynamic changes in meniscus volume. CONCLUSIONS: Reflective meniscometry is a non-invasive technique providing quantitative information about tear meniscus shape and volume and of potential value in the study of ocular surface disease.  (+info)

HPLC analysis of closed, open, and reflex eye tear proteins. (4/947)

Changes in the closed, open and reflex eye tear proteins of normal subjects were compared and analysed. Tear proteins were resolved by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) utilising both gel filtration (P-300 SW) and reverse-phase (C-18) columns and the HPLC fractions were further analysed by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) under reducing and non-reducing conditions. The protein composition of the closed-eye tear was significantly different from that of the open and reflex-eye tear. Secretory IgA (sIgA) was the predominant protein in closed eye tears constituting 49% of the total protein compared to 11% in reflex tears, whereas lysozyme was the predominant protein (53%) in reflex tears. Levels of lactoferrin, lipocalin and lysozyme were relatively constant in both open and reflex tears. HPLC profiles of the closed-eye tears, upon continuous stimulation of lacrimal glands indicated that sIgA was significantly reduced whereas lactoferrin, lipocalin, and lysozyme were significantly increased. These results indicate that the tear composition upon waking attains that of the open eye within 4 to 5 minutes, and upon continuous stimulation this reflects the reflex-eye tear composition. It also indicates that mechanisms responsible for changes in concentration of constitutive and regulated tear protein with stimulus can be studied successfully using non-invasive methods to collect human tears.  (+info)

Does androgen insufficiency cause lacrimal gland inflammation and aqueous tear deficiency? (5/947)

PURPOSE: The current investigators have shown that androgen treatment suppresses inflammation and stimulates the function of lacrimal glands in mouse models of Sjogren's syndrome. Recently, others have hypothesized that androgen insufficiency induces an autoimmune process in lacrimal tissue, leading to inflammation, a Sjogren's syndrome-like pathology, and aqueous tear deficiency. The purpose of the present study was to test this hypothesis. METHODS: Lacrimal glands were obtained from adult testicular feminized (Tfm) and control mice; castrated rats, guinea pigs, and rabbits; and castrated rats without anterior or whole pituitary glands and were processed for histology and image analysis. Tear volumes were measured in mice, in patients taking antiandrogen medications, and in age-matched human control subjects. RESULTS: Tfm mice, which are completely resistant to classical androgen action, did not have increased lymphocyte infiltration in their lacrimal glands or decreased tear volumes. No inflammation was evident in lacrimal tissues of male or female rats, guinea pigs, or rabbits 12 to 31 days after castration, no inflammation existed in rat lacrimal glands 15 to 31 days after orchiectomy and pituitary removal, and no aqueous tear deficiency was apparent in patients receiving antiandrogen therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Androgen deficiency may promote the progression of Sjogren's syndrome and its associated lacrimal gland inflammation, meibomian gland dysfunction, and severe dry eye. However, androgen insufficiency alone does not cause lacrimal gland inflammation, a Sjogren's syndrome-like pathology in lacrimal tissue, or aqueous tear deficiency in nonautoimmune animals and humans.  (+info)

Decreased tear lactoferrin concentration in patients with chronic hepatitis C. (6/947)

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Decreased tear volume in patients with chronic hepatitis C has been reported in the literature. Lactoferrin is abundantly present in human tears, the main source of which is the acini of the lacrimal glands. In this study tear lactoferrin levels were measured to investigate the dry eye condition of patients with chronic hepatitis C. METHODS: Lactoferrin in tears/fluid was measured by a radial immunodiffusion assay in 42 patients with chronic hepatitis C. The rate of lacrimal secretion was determined by the cotton thread test. Rose bengal staining of the ocular surface was also performed. RESULTS: Only three patients out of 42 complained of dry eye sensation and, in 31 patients, six showed positive results on the rose bengal staining test of the ocular surface. The lactoferrin concentration of tear fluid in the chronic hepatitis C group (1.42 (SD 0.56) mg/ml) was significantly lower than in the control group (1.90 (0.62) mg/ml; p <0.00048). The cotton thread test results in the chronic hepatitis C group (12.9 (5. 5) mm) were significantly lower than in the control group (17.9 (5. 3) mm; p<0.00048). Also, in the chronic hepatitis C group, tear lactoferrin concentration correlated with the results of the cotton thread test (r = 0.35, p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Chronic hepatitis C patients showed both decreased tear volume, and decreased tear lactoferrin concentration. These findings suggest that there may be dysfunction of the lacrimal glands in patients with chronic hepatitis C, which may account for the mild dry eye.  (+info)

Effects of experimental exposure to triethylamine on vision and the eye. (7/947)

OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of triethylamine (TEA) on the cornea and to evaluate the cause of blurred vision. To find the lowest observed effect concentration of exposure to TEA. METHODS: Four people were exposed to TEA for 4 hours at concentrations of 40.6, 6.5, and 3.0 mg/m3. Before and after every exposure, symptoms and ocular microscopy findings were recorded. Binocular visual acuity and contrast sensitivity at 2.5% contrast were also measured. Also, before and after the 40.6 mg/m3 exposure, corneal thickness was measured and ocular dimensions were recorded by ultrasonography, endothelial cells of the cornea were analysed, and serum and lacrimal specimens were collected for the analysis of TEA. RESULTS: After exposure to 40.6 mg/m3 TEA there was a marked oedema in the corneal epithelium and subepithelial microcysts. However, corneal thickness increased only minimally because of the epithelial oedema. The lacrimal concentrations of TEA were, on average (range) 41 (18-83) times higher than the serum TEA concentrations. The vision was blurred in all subjects and visual acuity and contrast sensitivity had decreased in three of the four subjects. After exposure to TEA at 6.5 mg/m3 two subjects experienced symptoms, and contrast sensitivity had decreased in three of the four subjects. There were no symptoms or decreases in contrast sensitivity after exposure to a TEA concentration of 3.0 mg/m3. CONCLUSIONS: TEA caused a marked oedema and microcysts in corneal epithelium but only minor increases in corneal thickness. The effects may be mediated by the lacrimal fluid owing to its high TEA concentration. Four hour exposure to a TEA concentration of 3.0 mg/m3 seemed to cause no effects, whereas exposure to 6.5 mg/m3 for the same period caused blurred vision and a decrease in contrast sensitivity.  (+info)

Abnormal tear dynamics and symptoms of eyestrain in operators of visual display terminals. (8/947)

OBJECTIVES: To clarify the relation between the prevalence of dry eye syndrome and subjective symptoms of asthenopia in visual display terminal (VDT) operators. METHOD: 722 VDT workers (242 subject workers with symptoms of asthenopia and 480 controls without such symptoms) without obvious organic ocular diseases received an ophthalmological examination consisting of refractometry and a tear function (phenol red thread) test. RESULTS: More than 30% of symptomatic workers were found to meet the criteria of dry eye, and the odds ratio compared with the controls was 4.61 (p < 0.001). This odds ratio was significantly greater than that obtained for refractive errors (2.31). CONCLUSIONS: Although this cross sectional study could not prove that dry eyes are the cause of asthenopia, the profound association of dry eyes with symptoms of asthenopia could be verified. It would be useful to carry out tear function tests in workers with symptoms of asthenopia.  (+info)

Abstract: : Purpose: A new imaging interferometer is described which provides novel information about the structure of tear film breakup and the mechanisms which cause it. Methods: The optical system is modified from Doanes interferometer (1989, Opt. Vis. Sci. 66, 383). Broad- and narrow-spectral band, infrared, video images of the pre-corneal tear film are recorded simultaneously. The broad-band image shows the lipid layer of the tear film. Full-thickness interference fringes (as in Newtons rings) are derived by dividing the narrow-band image by the broad-band image (King-Smith et al., 2004, The Ocular Surface 3, S80). The images also show any distortion of the tear film caused by tear film breakup. Video resolution is 656 x 494 and the area imaged is about 7.5 x 6 mm, with a frame rate of about 20/sec. Results: Two main types of breakup (pronounced change in the images) are observed. First, the reflection may develop a grainy appearance whose mean intensity is similar to that of the ...
purpose. To demonstrate the feasibility of indirectly measuring the precorneal tear film thickness and pre- and postlens tear film (PLTF) thickness using optical coherence tomography (OCT).. methods. Central corneal thickness (C1) which includes the tear film (T) of both eyes of 40 non-contact lens wearers was measured using OCT after calibration. The mean age of the 40 subjects was 31.2 ± 9.3 years with a mean horizontal K-reading of 7.87 mm. Rigid contact lenses with base curves 0.3- to 0.5-mm steeper than the flattest K of the eye were fitted to measure real corneal thickness (C2), independently of the postlens tear film. T was calculated by T = C1 − C2. To measure pre- and postlens tear film thickness, Focus Night & Day and Acuvue lenses (Vistakon, Johnson & Johnson Vision Care, Jacksonville, FL) were fitted on both eyes. Central soft lens thickness (L1), which includes the prelens tear film (P), was measured by OCT in situ and in saline in a wet cell (L2). P was calculated by P = L1 − ...
The purpose of the study is to compare the efficacy of FDA-approved Travoprost (Travatan Z) and Latanoprost (Xalatan)as anti-glaucoma treatment. Several studies indicate that glaucoma medications may be associated with decreased tear production and tear film break-up time (TBUT), and increased inflammatory cells in the conjunctiva (membrane lining of the eye lids and the covering of the eye) leading to dry eye. Normal tear film (coating of the eye) is continuous and blinking maintains the tear film continuity. If you keep your eyes open long enough without blinking, the tear film will start breaking up. Your eye will feel uncomfortable forcing you to blink. In patients with dry eyes, the tear film is unstable, and breaks up faster. Therefore the tear break up time in patients who have dry eyes is shorter.. In this study, the investigators will be comparing the two previously mentioned FDA-approved eye drops Latanoprost and Travoprost. The difference between the two medications is a preservative ...
Tear film osmolarity and dry eye disease: a review of the literature Richard Potvin,1 Sarah Makari,1 Christopher J Rapuano21Science in Vision, Akron, NY, USA; 2Wills Eye Hospital, Philadelphia, PA, USAObjective: To evaluate the evidence in the peer-reviewed literature regarding the use of tear osmolarity as a physiological marker to diagnose, grade severity, and track therapeutic response in dry eye disease (DED). In addition, to review the evidence for the role of tear osmolarity in the pathophysiology of DED and ocular surface disease.Methods: A literature review of all publications after the year 2000, which included the keywords “tear osmolarity”, was conducted. Relevant articles were graded according to quality of evidence and research, using the University of Michigan Practice Guideline and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) rating systems. Articles were further categorized by the nature of any reported financial support and by the overall
Background After an explosion and fire in two tanks containing contaminated oil and sulphur products in a Norwegian industrial harbour in 2007, the surrounding area was polluted. This caused an intense smell, lasting until the waste was removed two years later. The present study reports examinations of tear film break up time among the population. The examinations were carried out because many of the people in the area complained of sore eyes. The purpose of the study was to assess the relationship between living or working close to the polluted area and tear film stability one and a half years after the explosion. Methods All persons working or living in an area less than six kilometres from the explosion site were invited to take part in the study together with a similar number of persons matched for age and gender living more than 20 kilometres away. Three groups were established: workers in the explosion area and inhabitants near the explosion area (but not working there) were considered to ...
Results Three months after radiosurgery, the subjective dry eye symptom score and lissamine green staining score of the ocular surface were significantly higher in the treated eyes compared with the fellow eyes (p,0.001, p=0.028, respectively). After 12 months, a significant difference between the treated and the fellow eyes in corneal sensitivity (p=0.041) and corneal fluorescein staining (p=0.002) was found when compared with pretreatment values. After 24 months Schirmer test values without local anaesthesia were significantly reduced in the treated eyes vis-à-vis untreated fellow eyes and pretreatment values (p=0.004). The dose applied to the lacrimal gland was significantly correlated to ocular surface staining scores (p=0.001) and Schirmer test values (p=0.026) at 24 months after irradiation.. ...
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The two groups did not differ from each other with respect to baseline characteristics viz. mean age (p=0.4), gender (p=0.7), preoperative UCVA (p=0.3), BCVA (p=0.14), spherical equivalent (p=0.06), mean astigmatism (p=0.8), tear function tests like tear break up time, tear film meniscus height, Schirmer I and II (p=0.08, 0.26, 0.6, 0.14 respectively) and pterygium height and width (p=0.12 and 0.5). Initial graft stability was better for group II till 1 month (p=0.001) but achieved graft stability equivalent to group I at 6 months follow up. Median graft inflammation score was significantly more for group II at day 1 and 7 (p=0.04 and 0.007 respectively. However no significant difference between the two groups was observed in relation to underlying corneal clarity and sub-conjunctival hemorrhage ...
Squalene (SQ) possesses a wide range of pharmacological activities (antioxidant, drug carrier, detoxifier, hydrating, emollient) that can be of benefit to the ocular surface. It can come in contact with human meibum (hMGS; the most abundant component of the tear film lipid layer) as an endogenous tear lipid or from exogenous sources as eyelid sebum or pharmaceuticals. The aims of this study were to determine (i) if SQ is in tear lipids and (ii) its influence on the surface properties of hMGS films. Heteronuclear single quantum correlation NMR confirmed 7 mol % SQ in Schirmers strips extracts. The properties of SQ/hMGS pseudo-binary films at the air/water interface were studied with Langmuir surface balance, stress-relaxation dilatational rheology and Brewster angle microscopy. SQ does not possess surfactant properties. When mixed with hMGS squalene (i) localized over the layers thinner regions and (ii) did not affect the film pressure at high compression. Therefore, tear SQ is unlikely to instigate
Dry eye disease involves significant changes to the structure and function of the tear film. While it is widely believed and accepted that the various components in the tear film, including lipids, proteins, mucins and salts, play a critical role in preventing tear film evaporation and collapse, the report suggested that further studies are warranted to confirm or deny this concept.. Historically, the tear film has been viewed as a tri-layered structure comprising of the outermost lipid, middle aqueous and an inner mucin layer. However, over the past few years enough evidence has been generated to suggest that the tear film is a bi-phasic structure composed of an outer lipid layer overlying a muco-aqueous phase.. The lipid layer. The lipid layer consists of several non-polar and amphiphilic (polar) lipids. The lipid layer is important in stabilizing the whole of the tear film - this is partly through its ability to lower the surface tension of the tear film. The role of the lipid layer in ...
The concentrations of tear lysozyme, lactoferrin, ceruloplasmin, IgA, and IgG have been estimated in patients with dry eyes at the same time as semiquantitative bacterial culture was performed of the conjunctivae and lids. Staphylococcal isolations were quantified and biotyped. There was no increased conjunctival colonisation by any particular biotype of Staphylococcus aureus or Staph. epidermidis, and similar numbers of conjunctivae were sterile as in controls (33%); neither were any pathogens such as pneumococci or haemophili isolated. We consider that the conjunctiva of the dry eye, without the lacrimal secretion components of lysozyme and lactoferrin, has an alternative protective antibacterial mechanism which is derived from serum proteins via chronically inflamed vessels. ...
The EPA from fish and flaxseed oils is elongated by enzymes to produce the anti-inflammatory prostaglandin PGE3 and the anti-inflammatory leukotriene LTB3. EPA and docosahexaenoic acid and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) from flaxseed oil competitively inhibit the conversion of omega-6s to arachidonic acid (AA) thereby reducing inflammation by this pathway. Production of PGE1 is also stimulated. This is desirable as prostaglandin PGE1 has anti-inflammatory properties, further helping to reduce meibomitis and associated ocular surface inflammation. More importantly, PGE1 acts on G protein-coupled receptors designated E-prostanoid or EP receptors. Specifically, PGE1 binds to EP2 and EP4 receptors to activate adenylate cyclase to increase cyclic AMP (cAMP) (12). PGE1 has been shown to stimulate aqueous tear production in rabbits (13) and cAMP has been shown to stimulate aqueous tear secretion in dry eye patients (14,15). Secondly, essential fatty acids are used by the meibomian glands in the eyelid to ...
DES severity was graded using conventional DES testing methods, including: Schirmer test, tear breakup time (TBUT), tear meniscus height, corneal fluorescein staining and a patient questionnaire. Subsequently, each patient underwent a two-minute TFI test followed by a retest after 30 minutes. The TFI measures the aqueous layer thickness (ALT) at a nanometer level and calculates average ALT as well as the ALT rate. In addition, the TFI measures the lipid layer thickness (LLT) at a sub-nanometer level and establishes average LLT and lipid breakup time (LBUT ...
Maintaining good ocular health and comfort is a challenge even under ordinary conditions. It is especially difficult when you use a pulmonary assist machine, such as C-PAP, BiPAP, etc., with a face mask, because such use can affect the stability of your tear film. A stable protective three-layer tear film is partially responsible for good vision and comfortable, healthy eyes.. We are most familiar with reflex tears, those watery tears you experience while watching a sad movie or cutting onions. If these reflex tears are present for no particular reason, the culprit is usually a dry eye condition. This exists when the other, more protective, and less familiar tear is absent, either due to reduced production or increased evaporation.. Numerous small glands in your eyelids produce the protective three-layer tear film that is necessary for the health of the external surface of your eyes. If the tear film is absent, the external surface breaks down, which can be very painful and can increase the ...
Objectives : To study the relationships between dampness in concrete floors and building design on the one hand, and symptoms and medical signs of the eyes and nose in hospital workers, on the other. Methods : Four hospitals for geriatrics were selected to represent buildings with different ages and design, irrespective of symptom prevalence....
FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE. Rosenberg, TX (January 8, 2018) - OCuSOFT Inc., a privately-held eye and skin care company with an established reputation for innovation in eyelid hygiene and ocular health, is pleased to announce a new distribution agreement with I-MED Pharma Inc., a Montreal-based biotechnology company to make the I-PEN® Osmolarity System available in the United States. On December 22, 2017, the FDA issued an Acceptance Review Notification for the I-PEN® Osmolarity System 510k submission. This distribution partnership will officially commence upon final FDA approval of the 510k, which is anticipated in the first quarter of 2018.. The I-PEN® Tear Osmolarity System is a handheld device that measures the osmolarity (concentration of dissolved salts in solution) of human tears in normal and dry eye disease (DED) patients. The I-PEN® Tear Osmolarity system, used with the I-PEN® Single Use Sensors (SUS), provides a quick and simple method for determining tear osmolarity by measuring the ...
The wettability index is derived from the slope of a metric developed to measure the regularity of the Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor image. The more wettable a lens is the more stable the metric and the slope of the metric (the wettability index) is closer to zero. The more negative values indicate a less wettable the lens ...
A method for evaluating the in vivo ability of a contact lens to become or remain wet includes the steps of supporting the subjects head to determine a fixed orientation of the lens, illuminating the lens with coherent light, imaging the pre-lens tear film in a manner to form an interference pattern, recording in a time sequence manner the image formed thereby, and determining the tear film thickness by correlating the interference bands of the recorded image. The classical contact angle is derived, and other measures, such as the time interval from blink until the onset of the tear film breakup, or the time until the film evaporates, and the initial or average film thickness are derived. In addition, the nature and evolution of localized dry spots may be directly observed, clarifying the causes of tear film breakdown on worn contact lenses. The invention includes methods for the evaluation of wetting characteristics as they are affected by lens material, lens aging and lens soiling, as well as the
Purpose: It was the main purpose of this study to investigate the influence of the moistening solution on TBUT measurements in an asymptomatic population.; Methods: An online survey was employed to determine the compliance of Spanish eye care practitioners with the recommended normalized procedure to administer TBUT. For the purpose of examining the clinical relevance of discrepancies from the recommended procedure, a randomized, double-masked, bilateral study was designed in which a micropipette was used to moisten fluorescein strips with a controlled volume of six different solutions, commonly available in the contact lens office, and TBUT was measured in 58 non-dry eye (OSDI , 15) subjects (age from 19 to 32 years).; Results: Results from the online survey revealed that 64% of Spanish practitioners frequently use (or have used) different solutions to moisten fluorescein strips during TBUT assessment. Statistically significant differences in TBUT values were found between the various solutions ...
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Walter Whitley, OD, MBA, and Derek Cunningham, OD, discuss the prevalence of dry eye among cataract surgery patients. Dr. Whitley explains that he begins by evaluating patients with a verified questionnaire, and uses tear osmolarity measurements to g…
Curr Eye Res. 2004 Feb;28(2):145-51. Akar Y, Cira A, Apaydin C, Erman MA, Yilmaz A. Source Department of Ophthalmology, Akdeniz University School of Medicine, Antalya, Turkey. [email protected] Abstract PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of the birth weight and the postconceptional age on the tear production of preterm and term newborn infants and to evaluate the changes in tear production during the first two months of life. SUBJECTS--METHODS: Both eyes of medically stable term and preterm infants were included in the study. Based on postconceptional age and birth weight, we divided preterm infants into three groups. Then, we measured the basal and reflex tear secretions of both eyes by Schirmer tests before and after instillation of topical anesthetic agent. We performed initial tear measurements on the second day of life (between first 24 hours to first 48 hours after birth): and at 2 weeks, 4 weeks and 8 weeks after birth. RESULTS: We tested a total of 138 infants (63 preterm and 75 term), 72 ...
The ocular surface is exquisitely in tune with its environmental conditions, and manipulation of factors such as temperature, wind or relative humidity can provide a means to induce tear-film instability and a desiccating stress on the ocular surface. In the controlled adverse environment, subject responses to an adverse environment challenge while performing a visual task are used as a baseline, and aid in identifying a defined population of subjects with comparable disease signs and symptoms. Like the CAC, the CAE can also be used to assess test-agent efficacy by measuring changes in the dry-eye status of subjects from baseline to post-challenge through slit lamp evaluations, validated scoring of dry-eye redness by the investigator and by computer,12 staining with fluorescein and lissamine, tear-film breakup times13 and Schirmers testing. The subjects symptomology is graded individually and with a variety of validated grading systems, again in a clinical setting and in real time, preventing ...
a): Raw camera Image. This image displays the raw camera image from a rabbits eye. This image displays the circular interference pattern caused by tear film layers along with other features such as: small and large dots with different orientations. This image is one of 1000 time-integrated frames that are captured by the cMOS camera to analyze the spatial fluctuations. (b): SCI.This image displays the calculated spatial correlation image (SCI) on a single frame. The SCI has a central peak and a sinusoidal background. The sinusoidal residues that are located around the peak of the SCI are later used to obtain the quantitative tear film thickness information. (c). Vertical and horizontal projection of the SCI. This image is displaying the SCI in terms of number of pixels vs. the correlation value. This image contains the Gaussian terms along with the residues for both vertical and horizontal axis of two-dimensional image. The width of the pixels is illustrated on the x-axis while the correlation ...
The Schirmer tear test for the measurement of tear formation in the dog was done according to 2 procedures: Schirmer I (the conventional procedure) and SCHIRMER II (with topical anesthesia and drying of the ventral conjunctival fornix. Results from 97 normal dogs averaged 21.0 mm wetting/minute (sta …
2. Dry eyes. Dry eyes occur frequently in adults as part of the aging process. They are less common in infants and children. Patients with dry eyes have decreased or unstable basal tear layers. This usually results in chronic ocular irritation. This may be an isolated finding, or it may occur in association with other systemic problems (Table 8-1). Paradoxically, some patients with dry eyes may have symptoms of excess tearing (Figure 8-2). This occurs because the decreased basal tears predispose the patient to ocular irritation. If the patients have normal reflex tears, they will produce a bolus of tears in response to the irritation, often enough to overflow and produce epiphora. As this bolus wears off, the irritation recurs, and the patients go through a repetitive cycle of decreased tears, irritation, and excess tears ...
Dutch photographer Maurice Mikkers uncovers the hidden beauty of human tears in his series of micrographs, which we first spotted on Fubiz. Imaginarium Of Tears tells us that while our tears are fragile and mark fragile moments in our lives, there…
Youre watching the final scene in Thelma and Louise, and youre on your third handkerchief. You turn your tear stained face to the side and look through blurred, saline-flooded vision at your cat, who is staring back at you witnessing the curious spectacle. Why is it that humans can be reduced to blubbering messes, while other members of the animal kingdom dont seem to let out even a sniffle?. We have tear ducts to lubricate and protect our eyes from dust and other particles. The ducts are under the upper eyelids and produce a salty liquid-a tear---that gets spread throughout the eye after each blink. Animals too have the ability to produce tears, but not necessarily for the same reasons that we humans produce them.. Three types of tears are generated by the human eye. Basal tears protect the eye and keep it moist. Reflex tears flush out the eye when it becomes irritated. And emotional tears flow in response to sadness, distress, or physical pain.. Studies have shown that emotional tears ...
The project "Imaginarium Of Tears" is a series of micrographs, that shows the hidden beauty behind a tear. Tears are often seen as a weakness and therefore not always accepted in our daily life. However, a tear can also be a.... The project "Imaginarium Of Tears" is a series of micrographs, that shows the hidden beauty behind a tear. Tears are often seen as a weakness and therefore not always accepted in.... ...
Orally administered ethanol was secreted into the tears. Ethanol in tears induced tear hyperosmolarity and shortened TBUT and triggered the development of ocular surface diseases. Similar changes could exacerbate signs and symptoms in patients with ocular surface disease.
Jennifer Craig, MCOptom, PhD, discusses the clinical trial data on the Oculeve Intranasal Stimulator for the treatment of dry eye disease. The double-masked randomized, controlled, multicenter study, was conducted in nine centers across Australia and New Zealand. Active intranasal neurostimulation increased tear production at every visit with minimal adverse events.
When we cry we put pressure into our heads. This pressure causes a backup of tears into our eyes from our noses. We also increase our blood flow to our face and eyes, which causes an increase in the amount of tears. These two things cause our eyes to be over filled with tears. And because we have too many tears to fit into our eyes, they flow down our cheeks as we cry. ...
Humans are believed to be the only creatures that produce tears because of emotions like sadness and joy. But researchers at Israels Weizmann Institute of Science may have found another function for tears: they reduce mens testosterone. We found that merely sniffing negative-emotion-related odorless tears obtained from women donors, induced reductions in sexual appeal attributed by men to pictures of womens faces. Moreover, after sniffing such tears, men experienced reduced self-rated sexual arous...
Nerve Biopsy Shows Hypomyelination & Schirmer Test Shows Alacrima Symptom Checker: Possible causes include Triple A Syndrome. Check the full list of possible causes and conditions now! Talk to our Chatbot to narrow down your search.
A fascinating new study just came out, showing that tears that were produced by women under negative emotions reduce the sex drive of men! This gives men yet another reason not to upset women.. Here is the abstract:. Emotional tearing is a poorly understood behavior that is considered uniquely human. In mice, tears serve as a chemosignal. We therefore hypothesized that human tears may similarly serve a chemosignaling function. We found that merely sniffing negative-emotion-related odorless tears obtained from women donors, induced reductions in sexual appeal attributed by men to pictures of womens faces. Moreover, after sniffing such tears, men experienced reduced self-rated sexual arousal, reduced physiological measures of arousal, and reduced levels of testosterone. Finally, functional magnetic resonance imaging revealed that sniffing womens tears selectively reduced activity in brain-substrates of sexual arousal in men.. The full paper is here:. ...
The Moist Heat Therapies use heat to help open the critical glands that secrete the oily lipid layer of our tear film which slows tear evaporation of our tears every day. The increased humidity created helps prevent the evaporation of natural and artificial tears while wearing the goggle. Chronic sufferers can use tranquileyes to enhance the benefits of artificial tears, Restasis, ointments, Punctal Plugs and supplements. ...
Bees That Drink Human Tears Remember the Neatorama post about... ...out the sweat bees in New York that use humans as giant salt licks? Well, turns out that... ...py as these bees in Thailand that drink human tears : On landing, automatic blinking... ...ona attached to his lid, imbibing his... https://www.neatorama.com/2012/05/06/bees-that-drink-human-tears/ ...
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Isolation of VEGF, TNF-α, TGFβ1 and β2, IL-6, and IL-1 from the Precorneal Tear Film of Normal Horses and Horses with Stromal Abscesses ...
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Three weeks ago I was diagnosed with partial placenta abruption....I have two small tears in my placenta. Since then I have been having very bad cramps and recently mild contractions....three weeks ago when this was first discovered they said it can either reattach or get worse...I have a appointment next week with the high risk dr (that will be one month after I found this out). Last week my reg dr did an US just to see how things were going and the tears were still there and they saw me having contractions on US. The tears werent smaller or bigger. From the few ppl I talked to who have had similar situations they said by now (3-4 weeks) they healed (more so than the ones who said it got worse)....since there still there and Im still feeling horrible is this a bad sign? I was hoping everything be gone....btw Im 22 weeks. Tu ladies
La Bouche - No Tears (música para ouvir e letra da música com legenda)! No tears to cry, no sad good-byes / Im spreading my wings and Im ready to fly / No tears to shed, only happiness ahead / This millennium will be my time to be free
Meek Mill started officially calling Minaj "his girl" in 2015 and theyve collaborated together musically for Minajs The Pinkprint, with the songs "Buy a Heart" and "Big Daddy" and earlier projects like Meeks Dreams Worth More Than Money album, on the tracks "Bad for You" and "All Eyes On You.". According to sources Meek is not happy about the break up, and this has provided a bit of fear in the Minaj camp on rumors of sex tapes and nude photos that Meek claims he has of Nicki, and friends of Meek have confirmed. This of course would not be the first rumor of a sex tape of Nicki Minaj, as she has had a few, including a before they where famous one from way back in the day and the one with Lil Wayne, both of which we have debunked.. Showbiz Spy had reported trouble in paradise about 3 months ago, and now all seems to have gone the way we reported.. Keep your eyes open as we can guarantee this is going to get nasty we have no doubt at all.. ...
Am i the only who i thought right from the beginning he was using her? From what ive been told, hes kinda sorta new to the industry and isnt that good and hasnt gotten much of a fan base. Ever since he got with her, his followers rocketed by like 25,000 and he was tweeting to have fans vote for like fan favorite of the year, etc. It just seems suspicious to me. Like she seemed WAY more into him than he was into her. I think he used her to get his name out there and she was too oblivious to notice. He clearly isnt saddened by the break up and is making it clear that he was in it for a motive by his pimp tweet. But this is probably going to backfire on him in retrospect as he probably wont have like any fans now. I questioned his motives the second i hear about them two, and i am now confident that i was right. Some things are just too good to be true.. ...
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We usually aint checkin for this chick, but she actually sounds like she has some sense in this interview. Glamour interviewed Ke$ha about being a rockin chick and why she breaks up with guys and stuff. We never thought wed say this -- but we wish more girls thought like her.
The (de)stability and functionality of thin liquid films plays an important role in processes and technical applications like foaming, emulsification and flotation. Within this work the stability of single films is tuned by the addition of different electrolytes. The films are either free-standing (foam films) or supported by a solid substrate (wetting films) and they are formed from aqueous surfactant solutions. The interactions between film surfaces are determined in a thin film pressure balance (TFPB). By this method equilibrium measurements of a disjoining pressure isotherm (disjoining pressure vs. film thickness) are determined. The disjoining pressure is a quantitative measure for the interactions between the two opposing film interfaces, including repulsive electrostatic, attractive van der Waals and steric contributions [1].. Usually the addition of low molecular salt like NaCl leads to a thinning of the aqueous film due to screening of the electrostatic interactions. But not only the ...
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When the Tear Agent CS is formulated in a solvent it is signified by CSX. When agents are thickened with the addition of a ... polymer a T is usually added to the beginning of the symbol (e.g., thickened soman is TGD). The tear agent Mace, or Agent CN, ...
"96 Tears". (re-release). 1. 37. Cameo Records. "Midnight Hour". 96 Tears. ... Many 1960s garage bands played "96 Tears" in their live performances.[15] Cover versions of "96 Tears" have been recorded by a ... "96 Tears". These were compiled on the album 96 Tears along with a handful of other songs. ... "96 Tears" became a number one hit on the Billboard Hot 100 and propelled the group to a 15-month period of national prominence. ...
The dog of tears[edit]. The dog of tears is a dog that joins the small group of blind when they leave the quarantine. While he ... He is called the dog of tears because he became attached to the group when he licked the tears off the face of the doctor's ...
Tear agents[edit]. Main article: Lachrymatory agent. These sensory irritants produce immediate pain to the eyes and irritate ... which produce powerfully aversive effects without the toxic effects of tear agents or vomiting agents. ...
Meniscal tears can occur in all age groups. Traumatic tears are most common in active people aged 10-45. Traumatic tears are ... A tear of the medial meniscus[2] can occur as part of the unhappy triad, together with a tear of the anterior cruciate ligament ... Menisci can be torn during innocuous activities such as walking or squatting. They can also be torn by traumatic force ... A meniscal tear can be classified in various ways, such as by anatomic location or by proximity to blood supply. Various tear ...
Intimal tear[edit]. In some cases, intimal tears may resolve on their own. Therefore, conservative treatment like ... The aorta may also be torn at the point where it is connected to the heart. The aorta may be completely torn away from the ... The aorta is not always torn completely through; it may also tear some but not all layers of the arterial wall, sometimes ... Intimal tear[edit]. Being the mildest form, it often does not weaken the wall of the aorta and may heal on its own. Usually, it ...
Rotator cuff tear[edit]. A rotator cuff tear can be treated with arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. ... Surgical treatment of the shoulder due to potential bicep tendonitis or a tear of the labrum otherwise known as a SLAP tear. ... partial thickness tears, full thickness tears or mechanical impingement. [5]Tendinitis, bursitis, and impingement syndrome can ... The recovery depends upon many factors, such as where the tear was located, how severe it was and how good the surgical repair ...
Repeated or profuse vomiting may cause erosions to the esophagus or small tears in the esophageal mucosa (Mallory-Weiss tear). ... Mallory-Weiss tear. See also: Mallory-Weiss syndrome. ...
track "Monsoon tears" co-production/writing with Sean Dinsmore 2003 Infected Mushroom Track "Drop Out" (Redseal rmx), Theremin ... To celebrate the 10th anniversary from the release of his album "Bass, Sweat & Tears", Gaudi reworked on the tracks from it and ... Gaudi's fourth solo album Bass, Sweat & Tears was released in 2004 by Interchill Records and became an international success, ... Tears (Interchill Records 2004). Year 2000 also saw the beginning of the four years collaboration between Gaudi and world-music ...
Angel's-tears. France, Spain, Portugal. Map Section Jonquilla de Candolle[notes 4] ...
Examples include: the film Unseen Tears: A Documentary on Boarding School Survivors,[143] Ronald James Douglas' graduate thesis ... ICTMN Staff (December 2, 2010). "Unseen Tears: A Documentary on Boarding School Survivors". Indian Country Today Media Network. ... titled Documenting ethnic cleansing in North America: Creating Unseen Tears,[144] and the Legacy of Hope Foundation's online ... "Documenting ethnic cleansing in North America: Creating unseen tears (AAT 1482210)".. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list ...
The most common injury caused by biceps curls is biceps tendon tears.[32] There are two main causes of biceps tendon tears: ... "Bicep Tears". www.firstaid4sport.co.uk. Retrieved 2020-02-28.. *^ Krivickas, Lisa S.; Wilbourn, Asa J. (2000). "Peripheral ... "Torn Bicep Injury: Types, Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment". Healthline. Retrieved 2020-02-28.. ... then there is a likelihood to suffer from biceps tears. [35] ...
"Black Tears" (1968). *"The Blood-Stained God" (1955). *"The Castle of Terror" (1969) ...
Magick Without Tears. Chapter LII "Family: Public Enemy No. 1". Falcon Press, 1982. ISBN 0-941404-17-X ...
True Tears (2008). *CANAAN (2009). *Fractale (2011). *Anohana: The Flower We Saw That Day (2011) ...
Mallory-Weiss tears. *Boerhaave syndrome, a rupture in the esophageal wall due to vomiting ...
"This Little Bitty Tear (It's Gonna Dry)" - - - Imperial Records "The Day the World Stood Still" ...
From Crowley's Magick Without Tears (Ch. 81): One passes through the veil of the exterior world (which, as in Yoga, but in ... Crowley, Aleister (1982). Magick Without Tears. Phoenix, AZ : Falcon Press. *Thelemapedia. (2004). Body of Light. Retrieved ...
"Fistful of Tears". (2010) Fistful of Tears2010. "Fire We Make". (2013) Fire We Make2013. "Lake by the Ocean". (2016) Lake by ... "Tears Always Win," and "Not Even the King"."[9][10] ...
Cries with tears.. *Gums are red.. *Eyes begin moving together in unison (binocular vision). ...
Em 2014, ele foi lançado em funções de apoio em "Cunning Single Lady" da MBC e My Lovely Girl da SBS.. L foi anunciado para juntar-se o subgrupo INFINITE F, juntamente com seus companheiros de banda Sungyeol e Sungjong. O subgrupo foi anunciado oficialmente durante o concert do INFINITE intitulado "One Great Step Returns". Além disso, eles cantaram a canção "My Heart is Beating" da trilha sonora do Hi! School - Love On que estrelou Sungyeol e Woohyun como os principais. [9] O subgrupo já teve seu lançamento oficial intitulado "Going Crazy", que foi incluída no 2º álbum do INFINITE chamado "Season 2". Eles debutou oficialmente no Japão com o single álbum "Koi No Sign". No dia 19 de novembro 2014, ele lançou outro single de lançamento do álbum "Azure", em 2 de dezembro de 2014. [10] INFINITE F fez seu oficial stage de debut no Music Core no dia 5 de dezembro. [11]. Em junho de 2015, L fez aparições no The Time We Were Not in Love, fazendo papel de estagiário homossexual ao lado ...
"Tears Are Not Enough". "Cuts Like a Knife" 12:39. The Beach Boys. "California Girls". "Help Me, Rhonda". "Wouldn't It Be Nice" ... "Driven to Tears" (Sting). "Against All Odds (Take a Look at Me Now)" (Phil Collins). "Message in a Bottle" (Sting). "In the Air ... Billy Joel, Boy George, Waylon Jennings, Kris Kristofferson, Tears for Fears, Huey Lewis and the News and Paul Simon were all ... I recall that Tears For Fears, who made a musical and artistic decision to pull out of the concert, were subsequently accused ...
Baby's tears - stem cuttings. *Begonia - tip, leaf and stem cuttings. *Blackberries (Rubus occidentalis) - stem cuttings ...
"Tears Began to Fall". *"Magic Fingers". *"What Will This Evening Bring Me This Morning" ...
Tears and Tantrums: What To Do When Babies and Children Cry. Shining Star Press, 1998. Raising Drug-Free Kids: 100 Tips for ... Understanding tears and tantrums. Young Children, 1992, 47(4), 64-68. (National Association for the Education of Young Children ... Subsequent publications are Helping Young Children Flourish, Tears and Tantrums, Raising Drug-Free Kids, and Attachment Play. ...
Triangular Fibrocartilage Complex Tears: Evidence Based Assessment and Management. May 6, 2012. by The Sports Physiotherapist 2 ... With Brukner and Khans latest edition of the Clinical Sports Medicine (2011) listing TFCC tears amongst 11 other subacute/ ...
The stadiums are blurry and sterile, the players are polygonal, and there is some unsightly "tearing" along the seams of some ... Midway through the first inning, the skies began to part (although at first it looked like graphical tearing) and the umpires ...
... labral tear and snapping hip syndrome are hip injuries. Treatments for hip injuries are offered by Dr. Enker in Woodbury, Great ... Labral tear. This is an injury to the labrum, the cartilage that surrounds the outside rim of your hip joint socket. A tear in ... Repetitive movements and weight-bearing activities over time can lead to wear-and-tear and degenerative changes to the hip ...
Coulombe tore a ligament in his elbow, ending his season at Texas Tech and requiring Tommy John surgery - a surgery that ... But not everyone has the same level of success after undergoing a Tommy John, which involves a torn ulnar collateral ligament ...
Poor quality meibom, the oily substance which prevents tear evaporation, is often the cause. This video demonstrates very thick ... Mucin (allow tears to spread evenly). The most superficial layer is an oily layer which prevents rapid evaporation of the tears ... The oil floats on the tears and protects against evaporation.. If there is insufficient "meibom," the tears evaporate faster ... Dry is caused either by decreased tear production, or, as in this case increased tear evaporation due to insufficient meibom ( ...
Find out what meniscus tears are and how to treat them. ... The key to healing meniscus tears is not to get back into play ... The symptoms of a torn meniscus will vary depending on the severity of the tear. Someone who gets a minor tear may only have ... Tears in this area might need surgery.. A torn meniscus is a common sports injury, particularly in contact sports like football ... Treating a Meniscus Tear. Minor tears usually dont need surgery, especially if they are on the outer part of the meniscus ...
A retinal tear is often the precursor to a torn retina. But if you know the warning signs you can prevent a more serious ... Retinal Tears. A retinal tear is often the precursor to a torn retina. But if you know the warning signs you can prevent a more ... Retinal Tears. A retinal tear is often the precursor to a torn retina. But if you know the warning signs you can prevent a more ...
Flames ravage the forest near the highway in La Jonquera, near the border with France, Spain, Sunday, July 22, 2012. The regional officials said wildfires have burned almost 7,000 hectares (17.297 acres) of forest. Sign at right is an environmental road traffic poster. (AP Photo/Josep Rivas ...
"Blood, Sweat & Tears Greatest Hits - Blood, Sweat & Tears , Awards , AllMusic". allmusic.com. Retrieved 24 December 2013.. ... "Blood, Sweat & Tears 3 - Blood, Sweat & Tears , Awards , AllMusic". allmusic.com. Retrieved 24 December 2013.. ... "Blood, Sweat & Tears 4 - Blood, Sweat & Tears , Awards , AllMusic". allmusic.com. Retrieved 24 December 2013.. ... "Blood, Sweat & Tears - Blood, Sweat & Tears , Awards , AllMusic". allmusic.com. Retrieved 24 December 2013.. ...
Enjoy! Sheet music: http://josh.agarrado.net/music/anime/index.php?searchterms=tears+gun... ... Theme of Tears - Gundam Seed OST Piano *HQ* [Beginner] - Duration: 3:11. AtinPiano 101,645 views ... Shinji Kakijima - Theme of Tears (Gundam Seed) - Duration: 2:55. Iain Hemstock Recommended for you ... Nicols Piano - Theme of Tears (Gundam Seed) - Duration: 3:12. mnemechan 11,353 views ...
Directed by Måns Mårlind, Björn Stein. With Marie Richardson, Adam Lundgren, Josefin Neldén, Eric Ericson. Pål dreams about success within the musical world, but he has an obstacle; himself. His deep thoughts keeps him end up in trouble. We follow Pål on a emotional inner travel to find his call on the swedish west coast of Gothenburg.
Read about tears and what can go wrong, like too many tears, too few tears, or tear duct problems. ... Your tears clean your eyes and keep them moist. ... Tear glands produce tears, and tear ducts carry the tears from ... Problems with the tear system can include too many tears, too few tears, or problems with the tear ducts. Treatment of the ... Actually, your tears clean your eyes every time you blink. Tears also keep your eyes moist, which is important for your vision. ...
The duos new band The Tears will play their first live show at London Heaven on December 16, two days before an appearance in ... Its been a decade since it happened - but the duo perform again together next month with new band The Tears... ... The Tears debut album is now finished with a single planned for release in early 2005. ...
The online extension of Billboard magazine, www.billboard.com/biz is the essential online destination for the music business.. Learn more ...
Listen to songs and albums by Tears for Fears, including Everybody Wants to Rule the World, Shout, Everybody Wants To Run ... Tears for Fears were always more ambitious than the average synth pop group. From the beginning, the duo of Roland Orzabal and ... Orzabal returned with another Tears for Fears album, Raoul and the Kings of Spain, in 1995, which failed to make much of an ... Instead of quickly recording a follow-up, Tears for Fears labored over their third album, the psychedelic and jazz-rock-tinged ...
In the meantime, Bill Clinton has brought a new level to the art of tears in the political arena: his I-feel-your-pain tears of ... When Clintons eyes fill up as he listens to tales of distress, his tears signal that he has ascended to a higher, egoless ... How did the campaign trail become a trail of tears? Why do Clintons and Doles fits of weeping work, whereas Musks didnt? ... the dispassionate tear-analyses of the Christian tradition... Clinton weeps when he listens, Dole when he speaks. ...
"The Tears of a Clown" was an album track on 1967s Make It Happen but was not released as a single. "The Tears of a Clown" on ... "The Tears of a Clown" is a song written by Hank Cosby, Smokey Robinson and Stevie Wonder and originally recorded by Smokey ... "The Tears of a Clown". (1970). "I Dont Blame You at All". (1971). ... "The Tears of a Clown". (1970). "I Dont Blame You at All". (1971). ...
Most parents who feed their children sugar-coated cereals for breakfast probably think their kids wont eat anything else - except maybe donuts. And even cereals that contain more sugar than cereal grain - and there are dozens of them - do contain a few vitamins and minerals. The problem is that many of these highly sweetened cereals contain as much sugar as a candy bar, and often more.. Of equal concern is the form in which the grain comes in such cereals. Because it is si highly processed, it has been robbed of most of its fiber and protein, which is the reason for eating grains in the first place.. Many conscientious parents have tried hot or unsweetened cold cereals, only to have the children turn up their noses.. But the alternative to sugar-encrusted cereals is not, as some cereal industry people suggest, no breakfast at all. Admittedly, the other choices require that you be open-minded. But why cant people eat cheeseburgers, tuna fish sandwiches and pizzas made on English muffins as the ...
He is the author of Dog Eat Dog and After Tears, both published by Ohio University Press in its Modern African Writing series. ... His uncle calls him...https://books.google.com/books/about/After_Tears.html?id=68IXYck360YC&utm_source=gb-gplus-shareAfter ... 2 Reviewshttps://books.google.com/books/about/After_Tears.html?id=68IXYck360YC ...
... On this page you will find pictures of Cherokee Dresses and their descriptions.. top of Cherokee dress ... Hence the name, Cherokee "tear" dress.. bottom of Cherokee dress This photo shows the bottom of a Cherokee dress. The bottom ... The Cherokee dresses are made with at least seven (7) yards of material and as most of the pieces are torn, not cut, in the ...
Reality tears up Tuesday. Hells Kitchen, Wipeout highlight night. By Rick Kissell ...
A British sailor who sold his story of being held hostage in Iran has become a laughingstock after admitting his captors made him cry by comparing him to a...
Source for information on Tears of Blood: Gale Encyclopedia of the Unusual and Unexplained dictionary. ... Tears of Blood Aman named Fabio Gregori of Civitavecchia, near Rome, became extremely devout after surviving an automobile ... Tears of Blood. Aman named Fabio Gregori of Civitavecchia, near Rome, became extremely devout after surviving an automobile ... Tears of Blood Gale Encyclopedia of the Unusual and Unexplained COPYRIGHT 2003 The Gale Group Inc. ...
At the best of times it is hazardous for the mental equilibrium of a rational person randomly to turn on the television set, and it is probably especially so in summer. Last week, in a cavalierly daredevil moment, I did so, and was almost reduced to ...
Media in category "No Tears". The following 9 files are in this category, out of 9 total. ... Retrieved from "https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Category:No_Tears&oldid=263579863" ...
  • Johnnes Roedl, MD, PhD of Sidney Medical College in Philadelphia looked at 10-year data on 144 baseball players and there were 191 findings of medial elbow pain including 53 UCL tears. (novarad.net)
  • Editorial: Cheers, Jeers and Tears Cheers go out to the Memorial High School and Southridge High School football teams, which went to Indianapolis last weekend to compete in the Indiana state finals. (courierpress.com)
  • Tears for Fears were always more ambitious than the average synth pop group. (apple.com)
  • Instead of quickly recording a follow-up, Tears for Fears labored over their third album, the psychedelic and jazz-rock-tinged The Seeds of Love. (apple.com)
  • Smith left the group early in the '90s, and Orzabal continued with Tears for Fears, pursuing more sophisticated and pretentious directions to a smaller audience. (apple.com)
  • After releasing a handful of singles, including 'Elvis Should Play Ska,' Graduate dissolved in the early '80s, and the duo went on to form Tears for Fears, a synth pop outfit directly inspired by Janov's writings. (apple.com)
  • Riding in on the tail end of new wave and new romantic, Tears for Fears -- which featured musical contributions from former Graduate keyboardist Ian Stanley on early albums -- landed a record contract with Polygram in 1982. (apple.com)
  • Instead of quickly following Songs from the Big Chair with a new record, Tears for Fears labored over their new record, eventually delivering the layered, Beatlesque The Seeds of Love in 1989. (apple.com)
  • Featuring soulful vocals from Oleta Adams, who dominated the hit 'Woman in Chains,' the album became a hit, reaching number eight, while the single 'Sowing the Seeds of Love' reached number two in the U.S. Again, Tears for Fears spent several years working on the follow-up to Seeds of Love, during which time they released the collection Tears Roll Down: Greatest Hits 82-92. (apple.com)
  • Smith and Orzabal began to quarrel heavily, and Smith left the group in 1992, making Tears for Fears' 1993 comeback Elemental essentially a solo record from Orzabal. (apple.com)
  • Orzabal returned with another Tears for Fears album, Raoul and the Kings of Spain, in 1995, which failed to make much of an impact. (apple.com)
  • It is used for the treatment of the symptoms of dry eye (such as soreness, burning, irritation or dryness) caused by your eye not producing enough tears to keep the eye wet. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • and that we could compare those to tears that were produced by eye irritation. (deseretnews.com)
  • But the thing that I have come to realize lately is that when people tear in response to eye irritation, there is quite a bit of stress involved actually. (deseretnews.com)
  • tearing,bleeding and just alot of irritation down there and the doc told me the same thing that he thought it was herpes but then he said he didn't think it was so i go tomorrow for a biopsy! (medhelp.org)
  • tear gas, gas that causes temporary blindness through the excessive flow of tears resulting from irritation of the eyes. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Tears happen spontaneously as the baby stretches the vagina and the perineum during birth. (rcog.org.uk)
  • After the birth of your baby, your healthcare professional will carefully examine your vagina, perineum and rectum to see if you have a tear, and if so, what type. (rcog.org.uk)
  • The patient population included individuals between the age of 35 and 65 who have degenerative meniscal tears without knee joint osteoarthritis . (philly.com)
  • Do you have a degenerative meniscal tear or did you experience the symptoms after a traumatic event like falling or twisting your knee playing basketball? (philly.com)
  • Again, the article only looked at patients with degenerative meniscal tears without knee joint osteoarthritis. (philly.com)
  • Another study published in the May 2013 New England Journal of Medicine found no difference in outcomes in patients with a meniscal tear and osteoarthritis if treated with physical therapy compared with arthroscopic surgery and physical therapy. (philly.com)
  • In mice, a pheromone in juvenile tears causes females to reject male sexual advances. (eurekalert.org)
  • If humans can detect anything in tears, we won't use the same pheromone signal or receptor as mice. (eurekalert.org)
  • Researchers hope to use the tear pheromone as a natural mouse birth control to reduce mouse populations in the future. (eurekalert.org)
  • ESP22 is not airborne and lacks a noticeable odor, but the pheromone spreads around the territory as mothers and young mice wipe tears while grooming. (eurekalert.org)
  • While looking for novel pheromones that can control different instinctive mouse behaviors, researchers, led by Stephen Liberles , HMS associate professor of cell biology, have discovered a pheromone found only in the tears of young mice. (harvard.edu)
  • The nine-year-old burst into tears watching the news this week, Isabelle admitted, saying her daughter had asked if "the bad men are coming to our house? (yahoo.com)
  • but it sounds an odd thing for tears to do - although, with an intervening noun, this would be possible: 'Tears rolled down her face and along her cheekbones' maybe this would be unlikely with Chinese cheekbones though! (usingenglish.com)
  • Frey believes tears are a body's way of getting rid of chemicals produced by strong emotion. (deseretnews.com)
  • Later, a DNA examination of the bloodstains revealed that they were from a male, and researchers argued that if the tears were the Madonna's blood, they should have come from a female. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Researchers presenting their study at last week's Specialty Day meeting of the American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine ( AOSSM ) utilized MRI data to determine the potential for biologic healing following a meniscus tear. (prweb.com)
  • For the 1999 album by Andre Nickatina, see Tears of a Clown (album) . (wikipedia.org)
  • For the one-off concert by American singer Madonna, see Tears of a Clown (show) . (wikipedia.org)
  • Subsequently, Motown released "The Tears of a Clown" as a single in the United States as well, where it quickly became a #1 hit on both the Billboard Hot 100 and R&B Singles charts. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Tears of a Clown" was an album track on 1967's Make It Happen but was not released as a single. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Tears of a Clown" on the monaural version of Make It Happen contains an alternate lead vocal. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1970, to capitalize on the Miracles' success there, and due to a lack of new material from the group, Motown Britain selected "The Tears of a Clown" from the group's catalog for single release. (wikipedia.org)
  • A new mix of the song was made in February 1970 for the US single release (the original UK single used the original 1967 stereo mix from the Make It Happen LP), and "The Tears of a Clown" became a #1 hit in the UK seven weeks after its July release. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite the fact that the Miracles had been one of Motown's premier acts in the early and mid-1960s and its first successful group act, "The Tears of a Clown" was their first and only #1 hit while Smokey Robinson was lead singer. (wikipedia.org)
  • While both contain a certain amount of salt, there's mucus in tears. (esquire.com)
  • Tears also contain a little bit of mucus, a lot of antibodies and plenty of lysozyme, an antibacterial enzyme. (madsci.org)
  • Treatment may depend on your age, activity level, and where the tear occurs. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A SLAP tear occurs both in front (anterior) and back (posterior) of this attachment point. (aaos.org)
  • Many SLAP tears, however, are the result of a wearing down of the labrum that occurs slowly over time. (aaos.org)
  • And I hate having to use the bathroom because if urine runs over the tear, it hurts! (medhelp.org)
  • Juvenile pheromones had not been reported before, and much less attention has been focused on tears compared to urine, which is much easier to collect. (harvard.edu)
  • The gene expression screen found ESP22 not in newborn mice but in the tears of juvenile mice. (harvard.edu)
  • Blood, Sweat & Tears is a Canadian-American jazz-rock music group. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike " jazz fusion " bands, which tend toward virtuosic displays of instrumental facility and some experimentation with electric instruments, the songs of Blood, Sweat & Tears merged the stylings of rock , pop and R&B / soul music with big band , while also adding elements of 20th-century classical and small combo jazz traditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Kooper's fame as a high-profile contributor to various historic sessions of Bob Dylan , Jimi Hendrix and others was a catalyst for the prominent debut of Blood, Sweat & Tears in the musical counterculture of the mid-sixties. (wikipedia.org)
  • On February 2, 1995, Gregori and his wife were getting ready to attend church when their daughter ran into the house shouting that the statue was crying tears of blood. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The statue of Mother Mary wept tears of blood for the next four days. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Bishop Grillo admitted his initial skepticism, but when the commission found no evidence of trickery and determined that the tears were composed of human blood, he had changed his mind. (encyclopedia.com)
  • After the examination, the tears of blood ceased. (encyclopedia.com)
  • No American rock group ever started with as much daring or musical promise as Blood, Sweat & Tears, or realized their potential more fully -- and then blew it all as quickly. (spotify.com)
  • Blood, Sweat & Tears started as an idea conceived by Al Kooper in July of 1967. (spotify.com)
  • The new group was signed to Columbia Records, and the name "Blood, Sweat & Tears" came to Kooper after a jam at the Cafe au Go Go, where a cut on his hand left his organ keyboard covered in blood. (spotify.com)
  • That first version of Blood, Sweat & Tears played music that roamed freely through realms of jazz, R&B, soul, and even psychedelia in ways that had scarcely been heard before in one band. (spotify.com)
  • The new Blood, Sweat & Tears recorded their album in late 1968. (spotify.com)
  • Blood, Sweat & Tears, released in January 1969, was smoother and more traditionally melodic than its predecessor. (spotify.com)
  • It was on their return to America, amid this dubious career move -- which was done to overcome the problem of Clayton-Thomas ' shaky immigration status -- that Blood, Sweat & Tears 3 was released. (spotify.com)
  • Additionally, the group was now criticized in the rock press, which felt that Blood, Sweat & Tears were either a pretentious pop group that dabbled in horn riffs, or a jazz outfit trying to pass as a rock band. (spotify.com)
  • Actually, your tears clean your eyes every time you blink. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Tears also keep your eyes moist, which is important for your vision. (medlineplus.gov)
  • When Clinton's eyes fill up as he listens to tales of distress, his tears signal that he has ascended to a higher, egoless level of concern, leaving his suspicious linguistic fluency far behind him. (newyorker.com)
  • Dry eyes result from a reduced production of tears, a reduced production of mucin by the conjunctiva, or increased evaporation of tears from the surface of the eye. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • The soul would have no rainbow had the eyes no tears. (redbubble.com)
  • I told Brad in the car I was afraid I was going to cry,' said Jolie, her voice cracking with tears in her eyes as she waited out a standing ovation from the crowd. (ibtimes.com)
  • He estimates he now cries four times a month, even if his eyes only well up with tears. (deseretnews.com)
  • Greasy Guido Tears roll down from the eyes through all the makeup , fake tan spray, steroid juices, and greasy skin that the cast of Jersey Shore wear and by the time they reach the ground they have the same affect on the environment as acid rain. (urbandictionary.com)
  • He had tears in his eyes," one of the men, Joseph Magro, told the Associated Press afterwards. (theweek.com)
  • At the start of a panic attack (or even during an attack), does anyone else have tears start rolling out of their eyes? (dailystrength.org)
  • Greasy Guido Tears are produced whenever a member of the 'Jersey Shore' cries uncontrollably. (urbandictionary.com)
  • A silvery, elfin figure flits across the city in the hours between supper and bedtime, stealing the tears of every child who cries and dropping them into her glittering sack. (timeout.com)
  • The study only reported on individuals who did not have trauma and had degenerative tears occurring over time and with age. (philly.com)
  • If you have deep tears, only stand or sit for small amounts of time since this puts pressure on your vaginal area. (wikihow.com)
  • Having a child is a very happy time, but I don't think tears were part of that (when their daughters arrived safely). (news.com.au)
  • Among those seeking Frey's help since he published "Crying: The Mystery of Tears" three years ago were a woman whose husband alternated bouts of tears and laughter, and a restaurateur whose cooks cried chopping onions.For the restaurant owner, the answer was easy and time-honored: Chop the onions under a mist of water. (deseretnews.com)
  • 9,999,999 Tears" is among his greatest hits, and is arguably his best known song because it is his only hit to have charted on both the Pop and Country charts. (wikipedia.org)