Transcriptional trans-acting proteins of the promoter elements found in the long terminal repeats (LTR) of HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1 and HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 2. The tax (trans-activator x; x is undefined) proteins act by binding to enhancer elements in the LTR.
A strain of PRIMATE T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1 isolated from mature T4 cells in patients with T-lymphoproliferation malignancies. It causes adult T-cell leukemia (LEUKEMIA-LYMPHOMA, T-CELL, ACUTE, HTLV-I-ASSOCIATED), T-cell lymphoma (LYMPHOMA, T-CELL), and is involved in mycosis fungoides, SEZARY SYNDROME and tropical spastic paraparesis (PARAPARESIS, TROPICAL SPASTIC).
Tax on the net income of an individual, organization, or business.
Status not subject to taxation; as the income of a philanthropic organization. Tax-exempt organizations may also qualify to receive tax-deductible donations if they are considered to be nonprofit corporations under Section 501(c)3 of the United States Internal Revenue Code.
DNA sequences that form the coding region for at least three proteins which regulate the expression of HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1 and HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 2. The proteins are p21(x), p27(rex), and p40(tax). The tax (trans-activator x) and rex (regulator x) genes are part of pX but are in overlapping reading frames. X was the original designation for the sequences or region (at that time of unknown function) in the long open reading frame (lor) which is now called pX.
A strain of PRIMATE T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 2 that can transform normal T-lymphocytes and can replicate in both T- and B-cell lines. The virus is related to but distinct from HTLV-1.
HTLV-I (Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1) infection is a retroviral infection that primarily targets CD4+ T-cells, potentially leading to the development of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma and tropical spastic paraparesis/myelopathy (TSP/HAM), as well as other inflammatory diseases.
Aggressive T-Cell malignancy with adult onset, caused by HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1. It is endemic in Japan, the Caribbean basin, Southeastern United States, Hawaii, and parts of Central and South America and sub-Saharan Africa.
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
A protein that has been shown to function as a calcium-regulated transcription factor as well as a substrate for depolarization-activated CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. This protein functions to integrate both calcium and cAMP signals.
A CELL LINE derived from human T-CELL LEUKEMIA and used to determine the mechanism of differential susceptibility to anti-cancer drugs and radiation.
The type species of DELTARETROVIRUS that causes a form of bovine lymphosarcoma (ENZOOTIC BOVINE LEUKOSIS) or persistent lymphocytosis.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)
Nucleotide sequences repeated on both the 5' and 3' ends of a sequence under consideration. For example, the hallmarks of a transposon are that it is flanked by inverted repeats on each end and the inverted repeats are flanked by direct repeats. The Delta element of Ty retrotransposons and LTRs (long terminal repeats) are examples of this concept.
The area within the CELL NUCLEUS.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
A malignant disease of the T-LYMPHOCYTES in the bone marrow, thymus, and/or blood.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.
Post-transcriptional regulatory proteins required for the accumulation of mRNAs that encode the gag and env gene products in HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1 and HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 2. The rex (regulator x; x is undefined) products act by binding to elements in the LONG TERMINAL REPEAT.
An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.
A subacute paralytic myeloneuropathy occurring endemically in tropical areas such as the Caribbean, Colombia, India, and Africa, as well as in the southwestern region of Japan; associated with infection by HUMAN T-CELL LEUKEMIA VIRUS I. Clinical manifestations include a slowly progressive spastic weakness of the legs, increased reflexes, Babinski signs, incontinence, and loss of vibratory and position sensation. On pathologic examination inflammatory, demyelination, and necrotic lesions may be found in the spinal cord. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1239)
Substances and products derived from NICOTIANA TABACUM.
Antigens associated with HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1.
Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Drinkable liquids containing ETHANOL.
System of recording financial transactions.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The level of governmental organization and function below that of the national or country-wide government.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A process whereby representatives of a particular interest group attempt to influence governmental decision makers to accept the policy desires of the lobbying organization.
HTLV-II (Human T-lymphotropic virus type II) infections are chronic viral infections primarily involving the CD4+ T lymphocytes, which can lead to adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma, myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis, and other inflammatory diseases, but with a lower prevalence and geographical distribution compared to HTLV-I.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
The level of governmental organization and function at the national or country-wide level.
A member of the p300-CBP transcription factor family that was initially identified as a binding partner for CAMP RESPONSE ELEMENT-BINDING PROTEIN. Mutations in CREB-binding protein are associated with RUBINSTEIN-TAYBI SYNDROME.
A protein serine-threonine kinase that catalyzes the PHOSPHORYLATION of I KAPPA B PROTEINS. This enzyme also activates the transcription factor NF-KAPPA B and is composed of alpha and beta catalytic subunits, which are protein kinases and gamma, a regulatory subunit.
An activating transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of genes including C-JUN GENES and TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA2.
The application of mathematical formulas and statistical techniques to the testing and quantifying of economic theories and the solution of economic problems.
Federal, state, or local government organized methods of financial assistance.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
Activating transcription factors were originally identified as DNA-BINDING PROTEINS that interact with early promoters from ADENOVIRUSES. They are a family of basic leucine zipper transcription factors that bind to the consensus site TGACGTCA of the cyclic AMP response element, and are closely related to CYCLIC AMP-RESPONSIVE DNA-BINDING PROTEIN.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Private, not-for-profit hospitals that are autonomous, self-established, and self-supported.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A large superfamily of transcription factors that contain a region rich in BASIC AMINO ACID residues followed by a LEUCINE ZIPPER domain.
Infections caused by the HTLV or BLV deltaretroviruses. They include human T-cell leukemia-lymphoma (LEUKEMIA-LYMPHOMA, T-CELL, ACUTE, HTLV-I-ASSOCIATED).
The attitude of a significant portion of a population toward any given proposition, based upon a measurable amount of factual evidence, and involving some degree of reflection, analysis, and reasoning.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
Duplex DNA sequences in eukaryotic chromosomes, corresponding to the genome of a virus, that are transmitted from one cell generation to the next without causing lysis of the host. Proviruses are often associated with neoplastic cell transformation and are key features of retrovirus biology.
A species of DELTARETROVIRUS that includes the strains SIMIAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 3 and HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 3.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
A member of the p300-CBP transcription factors that was originally identified as a binding partner for ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS.
A family of transcription factors found primarily in PLANTS that bind to the G-box DNA sequence CACGTG or to a consensus sequence CANNTG.
A transcription factor that takes part in the NF-kappa-B complex by interacting with NF-KAPPA B P50 SUBUNIT or NF-KAPPA B P52 SUBUNIT. It regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION that is involved in immune and inflammatory responses.
A strain of PRIMATE T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 2, closely related to the human HTLV-1 virus. The clinical, hematological, and histopathological characteristics of the disease in STLV-infected monkeys are very similar to those of human adult T-cell leukemia. Subgroups include the African green monkey subtype (STLV-I-AGM), for which the nucleotide sequence is 95% homologous with that of HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1, and the Asian rhesus macaque subtype (STLV-I-MM), for which the nucleotide sequence is 90% homologous with that of HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1.
Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.
A family of histone acetyltransferases that is structurally-related to CREB-BINDING PROTEIN and to E1A-ASSOCIATED P300 PROTEIN. They function as transcriptional coactivators by bridging between DNA-binding TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and the basal transcription machinery. They also modify transcription factors and CHROMATIN through ACETYLATION.
A type of POST-TRANSLATIONAL PROTEIN MODIFICATION by SMALL UBIQUITIN-RELATED MODIFIER PROTEINS (also known as SUMO proteins).
Statistical models of the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services, as well as of financial considerations. For the application of statistics to the testing and quantifying of economic theories MODELS, ECONOMETRIC is available.
An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC 2.3.1.28.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Specific amino acid sequences present in the primary amino acid sequence of proteins which mediate their export from the CELL NUCLEUS. They are rich in hydrophobic residues, such as LEUCINE and ISOLEUCINE.
The complex of political institutions, laws, and customs through which the function of governing is carried out in a specific political unit.
National Health Insurance in the United States refers to a proposed system of healthcare financing that would provide comprehensive coverage for all residents, funded through a combination of government funding and mandatory contributions, and administered by a public agency.
Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Decisions for determining and guiding present and future objectives from among alternatives.
A strain of PRIMATE T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 3 that is genetically similar to STLV-3.
The term "United States" in a medical context often refers to the country where a patient or study participant resides, and is not a medical term per se, but relevant for epidemiological studies, healthcare policies, and understanding differences in disease prevalence, treatment patterns, and health outcomes across various geographic locations.
The act of ligating UBIQUITINS to PROTEINS to form ubiquitin-protein ligase complexes to label proteins for transport to the PROTEASOME ENDOPEPTIDASE COMPLEX where proteolysis occurs.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Antibodies reactive with the HTLV-I ANTIGENS.
Exercise of governmental authority to control conduct.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
PL97-248. Title II of the Act specifies "provisions relating to savings in health and income security programs." This includes changes in payment for services, benefits and premiums of Medicare as well as changes in provisions under Medicaid and other specific programs covered by Social Security. Title II includes various revenue measures.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
Payment by individuals or their family for health care services which are not covered by a third-party payer, either insurance or medical assistance.
A cyclin D subtype which is regulated by GATA4 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR. Experiments using KNOCKOUT MICE suggest a role for cyclin D2 in granulosa cell proliferation and gonadal development.
An organization of insurers or reinsurers through which particular types of risk are shared or pooled. The risk of high loss by a particular insurance company is transferred to the group as a whole (the insurance pool) with premiums, losses, and expenses shared in agreed amounts.
Glycosidic antibiotic from Streptomyces griseus used as a fluorescent stain of DNA and as an antineoplastic agent.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.
A component of NF-kappa B transcription factor. It is proteolytically processed from NF-kappa B p100 precursor protein and is important for maturation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and adaptive HUMORAL IMMUNITY.

Decline in cigarette consumption following implementation of a comprehensive tobacco prevention and education program--Oregon, 1996-1998. (1/368)

In November 1996, residents of Oregon approved a ballot measure increasing the cigarette tax by 30 cents (to 68 cents per pack). The measure stipulated that 10% of the additional tax revenue be allocated to the Oregon Health Division (OHD) to develop and implement a tobacco-use prevention program. In 1997, OHD created Oregon's Tobacco Prevention and Education Program (TPEP), a comprehensive, community-based program modeled on the successful tobacco-use prevention programs in California and Massachusetts. To assess the effects of the tax increase and TPEP in Oregon, OHD evaluated data on the number of packs of cigarettes taxed before (1993-1996) and after (1997-1998) the ballot initiative and implementation of the program. Oregon's results also were compared with national data. This report summarizes the results of the analysis, which indicate that consumption of cigarettes in Oregon declined substantially after implementation of the excise tax and TPEP and exceeded the national rate of decline.  (+info)

The impact of alternative cost recovery schemes on access and equity in Niger. (2/368)

The authors examine accessibility and the sustainability of quality health care in a rural setting under two alternative cost recovery methods, a fee-for-service method and a type of social financing (risk-sharing) strategy based on an annual tax+fee-for-service. Both methods were accompanied by similar interventions aimed at improving the quality of primary health services. Based on pilot tests of cost recovery in the non-hospital sector in Niger, the article presents results from baseline and final survey data, as well as from facility utilization, cost, and revenue data collected in two test districts and a control district. Cost recovery accompanied by quality improvements increases equity and access to health care and the type of cost recovery method used can make a difference. In Niger, higher access for women, children, and the poor resulted from the tax+fee method, than from the pure fee-for-service method. Moreover, revenue generation per capita under the tax+fee method was two times higher than under the fee-for-service method, suggesting that the prospects of sustainability were better under the social financing strategy. However, sustainability under cost recovery and improved quality depends as much on policy measures aimed at cost containment, particularly for drugs, as on specific cost recovery methods.  (+info)

Financial and organizational determinants of hospital diversification into subacute care. (3/368)

OBJECTIVE: To examine the financial, market, and organizational determinants of hospital diversification into subacute inpatient care by acute care hospitals in order to guide hospital managers in undertaking such diversification efforts. STUDY SETTING: All nongovernment, general, acute care, community hospitals that were operating during the years 1985 through 1991 (3,986 hospitals in total). DATA SOURCES: Cross-sectional, time-series data were drawn from the American Hospital Association's (AHA) Annual Survey of Hospitals, the Health Care Financing Administration's (HCFA) Medicare Cost Reports, a latitude and longitude listing for all community hospital addresses, and the Area Resource File (ARF) published in 1992, which provides county level environmental variables. STUDY DESIGN: The study is longitudinal, enabling the specification of temporal patterns in conversion, causal inferences, and the treatment of right-censoring problems. The unit of analysis is the individual hospital. KEY FINDINGS: Significant differences were found in the average level of subacute care offered by investor-owned versus tax-exempt hospitals. After controlling for selection bias, financial performance, risk, size, occupancy, and other variables, IO hospitals offered 31.3 percent less subacute care than did NFP hospitals. Financial performance and risk are predictors of IO hospitals' diversification into subacute care, but not of NFP hospitals' activities in this market. Resource availability appears to expedite expansion into subacute care for both types of hospitals. CONCLUSIONS: Investment criteria and strategy differ between investor-owned and tax-exempt hospitals.  (+info)

State and federal revenues from tobacco consumed by minors. (4/368)

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to estimate the value of cigarettes consumed in 1997 by youths younger than 18 years. METHODS: Price, population, and consumption data were used to compute conservative and comprehensive estimates, which were then averaged. RESULTS: An estimated 3.76 million daily smokers aged 12 through 17 years consume an estimated 924 million packs of cigarettes per year, generating $222 million in federal tax revenues, $293 million in state tax revenues, and $480 million in tobacco company profits, and producing a retail value of $1.86 billion. CONCLUSIONS: The revenues from cigarettes smoked by youths could be used to enforce laws prohibiting the sale of tobacco to minors.  (+info)

Arizona's tobacco control initiative illustrates the need for continuing oversight by tobacco control advocates. (5/368)

BACKGROUND: In 1994, Arizona voters approved Proposition 200 which increased the tobacco tax and earmarked 23% of the new revenues for tobacco education programmes. OBJECTIVE: To describe the campaign to pass Proposition 200, the legislative debate that followed the passage of the initiative, and the development and implementation of the tobacco control programme. DESIGN: This is a case study. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with key players in the initiative campaign and in the tobacco education programme, and written records (campaign material, newspapers, memoranda, public records). RESULTS: Despite opposition from the tobacco industry, Arizonans approved an increase in the tobacco tax. At the legislature, health advocates in Arizona successfully fought the tobacco industry attempts to divert the health education funds and pass preemptive legislation. The executive branch limited the scope of the programme to adolescents and pregnant women. It also prevented the programme from attacking the tobacco industry or focusing on secondhand smoke. Health advocates did not put enough pressure at the executive branch to force it to develop a comprehensive tobacco education programme. CONCLUSIONS: It is not enough for health advocates to campaign for an increase in tobacco tax and to protect the funds at the legislature. Tobacco control advocates must closely monitor the development and implementation of tax-funded tobacco education programmes at the administrative level and be willing to press the executive to implement effective programmes.  (+info)

Capital finance and ownership conversions in health care. (6/368)

This paper analyzes the for-profit transformation of health care, with emphasis on Internet start-ups, physician practice management firms, insurance plans, and hospitals at various stages in the industry life cycle. Venture capital, conglomerate diversification, publicly traded equity, convertible bonds, retained earnings, and taxable corporate debt come with forms of financial accountability that are distinct from those inherent in the capital sources available to nonprofit organizations. The pattern of for-profit conversions varies across health sectors, parallel with the relative advantages and disadvantages of for-profit and nonprofit capital sources in those sectors.  (+info)

Tax subsidies for health insurance: costs and benefits. (7/368)

The continued rise in the uninsured population has lead to considerable interest in tax-based policies to raise the level of insurance coverage. Using a detailed microsimulation model for evaluating these policies, we find that while tax subsidies could significantly increase insurance coverage, even very generous tax policies could not cover more than a sizable minority of the uninsured population. For example, a generous refundable credit that costs $13 billion per year would reduce the ranks of the uninsured by only four million persons. We also find that the efficiency of tax policies, in terms of the cost per newly insured, inevitably would fall as more of the uninsured were covered.  (+info)

The effect of marginal tax rate on the probability of employment-based insurance by risk group. (8/368)

RESEARCH OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of the tax subsidy on participation in employment-based health insurance for high- and low-risk individuals. The total exclusion of employer-paid health insurance premiums from taxable income has frequently been seen as contributing to excess insurance and hence welfare loss. However, less attention has been paid to quantifying the extent to which the tax subsidy mitigates the deleterious effects of adverse selection on the health insurance market. Adverse selection reduces pooling in an insurance market, so that high-risk individuals are either unable to obtain coverage or are forced to pay premiums that are unaffordable to all but the wealthiest. If there is an external benefit to society of an individual's purchase of medical care, then the presence of adverse selection may reduce the purchase of health care below the socially optimal level. Therefore, a mechanism for enhancing access to insurance and ultimately to medical care for high-risk individuals may be socially desirable. STUDY DESIGN: Data from the March 1996-March 1998 Current Population Survey (CPS). For each observation in the sample, state and federal income tax liability is calculated using code based on the ACIR Significant Features of Fiscal Federalism. The probability of having employment-based coverage in either one's own name or as a dependent is evaluated as a function of demographic variables such as age, education, marital status and family size, family income, type of employment, employer size, occupation, location, marginal tax rate, risk group (determined by self-assessed health status), and an interaction between risk group and tax rate. CPS data do not identify individuals who have declined offered coverage. Under alternative models of employer group decision making, the tax subsidy will have an important influence on the employer's decision to offer coverage. If offered, high-risk individuals accept coverage, while some low-risk individuals may decline coverage. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: For all individuals, the probability of having coverage is an increasing function of the marginal tax rate. Those classified as high-risk because their own or a family member's self-assessed health status is fair or poor are less likely to have coverage than those considered low-risk. The effect of the tax subsidy on insurance coverage is greater for high-risk individuals than for individuals classified as low-risk. CONCLUSIONS: These preliminary results indicate that high-risk individuals benefit from the tax subsidy by increased access to employment-based coverage. Therefore, welfare loss from excess levels of health insurance may be mitigated by welfare gain through expanded access to health insurance and hence to health care for high-risk individuals. IMPLICATIONS FOR POLICY, DELIVERY, OR PRACTICE: Elimination or reduction of the tax exclusion of health insurance premiums may have the unintended consequences of disproportionately reducing the probability of obtaining coverage in the employment-based market for high-risk individuals.  (+info)

A gene product is the biochemical material, such as a protein or RNA, that is produced by the expression of a gene. Gene products are the result of the translation and transcription of genetic information encoded in DNA or RNA.

In the context of "tax," this term is not typically used in a medical definition of gene products. However, it may refer to the concept of taxing or regulating gene products in the context of genetic engineering or synthetic biology. This could involve imposing fees or restrictions on the production, use, or sale of certain gene products, particularly those that are genetically modified or engineered. The regulation of gene products is an important aspect of ensuring their safe and effective use in various applications, including medical treatments, agricultural production, and industrial processes.

Human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1) is a complex retrovirus that infects CD4+ T lymphocytes and can cause adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). The virus is primarily transmitted through breastfeeding, sexual contact, or contaminated blood products. After infection, the virus integrates into the host's genome and can remain latent for years or even decades before leading to disease. HTLV-1 is endemic in certain regions of the world, including Japan, the Caribbean, Central and South America, and parts of Africa.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Income Tax" is not a medical term. It is an concept from the field of economics and public finance.

Income tax refers to a type of tax that governments impose on individuals or entities' income. The tax is calculated as a percentage of the income earned, and it varies depending on the income level and the tax laws of the country or region. Income taxes are a major source of revenue for most national governments.

If you have any medical questions, I would be happy to try to help answer them!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Tax Exemption" is not a medical term. It is a term used in the field of tax law and finance. Tax exemption refers to the ability to exclude all or part of one's income from taxes. Certain organizations, such as non-profit organizations or government entities, can be tax-exempt, meaning they do not have to pay taxes on their income. Additionally, individuals may also qualify for certain tax exemptions, such as those for dependents.

I'm sorry for the confusion, but "pX" is not a standard term in genetics or genomic medicine. It may be a typo or a specific shorthand used in certain contexts. If you could provide more context or clarify what "pX" is intended to represent, I would be happy to help further.

In general, genes are segments of DNA that contain the instructions for making proteins or RNA molecules. These instructions are encoded in a genetic alphabet consisting of four nucleotide bases: adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). The sequence of these bases determines the genetic information within a gene, which can vary among individuals and contribute to differences in traits and disease susceptibility.

Human T-lymphotropic virus 2 (HTLV-2) is a retrovirus that primarily infects CD4+ T lymphocytes and other cells of the immune system. It is a deltaretrovirus closely related to HTLV-1, but with distinct biological properties and geographic distribution.

HTLV-2 infection is usually asymptomatic, although some individuals may develop neurological or skin disorders. However, the association between HTLV-2 and these diseases is not as clear as it is for HTLV-1 and adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma or tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-1 associated myelopathy (TSP/HAM).

HTLV-2 is primarily transmitted through breastfeeding, sexual contact, and sharing of needles among injecting drug users. It is endemic in certain populations, particularly indigenous communities in the Americas, such as the Guaraní and Kayapó in Brazil, and the Navajo and Pima in the United States. Prevalence rates can reach up to 30% in some of these populations.

There is currently no vaccine or specific treatment for HTLV-2 infection, and prevention efforts focus on reducing transmission risks through education and harm reduction strategies.

HTLV-I (Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1) infection is a viral infection that attacks the CD4+ T-cells (a type of white blood cell) and can lead to the development of various diseases, including Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma (ATLL) and HTLV-I Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (HAM/TSP). The virus is primarily transmitted through breastfeeding, sexual contact, or contaminated blood products. After infection, the virus becomes integrated into the host's DNA and can remain dormant for years, even decades, before leading to the development of disease. Most people infected with HTLV-I do not develop any symptoms, but a small percentage will go on to develop serious complications.

Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma (ATLL) is a rare and aggressive type of cancer that affects the circulating white blood cells called T-lymphocytes or T-cells. It is caused by the human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1), which infects CD4+ T-cells and leads to their malignant transformation. The disease can present as either acute or chronic leukemia, or as lymphoma, depending on the clinical features and laboratory findings.

The acute form of ATLL is characterized by the rapid proliferation of abnormal T-cells in the blood, bone marrow, and other organs. Patients with acute ATLL typically have a poor prognosis, with a median survival of only a few months. Symptoms may include skin rashes, lymphadenopathy (swollen lymph nodes), hepatosplenomegaly (enlarged liver and spleen), and hypercalcemia (high levels of calcium in the blood).

The chronic form of ATLL is less aggressive than the acute form, but it can still lead to serious complications. Chronic ATLL is characterized by the accumulation of abnormal T-cells in the blood and lymph nodes, as well as skin lesions and hypercalcemia. The median survival for patients with chronic ATLL is around two years.

ATLL can also present as a lymphoma, which is characterized by the proliferation of abnormal T-cells in the lymph nodes, spleen, and other organs. Lymphoma may occur in isolation or in combination with leukemic features.

The diagnosis of ATLL is based on clinical findings, laboratory tests, and the detection of HTLV-1 antibodies or proviral DNA in the blood or tissue samples. Treatment options for ATLL include chemotherapy, antiretroviral therapy, immunotherapy, and stem cell transplantation. The choice of treatment depends on several factors, including the patient's age, overall health, and the stage and type of ATLL.

Transcriptional activation is the process by which a cell increases the rate of transcription of specific genes from DNA to RNA. This process is tightly regulated and plays a crucial role in various biological processes, including development, differentiation, and response to environmental stimuli.

Transcriptional activation occurs when transcription factors (proteins that bind to specific DNA sequences) interact with the promoter region of a gene and recruit co-activator proteins. These co-activators help to remodel the chromatin structure around the gene, making it more accessible for the transcription machinery to bind and initiate transcription.

Transcriptional activation can be regulated at multiple levels, including the availability and activity of transcription factors, the modification of histone proteins, and the recruitment of co-activators or co-repressors. Dysregulation of transcriptional activation has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer and genetic disorders.

CREB (Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein) is a transcription factor that plays a crucial role in regulating gene expression in response to various cellular signals. CREB binds to the cAMP response element (CRE) sequence in the promoter region of target genes and regulates their transcription.

When activated, CREB undergoes phosphorylation at a specific serine residue (Ser-133), which leads to its binding to the coactivator protein CBP/p300 and recruitment of additional transcriptional machinery to the promoter region. This results in the activation of target gene transcription.

CREB is involved in various cellular processes, including metabolism, differentiation, survival, and memory formation. Dysregulation of CREB has been implicated in several diseases, such as cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and mood disorders.

Jurkat cells are a type of human immortalized T lymphocyte (a type of white blood cell) cell line that is commonly used in scientific research. They were originally isolated from the peripheral blood of a patient with acute T-cell leukemia. Jurkat cells are widely used as a model system to study T-cell activation, signal transduction, and apoptosis (programmed cell death). They are also used in the study of HIV infection and replication, as they can be infected with the virus and used to investigate viral replication and host cell responses.

Bovine Leukemia Virus (BLV) is a retrovirus that infects cattle and causes enzootic bovine leukosis, a neoplastic disease characterized by the proliferation of malignant B-lymphocytes. The virus primarily targets the animal's immune system, leading to a decrease in the number of white blood cells (leukopenia) and an increased susceptibility to other infections.

The virus is transmitted horizontally through close contact with infected animals or vertically from mother to offspring via infected milk or colostrum. The majority of BLV-infected cattle remain asymptomatic carriers, but a small percentage develop clinical signs such as lymphoma, weight loss, and decreased milk production.

BLV is closely related to human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV), and both viruses belong to the Retroviridae family, genus Deltaretrovirus. However, it's important to note that BLV does not cause leukemia or any other neoplastic diseases in humans.

Gene expression regulation, viral, refers to the processes that control the production of viral gene products, such as proteins and nucleic acids, during the viral life cycle. This can involve both viral and host cell factors that regulate transcription, RNA processing, translation, and post-translational modifications of viral genes.

Viral gene expression regulation is critical for the virus to replicate and produce progeny virions. Different types of viruses have evolved diverse mechanisms to regulate their gene expression, including the use of promoters, enhancers, transcription factors, RNA silencing, and epigenetic modifications. Understanding these regulatory processes can provide insights into viral pathogenesis and help in the development of antiviral therapies.

I believe you may have mixed up the terms "medicine" and "commerce." Commerce is a broad term that refers to the buying and selling of goods and services. It is not typically used in a medical context, so it does not have a specific medical definition. However, I can provide you with some related terms that might be helpful:

1. Medical commerce: This term generally refers to the business aspects of healthcare, such as the buying and selling of medical supplies, equipment, and services. It may also refer to the economic relationships between various stakeholders in the healthcare system, including providers, insurers, pharmaceutical companies, and patients.
2. Telemedicine commerce: This term specifically refers to the use of technology to facilitate remote consultations and transactions between healthcare providers and patients. Examples include online appointment scheduling, virtual consultations, and electronic prescribing.
3. Medical tourism: This is a form of commerce where people travel to other countries to receive medical treatment or procedures that may be less expensive or more accessible than in their home country. It can also refer to the business of providing medical services to international patients.
4. Healthcare marketing: This term refers to the activities and strategies used by healthcare organizations to promote their products, services, and brands to potential customers. It includes advertising, public relations, social media, content marketing, and other tactics designed to build awareness, generate leads, and drive sales.

I hope this information is helpful! Let me know if you have any further questions or concerns.

Terminal repeat sequences (TRS) are repetitive DNA sequences that are located at the termini or ends of chromosomes, plasmids, and viral genomes. They play a significant role in various biological processes such as genome replication, packaging, and integration. In eukaryotic cells, telomeres are the most well-known TRS, which protect the chromosome ends from degradation, fusion, and other forms of DNA damage.

Telomeres consist of repetitive DNA sequences (5'-TTAGGG-3' in vertebrates) that are several kilobases long, associated with a set of shelterin proteins that protect them from being recognized as double-strand breaks by the DNA repair machinery. With each cell division, telomeres progressively shorten due to the end replication problem, which can ultimately lead to cellular senescence or apoptosis.

In contrast, prokaryotic TRS are often found at the ends of plasmids and phages and are involved in DNA replication, packaging, and integration into host genomes. For example, the attP and attB sites in bacteriophage lambda are TRS that facilitate site-specific recombination during integration and excision from the host genome.

Overall, terminal repeat sequences are essential for maintaining genome stability and integrity in various organisms, and their dysfunction can lead to genomic instability, disease, and aging.

The intranuclear space, also known as the nucleoplasm or karyolymph, refers to the internal environment of a eukaryotic cell's nucleus. It is the fluid-filled space inside the nuclear membrane where the genetic material, chromatin, and various nuclear organelles such as the nucleolus are suspended. The intranuclear space is involved in numerous essential cellular processes, including DNA replication, transcription, and repair.

NF-κB (Nuclear Factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells) is a protein complex that plays a crucial role in regulating the immune response to infection and inflammation, as well as in cell survival, differentiation, and proliferation. It is composed of several subunits, including p50, p52, p65 (RelA), c-Rel, and RelB, which can form homodimers or heterodimers that bind to specific DNA sequences called κB sites in the promoter regions of target genes.

Under normal conditions, NF-κB is sequestered in the cytoplasm by inhibitory proteins known as IκBs (inhibitors of κB). However, upon stimulation by various signals such as cytokines, bacterial or viral products, and stress, IκBs are phosphorylated, ubiquitinated, and degraded, leading to the release and activation of NF-κB. Activated NF-κB then translocates to the nucleus, where it binds to κB sites and regulates the expression of target genes involved in inflammation, immunity, cell survival, and proliferation.

Dysregulation of NF-κB signaling has been implicated in various pathological conditions such as cancer, chronic inflammation, autoimmune diseases, and neurodegenerative disorders. Therefore, targeting NF-κB signaling has emerged as a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of these diseases.

Leukemia, T-cell is a type of cancer that affects the T-cells or T-lymphocytes, which are a type of white blood cells responsible for cell-mediated immunity. It is characterized by an excessive and uncontrolled production of abnormal T-cells in the bone marrow, leading to the displacement of healthy cells and impairing the body's ability to fight infections and regulate immune responses.

T-cell leukemia can be acute or chronic, depending on the rate at which the disease progresses. Acute T-cell leukemia progresses rapidly, while chronic T-cell leukemia has a slower course of progression. Symptoms may include fatigue, fever, frequent infections, weight loss, easy bruising or bleeding, and swollen lymph nodes. Treatment typically involves chemotherapy, radiation therapy, stem cell transplantation, or targeted therapy, depending on the type and stage of the disease.

A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.

"Public policy" is not a medical term, but rather a term used in the field of politics, government, and public administration. It refers to a course or principle of action adopted or proposed by a government, party, business, or organization to guide decisions and achieve specific goals related to public health, safety, or welfare.

However, in the context of healthcare and medicine, "public policy" often refers to laws, regulations, guidelines, and initiatives established by government entities to promote and protect the health and well-being of the population. Public policies in healthcare aim to ensure access to quality care, reduce health disparities, promote public health, regulate healthcare practices and industries, and address broader social determinants of health. Examples include Medicaid and Medicare programs, laws mandating insurance coverage for certain medical procedures or treatments, and regulations governing the safety and efficacy of drugs and medical devices.

I'm happy to help! However, I believe there might be a slight mistake in your question. "Gene products" is a general term that refers to the molecules produced by genes, including both RNA and proteins. On the other hand, "rex" is often used as an abbreviation for "regulated expression," which can be a part of a gene's name indicating its regulatory properties.

If you are referring to a specific genetic element or molecule named "rex," I would need more context or information to provide an accurate medical definition. Nonetheless, I hope this initial explanation helps! If you have further questions or need clarification, please let me know.

Cell transformation, viral refers to the process by which a virus causes normal cells to become cancerous or tumorigenic. This occurs when the genetic material of the virus integrates into the DNA of the host cell and alters its regulation, leading to uncontrolled cell growth and division. Some viruses known to cause cell transformation include human papillomavirus (HPV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and certain types of herpesviruses.

Tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP) is a type of myelopathy (spinal cord disorder) that is associated with chronic infectious or inflammatory conditions. The term "paraparesis" refers to partial weakness in the lower extremities, which is a characteristic feature of TSP.

In Tropical spastic paraparesis, there is a slow and progressive degeneration of the spinal cord, leading to symptoms such as muscle weakness, stiffness, and spasticity (involuntary muscle contractions) in the legs. Other common symptoms include sensory loss, bladder and bowel dysfunction, and sexual impairment.

TSP is often caused by a chronic infection with the human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1), which is endemic in certain tropical and subtropical regions, including the Caribbean, South America, Central America, Africa, and parts of Asia. The virus is transmitted through blood transfusions, sexual contact, and breastfeeding.

There is no cure for TSP, but symptoms can be managed with physical therapy, medications to relieve muscle spasticity, and other supportive measures. It is important to diagnose and treat TSP early to prevent or slow down the progression of the disease and improve quality of life.

Tobacco products are defined as any items that contain tobacco, including but not limited to cigarettes, cigars, pipe tobacco, snuff, chewing tobacco, and electronic nicotine delivery systems (such as e-cigarettes). These products can be smoked, smokeless, or heated and involve the inhalation or ingestion of tobacco or its derivatives. They are known to cause addiction due to their nicotine content and can lead to a variety of serious health problems, including cancer, heart disease, and lung disease.

HTLV-I (Human T-lymphotropic virus type I) antigens are proteins expressed by the HTLV-I virus, which can be detected in an infected individual's serum. The two main types of HTLV-I antigens are:

1. Core antigen (p24): This is a structural protein present in the viral core. Detection of p24 antigen in the blood indicates active viral replication.

2. Surface envelope glycoprotein (gp46): This antigen is found on the surface of the virus and plays a role in the attachment and entry of the virus into host cells.

The detection of HTLV-I antigens can be used for diagnostic purposes, particularly in serological tests such as ELISA or Western blot assays, to identify individuals who have been infected with the virus.

A "cell line, transformed" is a type of cell culture that has undergone a stable genetic alteration, which confers the ability to grow indefinitely in vitro, outside of the organism from which it was derived. These cells have typically been immortalized through exposure to chemical or viral carcinogens, or by introducing specific oncogenes that disrupt normal cell growth regulation pathways.

Transformed cell lines are widely used in scientific research because they offer a consistent and renewable source of biological material for experimentation. They can be used to study various aspects of cell biology, including signal transduction, gene expression, drug discovery, and toxicity testing. However, it is important to note that transformed cells may not always behave identically to their normal counterparts, and results obtained using these cells should be validated in more physiologically relevant systems when possible.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Alcoholic beverages are drinks that contain ethanol (ethyl alcohol), which is produced by the fermentation of yeast, sugars, and starches. The amount of alcohol in a drink is measured in terms of "alcohol content" or "alcohol by volume" (ABV). Different types of alcoholic beverages include:

1. Beer: A fermented beverage made from grains, such as barley, wheat, or rye. The alcohol content of beer typically ranges from 3-6% ABV.
2. Wine: A fermented beverage made from grapes or other fruits. The alcohol content of wine usually falls between 10-15% ABV.
3. Spirits (or liquors): Distilled beverages with higher alcohol content, typically ranging from 40-50% ABV. Examples include vodka, whiskey, rum, gin, and tequila.
4. Fortified wines: Wines that have had a distilled spirit added to them, increasing their alcohol content. Examples include port, sherry, and madeira, which typically contain 17-20% ABV.
5. Malt beverages: Fermented beverages made from malted barley or other grains, with additional flavorings or sweeteners. These can range in alcohol content from around 4-8% ABV.

It is important to note that excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages can lead to various health issues, including addiction, liver disease, and an increased risk of accidents and injuries. Moderate drinking is generally defined as up to one drink per day for women and up to two drinks per day for men, although individual tolerance and sensitivity to alcohol may vary.

In the medical field, "accounting" generally refers to the process of tracking, analyzing, and reporting financial transactions related to the operation of a healthcare organization or practice. This can include recording revenue from patient services, managing expenses for supplies and personnel, ensuring compliance with government regulations, and producing financial statements for decision-making and tax purposes.

Some specific areas of accounting that are relevant to healthcare include:

* Revenue Cycle Management (RCM): the process of tracking and collecting payments for medical services provided to patients. This includes billing, coding, and managing insurance claims.
* Cost Accounting: the process of analyzing and allocating costs associated with providing medical services, including direct costs (such as supplies and labor) and indirect costs (such as rent and utilities).
* Financial Reporting: the process of producing financial statements that provide an overview of a healthcare organization's financial performance and position. This can include balance sheets, income statements, and cash flow statements.
* Compliance Accounting: the process of ensuring that a healthcare organization is following all relevant laws and regulations related to financial management, including those related to Medicare and Medicaid reimbursement, tax reporting, and fraud prevention.

It's important to note that accounting in healthcare is a complex field that requires specialized knowledge and skills, and it is typically overseen by certified public accountants (CPAs) or other financial professionals who specialize in healthcare finance.

Promoter regions in genetics refer to specific DNA sequences located near the transcription start site of a gene. They serve as binding sites for RNA polymerase and various transcription factors that regulate the initiation of gene transcription. These regulatory elements help control the rate of transcription and, therefore, the level of gene expression. Promoter regions can be composed of different types of sequences, such as the TATA box and CAAT box, and their organization and composition can vary between different genes and species.

T-lymphocytes, also known as T-cells, are a type of white blood cell that plays a key role in the adaptive immune system's response to infection. They are produced in the bone marrow and mature in the thymus gland. There are several different types of T-cells, including CD4+ helper T-cells, CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells, and regulatory T-cells (Tregs).

CD4+ helper T-cells assist in activating other immune cells, such as B-lymphocytes and macrophages. They also produce cytokines, which are signaling molecules that help coordinate the immune response. CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells directly kill infected cells by releasing toxic substances. Regulatory T-cells help maintain immune tolerance and prevent autoimmune diseases by suppressing the activity of other immune cells.

T-lymphocytes are important in the immune response to viral infections, cancer, and other diseases. Dysfunction or depletion of T-cells can lead to immunodeficiency and increased susceptibility to infections. On the other hand, an overactive T-cell response can contribute to autoimmune diseases and chronic inflammation.

Repetitive sequences in nucleic acid refer to repeated stretches of DNA or RNA nucleotide bases that are present in a genome. These sequences can vary in length and can be arranged in different patterns such as direct repeats, inverted repeats, or tandem repeats. In some cases, these repetitive sequences do not code for proteins and are often found in non-coding regions of the genome. They can play a role in genetic instability, regulation of gene expression, and evolutionary processes. However, certain types of repeat expansions have been associated with various neurodegenerative disorders and other human diseases.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "State Government" is not a medical term. It refers to the level of government in the United States that is responsible for governing each of the individual states. This includes executives (such as governors), legislative bodies (like state senates and houses of representatives), and courts.

If you have any questions related to medicine or healthcare, I'd be happy to try and help answer those for you!

Genetic transcription is the process by which the information in a strand of DNA is used to create a complementary RNA molecule. This process is the first step in gene expression, where the genetic code in DNA is converted into a form that can be used to produce proteins or functional RNAs.

During transcription, an enzyme called RNA polymerase binds to the DNA template strand and reads the sequence of nucleotide bases. As it moves along the template, it adds complementary RNA nucleotides to the growing RNA chain, creating a single-stranded RNA molecule that is complementary to the DNA template strand. Once transcription is complete, the RNA molecule may undergo further processing before it can be translated into protein or perform its functional role in the cell.

Transcription can be either "constitutive" or "regulated." Constitutive transcription occurs at a relatively constant rate and produces essential proteins that are required for basic cellular functions. Regulated transcription, on the other hand, is subject to control by various intracellular and extracellular signals, allowing cells to respond to changing environmental conditions or developmental cues.

Transcription factors are proteins that play a crucial role in regulating gene expression by controlling the transcription of DNA to messenger RNA (mRNA). They function by binding to specific DNA sequences, known as response elements, located in the promoter region or enhancer regions of target genes. This binding can either activate or repress the initiation of transcription, depending on the properties and interactions of the particular transcription factor. Transcription factors often act as part of a complex network of regulatory proteins that determine the precise spatiotemporal patterns of gene expression during development, differentiation, and homeostasis in an organism.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "lobbying" is not a term that has a medical definition. Lobbying refers to the act of attempting to influence decisions made by legislators or other officials in favor of specific causes or outcomes. It is commonly used to describe advocacy efforts by various interest groups, including healthcare organizations and pharmaceutical companies, to shape health policy and regulations. However, it is not a medical term with a specific clinical meaning.

HTLV-II (Human T-lymphotropic virus type 2) infection is a condition caused by the retrovirus HTLV- II. This virus primarily infects CD4+ T cells and can lead to the development of several diseases, including adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL), a malignancy of CD4+ T cells, and tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-associated myelopathy (TSP/HAM), a neurological disorder characterized by progressive weakness and stiffness in the lower extremities. However, the majority of people infected with HTLV-II remain asymptomatic throughout their lives. The virus is primarily transmitted through blood transfusions, sharing of needles, sexual contact, and from mother to child during breastfeeding.

Transfection is a term used in molecular biology that refers to the process of deliberately introducing foreign genetic material (DNA, RNA or artificial gene constructs) into cells. This is typically done using chemical or physical methods, such as lipofection or electroporation. Transfection is widely used in research and medical settings for various purposes, including studying gene function, producing proteins, developing gene therapies, and creating genetically modified organisms. It's important to note that transfection is different from transduction, which is the process of introducing genetic material into cells using viruses as vectors.

HeLa cells are a type of immortalized cell line used in scientific research. They are derived from a cancer that developed in the cervical tissue of Henrietta Lacks, an African-American woman, in 1951. After her death, cells taken from her tumor were found to be capable of continuous division and growth in a laboratory setting, making them an invaluable resource for medical research.

HeLa cells have been used in a wide range of scientific studies, including research on cancer, viruses, genetics, and drug development. They were the first human cell line to be successfully cloned and are able to grow rapidly in culture, doubling their population every 20-24 hours. This has made them an essential tool for many areas of biomedical research.

It is important to note that while HeLa cells have been instrumental in numerous scientific breakthroughs, the story of their origin raises ethical questions about informed consent and the use of human tissue in research.

The Federal Government, in the context of medical definitions, typically refers to the national government of a country that has a federal system of government. In such a system, power is divided between the national government and regional or state governments. The Federal Government is responsible for matters that affect the entire nation, such as foreign policy, national defense, and regulating interstate commerce, including certain aspects of healthcare policy and regulation.

In the United States, for example, the Federal Government plays a significant role in healthcare through programs like Medicare, Medicaid, and the Affordable Care Act (ACA), which are designed to ensure access to affordable healthcare services for specific populations or address broader health reform initiatives. The Federal Government also regulates food and drugs through agencies such as the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). These federal entities work to ensure the safety, efficacy, and security of medical products, foods, and public health.

CREB-binding protein (CBP) is a transcription coactivator that plays a crucial role in regulating gene expression. It is called a "coactivator" because it works together with other proteins, such as transcription factors, to enhance the process of gene transcription. CBP is so named because it can bind to the cAMP response element-binding (CREB) protein, which is a transcription factor that regulates the expression of various genes in response to different signals within cells.

CBP has intrinsic histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity, which means it can add acetyl groups to histone proteins around which DNA is wound. This modification loosens the chromatin structure, making it more accessible for transcription factors and other proteins involved in gene expression. As a result, CBP acts as a global regulator of gene expression, influencing various cellular processes such as development, differentiation, and homeostasis.

Mutations in the CBP gene have been associated with several human diseases, including Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome, a rare genetic disorder characterized by growth retardation, mental deficiency, and distinct facial features. Additionally, CBP has been implicated in cancer, as its dysregulation can lead to uncontrolled cell growth and malignant transformation.

I-kappa B kinase (IKK) is a protein complex that plays a crucial role in the activation of NF-kB (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells), a transcription factor involved in the regulation of immune response, inflammation, cell survival, and proliferation.

The IKK complex is composed of two catalytic subunits, IKKα and IKKβ, and a regulatory subunit, IKKγ (also known as NEMO). Upon stimulation by various signals such as cytokines, pathogens, or stress, the IKK complex becomes activated and phosphorylates I-kappa B (IkB), an inhibitor protein that keeps NF-kB in an inactive state in the cytoplasm.

Once IkB is phosphorylated by the IKK complex, it undergoes ubiquitination and degradation, leading to the release and nuclear translocation of NF-kB, where it can bind to specific DNA sequences and regulate gene expression. Dysregulation of IKK activity has been implicated in various pathological conditions, including chronic inflammation, autoimmune diseases, and cancer.

Activating Transcription Factor 1 (ATF-1) is a protein that belongs to the family of leucine zipper transcription factors. It plays a crucial role in regulating gene expression by binding to specific DNA sequences, known as cAMP response elements (CREs), and activating the transcription of target genes.

ATF-1 forms homodimers or heterodimers with other members of the CREB/ATF family and binds to the CRE sites in the promoter regions of target genes. The activity of ATF-1 is regulated by various signaling pathways, including the cAMP-PKA pathway, which can modulate its transcriptional activity by phosphorylation.

ATF-1 has been implicated in several biological processes, such as cell growth, differentiation, and stress response. Dysregulation of ATF-1 has been associated with various diseases, including cancer, where it can act as a tumor suppressor or an oncogene depending on the context.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Models, Econometric" is not a medical term. Econometric models are statistical tools used in the field of economics to estimate economic relationships and forecast future outcomes. They are based on economic theory and use historical data to estimate the parameters of mathematical equations that describe these relationships.

If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I'd be happy to try to help! Just let me know what you're looking for.

'Government Financing' in the context of healthcare refers to the role of government in funding healthcare services, programs, and infrastructure. This can be achieved through various mechanisms such as:

1. Direct provision of healthcare services: The government operates and funds its own hospitals, clinics, and other healthcare facilities, where it employs healthcare professionals to deliver care.
2. Public insurance programs: The government establishes and manages health insurance programs, like Medicare and Medicaid in the United States, which provide coverage for specific populations and reimburse healthcare providers for services delivered to enrollees.
3. Tax subsidies and incentives: Governments may offer tax breaks or other financial incentives to encourage private investments in healthcare infrastructure, research, and development.
4. Grants and loans: Government agencies can provide funding to healthcare organizations, researchers, and educational institutions in the form of grants and loans for specific projects, programs, or initiatives.
5. Public-private partnerships (PPPs): Governments collaborate with private entities to jointly fund and manage healthcare services, facilities, or infrastructure projects.

Government financing plays a significant role in shaping healthcare systems and ensuring access to care for vulnerable populations. The extent of government involvement in financing varies across countries, depending on their political, economic, and social contexts.

Trans-activators are proteins that increase the transcriptional activity of a gene or a set of genes. They do this by binding to specific DNA sequences and interacting with the transcription machinery, thereby enhancing the recruitment and assembly of the complexes needed for transcription. In some cases, trans-activators can also modulate the chromatin structure to make the template more accessible to the transcription machinery.

In the context of HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infection, the term "trans-activator" is often used specifically to refer to the Tat protein. The Tat protein is a viral regulatory protein that plays a critical role in the replication of HIV by activating the transcription of the viral genome. It does this by binding to a specific RNA structure called the Trans-Activation Response Element (TAR) located at the 5' end of all nascent HIV transcripts, and recruiting cellular cofactors that enhance the processivity and efficiency of RNA polymerase II, leading to increased viral gene expression.

Activating transcription factors (ATFs) are a family of proteins that regulate gene expression by binding to specific DNA sequences and promoting the initiation of transcription. They play crucial roles in various cellular processes, including development, differentiation, and stress response. ATFs can form homodimers or heterodimers with other transcription factors, such as cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), and bind to the consensus sequence called the cyclic AMP response element (CRE) in the promoter region of target genes. The activation of ATFs can be regulated through various post-translational modifications, such as phosphorylation, which can alter their DNA-binding ability and transcriptional activity.

In the context of medical and biological sciences, a "binding site" refers to a specific location on a protein, molecule, or cell where another molecule can attach or bind. This binding interaction can lead to various functional changes in the original protein or molecule. The other molecule that binds to the binding site is often referred to as a ligand, which can be a small molecule, ion, or even another protein.

The binding between a ligand and its target binding site can be specific and selective, meaning that only certain ligands can bind to particular binding sites with high affinity. This specificity plays a crucial role in various biological processes, such as signal transduction, enzyme catalysis, or drug action.

In the case of drug development, understanding the location and properties of binding sites on target proteins is essential for designing drugs that can selectively bind to these sites and modulate protein function. This knowledge can help create more effective and safer therapeutic options for various diseases.

Voluntary hospitals, also known as non-profit or private hospitals, are medical institutions that are privately owned and operated, typically by a charitable organization or community group. They are called "voluntary" because they are not run by the government and rely on donations, grants, and other forms of financial support from the community to operate.

Voluntary hospitals can be religious or secular in nature and often have a mission to serve specific populations or provide care for underserved communities. They may offer a range of medical services, including emergency care, inpatient and outpatient care, diagnostic testing, and specialized treatments.

These hospitals are typically governed by a board of directors made up of community members and are required to operate on a non-profit basis, meaning that any revenue generated must be reinvested into the hospital's operations or mission rather than distributed to shareholders or owners. Voluntary hospitals may also receive funding from government sources such as Medicare and Medicaid, but they are not owned or operated by the government.

DNA-binding proteins are a type of protein that have the ability to bind to DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), the genetic material of organisms. These proteins play crucial roles in various biological processes, such as regulation of gene expression, DNA replication, repair and recombination.

The binding of DNA-binding proteins to specific DNA sequences is mediated by non-covalent interactions, including electrostatic, hydrogen bonding, and van der Waals forces. The specificity of binding is determined by the recognition of particular nucleotide sequences or structural features of the DNA molecule.

DNA-binding proteins can be classified into several categories based on their structure and function, such as transcription factors, histones, and restriction enzymes. Transcription factors are a major class of DNA-binding proteins that regulate gene expression by binding to specific DNA sequences in the promoter region of genes and recruiting other proteins to modulate transcription. Histones are DNA-binding proteins that package DNA into nucleosomes, the basic unit of chromatin structure. Restriction enzymes are DNA-binding proteins that recognize and cleave specific DNA sequences, and are widely used in molecular biology research and biotechnology applications.

Protein binding, in the context of medical and biological sciences, refers to the interaction between a protein and another molecule (known as the ligand) that results in a stable complex. This process is often reversible and can be influenced by various factors such as pH, temperature, and concentration of the involved molecules.

In clinical chemistry, protein binding is particularly important when it comes to drugs, as many of them bind to proteins (especially albumin) in the bloodstream. The degree of protein binding can affect a drug's distribution, metabolism, and excretion, which in turn influence its therapeutic effectiveness and potential side effects.

Protein-bound drugs may be less available for interaction with their target tissues, as only the unbound or "free" fraction of the drug is active. Therefore, understanding protein binding can help optimize dosing regimens and minimize adverse reactions.

Basic-leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors are a family of transcriptional regulatory proteins characterized by the presence of a basic region and a leucine zipper motif. The basic region, which is rich in basic amino acids such as lysine and arginine, is responsible for DNA binding, while the leucine zipper motif mediates protein-protein interactions and dimerization.

BZIP transcription factors play important roles in various cellular processes, including gene expression regulation, cell growth, differentiation, and stress response. They bind to specific DNA sequences called AP-1 sites, which are often found in the promoter regions of target genes. BZIP transcription factors can form homodimers or heterodimers with other bZIP proteins, allowing for combinatorial control of gene expression.

Examples of bZIP transcription factors include c-Jun, c-Fos, ATF (activating transcription factor), and CREB (cAMP response element-binding protein). Dysregulation of bZIP transcription factors has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, inflammation, and neurodegenerative disorders.

Deltaretroviruses are a genus of retroviruses that can cause chronic infections in humans and animals. The two main deltaretroviruses that infect humans are the Human T-cell Leukemia Virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and Human T-cell Leukemia Virus type 2 (HTLV-2).

HTLV-1 is primarily transmitted through breastfeeding, sexual contact, and contaminated blood products. It can cause several diseases, including Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma (ATLL) and a neurological disorder called HTLV-1 Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (HAM/TSP).

HTLV-2 is primarily transmitted through intravenous drug use and sexual contact. While it has been associated with some diseases, such as neurological disorders and rare cases of leukemia, the link between HTLV-2 and disease is not as clear as it is for HTLV-1.

Deltaretrovirus infections can be diagnosed through blood tests that detect antibodies to the viruses or through genetic testing to detect the virus itself. There is currently no cure for deltaretrovirus infections, but antiretroviral therapy (ART) may help manage the infection and reduce the risk of transmission.

It's important to note that deltaretrovirus infections are relatively rare, and most people who are infected do not develop symptoms or disease. However, if you believe you may have been exposed to these viruses, it is important to speak with a healthcare provider for further evaluation and testing.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "public opinion" is not a term that has a medical definition. Public opinion refers to the collective views, attitudes, and beliefs held by a group or society about a particular issue or topic. It is typically formed through interaction, discussion, and various forms of communication within a community or population. If you have any questions related to healthcare or medicine, I'd be happy to help with those!

Smoking is not a medical condition, but it's a significant health risk behavior. Here is the definition from a public health perspective:

Smoking is the act of inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning tobacco that is commonly consumed through cigarettes, pipes, and cigars. The smoke contains over 7,000 chemicals, including nicotine, tar, carbon monoxide, and numerous toxic and carcinogenic substances. These toxins contribute to a wide range of diseases and health conditions, such as lung cancer, heart disease, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and various other cancers, as well as adverse reproductive outcomes and negative impacts on the developing fetus during pregnancy. Smoking is highly addictive due to the nicotine content, which makes quitting smoking a significant challenge for many individuals.

A provirus is a form of the genetic material of a retrovirus that is integrated into the DNA of the host cell it has infected. Once integrated, the provirus is replicated along with the host's own DNA every time the cell divides, and it becomes a permanent part of the host's genome.

The process of integration involves the reverse transcription of the retroviral RNA genome into DNA by the enzyme reverse transcriptase, followed by the integration of the resulting double-stranded proviral DNA into the host chromosome by the enzyme integrase.

Proviruses can remain dormant and inactive for long periods of time, or they can become active and produce new viral particles that can infect other cells. In some cases, proviruses can also disrupt the normal functioning of host genes, leading to various diseases such as cancer.

Primate T-lymphotropic virus 3 (PTLV-3) is not a widely recognized or established medical term. However, it's possible that you are referring to Primate T-cell Leukemia Virus type 3 (PTLV-3), which is a retrovirus that primarily infects non-human primates. It is closely related to the human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 and 2 (HTLV-1 and HTLV-2). PTLV-3, like other T-cell leukemia viruses, has been associated with the development of certain types of cancer, particularly adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) in its natural host species. However, there is no known human infection with PTLV-3 to date.

Nuclear proteins are a category of proteins that are primarily found in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell. They play crucial roles in various nuclear functions, such as DNA replication, transcription, repair, and RNA processing. This group includes structural proteins like lamins, which form the nuclear lamina, and regulatory proteins, such as histones and transcription factors, that are involved in gene expression. Nuclear localization signals (NLS) often help target these proteins to the nucleus by interacting with importin proteins during active transport across the nuclear membrane.

E1A-associated protein, also known as p300, is a transcriptional coactivator that plays a crucial role in the regulation of gene expression. It was initially identified as a protein that interacts with the E1A protein of adenovirus.

The p300 protein contains several functional domains, including a histone acetyltransferase (HAT) domain, which can modify histone proteins and alter chromatin structure to promote gene transcription. It also has a bromodomain that recognizes acetylated lysine residues on histones and other proteins, further enhancing its ability to regulate gene expression.

In addition to its role in transcriptional regulation, p300 is involved in various cellular processes such as DNA repair, differentiation, and apoptosis. Dysregulation of p300 function has been implicated in several human diseases, including cancer, neurodevelopmental disorders, and cardiovascular disease.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "G-Box Binding Factors" is not a widely recognized or established term in medical or molecular biology literature. The "G-box" is a specific sequence of DNA that can be found in the promoter regions of many genes and serves as a binding site for various transcription factors. Transcription factors are proteins that regulate gene expression by binding to specific DNA sequences and either promoting or inhibiting the initiation of transcription.

However, "G-Box Binding Factors" is too broad since multiple transcription factors can bind to the G-box sequence. Some examples of transcription factors known to bind to the G-box include proteins like GBF (G-box binding factor), HSF (heat shock transcription factor), and bZIP (basic region/leucine zipper) proteins, among others.

If you have a more specific context or reference related to "G-Box Binding Factors," I would be happy to help provide further information based on that context.

Transcription factor RelB is a member of the NF-κB (nuclear factor kappa B) family, which plays a crucial role in regulating immune responses, cell survival, and inflammation. RelB forms a heterodimer with other NF-κB family members, such as p50 or p52, and binds to specific DNA sequences called κB sites in the promoter regions of target genes. This binding leads to the activation or repression of gene transcription, ultimately influencing various cellular processes, including immune response regulation, development, and oncogenesis. RelB is unique among NF-κB family members because it can shuttle between the cytoplasm and nucleus even in unstimulated cells, although its activity is enhanced upon stimulation by various signals.

Simian T-lymphotropic virus 1 (STLV-1) is a retrovirus that primarily infects Asian monkeys and apes. It is closely related to the human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1), and there is evidence to suggest that STLV-1 may have been transmitted to humans through close contact with infected non-human primates, resulting in the emergence of HTLV-1.

Like HTLV-1, STLV-1 primarily infects CD4+ T lymphocytes and can cause a persistent infection. However, unlike HTLV-1, which is associated with several diseases including adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma and tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-1-associated myelopathy (TSP/HAM), STLV-1 has not been definitively linked to any specific human diseases.

STLV-1 infection is typically asymptomatic in both monkeys and humans, but it can cause a range of clinical manifestations in some individuals, including lymphadenopathy, hepatitis, and neurological symptoms. The virus is primarily transmitted through contact with infected bodily fluids, such as blood, breast milk, and semen.

Research on STLV-1 is important for understanding the evolution and epidemiology of retroviruses, as well as for developing strategies to prevent transmission and manage related diseases in both humans and non-human primates.

Genetic enhancer elements are DNA sequences that increase the transcription of specific genes. They work by binding to regulatory proteins called transcription factors, which in turn recruit RNA polymerase II, the enzyme responsible for transcribing DNA into messenger RNA (mRNA). This results in the activation of gene transcription and increased production of the protein encoded by that gene.

Enhancer elements can be located upstream, downstream, or even within introns of the genes they regulate, and they can act over long distances along the DNA molecule. They are an important mechanism for controlling gene expression in a tissue-specific and developmental stage-specific manner, allowing for the precise regulation of gene activity during embryonic development and throughout adult life.

It's worth noting that genetic enhancer elements are often referred to simply as "enhancers," and they are distinct from other types of regulatory DNA sequences such as promoters, silencers, and insulators.

P300 and CREB binding protein (CBP) are both transcriptional coactivators that play crucial roles in regulating gene expression. They function by binding to various transcription factors and modifying the chromatin structure to allow for the recruitment of the transcriptional machinery. The P300-CBP complex is essential for many cellular processes, including development, differentiation, and oncogenesis.

P300-CBP transcription factors refer to a family of proteins that include both p300 and CBP, as well as their various isoforms and splice variants. These proteins share structural and functional similarities and are often referred to together due to their overlapping roles in transcriptional regulation.

The P300-CBP complex plays a key role in the P300-CBP-mediated signal integration, which allows for the coordinated regulation of gene expression in response to various signals and stimuli. Dysregulation of P300-CBP transcription factors has been implicated in several diseases, including cancer, neurodevelopmental disorders, and inflammatory diseases.

In summary, P300-CBP transcription factors are a family of proteins that play crucial roles in regulating gene expression through their ability to bind to various transcription factors and modify the chromatin structure. Dysregulation of these proteins has been implicated in several diseases, making them important targets for therapeutic intervention.

Sumoylation is a post-translational modification process in which a small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) protein is covalently attached to specific lysine residues on target proteins. This conjugation is facilitated by an enzymatic cascade involving E1 activating enzyme, E2 conjugating enzyme, and E3 ligase. Sumoylation can regulate various cellular functions such as protein stability, subcellular localization, activity, and interaction with other proteins. It plays crucial roles in numerous biological processes including DNA replication, repair, transcription, and chromatin remodeling, as well as stress response and regulation of the cell cycle. Dysregulation of sumoylation has been implicated in various human diseases, such as cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and viral infections.

Economic models in the context of healthcare and medicine are theoretical frameworks used to analyze and predict the economic impact and cost-effectiveness of healthcare interventions, treatments, or policies. These models utilize clinical and epidemiological data, as well as information on resource use and costs, to estimate outcomes such as quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained, incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs), and budget impacts. The purpose of economic models is to inform decision-making and allocate resources in an efficient and evidence-based manner. Examples of economic models include decision tree analysis, Markov models, and simulation models.

Chloramphenicol O-acetyltransferase is an enzyme that is encoded by the cat gene in certain bacteria. This enzyme is responsible for adding acetyl groups to chloramphenicol, which is an antibiotic that inhibits bacterial protein synthesis. When chloramphenicol is acetylated by this enzyme, it becomes inactivated and can no longer bind to the ribosome and prevent bacterial protein synthesis.

Bacteria that are resistant to chloramphenicol often have a plasmid-borne cat gene, which encodes for the production of Chloramphenicol O-acetyltransferase. This enzyme allows the bacteria to survive in the presence of chloramphenicol by rendering it ineffective. The transfer of this plasmid between bacteria can also confer resistance to other susceptible strains.

In summary, Chloramphenicol O-acetyltransferase is an enzyme that inactivates chloramphenicol by adding acetyl groups to it, making it an essential factor in bacterial resistance to this antibiotic.

The cell nucleus is a membrane-bound organelle found in the eukaryotic cells (cells with a true nucleus). It contains most of the cell's genetic material, organized as DNA molecules in complex with proteins, RNA molecules, and histones to form chromosomes.

The primary function of the cell nucleus is to regulate and control the activities of the cell, including growth, metabolism, protein synthesis, and reproduction. It also plays a crucial role in the process of mitosis (cell division) by separating and protecting the genetic material during this process. The nuclear membrane, or nuclear envelope, surrounding the nucleus is composed of two lipid bilayers with numerous pores that allow for the selective transport of molecules between the nucleoplasm (nucleus interior) and the cytoplasm (cell exterior).

The cell nucleus is a vital structure in eukaryotic cells, and its dysfunction can lead to various diseases, including cancer and genetic disorders.

Nuclear export signals (NES) are short, specific amino acid sequences that target proteins for transport from the nucleus to the cytoplasm through the nuclear pore complex. They are recognized by members of the karyopherin-β family, such as CRM1 (chromosome region maintenance 1), which bind to the NES and facilitate the translocation of the protein across the nuclear envelope. The NES typically consists of a leucine-rich motif, although other hydrophobic amino acids may also be present. Proteins containing NES are often involved in various cellular processes, including signal transduction, gene expression regulation, and cell cycle control.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "government" is a political or administrative concept and does not have a medical definition. In general, it refers to the group of people who govern a community or country, or the system by which they govern. This could include elected officials, appointed leaders, and bureaucracies that oversee various functions such as public health, education, and infrastructure. However, in the context of your question, I assume you may be interested in how government policies and systems can impact health and healthcare. If you have any specific questions related to this or another topic, please let me know!

National Health Insurance (NHI) in the United States does not refer to a specific federal program, but rather it is often used to describe the concept of universal healthcare financing, where all residents have access to necessary healthcare services, and the costs are shared among the entire population.

However, the closest equivalent to NHI in the US is Medicare, which is a federal social insurance program that provides health insurance coverage to people aged 65 and older, some younger people with disabilities, and people with end-stage renal disease. It is not a true NHI system because it does not cover all residents of the country.

Therefore, there is no widely accepted medical definition of 'National Health Insurance, United States' in the context of an actual existing program or policy.

I must clarify that I'm a helpful assistant and not a doctor, but I can tell you that 'politics' is not a term used in medicine. Politics refers to the activities associated with the governance of a country or area, especially the debate or conflict among individuals or groups having or hoping to achieve power. If you have any medical questions, feel free to ask!

Recombinant fusion proteins are artificially created biomolecules that combine the functional domains or properties of two or more different proteins into a single protein entity. They are generated through recombinant DNA technology, where the genes encoding the desired protein domains are linked together and expressed as a single, chimeric gene in a host organism, such as bacteria, yeast, or mammalian cells.

The resulting fusion protein retains the functional properties of its individual constituent proteins, allowing for novel applications in research, diagnostics, and therapeutics. For instance, recombinant fusion proteins can be designed to enhance protein stability, solubility, or immunogenicity, making them valuable tools for studying protein-protein interactions, developing targeted therapies, or generating vaccines against infectious diseases or cancer.

Examples of recombinant fusion proteins include:

1. Etaglunatide (ABT-523): A soluble Fc fusion protein that combines the heavy chain fragment crystallizable region (Fc) of an immunoglobulin with the extracellular domain of the human interleukin-6 receptor (IL-6R). This fusion protein functions as a decoy receptor, neutralizing IL-6 and its downstream signaling pathways in rheumatoid arthritis.
2. Etanercept (Enbrel): A soluble TNF receptor p75 Fc fusion protein that binds to tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and inhibits its proinflammatory activity, making it a valuable therapeutic option for treating autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and psoriasis.
3. Abatacept (Orencia): A fusion protein consisting of the extracellular domain of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) linked to the Fc region of an immunoglobulin, which downregulates T-cell activation and proliferation in autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis.
4. Belimumab (Benlysta): A monoclonal antibody that targets B-lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS) protein, preventing its interaction with the B-cell surface receptor and inhibiting B-cell activation in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
5. Romiplostim (Nplate): A fusion protein consisting of a thrombopoietin receptor agonist peptide linked to an immunoglobulin Fc region, which stimulates platelet production in patients with chronic immune thrombocytopenia (ITP).
6. Darbepoetin alfa (Aranesp): A hyperglycosylated erythropoiesis-stimulating protein that functions as a longer-acting form of recombinant human erythropoietin, used to treat anemia in patients with chronic kidney disease or cancer.
7. Palivizumab (Synagis): A monoclonal antibody directed against the F protein of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), which prevents RSV infection and is administered prophylactically to high-risk infants during the RSV season.
8. Ranibizumab (Lucentis): A recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody fragment that binds and inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A), used in the treatment of age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and other ocular disorders.
9. Cetuximab (Erbitux): A chimeric monoclonal antibody that binds to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), used in the treatment of colorectal cancer and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
10. Adalimumab (Humira): A fully humanized monoclonal antibody that targets tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), used in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and Crohn's disease.
11. Bevacizumab (Avastin): A recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to VEGF-A, used in the treatment of various cancers, including colorectal, lung, breast, and kidney cancer.
12. Trastuzumab (Herceptin): A humanized monoclonal antibody that targets HER2/neu receptor, used in the treatment of breast cancer.
13. Rituximab (Rituxan): A chimeric monoclonal antibody that binds to CD20 antigen on B cells, used in the treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and rheumatoid arthritis.
14. Palivizumab (Synagis): A humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to the F protein of respiratory syncytial virus, used in the prevention of respiratory syncytial virus infection in high-risk infants.
15. Infliximab (Remicade): A chimeric monoclonal antibody that targets TNF-α, used in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases, including Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, rheumatoid arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis.
16. Natalizumab (Tysabri): A humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to α4β1 integrin, used in the treatment of multiple sclerosis and Crohn's disease.
17. Adalimumab (Humira): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets TNF-α, used in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, Crohn's disease, and ulcerative colitis.
18. Golimumab (Simponi): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets TNF-α, used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and ulcerative colitis.
19. Certolizumab pegol (Cimzia): A PEGylated Fab' fragment of a humanized monoclonal antibody that targets TNF-α, used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and Crohn's disease.
20. Ustekinumab (Stelara): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-12 and IL-23, used in the treatment of psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and Crohn's disease.
21. Secukinumab (Cosentyx): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-17A, used in the treatment of psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis.
22. Ixekizumab (Taltz): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-17A, used in the treatment of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis.
23. Brodalumab (Siliq): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-17 receptor A, used in the treatment of psoriasis.
24. Sarilumab (Kevzara): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets the IL-6 receptor, used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.
25. Tocilizumab (Actemra): A humanized monoclonal antibody that targets the IL-6 receptor, used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis, polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis, giant cell arteritis, and chimeric antigen receptor T-cell-induced cytokine release syndrome.
26. Siltuximab (Sylvant): A chimeric monoclonal antibody that targets IL-6, used in the treatment of multicentric Castleman disease.
27. Satralizumab (Enspryng): A humanized monoclonal antibody that targets IL-6 receptor alpha, used in the treatment of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder.
28. Sirukumab (Plivensia): A human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-6, used in the treatment

"Social control policies" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. However, in a broader social context, social control policies refer to the strategies and measures implemented by society or its institutions to regulate, manage, and shape the behavior of individuals or groups in order to maintain social order, conformity, and cohesion.

In the field of public health, social control policies may refer to interventions aimed at changing behaviors that pose risks to individual or community health, such as tobacco control policies, alcohol regulation measures, or food safety regulations. These policies are designed to promote healthy behaviors, prevent disease and injury, and protect vulnerable populations from harm.

It's worth noting that the concept of social control can be controversial, as it raises questions about individual autonomy, privacy, and social justice. Therefore, the development and implementation of social control policies should involve careful consideration of ethical principles and community engagement to ensure that they are fair, effective, and respectful of human rights.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but there seems to be no established medical definition for "Human T-lymphotropic virus 3" (HTLV-3). So far, only three types of Human T-lymphotropic viruses have been officially recognized and classified by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). These are HTLV-1, HTLV-2, and HTLV-3/HTLV-4 provisional. The proposed HTLV-3 and HTLV-4 were identified in a few cameroonian hunters and not widely found in humans yet. Therefore, it's crucial to rely on validated and widely accepted sources when researching medical definitions and information.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "United States" is a geopolitical entity, specifically the name of the country consisting of 50 states, and it is not a medical term or concept. Therefore, I can't provide a medical definition for it. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or biology, I would be happy to try to help answer those!

Ubiquitination is a post-translational modification process in which a ubiquitin protein is covalently attached to a target protein. This process plays a crucial role in regulating various cellular functions, including protein degradation, DNA repair, and signal transduction. The addition of ubiquitin can lead to different outcomes depending on the number and location of ubiquitin molecules attached to the target protein. Monoubiquitination (the attachment of a single ubiquitin molecule) or multiubiquitination (the attachment of multiple ubiquitin molecules) can mark proteins for degradation by the 26S proteasome, while specific types of ubiquitination (e.g., K63-linked polyubiquitination) can serve as a signal for nonproteolytic functions such as endocytosis, autophagy, or DNA repair. Ubiquitination is a highly regulated process that involves the coordinated action of three enzymes: E1 ubiquitin-activating enzyme, E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, and E3 ubiquitin ligase. Dysregulation of ubiquitination has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and inflammatory conditions.

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a type of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that carries genetic information copied from DNA in the form of a series of three-base code "words," each of which specifies a particular amino acid. This information is used by the cell's machinery to construct proteins, a process known as translation. After being transcribed from DNA, mRNA travels out of the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm where protein synthesis occurs. Once the protein has been synthesized, the mRNA may be degraded and recycled. Post-transcriptional modifications can also occur to mRNA, such as alternative splicing and addition of a 5' cap and a poly(A) tail, which can affect its stability, localization, and translation efficiency.

Viral DNA refers to the genetic material present in viruses that consist of DNA as their core component. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is one of the two types of nucleic acids that are responsible for storing and transmitting genetic information in living organisms. Viruses are infectious agents much smaller than bacteria that can only replicate inside the cells of other organisms, called hosts.

Viral DNA can be double-stranded (dsDNA) or single-stranded (ssDNA), depending on the type of virus. Double-stranded DNA viruses have a genome made up of two complementary strands of DNA, while single-stranded DNA viruses contain only one strand of DNA.

Examples of dsDNA viruses include Adenoviruses, Herpesviruses, and Poxviruses, while ssDNA viruses include Parvoviruses and Circoviruses. Viral DNA plays a crucial role in the replication cycle of the virus, encoding for various proteins necessary for its multiplication and survival within the host cell.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

HTLV-I antibodies are proteins produced by the immune system in response to the presence of Human T-cell Leukemia Virus type I (HTLV-I) antigens. These antibodies indicate a past or present infection with HTLV-I, which is a retrovirus that can cause adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma and tropical spastic paraparesis/myelopathy. Detection of HTLV-I antibodies in the blood is typically done through serological tests such as ELISA and Western blot.

Government regulation in the context of medicine refers to the rules, guidelines, and laws established by government agencies to control, monitor, and standardize various aspects of healthcare. These regulations are designed to protect patients, promote public health, ensure quality of care, and regulate the healthcare industry. Examples of government regulation in medicine include:

1. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations for drug approval, medical device clearance, and food safety.
2. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) regulations for healthcare reimbursement, quality measures, and program eligibility.
3. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) regulations for workplace safety in healthcare settings.
4. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations to minimize environmental impacts from healthcare facilities and pharmaceutical manufacturing.
5. State medical boards' regulations for licensing, disciplining, and monitoring physicians and other healthcare professionals.
6. Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) regulations for patient privacy and data security.
7. Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) regulations for laboratory testing quality and standards.
8. Federal Trade Commission (FTC) regulations to prevent deceptive or unfair trade practices in healthcare marketing and advertising.
9. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) guidelines for evidence-based practice and patient safety.
10. Public Health Service Act (PHSA) regulations related to infectious diseases, bioterrorism preparedness, and substance abuse treatment.

'Gene expression regulation' refers to the processes that control whether, when, and where a particular gene is expressed, meaning the production of a specific protein or functional RNA encoded by that gene. This complex mechanism can be influenced by various factors such as transcription factors, chromatin remodeling, DNA methylation, non-coding RNAs, and post-transcriptional modifications, among others. Proper regulation of gene expression is crucial for normal cellular function, development, and maintaining homeostasis in living organisms. Dysregulation of gene expression can lead to various diseases, including cancer and genetic disorders.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the "Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act" is not a medical term or concept. It is a legislative act in the field of federal budget policy in the United States. Specifically, the Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act (TEFRA) of 1982 was a significant piece of legislation aimed at reducing the federal budget deficit through a combination of spending cuts and tax increases.

The TEFRA had wide-ranging impacts on various sectors, including healthcare, but it is not a medical term or definition in and of itself. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or concepts, I would be happy to try to help answer those for you!

A "reporter gene" is a type of gene that is linked to a gene of interest in order to make the expression or activity of that gene detectable. The reporter gene encodes for a protein that can be easily measured and serves as an indicator of the presence and activity of the gene of interest. Commonly used reporter genes include those that encode for fluorescent proteins, enzymes that catalyze colorimetric reactions, or proteins that bind to specific molecules.

In the context of genetics and genomics research, a reporter gene is often used in studies involving gene expression, regulation, and function. By introducing the reporter gene into an organism or cell, researchers can monitor the activity of the gene of interest in real-time or after various experimental treatments. The information obtained from these studies can help elucidate the role of specific genes in biological processes and diseases, providing valuable insights for basic research and therapeutic development.

Personal Financing is not a term that has a specific medical definition. However, in general terms, it refers to the management of an individual's financial resources, such as income, assets, liabilities, and debts, to meet their personal needs and goals. This can include budgeting, saving, investing, planning for retirement, and managing debt.

In the context of healthcare, personal financing may refer to the ability of individuals to pay for their own medical care expenses, including health insurance premiums, deductibles, co-pays, and out-of-pocket costs. This can be a significant concern for many people, particularly those with chronic medical conditions or disabilities who may face ongoing healthcare expenses.

Personal financing for healthcare may involve various strategies, such as setting aside savings, using health savings accounts (HSAs) or flexible spending accounts (FSAs), purchasing health insurance policies with lower premiums but higher out-of-pocket costs, or negotiating payment plans with healthcare providers. Ultimately, personal financing for healthcare involves making informed decisions about how to allocate financial resources to meet both immediate and long-term medical needs while also balancing other financial goals and responsibilities.

Cyclin D2 is a type of cyclin protein that regulates the cell cycle, particularly in the G1 phase. It forms a complex with and acts as a regulatory subunit of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) or CDK6, promoting the transition from G1 to S phase of the cell cycle. The expression of cyclin D2 is regulated by various growth factors, hormones, and oncogenes, and its dysregulation has been implicated in the development of several types of cancer.

In the context of healthcare and medical insurance, an "insurance pool" refers to a grouping of individuals or entities who come together to share risks and costs associated with potential losses or expenses. This is often done through the purchase of insurance policies from a company. The insurance company then manages the pool, using the premiums collected from all members to pay for claims made by any individual member.

In this way, an insurance pool helps to spread the financial risk of healthcare costs across a larger group, which can lead to more predictable and stable costs for individuals or entities. Additionally, because the risk is spread out among many people, those who are considered higher risk (such as older individuals or those with pre-existing medical conditions) may still be able to obtain insurance coverage at a reasonable rate.

Insurance pools can take various forms, including community rating pools, high-risk pools, and reinsurance pools. Each type of pool is designed to address specific needs and risks within the healthcare system.

Chromomycin A3 is an antibiotic and a DNA-binding molecule that is used in research and scientific studies. It is a type of glycosylated anthracycline that can intercalate into DNA and inhibit DNA-dependent RNA synthesis. Chromomycin A3 has been used as a fluorescent stain for microscopy, particularly for the staining of chromosomes during mitosis. It is also used in molecular biology research to study the interactions between drugs and DNA.

It's important to note that Chromomycin A3 is not used as a therapeutic drug in human or veterinary medicine due to its toxicity, it's mainly used for research purposes.

A plasmid is a small, circular, double-stranded DNA molecule that is separate from the chromosomal DNA of a bacterium or other organism. Plasmids are typically not essential for the survival of the organism, but they can confer beneficial traits such as antibiotic resistance or the ability to degrade certain types of pollutants.

Plasmids are capable of replicating independently of the chromosomal DNA and can be transferred between bacteria through a process called conjugation. They often contain genes that provide resistance to antibiotics, heavy metals, and other environmental stressors. Plasmids have also been engineered for use in molecular biology as cloning vectors, allowing scientists to replicate and manipulate specific DNA sequences.

Plasmids are important tools in genetic engineering and biotechnology because they can be easily manipulated and transferred between organisms. They have been used to produce vaccines, diagnostic tests, and genetically modified organisms (GMOs) for various applications, including agriculture, medicine, and industry.

Health policy refers to a set of decisions, plans, and actions that are undertaken to achieve specific healthcare goals within a population. It is formulated by governmental and non-governmental organizations with the objective of providing guidance and direction for the management and delivery of healthcare services. Health policies address various aspects of healthcare, including access, financing, quality, and equity. They can be designed to promote health, prevent disease, and provide treatment and rehabilitation services to individuals who are sick or injured. Effective health policies require careful consideration of scientific evidence, ethical principles, and societal values to ensure that they meet the needs of the population while being fiscally responsible.

NF-κB (Nuclear Factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells) is a protein complex that regulates many normal cellular and inflammatory responses, including cell survival, differentiation, and apoptosis. NF-κB p52 subunit is one of the several subunits that make up this protein complex.

The p52 subunit is derived from the proteolytic processing of its precursor protein, p100. This process occurs in response to certain stimuli and results in the formation of a mature p52 subunit, which then combines with other NF-κB family members (such as RelB) to form a functional NF-κB heterodimer.

The activated NF-κB complex then translocates to the nucleus, where it binds to specific DNA sequences called κB sites and regulates the expression of target genes involved in various cellular processes, such as immune response, inflammation, differentiation, and stress responses. Dysregulation of NF-κB signaling has been implicated in several diseases, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, and chronic inflammatory conditions.

... can refer to: The taxes imposed on goods and services traded online; see e-commerce The taxes imposed on information ... EGovernment ECommerce This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title E-taxes. If an internal link led you ...
ushr - a 10% tax on the harvests of irrigated land and 10% tax on harvest from rain-watered land and 5% on Land dependent on ... Islamic taxes are taxes sanctioned by Islamic law. They are based on both "the legal status of taxable land" and on "the ... It was a tax collected by the Islamic state. jizya - a per capita yearly tax historically levied by Islamic states on certain ... The term has also been used for a 10% tax on merchandise imported from states that taxed the Muslims on their products. Caliph ...
... is the second studio album by American rapper Sheek Louch. The album was released on November 8, 2005, by D-Block ... "Feature for November 15, 2005 - Sheek Louch's "After Taxes"". Rapreviews.com. 2005-11-15. Retrieved 2015-06-15. "Sheek Louch ... David Jeffries (2005-11-08). "After Taxes - Sheek Louch , Songs, Reviews, Credits, Awards". AllMusic. Retrieved 2015-06-15. ... Tardio, Andres (2005-12-13). "Sheek Louch - After Taxes". HipHopDX. Retrieved 2015-06-15. " ...
... or tax liens. If the taxes remain unpaid, the tax authority could use a tax levy to legally seize the taxpayer's assets (such ... Back taxes is a term for taxes that were not completely paid when due. Typically, these are taxes that are owed from a previous ... If one has a right to tax refunds, the IRS will not hand the refund to the taxpayer until he or she has repaid the back taxes. ... Causes for back taxes include failure to pay taxes by the deadline, failure to correctly report one's income, or neglecting to ...
Death and Taxes may refer to: Death and taxes (idiom), a reference to a quotation by Benjamin Franklin Death and Taxes, a 1931 ... Dodge Death and Taxes, a 1967 novel by Thomas B. Dewey Death and Taxes, a 1976 book by Hans Sennholz Death and Taxes, a 1990 ... Taxes, a 64k Intro winner of the Scene.org Awards "Life After Death and Taxes (Failure II)", a Relient K song "Death and Taxes ... Taxes", a Death & Taxes", a 2007 episode of Theme Time Radio Hour; see Theme Time Radio Hour Season One Death and Taxes: Joe ...
Death & Taxes is a 1993 documentary film directed by Jeffrey F. Jackson about Gordon Kahl, a tax protester who was killed in a ... Applefeld, Catherine (1995-09-02). Death & Taxes (review). Billboard. p. 76. Taos Land and Film Review Collection Death & Taxes ... The documentary focuses on Kahl, a tax protester that was killed as part of a shootout in Arkansas in 1983. It utilized ...
In his honor, economics textbooks now call them "Pigovian taxes." Using a Pigovian tax to address global warming is also an old ... a number of tax jurisdictions have proposed or imposed global warming taxes intended to generate revenues to mitigate the ... A second tax of up to $25 would be added based on the level of carbon dioxide emissions. Together, the new fees would more than ... The idea of using taxes to fix problems, rather than merely raise government revenue, has a long history. The British economist ...
Internet tax is a tax on internet services. Luxury tax is a tax on luxury goods. Soda tax is a tax on soda. Sin tax is a tax ... Taxes generally fall into the following broad categories: Income tax Payroll tax Property tax Consumption tax Tariff (taxes on ... An excise tax refers to a tax on a single item, which may be different from the tax levied on other items. Sales tax is a tax ... Single tax is a tax system that has only one tax levied. Steering tax is a tax that aims to change the behavior of the public. ...
The paper tax was early identified as an issue: "A tax upon Paper, is a tax upon Knowledge" is a saying attributed to Alexander ... John Crawfurd (1836). Taxes on Knowledge. A financial and historical view of the taxes which impede the education of the people ... John Crawfurd (1836). Taxes on Knowledge. A financial and historical view of the taxes which impede the education of the people ... Taxes on knowledge was a slogan defining an extended British campaign against duties and taxes on newspapers, their advertising ...
IRS Form 730, Tax on Wagering, is used to compute excise taxes for both legal and illegal wagers of certain types. For state ... If the wager is not legal, the tax is 2% of the wager. United States Internal Revenue Service FAQ on the Federal Wagering Tax ( ... The United States levies excise taxes on both legal and illegal gambling transactions. ... authorized wagers placed with bookmakers and lottery operators there is a tax of 0.25% of the wager, if it is legal. ...
A departure tax is to apply for all departures starting from 1 January 2011. The amount depends on the destination country; the ... German air passenger taxes are excise duties and other charges levied by the German government on most passengers departing by ... following table shows the minimum payable (agents may charge tax handling costs). European Union members EFTA members Albania ... Turkmenistan Uganda United Arab Emirates Uzbekistan Yemen Air Passenger Duty for the United Kingdom departure duty Carbon tax ...
In addition to all registration fees (which is about 500 euros) the buyer pays the transfer tax of about 3% for re-sale and new ... Adopting best practices of European community Montenegro continues to implement Economic Reform Agenda, adjusts tax legislation ...
The main fuel tax in Australia is an excise tax, to which Goods and Services Tax ("GST") is added. Both taxes are levied by the ... In addition all fuels are subject to 10% Goods and Services Tax (GST). The federal government increased the fuel excise tax ... In some cases, businesses may be entitled to exemptions or rebates for fuel excise tax, including tax credits and certain ... became eligible for a fuel tax credit. The indexation of the fuel excise tax was reintroduced by the Abbott government from 10 ...
The Assessed Taxes Act 1840 is an Act of Parliament passed in Victorian England. The abridgement of the Act is shown dated 29 ...
... (Italian: Accidenti alle tasse!!) is a 1951 Italian comedy film directed by and written by Mario ...
You lye, you are not sure; for I say, Woman, 'tis impossible to be sure of any thing but Death and Taxes - Toby Guzzle, in ... "Death and taxes" is a phrase commonly referencing a famous quotation written by American statesman Benjamin Franklin: Our new ... Liles, Jordan (20 July 2022). "Did Ben Franklin Pen the Famous 'Death and Taxes' Quote?". Snopes. Snopes Media Group Inc. ... except death and taxes. - Franklin, in a letter to Jean-Baptiste Le Roy, 1789 Though Franklin is not the progenitor of the ...
This is a list of the taxes levied by ancient Rome. Tributum soli, the tax on land. Collatio lustralis, was a tax on anyone who ... tax, however under Tiberius it was only a 0.5% tax. Fiscus Judaicus was an additional tax for an extra two denarii, it was ... A customs tax on a slave of one and a half denarii is recorded in a third-century tariff list from Zarai. Vectigal was a tax on ... Aes equestre was a tax on orphans (orbi) and widows to pay for the horses of the equus publicus. Aes hordearium was a tax on ...
Since that time the tax service began its activity. From 1920 to 1991, tax matters in Azerbaijan were made part of the tax ... the General State Tax Inspectorate was revoked and the Ministry of the Taxes was established to ensure proper state tax policy ... Preparing forms of tax returns, reports and other documents related to the calculation and payment of taxes and other revenues ... The "Tax Magazine of Azerbaijan" is a regular publication of the Ministry of Taxes. The magazine mainly focuses on current ...
Breath and Taxes is the third EP by Spahn Ranch, released in 1994 by Zoth Ommog Records. The song "Breath and Taxes" contains ... Breath and Taxes (booklet). Spahn Ranch. Hesse, Germany: Zoth Ommog Records. 1994.{{cite AV media notes}}: CS1 maint: others in ... All lyrics are written by Athan Maroulis Adapted from the Breath and Taxes liner notes. Spahn Ranch Matt Green - sampler, ... Breath and Taxes". CD Review Digest. Peri Press. 7 (4): 7. 1994. Retrieved August 17, 2020. Fletcher, Tony; Robbins, Ira (1997 ...
Goods and services tax (GST)/harmonized sales tax (HST), a value-added tax levied by the federal government. The GST applies ... Of the provincial sales taxes, only the QST (and the HST) are value-added; the rest are cascading taxes. Sales taxes on new or ... In all provinces where the provincial sales tax is collected, the tax is imposed on the sale price without GST (in the past, in ... "Harmonized Sales Tax (HST) - Finance". February 11, 2013. "Harmonized Sales Tax". July 22, 2019. "HST hike highlights N.S. ...
The ear tax and the nose tax were introduced temporarily in the 1920s to support military needs in the state of Tibet under the ... These taxes were imposed on males, and payment was typically made in silver coins. The ear and nose taxes were primarily ... Beard tax Serfdom in Tibet controversy Tax on childlessness Zhagyai, Lu Mei, Tibetan herdsmen: survey report on no. 5 village ... Eastern world (ISSN 0012-8961), v. 15, 1961, p. 21 California Taxpayers Association, A tax on noses, Tax Digest, 1927 Strong, ...
... inheritance taxes, estate taxes, gift taxes, property taxes, sales taxes, use taxes, environmental taxes, payroll taxes, duties ... Corporate tax refers to income tax, capital tax, net-worth tax, or other taxes imposed on corporations. Rates of tax and the ... Tax competition Tax exporting Tax haven Taxpayer receipt Tax revenue Tax resistance Tax shelter List of countries by tax rates ... Sales taxes, tariffs, property taxes, inheritance taxes, and value-added taxes are different types of ad valorem tax. An ad ...
A taxis differs from a tropism (turning response, often growth towards or away from a stimulus) in that in the case of taxis, ... A taxis (from Ancient Greek τάξις (táxis) 'arrangement, order'; PL: taxes /ˈtæksiːz/) is the movement of an organism in ... If the organism moves towards the stimulus the taxis are positive, while if it moves away the taxis are negative. For example, ... "taxis". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. "taxis". Dictionary.com Unabridged (Online). n.d. Kendeigh, S. C. (1961). Animal Ecology. ...
In corporate finance, net operating profit after tax (NOPAT) is a company's after-tax operating profit for all investors, ... NOPAT is precisely calculated as: NOPAT = (Net Income - after-tax Non-operating Gains + after-tax Non-operating Losses + after- ... For a rough calculation, NOPAT approximates earnings before interest after taxes (EBIAT). The rough calculation for NOPAT is: ... tax Interest Expense) NOPAT doesn't include one-time losses and other non-recurring charges, because they don't represent the ...
Fuel Tax Fuel taxes in Australia Fuel taxes in the United States "Oil and Gas Prices, Taxes and Consumers". Department of ... has excise taxes and other taxes on gasoline, diesel, and other liquid and gas motor fuels (collectively called fuel taxes), ... "Table of Fuel Tax Rates in Québec, by Region" (PDF). Revenue Quebec. June 2017. Retrieved March 9, 2022. "Gasoline Tax". www. ... "Carbon Tax". Finance. 22 July 2019. Retrieved 2022-03-09. Toolkit, Web Experience (2017-03-14). "Gasoline Tax Rates". www. ...
"Tax Cuts for Job Creators". New York Times. October 19, 2012. "Tax Cuts for Whom? Heterogeneous Effects of Income Tax Changes ... The effect of taxes on employment is a hotly debated economic and political issue. Some commentators claim that higher taxes ... Other commentators claim that higher taxes lead to higher employment, because governments use those tax revenues to employ ... v t e v t e (Tax, Employment, All stub articles, Tax stubs, Labor stubs). ...
... taxes, and amortization (EBITA) Earnings before interest, taxes, and depreciation (EBITD) Earnings before interest, taxes, ... Earnings before taxes (EBT) is the money retained by the firm before deducting the money to be paid for taxes. EBT excludes the ... In accounting and finance, earnings before interest and taxes (EBIT) is a measure of a firm's profit that includes all incomes ... Thus, it can be calculated by subtracting the interest from EBIT (earnings before interest and taxes). Earnings before interest ...
Tax Accountant Office (Jawatan Akuntan Pajak), which is in charge of assisting the Tax Office to carry out tax audit on the ... which is responsible for carrying out tax collection for agriculture products tax and land tax. Based on presidential decree No ... The organization of the Directorate General of Taxes was originally a combination of some taxation units, such as : Tax Office ... Inspectorate of Regional Tax later became the Regional Directorate of Taxation (Regional Office) as it is today. Fatimah (2021 ...
They are: Taxes on consumption, Taxes on assets, Taxes on income, Excise taxes and Taxes on vehicles. Value added tax - the ... Single tax of circulation - is an annual tax on all vehicles registered in Portugal. This tax is aimed to make the drivers ... Vehicle tax - replacing the Automobile Tax in 2007, vehicle tax is paid by the car-owners in the case of purchasing or ... Non-residents of Portugal only pay this tax for their Portuguese sourced income. Corporate Income Tax - is a tax applied to the ...
Reducing Property Tax Requires Federal Aid Boston Tries Asking Nicely for More Taxes "Payments in Lieu of Taxes" - explanation ... The tax-exempt status granted to these entities by the IRS means that property taxes that would have been paid to ... The amount of forgone tax revenue as a result of these tax-exempt land parcels is significant. The president of the city ... Similarly, where a non-profit organization may be exempt from equipment taxes and sales taxes, its mission may permit payment ...
208 - PART XII - Tax in Respect of Certain Royalties, Taxes, Lease Rentals, Etc., Paid to a Government by a Tax Exempt Person ... Income Tax Act (R.S.C., 1985, c. 1 (5th Supp.)). Full Document: *HTMLFull Document: Income Tax Act (Accessibility Buttons ... 187.7 - PART V - Tax and Penalties in Respect of Qualified Donees *190 - PART VI - Tax on Capital of Financial Institutions * ... 207.01 - PART XI.01 - Taxes in Respect of Registered Plans *207.1 - PART XI.1 - Tax in Respect of Deferred Income Plans and ...
The Internal Revenue Service announced that the nations tax season will start on Friday, February 12, 2021, when the tax ... agency will begin accepting and processing 2020 tax year returns. ... Tax software companies also are accepting tax filings in ... Last years average tax refund was more than $2,500. More than 150 million tax returns are expected to be filed this year, with ... Deadline for filing 2020 tax returns.. *October 15. Deadline to file for those requesting an extension on their 2020 tax ...
See what you need to know about business and corporate taxes, plus discover news and tips on tax filings and refunds. ... Taxes Tax season on your mind? See what you need to know about business and corporate taxes, plus discover news and tips on tax ... Taxes Get Three Years of This AI-Powered Tax App for Just $50 Find out why FlyFin is considered among the top AI-driven tax ... Taxes Free Webinar , December 11: Top 10 Year-End Tax Strategies To Save Yourself Thousands Register now to master year-end tax ...
Environmental taxes: Key findings for India. This country note provides an environmental tax and carbon pricing profile for ... It shows environmentally related tax revenues, taxes on energy use and effective carbon rates. ... Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes: India 2017 (Second Round) - Peer Review Report on ... Tax Convention and commits countries to endeavour to resolve disputes related to the interpretation and application of tax ...
Energy and Taxes: Economic Growth and Tax Fairness ... Energy & Taxes. Economic Growth and Tax Fairness. Affordable ... The goal of any well-structured tax system should be to raise revenue in a way that does the least amount of economic harm, ... Given the reliance of the U.S. economy on energy, tax policy targeting one type of energy over another creates negative impacts ... To achieve these goals, tax rules should not discriminate and should provide a level playing field for taxpayers engaged in ...
Findlaw tells you important information about how divorce affects your tax burden. ... Can Divorce Reduce Your Taxes?. Generally, your taxable income, tax deductions, and tax brackets are given tax breaks while ... Filing Taxes When a Divorce Isnt Final. If you get a decree of annulment, you need to file an amended tax return for every tax ... Who Owes Back Taxes After Divorce?. The back taxes you owe will be split up, and each person pays according to their taxable ...
Our digital tax strategy team can help identify your tax functions leading challenges and develop an enhanced operating model ... covering digital tax effectiveness, digital tax administration, tax technology and tax big data, helps you identify your tax ... Digital tax strategy takes an in-depth look at tax from different angles including a tax departments fundamental operations. ... digital tax administration services, tax technology and tax big data. ...
Home Office Tax Deduction: Work-from-Home Write-Offs for 2023 Tax Breaks Can you claim the home office tax deduction this year ... Six Tax Breaks That Get Better With Age Tax Breaks Depending on your age, several tax credits, deductions, and amounts change ... Taxes on Gambling Winnings and Losses: 8 Tips to Remember Tax Tips If you pick the right horse at the track or win some money ... Ten Tax Breaks for Homeowners and Home Buyers Real Estate Owning (or buying) a home is expensive. But there are some tax breaks ...
... Online sales tax fail. Brian Doherty , From the August/September 2014 issue. ... PolicyInternet Sales Tax Laws Share on FacebookShare on XShare on RedditShare by emailPrint friendly versionCopy page URL. ... and thus had already been paying sales tax, so the "Amazon tax" eliminated an Amazon price advantage), but only a 2 percent " ... The taxes, which went into effect in 2012 and 2013 across those states "resulted in a large decline across all states of 9.5 ...
300+ tax and finance leaders globally to examine how technology has ushered in an entirely new age of transparency for the tax ... In this third report of the Tax Transformation Trends survey series, we tapped into the perspectives of ... The tax function is no exception. The public and taxing authorities want to know who pays how much tax, when and where. This ... Preparing for the future of tax As emerging technologies continue to disrupt and shape the future of tax, organisations and tax ...
In addition, state tax filing is not included.. 3. Tax software programs. Tax software giants such as H&R Block and TurboTax ... States that dont allow e-filing for state taxes. All states that charge a state income tax allow you to e-file your state tax ... How filing online impacts your tax refund. Filing your taxes online is instantaneous, unlike mailing a paper tax return which ... How to file your taxes online. Taxes. Advertiser Disclosure Advertiser Disclosure We are an independent, advertising-supported ...
Tax Freedom Day 2017 is April 23rd. Tax Freedom Day® is the day when the nation as a whole has earned enough money to pay its ... State Tax Changes Taking Effect July 1, 2017. While most states enact tax changes at the beginning of the calendar year, a ... Eight states have tax changes that will take effect on July 1, 2017, the beginning of the 2018 fiscal year. ... Ohio Illustrated: A Visual Guide to Taxes & The Economy. This new chart book cuts through the complexity and gives you a broad ...
The bill also does not address employers federal payroll tax liability (e.g. Social Security and Medicare (FICA) taxes), nor ... A tax is "assessed" only when the IRS officially records that it is owed which occurs after a tax return has been submitted or ... "The absence of a back taxes provision is yet another example of how this bill gives a pass to lawlessness on the part of both ... Since illegal immigrants working off the books do not submit tax returns and are generally not the subjects of IRS audits, it ...
Sales Tax - applies to retail sales of certain tangible personal property and services.. Use Tax - applies if you buy tangible ... The City Sales Tax rate is 4.5% on the service, there is no New York State Sales Tax. If products are purchased, an 8.875% ... The City Sales Tax rate is 4.5%, NY State Sales and Use Tax is 4% and the Metropolitan Commuter Transportation District ... This certificate gives your business the authority to collect the required sales and use taxes, and to issue sales tax ...
Japanese tax authorities determined that Apple failed to pay withholding taxes on profits it earned from subscribers in Japan ... The U.K. government announced in Wednesdays annual budget that it plans to clamp down on tax avoidance by increasing the tax ... of tax due from Apple (via Reuters). Apple was ordered to pay the unpaid taxes in August 2016 after the Commission ruled that ... to Ireland in back taxes (via Reuters). EU regulators concluded in August that Apple had received undue tax benefits from ...
Gary Lineker Targeted By HMRC Over £4.9m Tax Bill. The Match Of the Day presenter is being pursued for tax that it is claimed ... Tory Backbencher Brands NHS And Social Care Tax Hike A Poll Tax Moment. ... Lorraine Kelly Addresses Infamous Tax Ruling: Ive Never Got My Chance To Put My Side Of The Story Across. ... Tax Avoiding Firms Like Amazon Should Not Benefit From Post-Covid Subsidy, MPs Say. ...
This report analyzes the benefits that could be gained by raising excise taxes. ... Taxes on tobacco, alcohol and sugar-sweetened beverages are low in Laos. ... Health taxes are excise taxes imposed on products that have a negative public health impact. ... Health taxes are currently weak in Laos - they do not generate large revenue, do not deter consumption or reduce the harm these ...
Tax prep doesnt have to be so difficult. But corporate lobbying at the state and federal levels, ideological hostility in ... Alternative minimum tax prep What are the alternatives? ... Filing your taxes online can look like the ultimate series of ... Intuit and other tax preparers have vocal company from such Washington organizations as Americans for Tax Reform and the ... "We exist to make tax preparation and compliance easy, giving people a simple and accurate way to file their taxes and get their ...
Democrats in New York introduced a bill to release President Trumps state tax returns. Heres what experts say they will and ... Scrutiny over his taxes has been fueled by the New York Times reporting that Trump participated in "dubious tax schemes" and " ... a law professor at the University of Connecticut and a tax expert who previously served as director of the New York Tax Study ... Trumps taxes have been a source of contention since his presidential campaign, when he broke with decades of tradition by ...
Go to Property Tax Forfeiture and Foreclosure Property Tax Forfeiture and Foreclosure ... Back Sales and Use Taxes * Sales, Use, and Withholding Tax Payment Options ... Go to Marihuana Retailers Excise (MRE) Tax Marihuana Retailers Excise (MRE) Tax ... Disaster-related state tax extensions are available for taxpayers located in nine Michigan counties who were impacted by the ...
... and more to help tax attorneys take on any issue that may come up. ... Practical Guidance Tax provides practice notes, templates, checklists, ... Note: Practical Guidance Tax is a different resource than the Lexis® Tax service. Specifically, Practical Guidance Tax is ... Extensive Coverage Across a Range of Tax Topics. Practical Guidance Tax provides guidance on tax matters at the federal, ...
The Tax Policy and the Economy series presents new research bearing on the economic effects of taxation on economic performance ... and analyzing the effects of potential tax reforms. ... Tax Policy and the Economy. The Tax Policy and the Economy ... new research bearing on the economic effects of taxation on economic performance and analyzing the effects of potential tax ...
One story we have ignored for the last few days - new efforts to reform the tax code. This time around the reform minded are ... Goodness knows converting to a flat tax - squeezing out all the special gimmicks and breaks - would go a long way to setting ... Already Baucus and Hatch are being told to confine their ideas to corporate taxes. ... new efforts to reform the tax code. ...
... Drexel University is a non-profit educational institution exempt from sales tax on select property or ... Sales Tax Reference Guide. The Sales Tax Reference Guide lists products, services and travel accommodations that are either ... Under Administrative Tools and Resources, select Sales Tax Information.. This list contains all sales tax exemption forms on ... Sales Tax Exemption Forms. You can access sales tax exemption forms in DrexelOne. ...
Crain: "The Tax Relief for American Families and Workers Act includes three of the NAMs top tax priorities: the ability to ... And more tax hikes are on the horizon, with tax reforms small business incentives-including the 20% pass-through deduction-set ... Crain: "There is an old saying in D.C.: Tax bills are hard. We have gotten the Tax Relief for American Families and Workers ... By passing the 2017 Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, "Congress was able to take a stale, outdated tax code and update key provisions to ...
But, its important to get these estimates so that you can have a good idea of what youll be paying in taxes.? This yearly ... Your agent can also pull up tax records to see what the current owners paid in taxes last year.? Also, sometimes the MLS report ... No one can say with certainty how much you will pay in taxes until you actually pay taxes on your new home for the first time ... taxes_articles/ style=color: #0100fe; font-size: 12px;>Taxes ... Online Tax Returns • Property Tax Advice - Hiring Tax ...
Tony Gonzales (R-TX-23) 18.2% / 54.7%. Maxine Waters (D-CA-43) 72.7% / 13%. Chip Roy (R-TX-21) 81.8% / 95.5%. Brad Sherman (D-CA-32) 63.6% / 12.6%. Wesley Hunt (R-TX-38) 81.8% / 86.4%. Susan Wild (D-PA-7) 9.1% / 8%. Byron Donalds (R-FL-19) 90.9% / 94%. Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez (D-NY-14) 81.8% / 29.8%. James Comer (R-KY-1) 90.9% / 79.9%. Joaquin Castro (D-TX-20) 90.9% / 14%. ...
Learn more about tax policy that incentivizes economic growth and prosperity for both individuals and private businesses with ... Fundamental tax reform would alleviate the harm caused by the tax system and significantly strengthen the economy. ... Taxes. Fundamental tax reform would alleviate the harm caused by the tax system and significantly strengthen the economy. ... Good Deal, Bad Deal: The 2017 Tax Law vs. the 2024 Tax-Welfare Bill Preston Brashers Mar 4, 2024 35 min read ...
Do you try to prepare your taxes with incorrect data from your recordkeeping software? - Extreme Makeover - Financial ... I hope youre enjoying Tax Facts on the Taxing Subject of Taxes!. Editors Choice For Your Financial Recordkeeping Needs - ... Discussions about the Taxing Subject of Taxes and other related and maybe even unrelated subjects. Any thoughts you´d like to ... Any U.S. tax advice contained in this electronic communication was not intended or written to be used, nor can be used, by any ...
  • Now that the new year is here, it's time to look at 2023 taxes for your business. (entrepreneur.com)
  • If you weren't watching closely, there are a few new wrinkles for the 2023 tax year that you should be aware of, whether you're doing your taxes yourself or working with a tax professional. (entrepreneur.com)
  • Health Savings The HSA contributions deadline for 2023 is fast approaching, but you still have time to contribute and potentially reduce your tax liability. (kiplinger.com)
  • Disaster-related state tax extensions are available for taxpayers located in nine Michigan counties who were impacted by the August 2023 storms. (michigan.gov)
  • Through March 31, 2023, the state excise tax on cigarettes ranges from $0.170 per pack in Missouri, to $4.350 per pack in Connecticut and New York. (cdc.gov)
  • As of March 31, 2023, two states (Florida and Pennsylvania), the District of Columbia and Palau do not tax cigars. (cdc.gov)
  • Medscape's Physicians and Taxes Report 2023 shows that last year, doctors paid an average of nearly $100,000 in state and federal taxes, and three quarters of them thought that they were paying too much to Uncle Sam. (medscape.com)
  • Health taxes are excise taxes imposed on products that have a negative public health impact. (worldbank.org)
  • This technical note looks at the current tax situation for tobacco, alcohol and sugar-sweetened drinks in the Lao PDR and gives recommendations on how reform of health excise taxes could provide significant health and revenue gains. (worldbank.org)
  • According to the US Surgeon General, increasing the price of cigarettes through strategies such as excise tax increases are an effective policy intervention to prevent initiation of tobacco use, promote cessation, and reduce the prevalence and intensity of tobacco use among adolescents and young adults. (cdc.gov)
  • 1,7 CDC found that an increase in excise taxes in Massachusetts, for example, when combined with an antismoking campaign, produced a 19.7% decline in cigarette consumption per capita 4 years after the tax increase was initiated. (cdc.gov)
  • 10,11 Increasing excise taxes on tobacco products is especially effective in discouraging initiation among young people who have not developed an addiction to tobacco, thus protecting their health and increasing their likelihood of remaining tobacco-free. (cdc.gov)
  • Four states (Georgia, Missouri, North Carolina, and North Dakota) have an excise tax on cigarettes that is less than $0.500 per pack. (cdc.gov)
  • In 2006, only six states had an excise tax rate of at least $2.000. (cdc.gov)
  • Three states (Connecticut, New York and Rhode Island), the District of Columbia, and Guam have a cigarette excise tax of $4.000 or greater. (cdc.gov)
  • and in American Samoa, the cigarette excise tax is $6.000. (cdc.gov)
  • The tax structure in Jordan consisted of a mixed excise system with both specific and ad valorem components. (who.int)
  • The specific excise tax was set at 102% of the retail price, excluding taxes, with multiple tiered specific floors. (who.int)
  • In 2016, the government generated tax revenues of US $ 779.8 million from total excise taxes and US $ 168.5 million from value-added taxes and other sales taxes solely from cigarettes. (who.int)
  • The course deals with topics such as constitutional foundations of EU law, the EU internal market, Value Added Tax, Excise duties and Customs, EU commercial policy and the WTO. (lu.se)
  • Most research was conducted in high- income countries, published in the last 4 years and increasingly focused on excise taxes for SSBs. (bvsalud.org)
  • In most cases, it's impossible to eliminate that tax bill, but physicians told us they have found ways to minimize it. (medscape.com)
  • Eight states have tax changes that will take effect on July 1, 2017, the beginning of the 2018 fiscal year. (taxfoundation.org)
  • The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 also allows owners of pass-through businesses to deduct up to 20% of their business income. (medscape.com)
  • Subsequently, the Income and Sales Tax Department in the Ministry of Finance implemented tax increases in 2014, 2016, 2017 and 2018 based on specific tax regulations. (who.int)
  • WASHINGTON ― The Internal Revenue Service announced that the nation's tax season will start on Friday, February 12, 2021, when the tax agency will begin accepting and processing 2020 tax year returns. (irs.gov)
  • 3 However, in fiscal year 2021, states will receive $26.9 billion from tobacco taxes and cigarette company payments from the lawsuits they settled in 1998, but will only spend $656 million-less than 3% for tobacco control programs. (cdc.gov)
  • Generally, your taxable income , tax deductions, and tax brackets are given tax breaks while married. (findlaw.com)
  • Once you file separate returns, there will be different standard deductions and tax refunds. (findlaw.com)
  • The back taxes you owe will be split up, and each person pays according to their taxable income, assets, and tax deductions. (findlaw.com)
  • Several federal tax credits and deductions can help. (kiplinger.com)
  • Tax Deductions The extra standard deduction can help older adults reduce their taxable income. (kiplinger.com)
  • Tax Deductions Do you qualify for the student loan interest deduction this year? (kiplinger.com)
  • Tax Breaks Depending on your age, several tax credits, deductions, and amounts change - sometimes for the better. (kiplinger.com)
  • Tax Breaks If you've recently gone into business for yourself, don't miss these sometimes overlooked credits and tax deductions for the self-employed. (kiplinger.com)
  • To claim most of these options, you'll need to itemize your deductions when filing your taxes. (medscape.com)
  • Doctors who run their business using an LLC or S corporation can itemize the deductions on their Schedule C. There are dozens of deductions that might qualify, including for office space and supplies, medical equipment, uniforms, staff wages and benefits, and state and local tax payments. (medscape.com)
  • Application deadline: January 2024 on European and International trade and tax law issues. (lu.se)
  • In the · Programme start: August 2024 specialisation in tax law you will meet with tax practitioners working with these issues from, for example, EY and Deloitte. (lu.se)
  • Last year's average tax refund was more than $2,500. (irs.gov)
  • The coronavirus pandemic is making this year's tax season complex. (bankrate.com)
  • You should continue to file a joint return unless you have a final divorce decree before the tax year's last day. (findlaw.com)
  • Under the PATH Act, the IRS cannot issue a refund involving the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) or Additional Child Tax Credit (ACTC) before mid-February. (irs.gov)
  • The IRS anticipates a first week of March refund for many EITC and ACTC taxpayers if they file electronically with direct deposit and there are no issues with their tax returns. (irs.gov)
  • EY has competencies in business tax, international tax, transaction tax and tax-related issues associated with people, compliance and reporting and law. (ey.com)
  • We exist to make tax preparation and compliance easy, giving people a simple and accurate way to file their taxes and get their own money back. (yahoo.com)
  • Learn from their experience on matters like tax compliance, audits, and litigation. (lexisnexis.com)
  • Access dedicated kits that pack in vital practical guidance on key tax topics, such as the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (TCJA), Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act (FATCA), and Tax Controversies-all in one handy place. (lexisnexis.com)
  • Please contact the Office of Tax Compliance with questions. (drexel.edu)
  • If you are a resident of Manhattan and own a motor vehicle registered in Manhattan, you may be eligible for a Manhattan Resident Parking Tax exemption from the 8% surtax. (nyc.gov)
  • This certificate gives your business the authority to collect the required sales and use taxes, and to issue sales tax exemption documents, including resale certificates used for purchasing inventory. (nyc.gov)
  • You can access sales tax exemption forms in DrexelOne. (drexel.edu)
  • This list contains all sales tax exemption forms on file for Drexel University, Drexel University Online, LLC and the Academy of Natural Sciences. (drexel.edu)
  • Poll tax levied on non-Muslims as a form of tribute and in exchange for an exemption from military service, based on Quran 9:29. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Public Health Agency of Sweden may grant an exemption from the provision of the Alcohol Act that you must be an approved warehouse keeper or tax-exempt consumer in order to possess a distillation apparatus or parts thereof. (folkhalsomyndigheten.se)
  • It shows environmentally related tax revenues, taxes on energy use and effective carbon rates. (oecd.org)
  • Let's look at the arguments against automatic or government options for filing taxes. (yahoo.com)
  • EY Worldwide Corporate Tax Guide outlines corporate tax systems in 150 jurisdictions to help businesses navigate the changing tax landscape as governments around the world continue to reform their tax codes, especially if they are contemplating new markets. (ey.com)
  • Get valuable insight on specific tax issues and jurisdictions written by experienced attorney authors. (lexisnexis.com)
  • This start date will ensure that people get their needed tax refunds quickly while also making sure they receive any remaining stimulus payments they are eligible for as quickly as possible. (irs.gov)
  • See what you need to know about business and corporate taxes, plus discover news and tips on tax filings and refunds. (entrepreneur.com)
  • An LLC can simplify tax filing and reduce the legal liability of its members. (bankrate.com)
  • Delaware uses a graduated rate to determine tax liability. (bankrate.com)
  • Instead, the bill provides that amnesty applicants must have "satisfied any applicable federal tax liability" that has previously been "assessed" by the Internal Revenue Service (IRS). (prnewswire.com)
  • The bill also does not address employers' federal payroll tax liability (e.g. (prnewswire.com)
  • Social Security and Medicare (FICA) taxes), nor does the bill address liability for state and local taxes. (prnewswire.com)
  • The February 12 start date for individual tax return filers allows the IRS time to do additional programming and testing of IRS systems following the December 27 tax law changes that provided a second round of Economic Impact Payments and other benefits. (irs.gov)
  • Apple was ordered to pay the unpaid taxes in August 2016 after the Commission ruled that the company had received illegal state aid. (macrumors.com)
  • These changes ensure that eligible people will receive any remaining stimulus money as a Recovery Rebate Credit when they file their 2020 tax return. (irs.gov)
  • Although the government promised not to impose any taxes in 2020, it remains committed to its successful approach of continuously increasing the tobacco tax rate. (who.int)
  • Intuit and other tax preparers have vocal company from such Washington organizations as Americans for Tax Reform and the Computer & Communications Industry Association . (yahoo.com)
  • To further complicate things, external pressures (like recessions and pandemics) tend to amplify calls for tax reform. (lexisnexis.com)
  • One story we have ignored for the last few days - new efforts to reform the tax code. (foxbusiness.com)
  • This book provides an analysis of the process and outcomes of the tax reform, with a focus on progressivity, redistribution, and inequality. (lu.se)
  • Between 1977 and 1986, Spain underwent a comprehensive tax reform which shaped its fiscal system until today. (lu.se)
  • The book situates the reform both within Spanish history and international trends in tax systems and connects it to the expansion of the welfare state and regional decentralization in Spain. (lu.se)
  • Tax Breaks Lowering your taxable income is the key to paying less to the IRS. (kiplinger.com)
  • The Sales Tax Reference Guide lists products, services and travel accommodations that are either taxable or exempt when purchased for business use in the following states: District of Columbia, Florida, Maryland, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island and Virginia. (drexel.edu)
  • RPA for Tax saves time and money, increases accuracy and frees up businesses' tax teams to focus on high-value work, such as research, or planning and analysis. (deloitte.com)
  • It looks at the negligible anticipated impact of the alcohol and tax increases announced in late 2013 and also the long-reaching influence of the investment license agreement enjoyed by cigarette manufacturers in Laos. (worldbank.org)
  • These tax increases led to higher retail prices for tobacco products. (who.int)
  • Among the countries in the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region, Jordan is one of the three countries that has achieved the highest level of implementation in tobacco tax increases. (who.int)
  • Although there has not been a direct measurement of the impact of tax increases, findings from the latest Global Youth Tobacco Survey conducted in Jordan in 2014 indicate a decrease in the overall use of tobacco products by 6.3%, from 30.3% in 2009 to 24.0% in 2014. (who.int)
  • However, to fully evaluate the impact of the progressive tax increases on tobacco use trends in Jordan, more specific national and recent indicators are required. (who.int)
  • Therefore, continuous increases in taxes on tobacco products and retail prices are necessary to reduce tobacco consumption among youth and discourage initiation. (who.int)
  • Alaska doesn't impose a state income tax rate or a sales tax. (bankrate.com)
  • citation needed] The taxes stipulated by Islamic law generally did not generate enough revenue even for the limited expenditures made by pre-modern governments, and rulers were forced to impose additional taxes, which were condemned by the ulema. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, subnational capacities often suffer from significant weaknesses, ranging from inadequate assignments of own-revenues, through to flaws in tax administration, the design of intergovernmental transfers, spending assignments and various aspects of public financial management. (oecd.org)
  • and the use of energy tax revenues. (repec.org)
  • Health taxes are increasingly positioned as effective policy instruments for curbing non-communicable disease , improving health and raising government revenues. (bvsalud.org)
  • It's easy to track the status of your tax refund online. (bankrate.com)
  • Filing your taxes online can look like the ultimate series of trick questions: First you fill in a government-mandated form with numbers the government already knows, then you go to somebody else's site to send those details to the government and either pay what you owe or collect a refund on your free loan of an overpayment. (yahoo.com)
  • Tax Breaks Can you claim the home office tax deduction this year? (kiplinger.com)
  • Sen. Charles Schumer (D-N.Y.) worked to prohibit the IRS from requiring illegal immigrants pay back taxes in the 1986 amnesty. (prnewswire.com)
  • jizya - a per capita yearly tax historically levied by Islamic states on certain non-Muslim subjects-dhimmis-permanently residing in Muslim lands under Islamic law, the tax excluded the poor, women, children and the elderly. (wikipedia.org)
  • Single and separate filers in New Jersey have seven tax rates, while joint filers have eight. (bankrate.com)
  • Automation can therefore free up a business's tax team to focus on the higher value work, such as research, or planning and analysis. (deloitte.com)
  • In 2019, an additional tax was imposed on heated tobacco products and electronic cigarettes. (who.int)
  • Income Tax Act ( R.S.C. , 1985, c. 1 (5th Supp. (gc.ca)
  • President Reagan unsuccessfully advocated it in 1985 in a tax-simplification push, and President Obama campaigned on the issue in 2008 . (yahoo.com)
  • Since illegal immigrants working off the books do not submit tax returns and are generally not the subjects of IRS audits, it is unlikely that this provision will have any impact on the majority of amnesty applicants. (prnewswire.com)
  • In Tax, RPA refers to software used to create automations, or robots (bots), which are configured to execute repetitive processes, such as submitting filings to tax authority web portals. (deloitte.com)
  • The Tax Policy and the Economy series presents new research bearing on the economic effects of taxation on economic performance and analyzing the effects of potential tax reforms. (mit.edu)
  • The percentage you have to pay in taxes escalates as you earn more money, and most doctors are at the maximum rate," says Paul Joseph, a certified public accountant and founder of Joseph & Joseph Tax & Payroll in Williamston, Michigan. (medscape.com)
  • For over 80 years, our mission has remained the same: to improve lives through tax policies that lead to greater economic growth and opportunity. (taxfoundation.org)
  • Plus, get news and advice related to tax brackets, property taxes, estate taxes and more. (bankrate.com)
  • More than 150 million tax returns are expected to be filed this year, with the vast majority before the Thursday, April 15 deadline. (irs.gov)
  • Register now to master year-end tax planning and unlock thousands in savings for your small business! (entrepreneur.com)
  • If you get a decree of annulment , you need to file an amended tax return for every tax year affected by the annulment. (findlaw.com)
  • While most states enact tax changes at the beginning of the calendar year, a number of them implement changes at the beginning of the fiscal year. (taxfoundation.org)
  • Tax Freedom Day® is the day when the nation as a whole has earned enough money to pay its total tax bill for the year. (taxfoundation.org)
  • This year, Tax Freedom Day falls on April 23rd, 113 days into the year. (taxfoundation.org)
  • Apple has claimed that the European Commission made "fundamental errors" when it ruled last year that the company owed Ireland 13 billion euros ($13.7 billion) in unpaid taxes plus interest. (macrumors.com)
  • If you're only just now doing your taxes and had an adjusted gross income below $58,000 last year, you must start your Free File quest at the IRS's Free File portal , not a tax preparer's site. (yahoo.com)
  • Due on the 15th day of the 4th month after the tax year ends. (michigan.gov)
  • If you purchased a home this year and bought points to reduce the rate, you may be able to deduct the cost of those points on your taxes. (medscape.com)
  • This new chart book cuts through the complexity and gives you a broad perspective of Ohio's overall economy and tax system. (taxfoundation.org)
  • The taxes, which went into effect in 2012 and 2013 across those states "resulted in a large decline across all states of 9.5 percent in the value of products (net of sales tax) purchased on Amazon. (reason.com)
  • If products are purchased, an 8.875% combined City and State tax will be charged. (nyc.gov)
  • Health taxes are currently weak in Laos - they do not generate large revenue, do not deter consumption or reduce the harm these products have. (worldbank.org)
  • The term has also been used for a 10% tax on merchandise imported from states that taxed the Muslims on their products. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tax specialist and content creator Duke Alexander Moore discusses progress over perfection, making viral videos, and helping others become creators. (entrepreneur.com)
  • Not only does the content within Practical Guidance Tax help you stay current and understand highly technical tax concepts, it also allows you to build knowledge quickly on new or unfamiliar topics. (lexisnexis.com)
  • With Practical Guidance integration on Lexis+, you won't waste time jumping around to other sources to pull together the content you need to complete tax-related legal tasks. (lexisnexis.com)
  • To fill this gap, we conducted a scoping review on framing health taxes using six databases in 2022. (bvsalud.org)
  • Contributions to a 401(k) or 403(b) account come directly out of your paycheck, pre-tax, and grow tax-free until you withdraw them in retirement. (medscape.com)
  • If you're maxing out your 401(k) account, you can stash money in other tax-advantaged accounts such as a health savings account (if you have a high-deductible health plan) or an individual retirement account (IRA). (medscape.com)
  • Although employees with access to a 401(k) may not get the pre-tax advantage of the IRA contributions, the money will grow tax-free through retirement, and you may have access to additional investment options unavailable in your workplace plan. (medscape.com)
  • You want to maximize your retirement contributions," says Mark Steber, the chief tax information officer for Jackson Hewitt Tax Services. (medscape.com)
  • If you're self-employed and don't have access to a workplace plan, there are several options for tax-advantaged retirement savings, including a SEP IRA and a solo 401(k). (medscape.com)
  • For instance, divorcing spouses who are still legally married can save money if they file their taxes jointly. (findlaw.com)
  • Tax Tips If you pick the right horse at the track or win some money at a casino or though online betting, don't forget gambling taxes. (kiplinger.com)
  • Treasury officials are working on a variety of options to compensate low-earning workers without children who are losing money following Gordon Brown's decision to scrap the 10p tax band. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • One proposal being considered would see some money from unclaimed tax credits pooled and split between workers who have lost out from the removal of the 10p tax band. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • Building upon the historical practice, classical Muslim jurists argued that the poll tax is money collected by the Islamic polity from non-Muslims in return for the protection of the Muslim state. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite difficulties presented by federal law, many states have recently instituted sales taxes on online purchases from out-of-state vendors. (reason.com)
  • The study found a 19.8 percent increase in "purchases at the online operations of competing retailers" (who already had some physical nexus in the states, and thus had already been paying sales tax, so the "Amazon tax" eliminated an Amazon price advantage), but only a 2 percent "increase in local brick-and-mortar expenditures" at that same set of retailers. (reason.com)
  • Sales Tax - applies to retail sales of certain tangible personal property and services. (nyc.gov)
  • Clothing and footwear under $110 are exempt from New York City and NY State Sales Tax. (nyc.gov)
  • Purchases above $110 are subject to a 4.5% NYC Sales Tax and a 4% NY State Sales Tax. (nyc.gov)
  • The City Sales Tax rate is 4.5%, NY State Sales and Use Tax is 4% and the Metropolitan Commuter Transportation District surcharge of 0.375% for a total Sales and Use Tax of 8.875 percent. (nyc.gov)
  • The City Sales Tax rate is 4.5% on the service, there is no New York State Sales Tax. (nyc.gov)
  • To obtain a Certificate of Authority, you must complete Form DTF-17, Application for Registration as a Sales Tax Vendor, for your business and send it to the address listed in the instructions for that form, at least 20 days before you begin operating your business. (nyc.gov)
  • In his Treasury speech to the Commons, Chancellor Philip Hammond said income tax would be charged on royalties relating to U.K. sales, even when they are paid to a low-tax jurisdiction and would not normally be. (macrumors.com)
  • Drexel University is a non-profit educational institution exempt from sales tax on select property or services. (drexel.edu)
  • Under Administrative Tools and Resources, select Sales Tax Information. (drexel.edu)
  • The authors concluded that this effect was not attributable to people upping their Amazon purchases just before the tax went into effect. (reason.com)
  • But there are some tax breaks for homeowners that can help you recoup some of those costs. (kiplinger.com)
  • Goodness knows converting to a flat tax - squeezing out all the special gimmicks and breaks - would go a long way to setting this country on the right track. (foxbusiness.com)
  • Here's a look at the seven top tax breaks physician respondents claimed in our tax report, so you can ensure you're making the most of the tax strategies available to you. (medscape.com)
  • To help make your job easier, LexisNexis ® devotes an entire practice area within Practical Guidance solely to tax matters. (lexisnexis.com)
  • It's packed with practice notes, annotated templates, checklists, articles on current tax issues, international tax Q&As, 50-state tax surveys, and more, covering a broad spectrum of taxation topics. (lexisnexis.com)
  • The programme was an incredible experience on both academic and professional levels, as it provided an extensive legislative and doctrinal view on the theory and practice of tax law. (lu.se)
  • Only imposed on Muslims, it is generally described as a 2.5% tax on savings to be donated to the Muslim poor and needy. (wikipedia.org)
  • This country note provides an environmental tax and carbon pricing profile for India. (oecd.org)
  • Historical medieval era trade documents between Oman and India, refer to this tax on ships arriving at trade port as ashur or ushur. (wikipedia.org)
  • Receive key information practitioners need to know to complete a tax-related legal task or to apply a complex tax law or regulation. (lexisnexis.com)
  • Framing health taxes: a scoping review. (bvsalud.org)
  • More in-country comparative research , particularly from low/middle- income countries, is needed to understand the politics of framing health taxes . (bvsalud.org)
  • We argue that these insights can improve efforts to advance health taxes by constraining corporate power , improving population level health and promoting greater social harmony. (bvsalud.org)
  • People can begin filing their tax returns immediately with tax software companies, including IRS Free File partners. (irs.gov)
  • Applying for more time to file your taxes is easy. (bankrate.com)
  • In a less ambitious change from the current setup in which you collect the data and send it to the feds yourself, you wouldn't have any numbers presented to you on an official site, but you could still file and pay at a tax agency's site instead of handing your data to a third-party tax preparer. (yahoo.com)
  • Tax preparers like Intuit don't particularly welcome competition from the government, even if individual free-file options can persist next to direct-filing systems. (yahoo.com)
  • They go a step beyond complimenting Free File to condemning government-run tax prep as flawed on a philosophical level , vaguely French , and a form of creeping tyranny . (yahoo.com)
  • Further, no serious proposals for government-run taxing, or direct file, would make it mandatory. (yahoo.com)
  • Physicians might also be eligible for other home-related tax benefits, such as for green home improvements under the Inflation Reduction Act or for home equity loans used to improve the value of your home. (medscape.com)
  • That includes detailed guidance on recent tax legislation, IRS/Treasury regulations, and guidance on tax controversies. (lexisnexis.com)
  • Given the reliance of the U.S. economy on energy, tax policy targeting one type of energy over another creates negative impacts and other unintended effects. (api.org)
  • Since 1937, our principled research, insightful analysis, and engaged experts have informed smarter tax policy in the U.S. and internationally. (taxfoundation.org)
  • The Distributional Impacts of Energy Taxes ," Review of Environmental Economics and Policy , Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 13(1), pages 104-123. (repec.org)
  • Both pro- tax health advocates and anti- tax industry representatives seek to frame health tax policy in favourable ways. (bvsalud.org)
  • Are you cheating on your business taxes - or thinking about it? (entrepreneur.com)
  • Find out why FlyFin is considered among the top AI-driven tax platform used by freelancers, independent contractors, and small-business owners. (entrepreneur.com)
  • From business entity and employment tax concerns to real estate, securities, and individual tax matters, Practical Guidance Tax equips you with the know-how to tackle whatever tax issues your clients bring through your firm's door. (lexisnexis.com)
  • Important areas are for instance the law governing business contracts and operations, requirements stemming from competition regulation, the protection of intellectual property rights and the law on taxes and duties as regards cross border related issues. (lu.se)
  • In order to manufacture spirits, wine, beer, other fermented alcoholic beverages and technical spirits, as a business practitioner you must be approved as a warehouse keeper or tax-exempt consumer for such goods. (folkhalsomyndigheten.se)
  • In Idaho, income tax rates range from 1 to 6.5 percent. (bankrate.com)
  • The Chancellor hopes that the promise of compensation for those affected by the income tax overhaul will avert a backbench rebellion. (telegraph.co.uk)

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