Tattooing: The indelible marking of TISSUES, primarily SKIN, by pricking it with NEEDLES to imbed various COLORING AGENTS. Tattooing of the CORNEA is done to colorize LEUKOMA spots.New York CityNevus of Ota: A macular lesion on the side of the FACE, involving the CONJUNCTIVA and EYELIDS, as well as the adjacent facial skin, SCLERA; OCULOMOTOR MUSCLES; and PERIOSTEUM. Histological features vary from those of a MONGOLIAN SPOT to those of a BLUE NEVUS.Laser Therapy: The use of photothermal effects of LASERS to coagulate, incise, vaporize, resect, dissect, or resurface tissue.Body Piercing: The perforation of an anatomical region for the wearing of jewelry.InkLasers: An optical source that emits photons in a coherent beam. Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (LASER) is brought about using devices that transform light of varying frequencies into a single intense, nearly nondivergent beam of monochromatic radiation. Lasers operate in the infrared, visible, ultraviolet, or X-ray regions of the spectrum.Lawsonia Plant: A plant genus of the family LYTHRACEAE that is the source of henna and has cytotoxic activity.United States Health Resources and Services Administration: A component of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE that provides leadership related to the delivery of health services and the requirements for and distribution of health resources, including manpower training.Dermatitis, Phototoxic: A nonimmunologic, chemically induced type of photosensitivity producing a sometimes vesiculating dermatitis. It results in hyperpigmentation and desquamation of the light-exposed areas of the skin.PhenylenediaminesVanilla: A plant genus of the family ORCHIDACEAE that is the source of the familiar flavoring used in foods and medicines (FLAVORING AGENTS).Egg Yolk: Cytoplasm stored in an egg that contains nutritional reserves for the developing embryo. It is rich in polysaccharides, lipids, and proteins.Cultured Milk Products: Milk modified with controlled FERMENTATION. This should not be confused with KAFFIR LIME or with KAFFIR CORN.Eggs: Animal reproductive bodies, or the contents thereof, used as food. The concept is differentiated from OVUM, the anatomic or physiologic entity.Milk: The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.Ophthalmology: A surgical specialty concerned with the structure and function of the eye and the medical and surgical treatment of its defects and diseases.Cornea: The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Academies and Institutes: Organizations representing specialized fields which are accepted as authoritative; may be non-governmental, university or an independent research organization, e.g., National Academy of Sciences, Brookings Institution, etc.Lasers, Excimer: Gas lasers with excited dimers (i.e., excimers) as the active medium. The most commonly used are rare gas monohalides (e.g., argon fluoride, xenon chloride). Their principal emission wavelengths are in the ultraviolet range and depend on the monohalide used (e.g., 193 nm for ArF, 308 nm for Xe Cl). These lasers are operated in pulsed and Q-switched modes and used in photoablative decomposition involving actual removal of tissue. (UMDNS, 2005)Keratomileusis, Laser In Situ: A surgical procedure to correct MYOPIA by CORNEAL STROMA subtraction. It involves the use of a microkeratome to make a lamellar dissection of the CORNEA creating a flap with intact CORNEAL EPITHELIUM. After the flap is lifted, the underlying midstroma is reshaped with an EXCIMER LASER and the flap is returned to its original position.Corneal Surgery, Laser: Surgical techniques on the CORNEA employing LASERS, especially for reshaping the CORNEA to correct REFRACTIVE ERRORS.Passiflora: A plant genus of the family Passifloraceae, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. They are vines with ornamental flowers and edible fruit.Intradermal Tests: Skin tests in which the sensitizer is injected.Skin Tests: Epicutaneous or intradermal application of a sensitizer for demonstration of either delayed or immediate hypersensitivity. Used in diagnosis of hypersensitivity or as a test for cellular immunity.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Photography: Method of making images on a sensitized surface by exposure to light or other radiant energy.Interprofessional Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more professional individuals.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Attitude: An enduring, learned predisposition to behave in a consistent way toward a given class of objects, or a persistent mental and/or neural state of readiness to react to a certain class of objects, not as they are but as they are conceived to be.Lasers, Solid-State: Lasers which use a solid, as opposed to a liquid or gas, as the lasing medium. Common materials used are crystals, such as YAG (YTTRIUM aluminum garnet); alexandrite; and CORUNDUM, doped with a rare earth element such as a NEODYMIUM; ERBIUM; or HOLMIUM. The output is sometimes additionally modified by addition of non-linear optical materials such as potassium titanyl phosphate crystal, which for example is used with neodymium YAG lasers to convert the output light to the visible range.Portraits as Topic: Graphic representations, especially of the face, of real persons, usually posed, living or dead. (From Thesaurus for Graphic Materials II, p540, 1995)Hair Color: Color of hair or fur.Receptor, Melanocortin, Type 1: A melanocortin receptor subtype found primarily in MELANOCYTES. It shows specificity for ALPHA-MSH and ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. Loss of function mutations of the type 1 melanocortin receptor account for the majority of red hair and fair skin recessive traits in human.PortraitsMedicine in ArtLove: Affection; in psychiatry commonly refers to pleasure, particularly as it applies to gratifying experiences between individuals.Science: The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.Gestalt Therapy: A form of psychotherapy with emphasis on the interplay of organism and environment. Basic to this therapy is the development of awareness and maturity, as well as self-confidence.BooksHistory, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Drug Repositioning: The deliberate and methodical practice of finding new applications for existing drugs.WashingtonSlaves: A person involuntarily owned or controlled by another and exploited for forced or compulsory work or service.Seoul virus: A species of HANTAVIRUS causing a less severe form of HEMORRHAGIC FEVER WITH RENAL SYNDROME in Asia (primarily Korea and Japan). It is transmitted by rats, especially Rattus rattus and R. norvegicus.Biosensing Techniques: Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.Nanotechnology: The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.Molecular Imprinting: A methodology for chemically synthesizing polymer molds of specific molecules or recognition sites of specific molecules. Applications for molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) include separations, assays and biosensors, and catalysis.Bandages: Material used for wrapping or binding any part of the body.Compression Bandages: Strips of elastic material used to apply pressure to body parts to control EDEMA and aid circulation.Bandages, Hydrocolloid: Dressings comprised of a self-adhesive matrix to which hydrophilic absorbent particles are embedded. The particles consist of CELLULOSE derivatives; calcium ALGINATES; PECTINS; or GELS. The utility is based on providing a moist environment for WOUND HEALING.Varicose Ulcer: Skin breakdown or ulceration caused by VARICOSE VEINS in which there is too much hydrostatic pressure in the superficial venous system of the leg. Venous hypertension leads to increased pressure in the capillary bed, transudation of fluid and proteins into the interstitial space, altering blood flow and supply of nutrients to the skin and subcutaneous tissues, and eventual ulceration.

Long-term ultrastructural changes in human corneas after tattooing with non-metallic substances. (1/124)

AIM: To investigate the ultrastructural appearance and the deposition pattern of dye particles in long term non-metallic corneal tattooing. METHODS: Two tattooed human corneas were obtained by keratoplasty. One corneal button was fixed in Karnovsky's solution and the other in Trumps' solution. Both corneas were divided and processed for conventional light (LM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Five additional formalin fixed corneas with tattoos were retrieved from paraffin for TEM. The time between tattoo and removal of the corneal button/enucleation ranged from 7 to 61 years. All seven corneas were examined using a Jeol JCXA733 microprobe for wave length dispersive analysis in order to exclude any presence of metallic salts in the tattooed area. RESULTS: Histologically, clumps of brown-blackish granules were present mainly in the mid stroma, but also in anterior and partially in the posterior half of the stroma. On TEM, numerous round and oval electron dense particles were seen in the cytoplasm of keratocytes arranged as clusters or large islands. The larger particles appeared black, while the smaller particles were grey. In well fixed tissue a unit membrane was observed around these clusters. No granules were detected in the extracellular matrix. CONCLUSIONS: Keratocytes can actively ingest and retain tattooing particles of non-metallic dyes within their cell membrane for very long periods of time.  (+info)

HIV, hepatitis C and risk behaviour in a Canadian medium-security federal penitentiary. Queen's University HIV Prison Study Group. (2/124)

In a voluntary anonymous HIV and hepatitis C serology screen in a Canadian male medium security federal penitentiary, 68% of 520 prisoners volunteered a blood sample and 99% of those giving a blood sample completed a risk behaviour questionnaire which was linked numerically to the blood sample. Compared to previous screenings for HIV (4 years earlier), and hepatitis C (3 years earlier) in the same institution, HIV seroprevalence had risen from 1% to 2% and hepatitis C seroprevalence from 28% to 33%. The overwhelming risk association for hepatitis C was with drug use outside prison, although there was a small group of men who had only ever injected drugs inside prison, over half of whom had been infected with hepatitis C. The proportion of prisoners who had injected drugs in prison rose from 12% in 1995 to 24% in 1998. The proportion of surveyed individuals sharing injection equipment at some time in prison was 19%, and while HIV rates in the prison are currently low, HIV prevalence amongst Canadian street i.v. drug users is rising rapidly, underlining the need for urgent preventative measures in prisons.  (+info)

Bacterial endocarditis following repeated tattooing. (3/124)

Body decoration in the form of tattooing is becoming increasingly popular, especially among younger age groups. Although serious infections following tattooing are rare they are well documented. The first reported case of endocarditis caused by repeated tattooing in an individual with known valvar heart disease is presented.  (+info)

Contact dermatitis after temporary henna tattoos--an increasing phenomenon. (4/124)

Four patients developed contact dermatitis to black henna tattoos on holiday in the Middle East and Asia. Two to ten days after skin painting an itchy, reddish swelling developed at the site of the tattoo exactly following its sharply demarcated borders. Histological investigation of the lesions revealed spongiotic dermatitis with dense lymphohistiocytic infiltrates. Patch testing in all patients showed a strong reaction to p-phenylenediamine (PPD). The other tests, including standard series and henna powder, were all negative. Healing time after application of topical class III and IV steroids was prolonged. These reports show an impressive side effect of temporary tattoos with possible long-term damage. Rather than henna, the causative agent in the pastes used for temporary tattoos appears to be PPD, a widely used dye that is added to the pastes in high concentrations to produce a darker shade. The growing incidence of this complication requires close observation, while practitioners should be aware of this sensitisation and of possible subsequent allergic reactions, especially after hair colouring with dyes based on PPD.  (+info)

Risk factors for hepatitis C virus infection in male adults in Rawalpindi-Islamabad, Pakistan. (5/124)

OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors associated with HCV infection in Islamabad-Rawalpindi. METHODS: Fifty-seven cases and 180 controls were enrolled from various departments of the nine major hospitals of the Rawalpindi-Islamabad during July-September 1998. Cases were enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) positive for antibodies to HCV (anti-HCV), aged 20-70 years, and residents of Islamabad or Rawalpindi division. Controls were anti-HCV ELISA negatives of the same age range and from the same area. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on demographic variables and potential risk factors, which was analysed by logistic regression to calculate crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) for risk factors. RESULTS: The final multivariate logistic regression model revealed that after adjusting for age, cases were more likely to have received therapeutic injections in the past 10 years (1-10 vs. 0 therapeutic injections; adjusted OR=2.8, 95% CI: 1.1-7.1; > 10 vs. 0 therapeutic injections; adjusted OR=3.1, 95% CI: 1.2-7.9) and were significantly more likely to have daily face (adjusted OR=5.1, 95% CI: 1.5-17.0) and armpit shaves (adjusted OR=2.9, 95% CI: 1.3-6.5) by a barber. CONCLUSION: HCV control and prevention programs in this region should include safe injection practices and educate men about the risk of HCV infection from contaminated instruments used by barbers.  (+info)

Risk factors for hepatitis C virus infection among street youths. (6/124)

BACKGROUND: The relative contributions to risk of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection resulting from unsafe sexual behaviours and exposures to blood (e.g., tattooing, body piercing and injection drug use) among youths at risk are not well known. We interviewed street youths about risk factors for HCV infection and documented their HCV antibody status. METHODS: From December 1995 to September 1996 we recruited 437 youths aged 14 to 25 years who met specific criteria for itinerancy. Data on sociodemographic characteristics and lifetime risk factors were obtained during a structured interview, and a venous blood sample was taken for HCV antibody testing. RESULTS: Many of the subjects reported behaviours that put them at risk for blood-borne diseases: 45.8% had injected drugs, 56.5% had at least 1 tattoo, and 78.3% had body piercing. The overall prevalence of HCV infection was 12.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 9.7%-15.9%). In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, injecting drugs (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 28.4 [95% CI 6.6-121.4]), being over 18 years of age (adjusted OR 3.3 [95% CI 1.6-7.0]) and using crack cocaine (adjusted OR 2.3 [95% CI 1.0-5.3]) were independent risk factors for HCV infection. Having more than 1 tattoo (adjusted OR 1.8 [95% CI 0.95-3.6]) was marginally associated with HCV infection, and body piercing was not. INTERPRETATION: Drug injection was the factor most strongly associated with HCV infection among street youths. Given that injection drug users are the driving force of the HCV infection epidemic in Canada, increased intervention efforts to prevent initiation of drug injection are urgently needed to curb the epidemic.  (+info)

Prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and HIV and risk factors in entrants to Irish prisons: a national cross sectional survey. (7/124)

OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen, hepatitis C virus, and HIV in entrants to Irish prisons and to examine risk factors for infection. DESIGN: Cross sectional, anonymous survey, with self completed risk factor questionnaire and oral fluid specimen for antibody testing. SETTING: Five of seven committal prisons in the Republic of Ireland. PARTICIPANTS: 607 of the 718 consecutive prison entrants from 6 April to 1 May 1999. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen, hepatitis C virus, and HIV in prison entrants, and self reported risk factor status. RESULTS: Prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen was 37/596 (6%; 95% confidence interval 4% to 9%), to hepatitis C virus was 130/596 (22%; 19% to 25%), and to HIV was 12/596 (2%; 1% to 4%). A third of the respondents had never previously been in prison; these had the lowest prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen (4/197, 2%), to hepatitis C (6/197, 3%), and to HIV (0/197). In total 29% of respondents (173/593) reported ever injecting drugs, but only 7% (14/197) of those entering prison for the first time reported doing so compared with 40% (157/394) of those previously in prison. Use of injected drugs was the most important predictor of antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen and hepatitis C virus. CONCLUSIONS: Use of injected drugs and infection with hepatitis C virus are endemic in Irish prisons. A third of prison entrants were committed to prison for the first time. Only a small number of first time entrants were infected with one or more of the viruses. These findings confirm the need for increased infection control and harm reduction measures in Irish prisons.  (+info)

Treating traumatic tattoo by micro-incision. (8/124)

OBJECTIVE: To design a micro-incision operation for treating traumatic tattoo. METHODS: With an 11-gauge blade, a micro-incision was made on each side of the small tattoo spot and the tattoo skin was removed. For a longer tattoo particle, a longer incision was needed. The skin incision was sutured with 6-0 silk. For a complex tattoo, dermabrasion could be used first to remove the superficial one so as to expose the deep one which was removed in the same way as mentioned above. When there was a large number of tattoo particles, many operations were needed. RESULTS: Fourteen patients were treated by this method with good to excellent result. CONCLUSION: Micro-incision for treating traumatic tattoo is an effective method.  (+info)

  • Depending on the location of the tattoo, it may end up looking misshapen as your skin starts to sag with age, or as the ink begins to fade. (
  • These individuals find that their tattoos prevent them from finding good jobs and/or make it difficult for them to make positive changes in their lives. (
  • tattoos on more fleshy areas of the body will hurt less as the flesh acts as a cushion, whereas tattoos on areas such as the wrist, feet, face and fingers could make you wince a little more than if your tattoo was on your thigh! (