The ability to detect chemicals through gustatory receptors in the mouth, including those on the TONGUE; the PALATE; the PHARYNX; and the EPIGLOTTIS.
Small sensory organs which contain gustatory receptor cells, basal cells, and supporting cells. Taste buds in humans are found in the epithelia of the tongue, palate, and pharynx. They are innervated by the CHORDA TYMPANI NERVE (a branch of the facial nerve) and the GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL NERVE.
The process by which the nature and meaning of gustatory stimuli are recognized and interpreted by the brain. The four basic classes of taste perception are salty, sweet, bitter, and sour.
Conditions characterized by an alteration in gustatory function or perception. Taste disorders are frequently associated with OLFACTION DISORDERS. Additional potential etiologies include METABOLIC DISEASES; DRUG TOXICITY; and taste pathway disorders (e.g., TASTE BUD diseases; FACIAL NERVE DISEASES; GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL NERVE DISEASES; and BRAIN STEM diseases).
The minimum concentration at which taste sensitivity to a particular substance or food can be perceived.
A branch of the facial (7th cranial) nerve which passes through the middle ear and continues through the petrotympanic fissure. The chorda tympani nerve carries taste sensation from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue and conveys parasympathetic efferents to the salivary glands.
Substances that sweeten food, beverages, medications, etc., such as sugar, saccharine or other low-calorie synthetic products. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Flavoring agent and non-nutritive sweetener.
An alkaloid derived from the bark of the cinchona tree. It is used as an antimalarial drug, and is the active ingredient in extracts of the cinchona that have been used for that purpose since before 1633. Quinine is also a mild antipyretic and analgesic and has been used in common cold preparations for that purpose. It was used commonly and as a bitter and flavoring agent, and is still useful for the treatment of babesiosis. Quinine is also useful in some muscular disorders, especially nocturnal leg cramps and myotonia congenita, because of its direct effects on muscle membrane and sodium channels. The mechanisms of its antimalarial effects are not well understood.
One of the FLAVORING AGENTS used to impart a meat-like flavor.
The selection of one food over another.
A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.
A condition characterized by alterations of the sense of taste which may range from mild to severe, including gross distortions of taste quality.
Complete or severe loss of the subjective sense of taste, frequently accompanied by OLFACTION DISORDERS.
Substances added to foods and medicine to improve the quality of taste.
A key intermediate in metabolism. It is an acid compound found in citrus fruits. The salts of citric acid (citrates) can be used as anticoagulants due to their calcium chelating ability.
The largest family of cell surface receptors involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They share a common structure and signal through HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS.
A heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein that mediates the light activation signal from photolyzed rhodopsin to cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase and is pivotal in the visual excitation process. Activation of rhodopsin on the outer membrane of rod and cone cells causes GTP to bind to transducin followed by dissociation of the alpha subunit-GTP complex from the beta/gamma subunits of transducin. The alpha subunit-GTP complex activates the cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase which catalyzes the hydrolysis of cyclic GMP to 5'-GMP. This leads to closure of the sodium and calcium channels and therefore hyperpolarization of the rod cells. EC 3.6.1.-.
A response to a cue that is instrumental in avoiding a noxious experience.
Phenylthiourea is a chemical compound with the formula C6H5NCS, used historically in scientific research as an inhibitor of tyrosinase activity, but now mostly replaced by other more specific agents, and infrequently used in certain diagnostic tests or as a reagent in organic synthesis.
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
The sensory ganglion of the facial (7th cranial) nerve. The geniculate ganglion cells send central processes to the brain stem and peripheral processes to the taste buds in the anterior tongue, the soft palate, and the skin of the external auditory meatus and the mastoid process.
A phosphoinositide phospholipase C subtype that is primarily regulated by its association with HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS. It is structurally related to PHOSPHOLIPASE C DELTA with the addition of C-terminal extension of 400 residues.
Inosine 5'-Monophosphate. A purine nucleotide which has hypoxanthine as the base and one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety.
A salt of lithium that has been used experimentally as an immunomodulator.
Behaviors associated with the ingesting of water and other liquids; includes rhythmic patterns of drinking (time intervals - onset and duration), frequency and satiety.
Cells specialized to detect chemical substances and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Chemoreceptor cells may monitor external stimuli, as in TASTE and OLFACTION, or internal stimuli, such as the concentrations of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE in the blood.
Flavoring agent sweeter than sugar, metabolized as PHENYLALANINE and ASPARTIC ACID.
The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
A subgroup of TRP cation channels named after melastatin protein. They have the TRP domain but lack ANKYRIN repeats. Enzyme domains in the C-terminus leads to them being called chanzymes.
A genus of the Proteidae family with five recognized species, which inhabit the Atlantic and Gulf drainages.
A general term referring to the learning of some particular response.
A thiourea antithyroid agent. Propythiouracil inhibits the synthesis of thyroxine and inhibits the peripheral conversion of throxine to tri-iodothyronine. It is used in the treatment of hyperthyroidism. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopeoia, 30th ed, p534)
The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
A pyrazine compound inhibiting SODIUM reabsorption through SODIUM CHANNELS in renal EPITHELIAL CELLS. This inhibition creates a negative potential in the luminal membranes of principal cells, located in the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct. Negative potential reduces secretion of potassium and hydrogen ions. Amiloride is used in conjunction with DIURETICS to spare POTASSIUM loss. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p705)
Salts and esters of cyclamic acid.

Modification of behavioral and neural taste responses to NaCl in C57BL/6 mice: effects of NaCl exposure and DOCA treatment. (1/2302)

To investigate the possible role of peripheral gustatory responsiveness to changes in NaCl acceptance, we studied NaCl consumption and the chorda tympani nerve responses to lingual application of NaCl in C57BL/6ByJ mice. The mice were treated with 300 mM NaCl (given to drink in 96-h two-bottle tests with water) or with injections of deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA; 33 mg/kg daily). Naive mice were neutral to 75 mM NaCl, but mice previously exposed to 300 mM NaCl avoided 75 mM NaCl. The NaCl-exposed (300 mM for 4 days and 75 mM for 2 days) mice had enhanced amiloride-sensitive components of the chorda tympani responses to 10-30 mM NaCl applied at room temperature (24 degrees C). DOCA injections increased acceptance of 300 mM NaCl, but did not change the chorda tympani responses to 100-1000 mM NaCl. However, the DOCA-treated mice had enhanced amiloride-sensitive components of the chorda tympani responses to cold (12 degrees C) 10-30 mM NaCl. These data suggest that peripheral gustatory responsiveness possibly contributes to the NaCl aversion induced by exposure to concentrated NaCl, but not to the DOCA-induced increase of NaCl acceptance.  (+info)

Serum leptin is associated with the perception of palatability during a standardized high-carbohydrate breakfast test. (2/2302)

Leptin is an adipocyte-derived signalling molecule which plays a key role in the regulation of body weight and energy expenditure. Since its involvement in human eating behaviour is still poorly understood, we investigated whether the perception of palatability of food was related to fasting serum leptin levels. Twenty-six non-diabetic subjects, six men and twenty women of widely ranging age and body mass index, performed a standardized high-carbohydrate breakfast test. Palatability was evaluated with a visual analogue scale, body composition by bioelectrical impedance, serum leptin and plasma insulin by radioimmunoassay. Palatability was correlated to fasting serum leptin levels independently of body mass index, body fat mass and percentage of body fat (P<0.01). No significant relation was observed with peaks of insulinaemia, integrated concentrations of insulin or insulin resistance indices. A stepwise regression analysis indicated that serum leptin gave the strongest predictive association with palatability. These results suggest that the leptin system may be involved in the regulation of human eating behaviour in relation to the perception of palatability of food.  (+info)

Glossopharyngeal nerve transection eliminates quinine-stimulated fos-like immunoreactivity in the nucleus of the solitary tract: implications for a functional topography of gustatory nerve input in rats. (3/2302)

The relationship between specific gustatory nerve activity and central patterns of taste-evoked neuronal activation is poorly understood. To address this issue within the first central synaptic relay in the gustatory system, we examined the distribution of neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NST) activated by the intraoral infusion of quinine using Fos immunohistochemistry in rats with bilateral transection of the chorda tympani (CTX), bilateral transection of the glossopharyngeal nerve (GLX), or combined neurotomy (DBLX). Compared with nonstimulated and water-stimulated controls, quinine evoked significantly more Fos-like-immunoreactive (FLI) neurons across the rostrocaudal extent of the gustatory NST (gNST), especially within its dorsomedial portion (subfield 5). Although the somatosensory aspects of fluid stimulation contributed to the observed increase in FLI neurons, the elevated number and spatial distribution of FLI neurons in response to quinine were remarkably distinguishable from those in response to water. GLX and DBLX produced a dramatic attenuation of quinine-evoked FLI neurons and a shift in their spatial distribution such that their number and pattern were indiscernable from those observed in water-stimulated controls. Although CTX had no effect on the number of quinine-evoked FLI neurons within subfield 5 at intermediate levels of the gNST, it produced intermediate effects elsewhere; yet, the spatial distribution of the quinine-evoked FLI neurons was not altered by CTX. These findings suggest that the GL provides input to all FLI neurons responsive to quinine, however, some degree of convergence with CT input apparently occurs in this subpopulation of neurons. Although the role of these FLI neurons in taste-guided behavioral responses to quinine remains speculative, their possible function in oromotor reflex control is considered.  (+info)

The perceived intensity of caffeine aftertaste: tasters versus nontasters. (4/2302)

The length and intensity of the aftertaste of caffeine was measured in groups of tasters and nontasters in order to determine if any differential information could be provided by aftertaste perception. Results indicate that a period of 4 min is sufficient to see differences between tasters and nontasters, and that nontasters' aftertaste of the saturated solution is equal in intensity with tasters perception immediately after stimulus presentation, but then after approximately 1 min fade faster. Nontaster ratings for the weaker solution were lower throughout the entire time period.  (+info)

Taste qualities of solutions preferred by hamsters. (5/2302)

Molecules of diverse chemical structure are sweet to humans and several lines of evidence (genetic, physiological, behavioral) suggest that there may be distinct sweet perceptual qualities. To address how many perceptual categories these molecules elicit in hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus), we studied patterns of generalization of conditioned taste aversions for seven sweeteners: 100 mM sucrose, 320 mM maltose, 32 mM D-phenylalanine, 3.2 mM sodium saccharin, 16 mM calcium cyclamate, 10 mM dulcin and 32 mM sodium m-nitrobenzene sulfonate. Each stimulus was preferred versus water in two-bottle intake tests and stimulated the chorda tympani nerve. For each of seven experimental groups the conditional stimulus (CS) was a sweetener and for the control group the CS was water. Apomorphine.HCl was injected i.p. after a CS was sampled and, after recovery, test stimuli (TS) were presented for 1 h daily. The intake (ml) of each TS consumed by experimental animals was compared with mean TS intake by the control group. Learned aversions for 18/21 stimulus pairs cross-generalized, resulting in a single cluster of generalization patterns for the seven stimuli. Cross-generalization failures (maltose-cyclamate, maltose-sucrose, cyclamate-NaNBS) may be the consequence of particular stimulus features (e.g. salience, cation taste), rather than the absence of a 'sucrose-like' quality. The results are consistent with a single hamster perceptual quality for a diverse set of chemical structures that are sweet to humans.  (+info)

Possible novel mechanism for bitter taste mediated through cGMP. (6/2302)

Taste is the least understood among sensory systems, and bitter taste mechanisms pose a special challenge because they are elicited by a large variety of compounds. We studied bitter taste signal transduction with the quench-flow method and monitored the rapid kinetics of the second messenger guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP) production and degradation in mouse taste tissue. In response to the bitter stimulants, caffeine and theophylline but not strychnine or denatonium cGMP levels demonstrated a rapid and transient increase that peaked at 50 ms and gradually declined throughout the following 4.5 s. The theophylline- and caffeine-induced effect was rapid, transient, concentration dependent and gustatory tissue-specific. The effect could be partially suppressed in the presence of the soluble guanylyl cyclase (GC) inhibitor 10 microM ODQ and 30 microM methylene blue but not 50 microM LY 83583 and boosted by nitric oxide donors 25 microM NOR-3 or 100 microM sodium nitroprusside. The proposed mechanism for this novel cGMP-mediated bitter taste signal transduction is cGMP production partially by the soluble GC and caffeine-induced inhibition of one or several phosphodiesterases.  (+info)

A non-pungent triprenyl phenol of fungal origin, scutigeral, stimulates rat dorsal root ganglion neurons via interaction at vanilloid receptors. (7/2302)

1. A [3H]-resiniferatoxin (RTX) binding assay utilizing rat spinal cord membranes was employed to identify novel vanilloids in a collection of natural products of fungal origin. Of the five active compounds found (scutigeral, acetyl-scutigeral, ovinal, neogrifolin, and methyl-neogrifolin), scutigeral (Ki=19 microM), isolated from the edible mushroom Albatrellus ovinus, was selected for further characterization. 2. Scutigeral induced a dose-dependent 45Ca uptake by rat dorsal root ganglion neurons with an EC50 of 1.6 microM, which was fully inhibited by the competitive vanilloid receptor antagonist capsazepine (IC50=5.2 microM). 3. [3H]-RTX binding isotherms were shifted by scutigeral (10-80 microM) in a competitive manner. The Schild plot of the data had a slope of 0.8 and gave an apparent Kd estimate for scutigeral of 32 microM. 4. Although in the above assays scutigeral mimicked capsaicin, it was not pungent on the human tongue up to a dose of 100 nmol per tongue, nor did it provoke protective wiping movements in the rat (up to 100 microM) upon intraocular instillation. 5. In accord with being non-pungent, scutigeral (5 microM) did not elicit a measurable inward current in isolated rat dorsal root ganglion neurons under voltage-clamp conditions. It did, however, reduce the proportion of neurons (from 61 to 15%) that responded to a subsequent capsaicin (1 microM) challenge. In these neurons, scutigeral both delayed (from 27 to 72 s) and diminished (from 5.0 to 1.9 nA) the maximal current evoked by capsaicin. 6. In conclusion, scutigeral and its congeners form a new chemical class of vanilloids, the triprenyl phenols. Scutigeral promises to be a novel chemical lead for the development of orally active, non-pungent vanilloids.  (+info)

Reduced urination rate while drinking beer with an unpleasant taste and off-flavor. (8/2302)

A lowered subjective evaluation of the taste and flavor of beer due to staleness or to the addition of an unpleasant taste and flavor was found to be closely correlated with the urination rate. Beer in the same lot was compared immediately after shipment from the brewery and after leaving at room temperature for 1 month or 5 months. Each beer sample was given to volunteers at the rate of 3 ml/kg/15 min for 2 hours, and the urine volume was measured every 30 minutes. The urination rate was highest from the volunteers who drank fresh beer and lowest from those who drank 5-month-old beer. The subjective evaluation of both the taste and drinkability of 5-month-old beer was significantly lower than that of fresh beer. Beer samples with various unpleasant taste and flavor substances added lowered the urination rate. The results suggest that the perception of an unpleasant taste and off-flavor would lower the urination rate.  (+info)

In a medical context, taste is the sensation produced when a substance in the mouth reacts with taste buds, which are specialized sensory cells found primarily on the tongue. The tongue's surface contains papillae, which house the taste buds. These taste buds can identify five basic tastes: salty, sour, bitter, sweet, and umami (savory). Different areas of the tongue are more sensitive to certain tastes, but all taste buds can detect each of the five tastes, although not necessarily equally.

Taste is a crucial part of our sensory experience, helping us identify and differentiate between various types of food and drinks, and playing an essential role in appetite regulation and enjoyment of meals. Abnormalities in taste sensation can be associated with several medical conditions or side effects of certain medications.

A taste bud is a cluster of specialized sensory cells found primarily on the tongue, soft palate, and cheek that are responsible for the sense of taste. They contain receptor cells which detect specific tastes: sweet, salty, sour, bitter, and umami (savory). Each taste bud contains supporting cells and 50-100 taste receptor cells. These cells have hair-like projections called microvilli that come into contact with food or drink, transmitting signals to the brain to interpret the taste.

Taste perception refers to the ability to recognize and interpret different tastes, such as sweet, salty, sour, bitter, and umami, which are detected by specialized sensory cells called taste buds located on the tongue and other areas in the mouth. These taste signals are then transmitted to the brain, where they are processed and identified as specific tastes. Taste perception is an important sense that helps us to appreciate and enjoy food, and it also plays a role in our ability to detect potentially harmful substances in our diet.

Taste disorders, also known as dysgeusia, refer to conditions that affect a person's ability to taste or distinguish between different tastes. These tastes include sweet, sour, salty, bitter, and umami (savory). Taste disorders can result from damage to the taste buds, nerves that transmit taste signals to the brain, or areas of the brain responsible for processing taste information.

Taste disorders can manifest in several ways, including:

1. Hypogeusia: Reduced ability to taste
2. Ageusia: Complete loss of taste
3. Dysgeusia: Distorted or altered taste perception
4. Phantogeusia: Tasting something that is not present
5. Parageusia: Unpleasant or metallic tastes in the mouth

Taste disorders can be caused by various factors, including damage to the tongue or other areas of the mouth, certain medications, infections, exposure to chemicals or radiation, and neurological conditions such as Bell's palsy or multiple sclerosis. In some cases, taste disorders may be a symptom of an underlying medical condition, such as diabetes or kidney disease.

Treatment for taste disorders depends on the underlying cause. If a medication is causing the disorder, adjusting the dosage or switching to a different medication may help. In other cases, treating the underlying medical condition may resolve the taste disorder. If the cause cannot be identified or treated, various therapies and strategies can be used to manage the symptoms of taste disorders.

Taste threshold is the minimum concentration of a taste substance that can be detected by the taste buds. It is the point at which a person can just discriminate the presence of a specific taste (sweet, salty, sour, bitter, or umami) from plain water or another tastant. The taste threshold can be measured through various methods, such as whole-mouth tastings or using specialized taste strips, and it can vary among individuals due to factors like age, genetics, and exposure to certain chemicals or medications.

The chorda tympani nerve is a branch of the facial nerve (cranial nerve VII) that has both sensory and taste functions. It carries taste sensations from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue and sensory information from the oral cavity, including touch, temperature, and pain.

Anatomically, the chorda tympani nerve originates from the facial nerve's intermediate nerve, which is located in the temporal bone of the skull. It then travels through the middle ear, passing near the tympanic membrane (eardrum) before leaving the skull via the petrotympanic fissure. From there, it joins the lingual nerve, a branch of the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve (cranial nerve V), which carries the taste and sensory information to the brainstem for processing.

Clinically, damage to the chorda tympani nerve can result in loss of taste sensation on the anterior two-thirds of the tongue and altered sensations in the oral cavity. This type of injury can occur during middle ear surgery or as a result of various medical conditions that affect the facial nerve or its branches.

Sweetening agents are substances that are added to foods or drinks to give them a sweet taste. They can be natural, like sugar (sucrose), honey, and maple syrup, or artificial, like saccharin, aspartame, and sucralose. Artificial sweeteners are often used by people who want to reduce their calorie intake or control their blood sugar levels. However, it's important to note that some sweetening agents may have potential health concerns when consumed in large amounts.

Saccharin is not a medical term, but it is a chemical compound that is widely used as an artificial sweetener. Medically speaking, saccharin is classified as an intense sugar substitute, meaning it is many times sweeter than sucrose (table sugar) but contributes little to no calories when added to food or drink.

Saccharin is often used by people with diabetes or those who are trying to reduce their calorie intake. It has been in use for over a century and has undergone extensive safety testing. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has classified saccharin as generally recognized as safe (GRAS), although it once required a warning label due to concerns about bladder cancer. However, subsequent research has largely dismissed this risk for most people, and the warning label is no longer required.

It's important to note that while saccharin and other artificial sweeteners can be helpful for some individuals, they should not be used as a replacement for a balanced diet and regular exercise. Additionally, excessive consumption of these sugar substitutes may have negative health consequences, such as altering gut bacteria or contributing to metabolic disorders.

Quinine is defined as a bitter crystalline alkaloid derived from the bark of the Cinchona tree, primarily used in the treatment of malaria and other parasitic diseases. It works by interfering with the reproduction of the malaria parasite within red blood cells. Quinine has also been used historically as a muscle relaxant and analgesic, but its use for these purposes is now limited due to potential serious side effects. In addition, quinine can be found in some beverages like tonic water, where it is present in very small amounts for flavoring purposes.

Sodium glutamate, also known as monosodium glutamate (MSG), is the sodium salt of glutamic acid, which is a naturally occurring amino acid that is widely present in various foods. It is commonly used as a flavor enhancer in the food industry to intensify the savory or umami taste of certain dishes.

Medically speaking, sodium glutamate is generally considered safe for consumption in moderate amounts by the majority of the population. However, some individuals may experience adverse reactions after consuming foods containing MSG, a condition known as "MSG symptom complex." Symptoms can include headache, flushing, sweating, facial pressure or tightness, numbness, tingling or burning in the face, neck and other areas, rapid, fluttering heartbeats (heart palpitations), chest pain, nausea, and weakness.

It is important to note that these symptoms are usually mild and short-term, and not everyone who consumes MSG will experience them. If you suspect that you have an intolerance or sensitivity to MSG, it is best to consult with a healthcare professional for proper evaluation and guidance.

Food preferences are personal likes or dislikes towards certain types of food or drinks, which can be influenced by various factors such as cultural background, individual experiences, taste, texture, smell, appearance, and psychological factors. Food preferences can also be shaped by dietary habits, nutritional needs, health conditions, and medication requirements. They play a significant role in shaping an individual's dietary choices and overall eating behavior, which can have implications for their nutritional status, growth, development, and long-term health outcomes.

Sucrose is a type of simple sugar, also known as a carbohydrate. It is a disaccharide, which means that it is made up of two monosaccharides: glucose and fructose. Sucrose occurs naturally in many fruits and vegetables and is often extracted and refined for use as a sweetener in food and beverages.

The chemical formula for sucrose is C12H22O11, and it has a molecular weight of 342.3 g/mol. In its pure form, sucrose is a white, odorless, crystalline solid that is highly soluble in water. It is commonly used as a reference compound for determining the sweetness of other substances, with a standard sucrose solution having a sweetness value of 1.0.

Sucrose is absorbed by the body through the small intestine and metabolized into glucose and fructose, which are then used for energy or stored as glycogen in the liver and muscles. While moderate consumption of sucrose is generally considered safe, excessive intake can contribute to weight gain, tooth decay, and other health problems.

Dysgeusia is a medical term that refers to a distortion in the ability to taste. It can cause food and drinks to have a metallic, rancid, or bitter taste. Dysgeusia is different from ageusia, which is the complete loss of taste, and hypogeusia, which is a reduced ability to taste.

Dysgeusia can be caused by various factors, including damage to the nerves responsible for taste, exposure to certain chemicals or medications, and medical conditions such as diabetes, kidney disease, and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Treatment for dysgeusia depends on the underlying cause. If a medication is causing the symptom, changing the medication or adjusting the dosage may help. In other cases, addressing the underlying medical condition may improve taste perception.

Ageusia is a medical term that refers to the complete loss of taste. It can affect a person's ability to detect sweet, salty, sour, bitter, and savory flavors. Ageusia can be caused by various factors such as damage to the nerves responsible for transmitting taste signals to the brain, exposure to certain chemicals or radiation therapy, and some medical conditions like diabetes, hypertension, and upper respiratory infections. In some cases, ageusia may be temporary, while in others, it can be permanent. It is important to consult a healthcare professional if experiencing a loss of taste, as it could be a sign of an underlying health issue.

Flavoring agents are substances added to foods, beverages, pharmaceuticals, and sometimes even medical devices to enhance or modify their taste and aroma. They can be natural, derived from plants or animals, or synthetic, created in a laboratory. Flavoring agents do not necessarily provide any nutritional value and are typically used in small quantities.

In a medical context, flavoring agents may be added to medications to improve patient compliance, especially for children or individuals who have difficulty swallowing pills. These agents can help mask the unpleasant taste of certain medicines, making them more palatable and easier to consume. However, it is essential to ensure that the use of flavoring agents does not interfere with the medication's effectiveness or safety.

Citric acid is a weak organic acid that is widely found in nature, particularly in citrus fruits such as lemons and oranges. Its chemical formula is C6H8O7, and it exists in a form known as a tribasic acid, which means it can donate three protons in chemical reactions.

In the context of medical definitions, citric acid may be mentioned in relation to various physiological processes, such as its role in the Krebs cycle (also known as the citric acid cycle), which is a key metabolic pathway involved in energy production within cells. Additionally, citric acid may be used in certain medical treatments or therapies, such as in the form of citrate salts to help prevent the formation of kidney stones. It may also be used as a flavoring agent or preservative in various pharmaceutical preparations.

G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are a family of membrane receptors that play an essential role in cellular signaling and communication. These receptors possess seven transmembrane domains, forming a structure that spans the lipid bilayer of the cell membrane. They are called "G-protein-coupled" because they interact with heterotrimeric G proteins upon activation, which in turn modulate various downstream signaling pathways.

When an extracellular ligand binds to a GPCR, it causes a conformational change in the receptor's structure, leading to the exchange of guanosine diphosphate (GDP) for guanosine triphosphate (GTP) on the associated G protein's α subunit. This exchange triggers the dissociation of the G protein into its α and βγ subunits, which then interact with various effector proteins to elicit cellular responses.

There are four main families of GPCRs, classified based on their sequence similarities and downstream signaling pathways:

1. Gq-coupled receptors: These receptors activate phospholipase C (PLC), which leads to the production of inositol trisphosphate (IP3) and diacylglycerol (DAG). IP3 induces calcium release from intracellular stores, while DAG activates protein kinase C (PKC).
2. Gs-coupled receptors: These receptors activate adenylyl cyclase, which increases the production of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and subsequently activates protein kinase A (PKA).
3. Gi/o-coupled receptors: These receptors inhibit adenylyl cyclase, reducing cAMP levels and modulating PKA activity. Additionally, they can activate ion channels or regulate other signaling pathways through the βγ subunits.
4. G12/13-coupled receptors: These receptors primarily activate RhoGEFs, which in turn activate RhoA and modulate cytoskeletal organization and cellular motility.

GPCRs are involved in various physiological processes, including neurotransmission, hormone signaling, immune response, and sensory perception. Dysregulation of GPCR function has been implicated in numerous diseases, making them attractive targets for drug development.

Transducin is a G protein found in the rod cells of the retina and plays a crucial role in the visual signal transduction pathway. It is responsible for converting the light-induced isomerization of rhodopsin into a biochemical signal, which ultimately leads to the activation of downstream effectors and the generation of a neural response.

Transducin has three subunits: alpha (Tα), beta (Tβ), and gamma (Tγ). When light activates rhodopsin, it interacts with the Tα subunit, causing it to exchange GDP for GTP and dissociate from the Tβγ complex. The activated Tα then interacts with a downstream effector called phosphodiesterase (PDE), which leads to the hydrolysis of cGMP and the closure of cGMP-gated ion channels in the plasma membrane. This results in the hyperpolarization of the rod cell, which is the initial step in the visual signal transduction pathway.

Overall, transducin is a key player in the conversion of light energy into neural signals, allowing us to see and perceive our visual world.

Avoidance learning is a type of conditioning in which an individual learns to act in a certain way to avoid experiencing an unpleasant or aversive stimulus. It is a form of learning that occurs when an organism changes its behavior to avoid a negative outcome or situation. This can be seen in both animals and humans, and it is often studied in the field of psychology and neuroscience.

In avoidance learning, the individual learns to associate a particular cue or stimulus with the unpleasant experience. Over time, they learn to perform an action to escape or avoid the cue, thereby preventing the negative outcome from occurring. For example, if a rat receives an electric shock every time it hears a certain tone, it may eventually learn to press a lever to turn off the tone and avoid the shock.

Avoidance learning can be adaptive in some situations, as it allows individuals to avoid dangerous or harmful stimuli. However, it can also become maladaptive if it leads to excessive fear or anxiety, or if it interferes with an individual's ability to function in daily life. For example, a person who has been attacked may develop a phobia of public places and avoid them altogether, even though this limits their ability to engage in social activities and live a normal life.

In summary, avoidance learning is a type of conditioning in which an individual learns to act in a certain way to avoid experiencing an unpleasant or aversive stimulus. It can be adaptive in some situations but can also become maladaptive if it leads to excessive fear or anxiety or interferes with daily functioning.

Phenylthiourea is not typically considered a medical term, but it is a chemical compound that is used in scientific research and has been studied in the context of medicine. Here's a definition from a chemistry perspective:

Phenylthiourea (PTU) is an organic compound with the formula C6H5NCS. It is a derivative of thiourea, where one hydrogen atom is replaced by a phenyl group. PTU is a white crystalline powder that is soluble in water and alcohol.

In medical terms, PTU has been used as a medication to treat hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid gland) because it can inhibit the production of thyroid hormones. However, its use as a therapeutic agent has declined due to the availability of other medications with fewer side effects. It is still used in research settings to study various biological processes and diseases.

It's important to note that PTU should only be administered under the supervision of a healthcare professional, as it can have adverse effects if not used properly.

Sodium Chloride is defined as the inorganic compound with the chemical formula NaCl, representing a 1:1 ratio of sodium and chloride ions. It is commonly known as table salt or halite, and it is used extensively in food seasoning and preservation due to its ability to enhance flavor and inhibit bacterial growth. In medicine, sodium chloride is used as a balanced electrolyte solution for rehydration and as a topical wound irrigant and antiseptic. It is also an essential component of the human body's fluid balance and nerve impulse transmission.

The geniculate ganglion is a sensory ganglion (a cluster of nerve cell bodies) located in the facial nerve (cranial nerve VII). It is responsible for the special sense of taste for the anterior two-thirds of the tongue and the sensation of skin over the external ear and parts of the face. The term "geniculate" means "knee-shaped," which describes the appearance of this part of the facial nerve.

Phospholipase C beta (PLCβ) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in intracellular signaling transduction pathways. It is a subtype of Phospholipase C, which is responsible for cleaving phospholipids into secondary messengers, thereby mediating various cellular responses.

PLCβ is activated by G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and can be found in various tissues throughout the body. Once activated, PLCβ hydrolyzes a specific phospholipid, PIP2 (Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate), into two secondary messengers: IP3 (Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate) and DAG (Diacylglycerol). These second messengers then trigger a series of downstream events, such as calcium mobilization and protein kinase C activation, which ultimately lead to changes in cell functions, including gene expression, cell growth, differentiation, and secretion.

There are four isoforms of PLCβ (PLCβ1, PLCβ2, PLCβ3, and PLCβ4) that differ in their tissue distribution, regulation, and substrate specificity. Mutations or dysregulation of PLCβ have been implicated in several diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurological disorders.

Inosine monophosphate (IMP) is a nucleotide that plays a crucial role in the metabolic pathways of energy production and purine synthesis in cells. It is an ester of the nucleoside inosine and phosphoric acid. IMP is an important intermediate in the conversion of adenosine monophosphate (AMP) to guanosine monophosphate (GMP) in the purine nucleotide cycle, which is critical for maintaining the balance of purine nucleotides in the body. Additionally, IMP can be converted back to AMP through the action of the enzyme adenylosuccinate lyase. IMP has been studied for its potential therapeutic benefits in various medical conditions, including neurodegenerative disorders and ischemia-reperfusion injury.

Lithium Chloride (LiCl) is not typically defined in a medical context as it is not a medication or a clinical condition. However, it can be defined chemically as an inorganic compound consisting of lithium and chlorine. Its chemical formula is LiCl, and it is commonly used in laboratory settings for various purposes such as a drying agent or a component in certain chemical reactions.

It's worth noting that while lithium salts like lithium carbonate (Li2CO3) are used medically to treat bipolar disorder, lithium chloride is not used for this purpose due to its higher toxicity compared to other lithium salts.

Drinking behavior refers to the patterns and habits related to alcohol consumption. This can include the frequency, quantity, and context in which an individual chooses to drink alcohol. Drinking behaviors can vary widely among individuals and can be influenced by a variety of factors, including cultural norms, personal beliefs, mental health status, and genetic predisposition.

Problematic drinking behaviors can include heavy drinking, binge drinking, and alcohol use disorder (AUD), which is characterized by a pattern of alcohol use that involves problems controlling intake, being preoccupied with alcohol, continuing to use alcohol even when it causes problems, having to drink more to get the same effect, or having withdrawal symptoms when rapidly decreasing or stopping alcohol.

It's important to note that drinking behaviors can have significant impacts on an individual's health and well-being, as well as their relationships, work, and other aspects of their life. If you are concerned about your own drinking behavior or that of someone else, it is recommended to seek professional help from a healthcare provider or addiction specialist.

Chemoreceptor cells are specialized sensory neurons that detect and respond to chemical changes in the internal or external environment. They play a crucial role in maintaining homeostasis within the body by converting chemical signals into electrical impulses, which are then transmitted to the central nervous system for further processing and response.

There are two main types of chemoreceptor cells:

1. Oxygen Chemoreceptors: These cells are located in the carotid bodies near the bifurcation of the common carotid artery and in the aortic bodies close to the aortic arch. They monitor the levels of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and pH in the blood and respond to decreases in oxygen concentration or increases in carbon dioxide and hydrogen ions (indicating acidity) by increasing their firing rate. This signals the brain to increase respiratory rate and depth, thereby restoring normal oxygen levels.

2. Taste Cells: These chemoreceptor cells are found within the taste buds of the tongue and other areas of the oral cavity. They detect specific tastes (salty, sour, sweet, bitter, and umami) by interacting with molecules from food. When a tastant binds to receptors on the surface of a taste cell, it triggers a series of intracellular signaling events that ultimately lead to the generation of an action potential. This information is then relayed to the brain, where it is interpreted as taste sensation.

In summary, chemoreceptor cells are essential for maintaining physiological balance by detecting and responding to chemical stimuli in the body. They play a critical role in regulating vital functions such as respiration and digestion.

Aspartame is a synthetic, low-calorie sweetener that is commonly used as a sugar substitute in foods and beverages. It is composed of two amino acids, aspartic acid and phenylalanine, and a methanol molecule. Aspartame is approximately 200 times sweeter than sugar, so only a small amount is needed to provide the same level of sweetness.

In the body, aspartame is broken down into its component parts during digestion. The aspartic acid and phenylalanine are absorbed and used for normal bodily functions, while the methanol is converted into formaldehyde and then formic acid, which are eliminated from the body.

Aspartame is approved for use in foods and beverages by many health authorities, including the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). However, it has been the subject of some controversy, with some studies suggesting that it may be associated with health problems such as headaches, dizziness, and seizures. These claims have not been consistently supported by scientific research, and the FDA and EFSA consider aspartame to be safe for the general population when used in moderation.

It is important to note that people with a rare genetic disorder called phenylketonuria (PKU) must avoid aspartame because they are unable to metabolize phenylalanine, which can build up to toxic levels in their bodies. Foods and beverages containing aspartame must carry a warning label indicating its presence for this reason.

A chemical stimulation in a medical context refers to the process of activating or enhancing physiological or psychological responses in the body using chemical substances. These chemicals can interact with receptors on cells to trigger specific reactions, such as neurotransmitters and hormones that transmit signals within the nervous system and endocrine system.

Examples of chemical stimulation include the use of medications, drugs, or supplements that affect mood, alertness, pain perception, or other bodily functions. For instance, caffeine can chemically stimulate the central nervous system to increase alertness and decrease feelings of fatigue. Similarly, certain painkillers can chemically stimulate opioid receptors in the brain to reduce the perception of pain.

It's important to note that while chemical stimulation can have therapeutic benefits, it can also have adverse effects if used improperly or in excessive amounts. Therefore, it's essential to follow proper dosing instructions and consult with a healthcare provider before using any chemical substances for stimulation purposes.

Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin (TRPM) cation channels are a subfamily of the transient receptor potential (TRP) channel superfamily, which are non-selective cation channels that play important roles in various cellular processes such as sensory perception, cell proliferation, and migration.

The TRPM subfamily consists of eight members (TRPM1-8), each with distinct functional properties and expression patterns. These channels are permeable to both monovalent and divalent cations, including calcium (Ca^2+^) and magnesium (Mg^2+^).

TRPM channels can be activated by a variety of stimuli, such as changes in temperature, voltage, osmolarity, and chemical ligands. For example, TRPM8 is known to be activated by cold temperatures and menthol, while TRPV1 is activated by heat and capsaicin.

Dysregulation of TRPM channels has been implicated in various pathological conditions, including pain, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer. Therefore, understanding the structure and function of these channels may provide insights into potential therapeutic targets for these conditions.

"Necturus" is not a term that has a medical definition. It is a genus of aquatic salamanders found in North America, also known as mudpuppies or waterdogs. If you have any confusion regarding a medical or healthcare related term, I would be happy to help clarify!

Propylthiouracil is a medication that is primarily used to treat hyperthyroidism, a condition characterized by an overactive thyroid gland that produces too much thyroid hormone. The medication works by inhibiting the production of thyroid hormones in the body. It belongs to a class of drugs called antithyroid agents or thionamides.

In medical terms, propylthiouracil is defined as an antithyroid medication used to manage hyperthyroidism due to Graves' disease or toxic adenoma. It acts by inhibiting the synthesis of thyroid hormones, triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4), in the thyroid gland. Propylthiouracil also reduces the peripheral conversion of T4 to T3. The medication is available as a tablet for oral administration and is typically prescribed at a starting dose of 100-150 mg three times daily, with adjustments made based on the patient's response and thyroid function tests.

It's important to note that propylthiouracil should be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider due to potential side effects and risks associated with its use. Regular monitoring of thyroid function tests is necessary during treatment, and patients should promptly report any signs or symptoms of adverse reactions to their healthcare provider.

In medical terms, the sense of smell is referred to as olfaction. It is the ability to detect and identify different types of chemicals in the air through the use of the olfactory system. The olfactory system includes the nose, nasal passages, and the olfactory bulbs located in the brain.

When a person inhales air containing volatile substances, these substances bind to specialized receptor cells in the nasal passage called olfactory receptors. These receptors then transmit signals to the olfactory bulbs, which process the information and send it to the brain's limbic system, including the hippocampus and amygdala, as well as to the cortex. The brain interprets these signals and identifies the various scents or smells.

Impairment of the sense of smell can occur due to various reasons such as upper respiratory infections, sinusitis, nasal polyps, head trauma, or neurodegenerative disorders like Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. Loss of smell can significantly impact a person's quality of life, including their ability to taste food, detect dangers such as smoke or gas leaks, and experience emotions associated with certain smells.

Feeding behavior refers to the various actions and mechanisms involved in the intake of food and nutrition for the purpose of sustaining life, growth, and health. This complex process encompasses a coordinated series of activities, including:

1. Food selection: The identification, pursuit, and acquisition of appropriate food sources based on sensory cues (smell, taste, appearance) and individual preferences.
2. Preparation: The manipulation and processing of food to make it suitable for consumption, such as chewing, grinding, or chopping.
3. Ingestion: The act of transferring food from the oral cavity into the digestive system through swallowing.
4. Digestion: The mechanical and chemical breakdown of food within the gastrointestinal tract to facilitate nutrient absorption and eliminate waste products.
5. Assimilation: The uptake and utilization of absorbed nutrients by cells and tissues for energy production, growth, repair, and maintenance.
6. Elimination: The removal of undigested material and waste products from the body through defecation.

Feeding behavior is regulated by a complex interplay between neural, hormonal, and psychological factors that help maintain energy balance and ensure adequate nutrient intake. Disruptions in feeding behavior can lead to various medical conditions, such as malnutrition, obesity, eating disorders, and gastrointestinal motility disorders.

Amiloride is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called potassium-sparing diuretics. It works by preventing the reabsorption of salt and water in the kidneys, which helps to increase urine output and decrease fluid buildup in the body. At the same time, amiloride also helps to preserve the level of potassium in the body, which is why it is known as a potassium-sparing diuretic.

Amiloride is commonly used to treat high blood pressure, heart failure, and edema (fluid buildup) in the body. It is available in tablet form and is typically taken once or twice a day, with or without food. Common side effects of amiloride include headache, dizziness, and stomach upset.

It's important to note that amiloride can interact with other medications, including some over-the-counter products, so it's essential to inform your healthcare provider of all the medications you are taking before starting amiloride therapy. Additionally, regular monitoring of blood pressure, kidney function, and electrolyte levels is necessary while taking this medication.

Cyclamates are a type of artificial sweetener that were widely used in food and beverages as a sugar substitute until they were banned by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1970. They are synthetic derivatives of cyclamic acid, which is a naturally occurring compound found in some plants.

Cyclamates are approximately 30-50 times sweeter than sugar, making them an attractive alternative for people looking to reduce their calorie intake. However, studies conducted in the 1960s suggested that cyclamates may be associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer in rats, leading to their ban in the United States and several other countries.

While some countries still allow the use of cyclamates in certain food products, they remain a controversial ingredient due to ongoing concerns about their safety. The European Union has classified cyclamates as a category IV sweetener, which means that they are considered safe for human consumption in limited quantities, but their use is restricted to specific applications and maximum levels have been established.

Each taste bud contains 50 to 100 taste receptor cells. Taste receptors in the mouth sense the five basic tastes: sweetness, ... Each taste bud contains 50 to 100 taste receptor cells. The five specific tastes received by taste receptors are saltiness, ... The taste is commonly related to other, more negative, tastes such as bitter and sour due to how unpleasant the taste is for ... Sour taste is detected by a small subset of cells that are distributed across all taste buds called Type III taste receptor ...
Retrieved 2011-03-17.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link) G-taste #1, published 9 July 1997 by Kodansha G-taste #2, ... Beveridge, Chris (May 31, 2007). "G-Taste: A Taste of Honey". Archived from the original on January 1, 2015. ... Yagami Hiroki no Game-Taste for the original PlayStation and Mahjong G-taste for arcades and PlayStation 2. G−taste〜八木沢 萌〜 (in ... published June 2001 by Kodansha G-taste #5, published 6 April 2002 by Kodansha G-taste #6, published 9 April 2003 by Kodansha G ...
... may also refer to: An Acquired Taste, film by Ralph Arlyck Acquired Taste, album by Absynthe Minded 2004 ... An acquired taste often refers to an appreciation for a food or beverage that is unlikely to be enjoyed by a person who has not ... Acquired Taste (Delbert McClinton album) 2009 Acquired Taste, album by Junior Giscombe 1985 This disambiguation page lists ... articles associated with the title Acquired Taste. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point ...
... (styled as Expen$ive Taste) was an American hip hop super-group formed by Paul Wall, Skinhead Rob (Transplants ... Two songs by Expensive Taste appeared on Paul Wall's album, Heart of a Champion. A 15-track Expen$ive Taste mixtape was ... Track list From DJ Skee Presents: Expen$ive Taste - Expen$ive Taste "Famous Anthem" (featuring B-Real, Too Short, Damu, and ... Official band website MTV article on the group interview with Paul and Rob from the group Expen$ive Taste ...
"Good Taste" is a science fiction short story by American writer Isaac Asimov. It first appeared in a limited edition book of ... The Grand Master, and all Gammer society, are revolted by this breach of good taste. Chawker Minor is disavowed by all and ... Asked by the Grand Master, who can taste and analyse flavourings to the smallest detail, to explain his successful and ... ISFDb ISFDb Good Taste title listing at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database Full text of the short story v t e (Articles ...
... is a chain of Chinese restaurants from Southern California. The business operates in Houston, Los Angeles, and ... J. Kenji López-Alt (August 12, 2019). "Chengdu Taste is the Best Sichuan Restaurant in America. Here's What to Order". Serious ... Media related to Chengdu Taste at Wikimedia Commons v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata ... McCarthy, Amy (2017-05-24). "Sichuan Superstar Chengdu Taste Is Now Open In Houston". Eater Houston. Archived from the original ...
Digital download "Taste" (featuring Offset) - 3:52 7" vinyl "Taste" (featuring Offset) - 3:52 "Swish" - 3:15 "Taste (feat. ... "Tyga - Taste (Vinyl, 7", 45 RPM, Picture Disc, Stereo)". Discogs. "Tyga feat. Offset - Taste" (in German). Ö3 Austria Top 40. ... Offset - Taste" (in Dutch). Single Top 100. Retrieved August 3, 2018. "Tyga feat. Offset - Taste". Top 40 Singles. Retrieved ... Offset - Taste" (in Dutch). Ultratip. Retrieved August 3, 2018. "Tyga feat. Offset - Taste" (in French). Ultratip. Retrieved ...
The Trash Taste podcast has four channels on YouTube. The main channel, Trash Taste, was created on 14 February 2020 and ... "Trash Taste Tour 23". Archived from the original on 24 July 2023. Retrieved 4 July 2023. "The Trash Taste Boys - Live!". A ... Trash Taste Highlights, created on 14 February 2020, and Trash Taste Shorts, created on 11 March 2022, both provide short clips ... Trash Taste After Dark (originally called Trash Taste Streams) was created on 23 August 2019 and features the recorded ...
New Zealand recommends using Prima Taste instant noodles to get a similar taste to authentic ramen. A Prima Taste concept ... In 2013, Prima Taste Laksa LaMian and Prima Taste Curry LaMian were rated No. 1 and No. 2 instant noodles of all time by The ... Prima Taste's Wholegrain Laksa LaMian was ranked best instant noodles by The Ramen Rater from 2016 to 2018. Prima Taste also ... Prima Taste launched in 1998, and is managed by Prima Food Pte Ltd, a subsidiary of Prima Limited which specializes in flour ...
... s are clusters of taste receptor cells, which are also known as gustatory cells. The taste receptors are located ... These are located on top of the taste receptor cells that constitute the taste buds. The taste receptor cells send information ... On average, the human tongue has 2,000-8,000 taste buds. The average lifespan of these is estimated to be 10 days. The taste ... Salt, sweet, sour and umami tastes causes depolarization of the taste cells, although different mechanisms are applied. Bitter ...
... official MBC website (in Korean) Personal Taste at HanCinema Personal Taste at IMDb (CS1 maint: unfit URL, CS1 ... Personal Taste (Korean: 개인의 취향; Hanja: 個人의 趣向; RR: Kaeinui Chwihyang; MR: Kaein-ŭi Ch'wihyang; lit. "Kae-in's Taste" or "Kae- ... "Personal Taste Wins Best Foreign Drama Award in Japan". Soompi. November 21, 2012. Retrieved March 21, 2013. Sunwoo, Carla ( ... "Personal Taste". Korea Tourism Organization. Archived from the original on December 11, 2012. Retrieved November 13, 2012. Lee ...
... is a compilation of B-sides and rarities released by British art rock band No-Man in 1995 and remastered in 1998. ... In May 2002 (2002-05) Heaven Taste was remastered and released with new cover art. The title track on this reissue is slightly ... "Heaven Taste" (Wilson) - 21:21 (22:30 on 2002 release) date: August 1992 (1992-08) Tim Bowness - vocals and words on tracks 1 ... Heaven Taste". Archived from the original on 13 March 2008. Retrieved 5 May 2008. (Use dmy dates from September 2020, Articles ...
Absolute Taste's most notable venue is the McLaren Technology Centre. Absolute Taste was formed in 1997 by Ron Dennis and Lyndy ... Absolute Taste was acquired by One Event Management in December 2016. Absolute Taste operates three cafés. The Design Café and ... "Gordon Ramsay by Absolute Taste" is an entirely bespoke service in which Absolute Taste works with Gordon and his team to ... In 2003, Absolute Taste Inflight was formed. It is a 24-hour, 365-day operation catering for private jets. It began at the ...
Europe Taste of Amsterdam Taste of Athens Taste of Milano Taste of Paris Taste of Roma United Kingdom Taste of London Taste of ... "Taste of Hong Kong". Taste of Hong Kong. Taste of Hong Kong. Retrieved 26 March 2019. Taste Festivals official site Taste of ... Edition Middle East Taste of Dubai Taste of Abu Dhabi Elsewhere Taste of Auckland Taste of Hong Kong Taste of Moscow Taste of ... Australia Taste of Sydney Taste of Melbourne Ireland Taste of Dublin Taste of Dublin: Festive Edition ...
... may refer to: "Taste Test", a song by Sleater-Kinney from their 1996 album Call the Doctor Blind wine tasting, a ... This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Taste test. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to ... wine taste test involving no knowledge of the wine's identity on the part of the tasters Blind taste test, a generic term for ...
1989 Taste (Taste album), 1969 "Taste" (song), a 2018 single by Tyga featuring Offset "Taste", a song by Animal Collective from ... Taste is the sensation and/or perception of flavors. Taste may also refer to: Aesthetic taste, the ability to judge an object ... "Taste", a song by Phish from the 1996 album Billy Breathes "Taste", a song by Ride from the 1990 album Nowhere "The Taste", a ... a record label Taste: My Life Through Food, a 2021 memoir by Stanley Tucci Taste (software), a Macintosh word processor Taste ( ...
... is the third album and first live album by Irish rock band Taste. It was recorded live at Montreux Casino in ... 43 Taste Rory Gallagher - guitars, vocals, Harmonica Richard "Charlie" McCracken - bass guitar John Wilson - drums "Live Taste ... Taste (band) albums, Polydor Records live albums). ...
Dryness is a property of beverages that describes the lack of a sweet taste. This may be due to a lack of sugars, the presence ... Watrelot, Aude (2019-12-09). "What makes wine dry? It's easy to taste, but much harder to measure". The Conversation. Retrieved ... of some other taste that masks sweetness, or an underabundance of simple carbohydrates that can be converted to sugar by ... Wine tasting, All stub articles, Drink stubs). ...
"Taste It" (LP version) "Light the Planet" CD5 maxi single INXCD23 Mercury/UK "Taste It" (LP version) "Taste It" (Youth 12" Mix ... "Taste It" (LP version) "Questions" (No Vocals) CD3 WMD5-4123 WEA/Japan "Taste It" (LP version) "Taste It" (Youth 12" Mix) ... "INXS - Taste It". Top 40 Singles. Retrieved 30 September 2022. "INXS - Taste It". Swiss Singles Chart. Retrieved 30 September ... "Taste It" (LP version) "Taste It" (Youth 12" Mix) "Light the Planet" "Suicide Blonde" (Oakenfold Milk Mix) CD5 45099-1293-2 ...
... is a live album recorded during a stand-up comedy performance by Ellen DeGeneres, in which she talks about common ... 00 Taste This at AllMusic "Ellen DeGeneres , Billboard". Billboard. Ellen DeGeneres at IMDb Ellen DeGeneres website (Articles ...
... is associated with: Conditioned taste aversion, an acquired aversion to the taste of a food that was paired with ... avoid eating or eat only a very narrow range of foods This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Taste ...
The publishing side of Taste's repertoire was handled by sister company Taste Music who retain the publishing rights to Muse's ... Taste Media is a record label and production company that has released records for bands such as Muse and Shed Seven. The ... Taste Media recorded three of Muse's albums, Showbiz, Origin of Symmetry and Absolution. Whilst the recordings by Muse were ... Taste Media v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Articles needing additional references ...
... may refer to: "Taste You" (Auf der Maur song) "Taste You" (Cheyne song) This disambiguation page lists articles ... associated with the title Taste You. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the ...
The gustatory system consists of taste receptor cells in taste buds. Taste buds, in turn, are contained in structures called ... A taste receptor or tastant is a type of cellular receptor which facilitates the sensation of taste. When food or other ... The sweet taste receptor is one of the taste receptors where the function has been lost. In mammals, the predominant sweet ... taste+receptors,+type+1 at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) taste+receptors,+type+2 at the ...
Taste is a Macintosh word processor that combined a number of basic features from page layout software-just a "taste" of it-to ... Nor does Taste include features like sorting or list generation. Taste was released in early 1991. Ted Landau of MacUser ... and money with Taste". List of word processors "Delta Point Gives Users a Low-Cost Taste". InfoWorld. January 14, 1991. p. 28. ... Taste works with Mac OS 9, but not macOS, and has not been available for purchase for several years. In many ways Apple's ...
... Brasil' é o novo reality de gastronomia do canal GNT". "The Taste". 13 February 2015. "Laida ... "The Taste". VTM. "Nigella Lawson To Bring US Cookery Show 'The Taste' To The UK". The Huffington Post UK. 18 July 2013. ... Each mentor selects one dish to represent his or her team, which is tasted by a guest judge. The team with the best taste is ... On May 7, 2015, ABC canceled The Taste after three seasons. The Taste season begins with blind auditions of both professional ...
... has been part of the Endeavor (non-profit) network since 2007. TASTE Holdings has sold its hospitality service ... "Taste acquires The Fish & Chip Co". Fin24. 8 November 2011. Retrieved 7 September 2013. "Taste to liquidate Domino's after ... "TASTE HOLDINGS LIMITED - Name Change and Share Consolidation Finalisation Announcement". "Taste acquires St Elmo's". Fin24. 30 ... of TASTE holdings. Brimstone Investments Corporation owns approximately 12% "Taste heads to JSE's main board". Fin24. 28 June ...
... may refer to: An idea that does not fall within normal social standards; see the section on Bad taste in sociology ... an Icelandic record label Bad Taste Records, a Swedish record label Bad Taste (album), a 2000 album by the Killer Barbies Bad ... taste in one's mouth (wiktionary) This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Bad taste. If an internal ... Kitsch art An unpleasant flavor Bad Taste, the 1987 New Zealand cult film by Peter Jackson Bad Taste (record label), ...
Bad taste (also poor taste or vulgarity) is generally used to deride individuals with 'poor' aesthetic judgment. Bad taste can ... This position also rejects the idea of genuine good taste, as the legitimate taste is merely a class taste. This idea was also ... Bourdieu argued against the Kantian view of pure aesthetics, stating that the legitimate taste of the society is the taste of ... However, these judgments are deficient in objectivity, creating the 'paradox of taste'. The term 'taste' is used because these ...
  • However, dogs also have special taste buds geared specifically for water. (
  • Cats and other carnivores have these taste buds, but they aren't found in humans. (
  • How exactly do your taste buds work? (
  • Those are called papillae, and most of them contain taste buds. (
  • Taste buds have very sensitive microscopic hairs called microvilli. (
  • The average person has about 10,000 taste buds and they're replaced every 2 weeks or so. (
  • An older person may only have 5,000 working taste buds. (
  • Smoking also can reduce the number of taste buds a person has. (
  • They work together with your taste buds to create the true flavor of that yummy slice of pizza by telling the brain all about it. (
  • There are five universally accepted basic tastes that stimulate and are perceived by our taste buds: 1. (
  • Hypogeusia Reduced ability to taste sweet, sour, bitter, or salty things Heavy smoking, dehydration, radiation therapy administered to the neck or head, or burns to the tongue that damage the taste buds can all cause a diminished sense of taste. (
  • There are several diseases in which usually taste buds are affected: 1. (
  • Arvidson K. Location and variation in number of taste buds in human fungiform papillae. (
  • Taste is the perception stimulated when a substance in the mouth reacts chemically with taste receptor cells located on taste buds in the oral cavity, mostly on the tongue. (
  • Humans have taste receptors on taste buds and other areas, including the upper surface of the tongue and the epiglottis. (
  • Within each papilla are hundreds of taste buds. (
  • The exception to this is the filiform papillae that do not contain taste buds. (
  • There are between 2000 and 5000 taste buds that are located on the back and front of the tongue. (
  • Taste buds are able to tell different tastes apart when they interact with different molecules or ions. (
  • Sweetness, savoriness, and bitter tastes are triggered by the binding of molecules to G protein-coupled receptors on the cell membranes of taste buds. (
  • Saltiness and sourness are perceived when alkali metals or hydrogen ions meet taste buds, respectively. (
  • Digestive enzymes in saliva begin to dissolve food into base chemicals that are washed over the papillae and detected as tastes by the taste buds. (
  • A Japanese scientific term, umami describes the sweet, savory taste of amino acids such as glutamate in foods like tomato juice, and according to the new study, in noisy situations -- like the 85 decibels aboard a jetliner -- umami-rich foods become your taste bud's best buds. (
  • BYE BYE BUDS Mice that became obese on a high-fat diet (right) lost a quarter of their taste buds (stained red) and also had fewer progenitor cells (stained green) - which give rise to new taste buds - than mice of a healthy weight on a regular diet (left). (
  • As mice plumped up on a high-fat diet, some of their taste buds vanished. (
  • Compared with siblings that were fed normal mouse chow, mice given high-fat meals lost about 25 percent of their taste buds over eight weeks. (
  • Buds went missing because mature taste bud cells died off more quickly , and fewer new cells developed to take their place. (
  • 9/28/2016 - Doctors have known for some time that radiation treatment for cancers of the head and neck can often result in changes to a patient's sense of smell or taste, but they have attributed this effect mostly to temporary destruction of taste buds. (
  • Taste sensations are mediated by taste buds-small clusters of specialized epithelial cells on the tongue, soft palate, and larynx. (
  • Over the last two decades, as scientists have uncovered the array of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) cascades and ion channels that underlie taste signaling, they have also discovered, to their surprise, that the expression of these receptors and channels is not limited to taste buds. (
  • Salty and sour sensory perceptions rely on ion channels, which are expressed in a variety of tissues, such as kidney, as well as in taste buds. (
  • The gross anatomy (peripheral and central nervous system) of taste, microscopic and ultrastructural morphology of taste buds, physiology of taste (modalities, distribution of taste sensations, electrophysiology of the receptors, mechanism and intensity of stimulation, and taste contrasts), as well as a few clinical applications, are discussed in this article. (
  • are sensory organs that are found on your tongue and allow you to experience tastes that are sweet, salty, sour, and bitter. (
  • Those tiny hairs send messages to the brain about how something tastes, so we know if it's sweet, sour, bitter, or salty. (
  • This allows for a much wider range of descriptions compared to our relatively small palate of descriptors for taste: bitter, salty, sweet and sour. (
  • The sensations of bitter and sour keep us from eating potentially toxic substances and strong acids, while the preferred qualities of sweet, umami (the "savory" taste of glutamate), and salty drive intake of carbohydrates, amino acids, and sodium, respectively. (
  • Most often, salty and sweet tastes are lost first. (
  • Among humans, taste perception begins to fade during aging, tongue papillae are lost, and saliva production slowly decreases. (
  • DC] Sometimes I think you deliberately ignore parts of a posting for the sake of critique, such as Taste flavor kissing it off tasty tongue to follow nor smelly licking succulent flavors suck my toes What I m really describing is a liquid skin application available in many popular flavors that is tasty in spite of the near absence of fragrance. (
  • ABRAHAMS: What the spoon is made of, of course, can change things because somebody else did some tests not that long ago with spoons made of different metals and found out that - what a lot of people believe - that different metal tastes different to your tongue - that for many people that's true. (
  • Used as a pillar of Traditional Chinese Medicine for nearly 5,000 years, Schizandra Berry is a potent "adaptogen" that's extremely rare in its delivery of all five tastes on your tongue. (
  • Take a sip of Poland Spring after putting something acidic on your tongue, and it may taste a little sweet. (
  • The only reason Little Taste Of works is that this kind of wide stylistic variety is what fans expect from Bargain Music, and that all the tracks have the same level of tongue-in-cheek looseness. (
  • Glossopharyngeal and facial nerve integrity can be determined by testing taste on both sides of the dorsum of the tongue with sugar, salt, vinegar (sour), and quinine (bitter). (
  • radiation therapy of the head and neck, or desquamation of the tongue can impair taste, and various medications (eg, those with anticholinergic properties, vincristine ) alter taste. (
  • The chorda tympani (CT) receives taste information from the anterior two thirds of the tongue. (
  • Taste receptors in the mouth sense the five basic tastes: sweetness, sourness, saltiness, bitterness, and savoriness (also known as savory or umami). (
  • The five specific tastes received by taste receptors are saltiness, sweetness, bitterness, sourness, and savoriness (often known by its Japanese name umami which translates to 'deliciousness') As of the early 20th century, Western physiologists and psychologists believed there were four basic tastes: sweetness, sourness, saltiness, and bitterness. (
  • Despite the difference in the qualities detected by the two families of taste receptors, both utilize similar, if not identical, downstream signaling effectors, including the taste receptor-associated G protein a-gustducin, one of the first identified proteins of a GPCR taste transduction cascade. (
  • Based on morphological features, researchers had suspected that these cells were chemosensory, but the findings of gustducin, taste receptors,[2. (
  • Expression of bitter taste receptors of the T2R family in the gastrointestinal tract and enteroendocrine STC-1 cells," PNAS , 99:2392-97, 2002. (
  • For example, the pancreatic release of insulin in response to glucose is partially mediated by the binding of glucose to sweet-taste receptors on cells of the intestine and subsequent activation of the signaling cascade. (
  • Gut-expressed gustducin and taste receptors regulate secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1," PNAS , 104:15069-74, 2007. (
  • Similarly, accidental inhalation of a beverage into the airways triggers taste receptors there, but rather than evoking a sensation of taste, the substance is irritating and provokes choking or coughing. (
  • Although we use the phrases "taste transduction" and "taste receptors" below, we do not mean to imply that these equate to a perception of taste. (
  • The bristles connect to a set of neurons tuned to sugary and bitter tastes, along with changes in osmotic pressure. (
  • Interestingly, this was specific to sweet and umami tastes, with sweet taste inhibited and umami taste significantly enhanced,' said Robin Dando, assistant professor of food science. (
  • Bitter, sweet, and umami qualities rely predominantly on two distinct families of GPCRs, Tas1R and Tas2R (T1R and T2R), first identified in taste tissues in 1999, but subsequently identified in other tissues, including gut and airway epithelia. (
  • The concept of a "savory" taste was not present in Western science at that time, but was postulated in Japanese research. (
  • The gustatory system or sense of taste is the sensory system that is partially responsible for the perception of taste (flavor). (
  • Les makes sure guests take time to savor the bouquet of each wine and understand its flavor profile as they taste the possibilities. (
  • By the 1920s, evidence was mounting that water changes flavor depending on what you happen to have tasted just before. (
  • Among physiologists, that's been the dogma for more than 30 years: Water has a flavor but only as an aftereffect of tasting other things. (
  • People who have taste problems often have a smell disorder that can make it hard to identify a food's flavor. (
  • Flavor is a combination of taste and smell. (
  • Loss of taste is confounded because flavor occurs partly through retronasal olfaction, and most persons do not differentiate between changes in taste versus flavor. (
  • Dogs respond to the other four taste sensations differently than humans, and it is believed that nature has played a role in this development. (
  • These seemingly misplaced taste-like pathways do not, however, give rise to sensations of taste, though they appear to detect compounds known to elicit a taste response in the mouth. (
  • Taste problems can be caused by anything that interrupts the transfer of taste sensations to the brain. (
  • Although abnormal taste sensations may be due to mental disorders, local causes should always be sought. (
  • Since I'm someone who doesn't love almond milk, which also has a sweeter taste, this wasn't for me. (
  • And things served on different colored plates sometimes tasted sweeter to them. (
  • Humans can also have distortion of tastes (dysgeusia). (
  • As the gustatory system senses both harmful and beneficial things, all basic tastes bring either caution or craving depending upon the effect the things they sense have on the body. (
  • Not all mammals share the same tastes: some rodents can taste starch (which humans cannot), cats cannot taste sweetness, and several other carnivores, including hyenas, dolphins, and sea lions, have lost the ability to sense up to four of their ancestral five basic tastes. (
  • Once he sets the scene, Les describes the process of tasting wines, and has participants take a fun jellybean "test" to better understand how smell and taste affect sensory perceptions . (
  • The Public Health Authority´s regulation on tasting describes what is to be included in the notification. (
  • The aquaporins, which are common in other types of cells, provide a possible way for water to stimulate taste cells directly. (
  • Because distinct flavors depend on aromas to stimulate the olfactory chemoreceptors, smell and taste are physiologically interdependent. (
  • To robustly test for a potential association, we analyzed Google Trends searches for "loss of smell" and "loss of taste" across 5 different English-speaking countries and 3 different years (2020, 2021, and 2022) and examined the correlation to reported COVID-19 hospitalizations and deaths ( Figure ). (
  • En primeur samples from northern Médoc at the main UGC tasting for Bordeaux 2016. (
  • Sauternes 2016 en primeur samples. (
  • 4/21/2016 - Eating a diet high in chemically flavored foods can degrade your body's ability to recognize what real, healthy food is supposed to taste like, says Mark Schatzker, author of the book The Dorito Effect. (
  • Taste perception depends not only on the integration of several sensory inputs associated with the food or drink itself, but also on the sensory attributes of the environment in which the food is consumed, the scientists say. (
  • The tasting continues with amazing pairings of some of our premium red wines with exceptional chocolate truffles crafted by locally owned French Broad Chocolates. (
  • Kakutani Y, Narumi T, Kobayakawa T, Kawai T, Kusakabe Y, Kunieda S, Wada Y. Taste of breath: the temporal order of taste and smell synchronized with breathing as a determinant for taste and olfactory integration. (
  • In psychophysical smell and taste tests of persons with acute COVID-19, 72% had an olfactory defect and 19% had a gustatory defect ( 4 ). (
  • Thanks to the bright colors and multilayered polka dots, this rhythmic pattern looks great on a variety of surfaces, giving not only a festive-inspired look, but also taste to the media. (
  • Basic anatomy and physiology of olfaction and taste. (
  • The anatomy of the taste system is displayed in the image below. (
  • A 2020 meta-analysis observed that 53% of people who contracted COVID-19 had problems with taste and smell. (
  • Also, the CSQ questionnaire was designed to provide data to support the Healthy People 2020 objectives for taste and smell disorders (Healthy People, 2020). (
  • Contact your provider if your taste problems do not go away, or if abnormal tastes occur with other symptoms. (
  • Sour and salt tastes can be pleasant in small quantities, but in larger quantities become more and more unpleasant to taste. (
  • Tasting refers to only small quantities of different products, equivalent to one tablespoon or less. (
  • The NHANES 2011-12 household interview taste and smell questionnaire collected data on self-reported taste and smell ability, selected symptoms of and medical treatment for taste and smell disorders, and data on conditions that may represent risk factors for taste and smell disorders. (
  • These questionnaire items may be helpful to describe self-reported variation in taste and smell ability, and to estimate the prevalence of self-reported medical provider diagnosed smell and taste disorders among U.S. adults. (
  • Historically, disorders of taste and smell have been difficult to diagnose and treat, often because of a lack of knowledge and understanding of these senses and their disease states. (
  • The prevalence of disorders of taste and smell in the US general population has been estimated from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011-2014 protocol. (
  • Because approximately 80% of taste disorders are truly smell disorders, much of this article focuses on the sense of smell and its dysfunction, with additional discussion of taste and related disorders. (
  • The disorders of smell are classified as "-osmias" and those of taste as "-geusias. (
  • Smell and taste disorders can be total (all odors or tastes), partial (affecting several odors or tastes), or specific (only one or a select few odors or tastes). (
  • Disorders of smell and taste are rarely incapacitating or life threatening, so they often do not receive close medical attention, although their effect on quality of life can be severe. (
  • Whether brain stem disease (involvement of the nucleus solitarius) can cause disorders of smell and taste is uncertain because other neurologic manifestations usually take precedence. (
  • The Restaurant at Meadowood caters to every guest's individual preferences so that the tasting menu perfectly reflects your tastes. (
  • Her laboratory has identified neurons that respond only to water in the brain stem of a rat at several points along the pathway used to process taste, but she's gotten little support for this idea among her colleagues. (
  • Humans don't have the ability to taste smell in this sense, but it certainly proves the point that if something smells good, it's going to taste good to a dog. (
  • We use our senses every day when we eat a meal at home or in our favorite restaurant, and we judge the meal by how the food looks, smells and tastes. (
  • The gustatory cortex is responsible for the perception of taste. (
  • The researchers found that the sentences containing words that invoked taste activated areas known to be associated with emotional processing, such as the amygdala, as well as the areas known as the gustatory cortices that allow for the physical act of tasting. (
  • If you're used to seeing dog food advertisements, you likely think that a dog's sense of taste is very highly refined. (
  • It's believed that many problems with picky eaters are not an issue with food taste or smell, but rather a smart dog holding out for something more delicious (for example, when an owner offers kibble and then immediately offers ground beef after the dog refuses to eat). (
  • Taste, along with the sense of smell and trigeminal nerve stimulation (registering texture, pain, and temperature), determines flavors of food and other substances. (
  • The study may guide reconfiguration of airline food menus to make airline food taste better. (
  • Taste the Nation takes audiences on a journey across America exploring the rich and diverse food culture of various immigrant groups, seeking out the people who have so heavily shaped what American food is today," a synopsis said. (
  • What if senses other than taste and texture can change the way you feel about food? (
  • 7/27/2015 - One of the persistent myths about eating healthy is that food that is good for the body doesn't necessarily taste good. (
  • Which attractions will I visit with Toronto Food Tour: Taste the World in Kensington Market? (
  • Toronto Food Tour: Taste the World in Kensington Market price starts from £53.49. (
  • Toronto Food Tour: Taste the World in Kensington Market cancellation policy: For a full refund, cancel at least 24 hours in advance of the start date of the experience. (
  • Toronto Food Tour: Taste the World in Kensington Market is hosted by Tasty Tours. (
  • Taken together, the findings suggest that the taste transduction cascade is not restricted to the sensation of taste per se, or even to systems regulating food intake. (
  • These tender pieces of all-natural chicken coated in golden-brown cauliflower are much healthier than the fast-food version, but taste just as delicious. (
  • The senses of taste and smell mediate all the body's food intake. (
  • In the healthy normal population, genetic and functional variation in taste and smell ability may help explain part of individual differences in food preferences and consumption. (
  • Recognition and responsiveness to food taste becomes a crucial event in foraging and feeding behaviour of an organism. (
  • Here we propose this gene function in taste recognition, food preference and feeding activity. (
  • There is no requirement for food to be served at a tasting. (
  • Furthermore, I understand I am responsible for my own safety when drinking or tasting wine, beer, or other alcohol on any of Taste Vacations' tours and always have the option to not consume alcohol. (
  • Learning how to taste wine can be an intimidating goal, but you don't need to have perfect knowledge of grapes and regions to start deepening your understanding of wine and what you like. (
  • These simple principles can also be applied to wine tasting, allowing you to identify characteristics that you enjoy. (
  • We're breaking down the basics of at-home wine tasting to help you get started. (
  • A Solo cup might be fine for wine on the porch during a barbecue, but for a proper tasting you will want to choose a glass that allows you to get the most out of the wine. (
  • We asked Nick to weigh in on the perfect temperatures for different wine varieties to ensure optimal taste. (
  • It's important to notice the shade and intensity of the wine, and if it aligns with the type and age of wine you are tasting. (
  • This holiday event will feature wine tasting, live entertainment a wine pull and raffle all benefiting Valley Kids Foundation. (
  • Jane Anson, Decanter's Bordeaux en primeur taster, talks about the characteristics she is looking for in a young, red wine barrel sample. (
  • Anson adds, 'I tend to think of an en primeur wine in quite an architectural way: it's about the length, width and depth and how integrated all of those things are together. (
  • The key wine trends ahead of en primeur. (
  • If you're looking for a match made in heaven, look no farther than the Red Wine and Chocolate Tasting offered daily at Biltmore's Winery . (
  • Enjoy our Red Wine and Chocolate Tasting featuring premium Biltmore wines and artisan chocolate truffles from French Broad Chocolates. (
  • Our Red Wine and Chocolate Tasting is offered daily at the Winery at 1 p.m., 3 p.m., and 5 p.m. (
  • and consider using a spit bucket, just as you would for a wine tasting. (
  • When learning to taste whiskey, I think the key is to drink whiskey differently than beer or wine, especially when drinking neat," says Hletko. (
  • Although a dog's ability to taste is roughly a fraction of a human's, his sense of smell is up to one million times stronger. (
  • Dogs can taste, although not very well, without their sense of smell-which is much more developed than humans. (
  • We report a robust multiyear lead-lag association between internet search activity for loss of smell or taste and COVID-19-associated hospitalization and deaths. (
  • COVID-19 typically produces a range of flu-like symptoms, including a cough and fatigue, but it can also cause the loss of taste and smell. (
  • We investigated a possible lead-lag relationship between Google searches for "loss of smell" and "loss of taste" and COVID-19 hospitalizations and deaths. (
  • Given this potential link, we examined whether Internet searches for "loss of smell" and "loss of taste" correlate with waves of COVID-19 deaths with a lead-lag relationship, and if so, whether that correlation is maintained across different waves of COVID-19 variants. (
  • Recently, I taste-tested different brands of oat milk to determine the best one. (
  • Although I tried Chobani last time, I did a taste test this time around of their sugar-free oat milk. (
  • I typically drink oat milk in my coffee and cereal on a weekly basis, so I'm including a pass/fail coffee and cereal taste on top of a straightforward taste test. (
  • The texture was creamy and similar to cow's milk, but I think this may have been the sweetest-tasting milk of the bunch. (
  • The taste is SUPER creamy and has a milk-like mouthfeel. (
  • 10/23/2012 - If you've not been impressed by the taste of superfood powders that you mix with milk or water to make a nutrient-dense beverage, you need to know about X-Balance from SGN Nutrition. (
  • Prior national-level U.S. data on taste and smell includes the 1994 National Health Interview Survey- Disability Supplement (NHIS, 1994), a population-based questionnaire survey which estimated that among U.S. adults, there was a 1.4% prevalence of chronic smell problems and a 0.6% prevalence of chronic taste problems. (
  • Taste impairment means there is a problem with your sense of taste. (
  • One study found that salt and sour taste mechanisms both detect, in different ways, the presence of sodium chloride (salt) in the mouth. (
  • Diagram illustrating the central and peripheral taste pathways. (
  • In contrast, exposure to the loud noise condition dulled sweet taste ratings. (
  • There was an unexpected sweet smell to it, and with that came a very sweet taste. (
  • So accustomed are we to metaphors related to taste that when we hear a kind smile described as "sweet," or a resentful comment as "bitter," we most likely don't even think of those words as metaphors. (
  • Indeed, elements of the taste transduction cascade occur in many chemoresponsive epithelial cells scattered throughout the stomach, the intestines, and even the airways. (
  • In partial exchange for the tour, I give Taste Vacations permission to use photos or other images taken by me which I make available to the company or images taken of me during the tour for any purpose, including but not limited to use in brochures, websites, marketing, and publicity. (
  • Indeed, for every taste transduction cascade discovered outside the oral cavity, researchers seek to uncover the functional significance of the chemoresponsive cells in those areas. (
  • Each taste bud contains 50 to 100 taste receptor cells. (
  • Taste receptor-like cells in the rat gut identified by expression of alpha-gustducin," PNAS , 93:6631-34, 1996. (
  • TRPM5, a taste-signaling transient receptor potential ion-channel, is a ubiquitous signaling component in chemosensory cells," BMC Neurosci , 8:49, 2007. (
  • In the last 15 years, researchers have uncovered more and more taste cascade elements throughout the digestive tract, and even in the airways, suggesting a widespread distribution of complete taste transduction cascades-from taste receptor to transduction channel. (
  • For sour taste this is presumably because the sour taste can signal under-ripe fruit, rotten meat, and other spoiled foods, which can be dangerous to the body because of bacteria which grow in such media. (
  • But rinse the spit away with water and your cells will rebound to a bitter or sour taste with your next sip. (
  • I put that Switch cart in my mouth and I'm not sure what those things are made of but I can still taste it. (
  • If you have just two pounds of tomatoes that truly taste of mealy sadness, consider roasting them with garlic before combining them with Italian sausage for something a little heartier. (
  • An alteration in taste or smell may be a secondary process in various disease states, or it may be the primary symptom. (
  • This disappearing act could explain why some people with obesity seem to have a weakened sense of taste, which may compel them to eat more. (
  • And they - in one test, they gave people some ice cream that tasted like bacon? (
  • And whenever they would play the sound of frying bacon, you know, that crackling sound, people would consistently say that the thing tasted a lot more bacony to them. (
  • Northern Irish healthy juice drinks producer Squeeze Wheatgrass unveiled a new range of flavoured products for people looking for the health benefits of wheatgrass but who dislike the taste. (
  • If water has a special taste for rats and people, it wouldn't be unprecedented in the animal kingdom. (
  • You will find a lot of people who don't believe that water has a taste, period," says Patricia Di Lorenzo of Binghamton University. (
  • This product is suitable for vegetarians/vegans.Coca-Cola Original Taste has been refreshing people around the world since 1886 - Great Coke taste - Only natural flavours - No added preservatives Serve ice cold for maximum refreshment. (
  • Les likes to begin the tasting with a bit of background about Biltmore Winery and the award-winning wines handcrafted there. (
  • A dog's sense of taste is much less discriminating than that of humans. (
  • citation needed] Because of this, salt elicits a pleasant taste in most humans. (
  • Australian Chef Peter Gilmore's Quay serves an eight-course tasting menu combining classic dishes with new seasonal additions. (
  • At a recent spirits tasting event, one expert demonstrated "drive-by nosing," in which you draw the glass horizontally across your nostrils. (
  • However, before each tasting event you need to notify this to the municipality where the licensed premises are located. (
  • Decreased taste and smell ability may be transient (for example, from a recent temporary illness) or chronic. (