Tarsal Joints: The articulations between the various TARSAL BONES. This does not include the ANKLE JOINT which consists of the articulations between the TIBIA; FIBULA; and TALUS.Tarsus, Animal: The region in the hindlimb of a quadruped, corresponding to the human ANKLE.Joints: Also known as articulations, these are points of connection between the ends of certain separate bones, or where the borders of other bones are juxtaposed.Tarsal Bones: The seven bones which form the tarsus - namely, CALCANEUS; TALUS; cuboid, navicular, and the internal, middle, and external cuneiforms.Arthrodesis: The surgical fixation of a joint by a procedure designed to accomplish fusion of the joint surfaces by promoting the proliferation of bone cells. (Dorland, 28th ed)Imagery (Psychotherapy): The use of mental images produced by the imagination as a form of psychotherapy. It can be classified by the modality of its content: visual, verbal, auditory, olfactory, tactile, gustatory, or kinesthetic. Common themes derive from nature imagery (e.g., forests and mountains), water imagery (e.g., brooks and oceans), travel imagery, etc. Imagery is used in the treatment of mental disorders and in helping patients cope with other diseases. Imagery often forms a part of HYPNOSIS, of AUTOGENIC TRAINING, of RELAXATION TECHNIQUES, and of BEHAVIOR THERAPY. (From Encyclopedia of Human Behavior, vol. 4, pp29-30, 1994)Lateral Ligament, Ankle: LATERAL LIGAMENTS of the ANKLE JOINT. It includes inferior tibiofibular ligaments.Sesamoid Bones: Nodular bones which lie within a tendon and slide over another bony surface. The PATELLA (kneecap) is a sesamoid bone.Subtalar Joint: Formed by the articulation of the talus with the calcaneus.Flatfoot: A condition in which one or more of the arches of the foot have flattened out.Foot Deformities, Congenital: Alterations or deviations from normal shape or size which result in a disfigurement of the foot occurring at or before birth.Lameness, Animal: A departure from the normal gait in animals.Cartilage, Articular: A protective layer of firm, flexible cartilage over the articulating ends of bones. It provides a smooth surface for joint movement, protecting the ends of long bones from wear at points of contact.Metatarsus: The part of the foot between the tarsa and the TOES.Cartilage: A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.Osteochondritis: Inflammation of a bone and its overlaying CARTILAGE.Finger Joint: The articulation between the head of one phalanx and the base of the one distal to it, in each finger.Finger Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the fingers.Finger Phalanges: Bones that make up the SKELETON of the FINGERS, consisting of two for the THUMB, and three for each of the other fingers.Metatarsophalangeal Joint: The articulation between a metatarsal bone (METATARSAL BONES) and a phalanx.Metatarsal Bones: The five long bones of the METATARSUS, articulating with the TARSAL BONES proximally and the PHALANGES OF TOES distally.Synostosis: A union between adjacent bones or parts of a single bone formed by osseous material, such as ossified connecting cartilage or fibrous tissue. (Dorland, 27th ed)Ankle Joint: The joint that is formed by the inferior articular and malleolar articular surfaces of the TIBIA; the malleolar articular surface of the FIBULA; and the medial malleolar, lateral malleolar, and superior surfaces of the TALUS.Craniosynostoses: Premature closure of one or more CRANIAL SUTURES. It often results in plagiocephaly. Craniosynostoses that involve multiple sutures are sometimes associated with congenital syndromes such as ACROCEPHALOSYNDACTYLIA; and CRANIOFACIAL DYSOSTOSIS.Tooth Socket: A hollow part of the alveolar process of the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE where each tooth fits and is attached via the periodontal ligament.Ankle Injuries: Harm or hurt to the ankle or ankle joint usually inflicted by an external source.Ankle: The region of the lower limb between the FOOT and the LEG.Cranial Sutures: A type of fibrous joint between bones of the head.Diagnosis-Related Groups: A system for classifying patient care by relating common characteristics such as diagnosis, treatment, and age to an expected consumption of hospital resources and length of stay. Its purpose is to provide a framework for specifying case mix and to reduce hospital costs and reimbursements and it forms the cornerstone of the prospective payment system.International Classification of Diseases: A system of categories to which morbid entries are assigned according to established criteria. Included is the entire range of conditions in a manageable number of categories, grouped to facilitate mortality reporting. It is produced by the World Health Organization (From ICD-10, p1). The Clinical Modifications, produced by the UNITED STATES DEPT. OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES, are larger extensions used for morbidity and general epidemiological purposes, primarily in the U.S.Dry Eye Syndromes: Corneal and conjunctival dryness due to deficient tear production, predominantly in menopausal and post-menopausal women. Filamentary keratitis or erosion of the conjunctival and corneal epithelium may be caused by these disorders. Sensation of the presence of a foreign body in the eye and burning of the eyes may occur.DislocationsClinical Coding: Process of substituting a symbol or code for a term such as a diagnosis or procedure. (from Slee's Health Care Terms, 3d ed.)Iodoacetic Acid: A derivative of ACETIC ACID that contains one IODINE atom attached to its methyl group.Iodoacetates: Iodinated derivatives of acetic acid. Iodoacetates are commonly used as alkylating sulfhydryl reagents and enzyme inhibitors in biochemical research.New South Wales: A state in southeastern Australia. Its capital is Sydney. It was discovered by Captain Cook in 1770 and first settled at Botany Bay by marines and convicts in 1788. It was named by Captain Cook who thought its coastline resembled that of South Wales. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p840 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p377)Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Bone Screws: Specialized devices used in ORTHOPEDIC SURGERY to repair bone fractures.Surgical Instruments: Hand-held tools or implements used by health professionals for the performance of surgical tasks.Penis: The external reproductive organ of males. It is composed of a mass of erectile tissue enclosed in three cylindrical fibrous compartments. Two of the three compartments, the corpus cavernosa, are placed side-by-side along the upper part of the organ. The third compartment below, the corpus spongiosum, houses the urethra.Foramen Ovale, Patent: A condition in which the FORAMEN OVALE in the ATRIAL SEPTUM fails to close shortly after birth. This results in abnormal communications between the two upper chambers of the heart. An isolated patent ovale foramen without other structural heart defects is usually of no hemodynamic significance.Bivalvia: A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of mussels; clams; OYSTERS; COCKLES; and SCALLOPS. They are characterized by a bilaterally symmetrical hinged shell and a muscular foot used for burrowing and anchoring.Blade Implantation: Insertion of an endosseous implant with a narrow wedge-shaped infrastructure extending through the oral mucosa into the mouth and bearing openings or vents through which tissue grows to obtain retention.Bunion, Tailor's: Abnormal swelling of the outer aspect of the fifth metatarsal head affecting the fifth METATARSOPHALANGEAL JOINT.Hallux Valgus: Lateral displacement of the great toe (HALLUX), producing deformity of the first METATARSOPHALANGEAL JOINT with callous, bursa, or bunion formation over the bony prominence.Hallux: The innermost digit of the foot in PRIMATES.OhioOsteotomy: The surgical cutting of a bone. (Dorland, 28th ed)Dictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Cellular Phone: Analog or digital communications device in which the user has a wireless connection from a telephone to a nearby transmitter. It is termed cellular because the service area is divided into multiple "cells." As the user moves from one cell area to another, the call is transferred to the local transmitter.Dictionaries, Chemical

Joint symmetry in early and late rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis: comparison with a mathematical model. (1/85)

OBJECTIVE: To establish a mathematical model to predict the probability of symmetry of joint involvement as a function of the number of joints involved and to compare expected with actual probabilities in psoriatic arthritis (PsA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and in early and late disease. METHODS: Random involvement of joints was assumed, and the binomial theorem was used to give the frequency distribution of involved joints as a function of each joint count. Ten joint pairs were included: shoulder, elbow, wrist, metacarpophalangeal joints, proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joints of the hands, hip, knee, ankle, metatarsophalangeal joints, and PIP joints of the feet. Observed probabilities were obtained from subjects with early (duration < or =12 months) and late PsA and RA. RESULTS: The number of subjects in each of the disease subgroups was as follows: early PsA n = 33, late PsA n = 77, early RA n = 61, late RA n = 93. Observed probabilities of symmetry exceeded predicted probabilities for all disease subgroups. The median number of involved joints in each group was as follows: early PsA 4, late PsA 8, early RA 8, late RA 15 (chi2 = 95.3, 3 degrees of freedom, P = 0.0001, by Kruskal-Wallis test). After correcting for the discrepancy in the number of involved joints, no difference in joint symmetry was found between the groups (chi2 = 1.77, P = 0.62 by Friedman two-way analysis of variance). Similar results were obtained when individual hand and foot joints were analyzed separately. CONCLUSION: The pattern of joint involvement is often used to distinguish between rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis. This study confirms that symmetry is largely a function of the total number of joints involved and that, in terms of joint pattern, differences between these disorders are more quantitative than qualitative. Both disorders have high absolute values of symmetry, particularly in the joints of the wrist and hand.  (+info)

Preliminary investigation of debridement of plantar callosities in rheumatoid arthritis. (2/85)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of expert debridement of foot callosities on forefoot pain and plantar pressure distribution in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: Plantar callosities on 14 feet of eight RA patients were debrided by a single podiatrist. Measurements of subjective pain severity in the forefoot and global arthritis pain were undertaken using a visual analogue scale, repeated at 7-day intervals to the next treatment (28 days). Plantar pressures were recorded at the lesion sites using an in-shoe flexible transducer insole before and after lesion debridement. RESULTS: Following debridement, all patients reported symptomatic relief with an average change in pain score of 48% (P = 0.01) but the treatment effect was lost by 7 days. Immediately following scalpel debridement, peak pressures were elevated in 10 of 14 feet, whilst contact time was reduced and peak force increased. None, however, reached statistical significance. CONCLUSION: Scalpel debridement of forefoot plantar callosities reduces forefoot pain for about 7 days, but pressure distribution is not significantly altered.  (+info)

Lymph draining from foot joints in rheumatoid arthritis provides insight into local cytokine and chemokine production and transport to lymph nodes. (3/85)

OBJECTIVE: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is characterized by inflammatory reactions in joints and adjacent tissues unaccompanied by clinically evident changes in lymphatics and lymph nodes draining the inflamed areas. The explanation for this phenomenon, which contrasts with infectious processes in joints and soft tissues that evoke major changes in the lymphatic system, is unclear. To determine which inflammatory factors produced in the joints of RA patients are transported in lymph to lymph nodes, we measured levels of immunoglobulins, cytokines, and chemokines in prenodal lymph from the foot joints of RA patients and quantified their rate of transport to regional lymph nodes. METHODS: Lymph was collected from the cannulated lymphatics draining the foot joints, tendons, fascia, and skin of 20 RA patients. Lymph flow rate and concentrations of proteins and immunoglobulins were measured. Cytokine and chemokine levels were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Results were compared with those obtained in 20 control subjects. RESULTS: In the cannulated vessel, the mean +/- SEM lymph flow rate in RA patients was almost 2-fold that in control subjects (22.6 +/- 3.2 ml/24 hours versus 13.2 +/- 1.1 ml/24 hours; P < 0.01). Lymph concentrations of total protein, IgG, and IgM were 1.80 +/- 0.14 gm/dl, 384 +/- 45 mg/dl, and 32.0 +/- 1.5 mg/dl, respectively, in RA patients and 1.66 +/- 0.14 gm/dl, 238 +/- 32 mg/dl, and 15.0 +/- 1.3 mg/dl, respectively, in control subjects. The corresponding lymph:serum (L:S) ratios were 0.21 +/- 0.02, 0.22 +/- 0.02, and 0.15 +/- 0.02, respectively, in RA patients and 0.22 +/- 0.02, 0.19 +/- 0.02, and 0.11 +/- 0.02, respectively, in control subjects. The L:S ratios of <1 and the absence of significant differences between groups suggested a lack of local production of immunoglobulins. In RA patients, lymph concentrations (in pg/ml) were as follows: interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) 14.8 +/- 3.9, IL-6 511 +/- 143, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) 9.9 +/- 1.1, IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) 4,274 +/- 737, IL-10 13.3 +/- 4.4, IL-8 846 +/- 174, IL-15 6.2 +/- 0.9, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) 2.30 +/- 0.15, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) 80.4 +/- 8.6, and macrophage inflammatory protein 1alpha (MIP-1alpha) 171 +/- 34. In control subjects, these values were as follows: IL-1beta 1.50 +/- 0.25, IL-6 79.0 +/- 14.6, TNFalpha 4.4 +/- 1.1, IL-1Ra 208 +/- 52, IL-10 0.0, IL-8 216 +/- 83, IL-15 5.00 +/- 0.45, GM-CSF 0.40 +/- 0.05, VEGF 42.0 +/- 2.4, and MIP-1alpha 3.4 +/- 1.7 (P < 0.05 versus RA patients for all except IL-15). The L:S ratio was >1 in all RA patient samples for IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-1Ra, IL-8, GM-CSF, IL-10, IL-15, TNFalpha, and MIP-1alpha, indicating local production of cytokines. Great variability in lymph cytokine concentrations, presumably reflecting differences in the intensity of local inflammation, was not reflected in serum cytokine concentrations. Intravenously infused methylprednisolone decreased lymph cytokine levels to normal within 12 hours. In contrast, their concentrations in serum showed little or no change. CONCLUSION: High lymph concentrations of cyto kines and chemokines, exceeding those in serum, were found in RA patients. The L:S concentration ratios of > 1 indicate the local production of these cytokines and chemokines in the inflamed tissues. High flow rates of lymph containing high cytokine concentrations through the regional lymph nodes are likely to affect node lymphocytes and dendritic cells. Analysis of cytokines in lymph should provide insight into events in inflamed tissues in RA and in regional lymph nodes.  (+info)

Mycobacterium kansasii arthritis of the foot in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus. (4/85)

Mycobacterium kansasii, an atypical Mycobacterium, may cause serious illness in humans. We describe a M. kansasii infection of the foot joint, which was diagnosed in a 46-year-old woman with systemic lupus erythematosus. The diagnosis was based on a positive culture from degenerative tissue and histological diagnosis of a synovium. We reviewed the literature regarding M. kansasii infection of the joint, bone, and periarticular structures focusing on the complication of rheumatic diseases.  (+info)

The foot in chronic rheumatoid arthritis. (5/85)

The feet of 200 consecutive admissions with classical or definite rheumatoid arthritis were studied. 104 were found to have pain or deformity. Clinical involvement of the joints was seen more often than radiological joint damage in the ankle, but the reverse was the case in the midtarsal joints. The metatarsophalangeal joints were involved most frequently both clinically and radiologically. Sixty per cent of the patients required modified shoes but only a third of these had received them. The need for more shoes is clear, and although this is a highly selected group of patients they were all under specialist care. The increased expenditure on special footwear would benefit the patient, firstly by improving ambulation, and secondly perhaps by reducing the number of operations necessary. Hallux valgus was very common and occurred with similar frequency to disease in the other metatarsophalangeal joints. Although not exclusive to rheumatoid arthritis, hallux valgus must have been caused for the most part by the rheumatoid arthritis and if so, then it is suggested that the provision of suitable shoes for patients may be less costly than subsequent surgical treatment.  (+info)

Increased arthritis severity in mice coinfected with Borrelia burgdorferi and Babesia microti. (6/85)

Increased severity of disease and persistence of symptoms have been recently reported in some patients with simultaneous infection of Borrelia burgdorferi and Babesia microti in the northeastern and northern midwest United States. This study used a murine model to examine whether defined disease conditions such as arthritis and carditis differed in severity in mice infected solely with B. burgdorferi and in mice coinfected with B. microti and B. burgdorferi. C3H.HeJ and BALB/c mice cohorts were coinfected or singly infected and then monitored experimentally for 15 and 30 days after inoculation. Carditis and arthritis was determined by blinded histopathologic evaluation of myocardium and tibiotarsal joints. Cytokine measurements were made on lymph node and spleen supernatants for interferon-gamma, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10, and IL-13. No differences were observed for C3H.HeJ mice cohorts; however, coinfected BALB/c mice had a significant increase in arthritis severity at day 30. This clinical observation was correlated with a significant reduction in expression of the cytokines IL-10 and IL-13.  (+info)

Jumping and kicking in bush crickets. (7/85)

Bush crickets have long, thin hind legs but jump and kick rapidly. The mechanisms underlying these fast movements were analysed by correlating the activity of femoral muscles in a hind leg with the movements of the legs and body captured in high-speed images. A female Pholidoptera griseoaptera weighing 600 mg can jump a horizontal distance of 300 mm from a takeoff angle of 34 degrees and at a velocity of 2.1 m s(-1), gaining 1350 microJ of kinetic energy. The body is accelerated at up to 114 m s(-2), and the tibiae of the hind legs extend fully within 30 ms at maximal rotational velocities of 13500 deg. s(-1). Such performance requires a minimal power output of 40 mW. Ruddering movements of the hind legs may contribute to the stability of the body once the insect is airborne. During kicking, a hind tibia is extended completely within 10 ms with rotational velocities three times higher at 41800 deg. s(-1). Before a kick, high-speed images show no distortions of the hind femoro-tibial joints or of the small semi-lunar groove in the distal femur. Both kicks and jumps can be generated without full flexion of the hind tibiae. Some kicks involve a brief, 40-90 ms, period of co-contraction between the extensor and flexor tibiae muscles, but others can be generated by contraction of the extensor without a preceding co-contraction with the flexor. In the latter kicks, the initial flexion of the tibia is generated by a burst of flexor spikes, which then stop before spikes occur in the fast extensor tibiae (FETi) motor neuron. The rapid extension of the tibia can follow directly upon these spikes or can be delayed by as long as 40 ms. The velocity of tibial movement is positively correlated with the number of FETi spikes. The hind legs are 1.5 times longer than the body and more than four times longer than the front legs. The mechanical advantage of the hind leg flexor muscle over the extensor is greater at flexed joint angles and is enhanced by a pad of tissue on its tendon that slides over a protuberance in the ventral wall of the distal femur. The balance of forces in the extensor and flexor muscles, coupled with their changing lever ratio at different joint positions, appears to determine the point of tibial release and to enable rapid movements without an obligatory co-contraction of the two muscles.  (+info)

Fracture dislocations of Lisfranc's joint treated with closed reduction and percutaneous fixation. (8/85)

We reviewed 42 patients (mean age 37.7+/-14.2 years) with closed fracture dislocations of Lisfranc's joint treated with percutaneous screw fixation. Mean follow-up was 58.4+/-17.3 months. The aim was to compare dislocations in which a perfect anatomical reduction had been reached with dislocations in which reduction was only near anatomical. The mean American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society score for all patients was 81.0+/-13.5. There were no significant differences in outcome scores between patients with perfect anatomical reduction and patients with near anatomical reduction. However, patients with combined fracture dislocations obtained statistically better scores than patients with pure dislocations.  (+info)

  • Care must be taken not to overlook these atypical calcaneal fractures and accompanying injuries to the mid-tarsal joint and the lateral talar process as seen in 45% and 23%, respectively, in the present series. (qxmd.com)
  • Closed reduction was tried first followed by percutaneous fixation with cannulated 3.5 mm screws for medial 3 joints & K wire fixation for lateral (4th & 5th) TMT joints. (omicsonline.org)
  • The base of the 2nd metatarsal, is recessed into a 'mortise' between the medial and lateral cuneiforms, and stabilizes the joint [ 4 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • The main stabilizing structure of the tarsometatarsal joint is a Y-shaped interosseous ligament (Lisfranc's ligament) extends to the plantar surface from the lateral aspect of the medial cuneiform to the medial aspect of the base of the second metatarsal. (omicsonline.org)
  • Together with the inter cuneiforms interosseous ligament, it is one of the most important structures involved in the stability of the joint and disruption in either of these ligaments will cause instability between the medial and middle columns. (omicsonline.org)
  • Direct medial approach over the sustentaculum tali, retraction of the tendons, joint exploration, fracture reduction using the medial facet and cortical outline as guidelines, fracture fixation with two small fragment screws from medial to lateral directed slightly plantarly and posteriorly. (qxmd.com)
  • Fusion preparation consisted of meticulous joint preparation along with the addition of StimuBlast ® DBM mixed with bone marrow concentrate with the Arthrex Angel ® system. (arthrex.com)
  • Early diagnosis of Lisfranc joint injuries allows closed or percutaneous reduction and fixation before massive soft tissue swelling. (omicsonline.org)
  • 35 patients with 37 cases of Lisfranc's joint injuries were treated in Al-Razi orthopedic hospital, Kuwait during the period from January 2006 to December 2010. (omicsonline.org)
  • Although the injury itself predisposes to this complication, popular fixation modes using transarticular screw stabilization result in iatrogenic damage to the joint and results in another possible mechanism of post-traumatic DJD. (arthrex.com)
  • Abdelgaid SM, Salah M, Abdulsalam S, Abdulmalak F (2013) Closed Reduction & Percutaneous Fixation of Lisfranc Joints Injuries: Possibility, Technique & Results. (omicsonline.org)
  • The talonavicular joint is an articulation between the head of talus and the proximal/posterior aspect of the navicular bone. (kenhub.com)
  • One of the keys of the evolutionary success of arthropods, the most diversified group of animals, is the acquisition of joints that allow the articulation of their appendages. (prolekarniky.cz)
  • means that portion of the Whole Poultry obtained by cutting through the shoulder joint (articulation between the clavicle, coracoid and humerus). (gc.ca)
  • means that proximal portion of the Wing which is separated from the Whole Poultry by cutting through the shoulder joint as described, and from the Winglet by cutting through the elbow joint (articulation between the humerus and radius/ulna). (gc.ca)
  • means that distal portion of the Wing obtained by cutting through the elbow joint (articulation between the humerus and radius/ulna). (gc.ca)
  • means that portion of the Whole Poultry obtained by cutting at the natural seam through the hip joint (articulation between the femur and the pelvis). (gc.ca)
  • means that proximal portion of the Leg which is separated from the Whole Poultry by cutting at the natural seam through the hip joint as described, and from the Drumstick by a straight cut through the knee joint (femoro-tibial articulation). (gc.ca)
  • The second cut passes at a point slightly above (dorsal to) the elbow joint (distal extremity of the humerus ) and through the cartilaginous juncture of the first (1st) rib and sternum , and separates the chuck from the brisket and shank . (gc.ca)
  • A synovial joint in which two bones flex and extend in only one plane, usually because collateral (side) ligaments limit the direction of motion, as in the elbow joint. (tabers.com)
  • It forms the ball and socket joint of the shoulder with the scapula and forms the elbow joint with the lower arm bones. (innerbody.com)
  • Calcaneocuboid joint and stability of the longitudinal arch of the foot at high and low gear push off. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Guideposts for Inserting Intercuneiform Joint Arthrodesis Screws: Analysis Using Multiplanar Reconstructed Computed Tomography. (nih.gov)
  • It includes the Thigh and Drumstick jointed or disjointed and may include pelvic meat. (gc.ca)
  • means that distal portion of the Leg which is separated from the Thigh by a straight cut through the knee joint as described in item 2.3.1. (gc.ca)