Mothers: Female parents, human or animal.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Mother-Child Relations: Interaction between a mother and child.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Receptor Cross-Talk: The simultaneous or sequential binding of multiple cell surface receptors to different ligands resulting in coordinated stimulation or suppression of signal transduction.Breast Feeding: The nursing of an infant at the breast.Maternal-Fetal Exchange: Exchange of substances between the maternal blood and the fetal blood at the PLACENTA via PLACENTAL CIRCULATION. The placental barrier excludes microbial or viral transmission.Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.Fathers: Male parents, human or animal.Surrogate Mothers: Women who allow themselves to be impregnated with the understanding that the offspring are to be given over to the parents who have commissioned the surrogate.Pregnancy Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.Infant Care: Care of infants in the home or institution.Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects: The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.Pregnancy Complications, Infectious: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Communication: The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.Maternal Age: The age of the mother in PREGNANCY.Single Parent: A natural, adoptive, or substitute parent of a dependent child, who lives with only one parent. The single parent may live with or visit the child. The concept includes the never-married, as well as the divorced and widowed.Postnatal Care: The care provided to women and their NEWBORNS for the first few months following CHILDBIRTH.Birth Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Depression, Postpartum: Depression in POSTPARTUM WOMEN, usually within four weeks after giving birth (PARTURITION). The degree of depression ranges from mild transient depression to neurotic or psychotic depressive disorders. (From DSM-IV, p386)Parent-Child Relations: The interactions between parent and child.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Infant Behavior: Any observable response or action of a neonate or infant up through the age of 23 months.Bottle Feeding: Use of nursing bottles for feeding. Applies to humans and animals.Child Development: The continuous sequential physiological and psychological maturing of an individual from birth up to but not including ADOLESCENCE.Lactation: The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.Maternal Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the mother.Pregnancy in Diabetics: The state of PREGNANCY in women with DIABETES MELLITUS. This does not include either symptomatic diabetes or GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE induced by pregnancy (DIABETES, GESTATIONAL) which resolves at the end of pregnancy.Maternal Exposure: Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.Prenatal Care: Care provided the pregnant woman in order to prevent complications, and decrease the incidence of maternal and prenatal mortality.Parents: Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.Child Rearing: The training or bringing-up of children by parents or parent-substitutes. It is used also for child rearing practices in different societies, at different economic levels, in different ethnic groups, etc. It differs from PARENTING in that in child rearing the emphasis is on the act of training or bringing up the child and the interaction between the parent and child, while parenting emphasizes the responsibility and qualities of exemplary behavior of the parent.Child of Impaired Parents: Child with one or more parents afflicted by a physical or mental disorder.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Motivational Interviewing: It is a client-centered, directive method for eliciting intrinsic motivation to change using open-ended questions, reflective listening, and decisional balancing. This nonjudgmental, nonconfrontational interviewing style is designed to minimize a patient's resistance to change by creating an interaction that supports open discussion of risky or problem behavior.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Pregnancy Outcome: Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Object Attachment: Emotional attachment to someone or something in the environment.Parity: The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children from birth to 2 years of age.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Pregnancy in Adolescence: Pregnancy in human adolescent females under the age of 19.Immunity, Maternally-Acquired: Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.Gestational Age: The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.Delivery, Obstetric: Delivery of the FETUS and PLACENTA under the care of an obstetrician or a health worker. Obstetric deliveries may involve physical, psychological, medical, or surgical interventions.Crying: To utter an inarticulate, characteristic sound in order to communicate or express a feeling, or desire for attention.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Infant Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of infants.Fetal Blood: Blood of the fetus. Exchange of nutrients and waste between the fetal and maternal blood occurs via the PLACENTA. The cord blood is blood contained in the umbilical vessels (UMBILICAL CORD) at the time of delivery.Family: A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.Infant, Premature: A human infant born before 37 weeks of GESTATION.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Infant Food: Food processed and manufactured for the nutritional health of children in their first year of life.Speech: Communication through a system of conventional vocal symbols.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Infant, Newborn, Diseases: Diseases of newborn infants present at birth (congenital) or developing within the first month of birth. It does not include hereditary diseases not manifesting at birth or within the first 30 days of life nor does it include inborn errors of metabolism. Both HEREDITARY DISEASES and METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS are available as general concepts.Videotape Recording: Recording of visual and sometimes sound signals on magnetic tape.Maternal-Child Health Centers: Facilities which administer the delivery of health care services to mothers and children.Infant Mortality: Postnatal deaths from BIRTH to 365 days after birth in a given population. Postneonatal mortality represents deaths between 28 days and 365 days after birth (as defined by National Center for Health Statistics). Neonatal mortality represents deaths from birth to 27 days after birth.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Child Care: Care of CHILDREN in the home or in an institution.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Perinatal Care: The care of women and a fetus or newborn given before, during, and after delivery from the 28th week of gestation through the 7th day after delivery.Social Support: Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutrition of a mother which affects the health of the FETUS and INFANT as well as herself.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Fetus: The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Adaptation, Psychological: A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Maternal Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to expectant and nursing mothers.Fetal Death: Death of the developing young in utero. BIRTH of a dead FETUS is STILLBIRTH.Nurse-Patient Relations: Interaction between the patient and nurse.Women, Working: Women who are engaged in gainful activities usually outside the home.Placenta: A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).Congenital Abnormalities: Malformations of organs or body parts during development in utero.Professional-Family Relations: The interactions between the professional person and the family.Eugenics: The attempt to improve the PHENOTYPES of future generations of the human population by fostering the reproduction of those with favorable phenotypes and GENOTYPES and hampering or preventing BREEDING by those with "undesirable" phenotypes and genotypes. The concept is largely discredited. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Nuclear Family: A family composed of spouses and their children.United StatesMutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Father-Child Relations: Interaction between the father and the child.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Verbal Behavior: Includes both producing and responding to words, either written or spoken.Premature Birth: CHILDBIRTH before 37 weeks of PREGNANCY (259 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period, or 245 days after FERTILIZATION).Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Physician-Patient Relations: The interactions between physician and patient.Child Behavior Disorders: Disturbances considered to be pathological based on age and stage appropriateness, e.g., conduct disturbances and anaclitic depression. This concept does not include psychoneuroses, psychoses, or personality disorders with fixed patterns.Lactation Disorders: Disturbances of MILK secretion in either SEX, not necessarily related to PREGNANCY.Cesarean Section: Extraction of the FETUS by means of abdominal HYSTEROTOMY.Family Characteristics: Size and composition of the family.Family Health: The health status of the family as a unit including the impact of the health of one member of the family on the family as a unit and on individual family members; also, the impact of family organization or disorganization on the health status of its members.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Pregnancy Trimester, Third: The last third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 29th through the 42nd completed week (197 to 294 days) of gestation.Cell Communication: Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Professional-Patient Relations: Interactions between health personnel and patients.Maternal-Fetal Relations: The bond or lack thereof between a pregnant woman and her FETUS.Birth Certificates: Official certifications by a physician recording the individual's birth date, place of birth, parentage and other required identifying data which are filed with the local registrar of vital statistics.Attitude: An enduring, learned predisposition to behave in a consistent way toward a given class of objects, or a persistent mental and/or neural state of readiness to react to a certain class of objects, not as they are but as they are conceived to be.Intergenerational Relations: The interactions between individuals of different generations. These interactions include communication, caring, accountability, loyalty, and even conflict between related or non-related individuals.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.Language Development: The gradual expansion in complexity and meaning of symbols and sounds as perceived and interpreted by the individual through a maturational and learning process. Stages in development include babbling, cooing, word imitation with cognition, and use of short sentences.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Focus Groups: A method of data collection and a QUALITATIVE RESEARCH tool in which a small group of individuals are brought together and allowed to interact in a discussion of their opinions about topics, issues, or questions.Nonverbal Communication: Transmission of emotions, ideas, and attitudes between individuals in ways other than the spoken language.Kangaroo-Mother Care Method: A method of continuously holding a partially wrapped baby to the chest, involving skin-to-skin contact. Originally it was a method of caring for LOW-BIRTH-WEIGHT INFANT in developing countries and is now more widespread in developed nations. Aside from encouraging breast feeding, the extra sleep that the infant gets assists in regulating body temperature, helps the baby conserve energy, and redirects calorie expenditures toward growth and weight gain.Tape Recording: Recording of information on magnetic or punched paper tape.Interpersonal Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Illegitimacy: The state of birth outside of wedlock. It may refer to the offspring or the parents.Counseling: The giving of advice and assistance to individuals with educational or personal problems.Single-Parent Family: A household that includes children and is headed by one adult.Fetal Development: Morphological and physiological development of FETUSES.Birth Order: The sequence in which children are born into the family.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Puerperal Disorders: Disorders or diseases associated with PUERPERIUM, the six-to-eight-week period immediately after PARTURITION in humans.Anxiety: Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.Fetal Diseases: Pathophysiological conditions of the FETUS in the UTERUS. Some fetal diseases may be treated with FETAL THERAPIES.Prenatal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutrition of FEMALE during PREGNANCY.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Truth Disclosure: Truthful revelation of information, specifically when the information disclosed is likely to be psychologically painful ("bad news") to the recipient (e.g., revelation to a patient or a patient's family of the patient's DIAGNOSIS or PROGNOSIS) or embarrassing to the teller (e.g., revelation of medical errors).Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Milk: The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Paternal Behavior: The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a father.Midwestern United States: The geographic area of the midwestern region of the United States in general or when the specific state or states are not indicated. The states usually included in this region are Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, Ohio, Oklahoma, North Dakota, South Dakota and Wisconsin.Abnormalities, Drug-Induced: Congenital abnormalities caused by medicinal substances or drugs of abuse given to or taken by the mother, or to which she is inadvertently exposed during the manufacture of such substances. The concept excludes abnormalities resulting from exposure to non-medicinal chemicals in the environment.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Adolescent Behavior: Any observable response or action of an adolescent.Diabetes, Gestational: Diabetes mellitus induced by PREGNANCY but resolved at the end of pregnancy. It does not include previously diagnosed diabetics who become pregnant (PREGNANCY IN DIABETICS). Gestational diabetes usually develops in late pregnancy when insulin antagonistic hormones peaks leading to INSULIN RESISTANCE; GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; and HYPERGLYCEMIA.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Child Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the child.Parturition: The process of giving birth to one or more offspring.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Temperament: Predisposition to react to one's environment in a certain way; usually refers to mood changes.Motivation: Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.Sex Ratio: The number of males per 100 females.Sexuality: The sexual functions, activities, attitudes, and orientations of an individual. Sexuality, male or female, becomes evident at PUBERTY under the influence of gonadal steroids (TESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL), and social effects.Fetal Growth Retardation: The failure of a FETUS to attain its expected FETAL GROWTH at any GESTATIONAL AGE.Family Relations: Behavioral, psychological, and social relations among various members of the nuclear family and the extended family.Adult Children: Children who have reached maturity or the legal age of majority.Prenatal Diagnosis: Determination of the nature of a pathological condition or disease in the postimplantation EMBRYO; FETUS; or pregnant female before birth.Pregnancy Complications, Cardiovascular: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and a cardiovascular disease. The disease may precede or follow FERTILIZATION and it may or may not have a deleterious effect on the pregnant woman or FETUS.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Animals, Suckling: Young, unweaned mammals. Refers to nursing animals whether nourished by their biological mother, foster mother, or bottle fed.Vocabulary: The sum or the stock of words used by a language, a group, or an individual. (From Webster, 3d ed)Colostrum: The thin, yellow, serous fluid secreted by the mammary glands during pregnancy and immediately postpartum before lactation begins. It consists of immunologically active substances, white blood cells, water, protein, fat, and carbohydrates.Coma, Post-Head Injury: Prolonged unconsciousness from which the individual cannot be aroused, associated with traumatic injuries to the BRAIN. This may be defined as unconsciousness persisting for 6 hours or longer. Coma results from injury to both cerebral hemispheres or the RETICULAR FORMATION of the BRAIN STEM. Contributing mechanisms include DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY and BRAIN EDEMA. (From J Neurotrauma 1997 Oct;14(10):699-713)Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Labor, Obstetric: The repetitive uterine contraction during childbirth which is associated with the progressive dilation of the uterine cervix (CERVIX UTERI). Successful labor results in the expulsion of the FETUS and PLACENTA. Obstetric labor can be spontaneous or induced (LABOR, INDUCED).BrazilMarriage: The social institution involving legal and/or religious sanction whereby individuals are joined together.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Pregnant Women: Human females who are pregnant, as cultural, psychological, or sociological entities.Maternal-Child Nursing: The nursing specialty that deals with the care of women throughout their pregnancy and childbirth and the care of their newborn children.IndiaMaternal Mortality: Maternal deaths resulting from complications of pregnancy and childbirth in a given population.Child Custody: The formally authorized guardianship or care of a CHILD.Infant, Small for Gestational Age: An infant having a birth weight lower than expected for its gestational age.Family Conflict: Struggle or disagreement between parents, parent and child or other members of a family.Infant Nutrition Disorders: Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition, occurring in infants ages 1 month to 24 months.Hispanic Americans: Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Obstetric Labor Complications: Medical problems associated with OBSTETRIC LABOR, such as BREECH PRESENTATION; PREMATURE OBSTETRIC LABOR; HEMORRHAGE; or others. These complications can affect the well-being of the mother, the FETUS, or both.Midwifery: The practice of assisting women in childbirth.Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children aged 2-12 years.Weaning: Permanent deprivation of breast milk and commencement of nourishment with other food. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Language: A verbal or nonverbal means of communicating ideas or feelings.Adoption: Voluntary acceptance of a child of other parents to be as one's own child, usually with legal confirmation.Social Adjustment: Adaptation of the person to the social environment. Adjustment may take place by adapting the self to the environment or by changing the environment. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 1996)Mathematical Concepts: Numeric or quantitative entities, descriptions, properties, relationships, operations, and events.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and parasitic diseases. The parasitic infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Sudden Infant Death: The abrupt and unexplained death of an apparently healthy infant under one year of age, remaining unexplained after a thorough case investigation, including performance of a complete autopsy, examination of the death scene, and review of the clinical history. (Pediatr Pathol 1991 Sep-Oct;11(5):677-84)Twins: Two individuals derived from two FETUSES that were fertilized at or about the same time, developed in the UTERUS simultaneously, and born to the same mother. Twins are either monozygotic (TWINS, MONOZYGOTIC) or dizygotic (TWINS, DIZYGOTIC).Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Perception: The process by which the nature and meaning of sensory stimuli are recognized and interpreted.Patient Education as Topic: The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Fetal Macrosomia: A condition of fetal overgrowth leading to a large-for-gestational-age FETUS. It is defined as BIRTH WEIGHT greater than 4,000 grams or above the 90th percentile for population and sex-specific growth curves. It is commonly seen in GESTATIONAL DIABETES; PROLONGED PREGNANCY; and pregnancies complicated by pre-existing diabetes mellitus.Great BritainEarly Intervention (Education): Procedures and programs that facilitate the development or skill acquisition in infants and young children who have disabilities, who are at risk for developing disabilities, or who are gifted. It includes programs that are designed to prevent handicapping conditions in infants and young children and family-centered programs designed to affect the functioning of infants and children with special needs. (From Journal of Early Intervention, Editorial, 1989, vol. 13, no. 1, p. 3; A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, prepared for the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, 1976)NorwayCell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Tobacco Smoke Pollution: Contamination of the air by tobacco smoke.
  • If you value what you get from Mother Jones , please join us with a tax-deductible donation so we can keep on doing the type of journalism that 2018 demands. (motherjones.com)
  • This study examined developmental change and variation across social context in the quality of children's conversations, with a dual focus on (1) conflict and (2) inner state talk (IST). (ed.gov)
  • and (2) conflict was more strongly associated with talk about children's own inner states within conversations with mothers (mean r = 0.46) than with younger siblings (mean r = 0.02). (ed.gov)
  • These talks occur twice a year and take place at Seattle Children's main campus . (seattlechildrens.org)
  • The mother of a woman who was killed while demonstrating against a white nationalist rally in Charlottesville, Virginia, has said she will not speak to President Donald Trump because of comments he made after her daughter's death. (breakingnews.ie)
  • Also, the use of "mother" to mean "pregnant woman" is different enough from the meaning "a female who has given birth to, or raised young" to require a separate def. (wiktionary.org)
  • A picture that would be more unambiguously about the central/etymological concept (see below) of "mother" might show some animal giving birth or suckling young. (wiktionary.org)
  • Whereas someone who's given birth (to live young) is more permanently considered a mother (even if her offspring dies later). (wiktionary.org)
  • NEW YORK - When Dacheca Fleurimond decided to give birth at SUNY Downstate Medical Center earlier this year, her sister tried to talk her out of it. (propublica.org)
  • Researchers have found that women who deliver at these so-called "black-serving" hospitals are more likely to have serious complications - from infections to birth-related embolisms to emergency hysterectomies - than mothers who deliver at institutions that serve fewer black women. (propublica.org)
  • We understand talking about birth injuries can be very sensitive and emotional. (jmw.co.uk)
  • We provide legal advice and representation to mothers who have suffered an injury as a result of a mistake by a medical professional before, during or after birth. (jmw.co.uk)
  • Introducing Let's Talk Health , an initiative from Apollo Hospitals, where our endeavor is to share knowledge which you can use to keep yourself and your family fit & healthy. (apollohospitals.com)
  • My Mother, Flora Klein was 14 years old when she was taken into the camps, along with the rest of our family. (genesimmons.com)
  • After a mother leaves the hospital, her first stop before returning home - strangely empty-handed - is the ultra-Orthodox "family planner," a well-known figure who is a pillar of trust and discernment in such a matter. (haaretz.com)
  • Helfand's ground-breaking film sprang from her video diary, which was shot from 1990 to 1995, and chronicles mother-daughter love, family renewal, survival, political awakening and community activism. (go.com)
  • Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Billings manager Sue Poisson relies on getting the dirt from her mom - not really but her mother is the source of all family information. (sliferdesigns.com)
  • Speaking on ABC's Good Morning America, she said she will not talk to the president after a news conference in which Mr Trump equated violence by white supremacists at the rally with violence by those protesting against it. (breakingnews.ie)
  • I feel that a simple mother-and-baby picture may be better, because that painting seems to suggest royalty/monarchy more than motherhood. (wiktionary.org)
  • Mothers who entered the study early, and had urine test results that consistently showed no illicit drug use, could earn vouchers to use for baby supplies, household items, rental deposits, etc. (atforum.com)
  • Not only do these messenger RNA communicate important genetic information to the baby via breastmilk, changes in the mothers body via mRNA occur during lactation responding to a new "mothering" focus during the period of lactation. (lactspeak.com)
  • The book is organized into four parts: B.O.N.D. - Keys to Bonding B-Be-ing O-Observing N-Nourishing D-Deciding The keys relate to the concept of being able to B.O.N.D. This connection is imperative to the baby, the mother, and the partner for overall health and wellness. (lactspeak.com)
  • The flavor, dubbed "Baby Gaga," is made from the breast milk of a mother from nearby Leeds , Madagascan vanilla pods and lemon zest, according to the International Business Times . (nydailynews.com)
  • I watched Kathy's eyes beam with pride as Katy talked about her "triplets" - running 2 businesses and a baby that came all in the same year. (wqad.com)
  • there are plenty of eager mothers willing to raise the baby, until it becomes too much of a burden and is passed to another home. (haaretz.com)
  • She had miscarried in her third pregnancy and, like an estimated 5 million other white, middle-class mothers, was convinced she was giving her baby "the best prenatal care money could buy," Helfand said. (go.com)
  • She would finally be a mother to a healthy baby girl. (go.com)
  • A mother in Florida was arrested after allegedly cursing and throwing her 10-month-old baby against a wooden fence at about 6 p.m. on Saturday, May 11. (theepochtimes.com)
  • Mother Angelica has had a television show for over 20 years long before EWTN was a moderate cable station. (imdb.com)
  • At JMW, we have many years of experience acting on behalf of mothers who have suffered injuries during childbirth as a result of medical negligence. (jmw.co.uk)
  • Frustrated Obama obsessives, unable to believe that the rest of the country doesn't share their paranoid suspicion that the president has dark secrets lurking under his amiable exterior, have finally stooped to slurring his mother through the time-honored method of calling her a slut. (slate.com)
  • After spending nine months intricately joined together, mother and infant share more than just common features. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Global climate talks in Doha have ended with small steps forward, but none significantly curbs the world's greenhouse gas emission. (mnn.com)
  • Even as warnings of the potentially catastrophic effects of global warming mounted, negotiators at global climate talks in Qatar made only modest steps toward halting warming as they came to an end over the weekend. (mnn.com)
  • The talks at Doha started to relatively low expectations, said Travis Franck, senior scientist and policy analyst for the nongovernmental group Climate Interactive, who attended part of the conference. (mnn.com)
  • The conversation concerned the fate of his mother during the Nazi time - a fate that was mostly unknown to him. (genesimmons.com)
  • He also said that his mother hardly ever talked about her time in the concentration camps. (genesimmons.com)
  • Going one by one down the line, she talks about astrology during what may be her only down time this week (and I was interrupting it). (udreview.com)
  • I can't see it being practical for a full time working mother. (city-data.com)
  • Each measure was coded as a proportion of total talk, using transcripts from 57 three- to six-year-olds, filmed at home at two time points (12 months apart) in two distinct contexts (dyadic play with younger siblings and unstructured routine interactions with mothers). (ed.gov)
  • Finally, about a week after his birthday, he sent me an email that just said there's not a possibility of us getting back together, and that there needs to be considerable time and distance between us before we ever talk again. (loveshack.org)
  • His mother told RFE/RL's Tatar-Bashkir Service that in the time he has spent at Guantanamo Bay, his wife has remarried and the son they had together, Yusuf, has grown up without a father. (rferl.org)
  • Katy's mother Kathy recently joined the business as a full-time partner. (wqad.com)
  • As every new mother knows, it will create an impression that time can never erase. (haaretz.com)
  • In 2003, San Francisco Opera opened its 80th anniversary season with a new production of The Mother of Us All, Luana DeVol assuming the role of Susan B. Anthony for the first time. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the researchers set up a cross between plants so that the mother does not produce auxin but the embryo does, the same defects in embryo development are seen - proving that auxin from the mother is the key developmental signal. (ist.ac.at)
  • How smiles-and pouts-are helping researchers probe the essence of the complex mother-infant bond. (scientificamerican.com)
  • While pregnancy in humans and seed development in plants look very different, parallels exist - not least that the embryo develops in close connection with the mother. (ist.ac.at)
  • In animals, a whole network of signals from the mother is known to influence embryo development. (ist.ac.at)
  • Plant scientists at the Institute of Science and Technology Austria (IST Austria), Central European Institute of Technology (CEITEC) and the University of Freiburg have now found that a plant hormone, called auxin, from the mother is one of the signals that pattern the plant embryo. (ist.ac.at)
  • Plant scientists have been trying to figure out the nature of the signal between mother and embryo for decades", explains Jiri Friml, Professor at IST Austria and one of the corresponding authors. (ist.ac.at)
  • We show that the mother is the source of auxin which regulates early embryo development. (ist.ac.at)
  • However, auxin is not the only maternal signal influencing the embryo, Friml explains: "When we stop the supply of auxin from the mother to the embryo, the embryo grows abnormally, but it still manages to develop somehow. (ist.ac.at)
  • On Aug. 10, their mother Dacheca Fleurimond passed away at SUNY Downstate hospital after delivering her twin sons. (propublica.org)
  • You'll remember our first Talk, which took place on the sidewalk outside a Home Depot while your father was buying a lathe. (mcsweeneys.net)
  • I think I just heard your father in the kitchen, so I'll wrap up the Talk with this last remark: what's said during the Talk stays in the Talk. (mcsweeneys.net)
  • Hearken unto thy father that begat thee," wrote Solomon, "and despise not thy mother when she is old. (lds.org)
  • The director, Joel Gilbert, argues that Obama's real father is Frank Marshall Davis, a labor activist and poet, and that Davis took bondage photos of Obama's mother, Stanley Ann Dunham, that he then sold to nudie magazines. (slate.com)
  • When my father has a stroke, at 50, my mother cries. (psychologytoday.com)
  • Samela echoes that sentiment, "I hope that all first ladies reach out to the people and get to know how other mothers, less fortunate mothers, live their lives and do something to improve their well being. (m2m.org)
  • I have tried to watch a single episode of Mother Angelica Live without falling asleep. (imdb.com)
  • men who live with their mothers. (mumsnet.com)
  • I ask the question because I am one of 4, and don't live with my parents anymore, and due to my age, wonder if this relationship can go anywhere while mother is still so important. (mumsnet.com)
  • Men who live with their mothers at such an age (for whatever reason and I note too that his dad is still around) are not relationship material at all and its really not going anywhere. (mumsnet.com)
  • I live with my mother. (yahoo.com)
  • Mother Book by Dentsu Japan is a pregnancy diary with stunning, dynamic design. (slate.com)
  • The Mother Book from Japan is a handcrafted pregnancy diary with a sophisticated, dynamic design that allows its belly to grow along with the expectant mother who uses it. (slate.com)
  • Mothers who eat a diet of fruits and berries, whole grains, potatoes, root vegetables, fish and low-fat dairy products have a healthier weight development after pregnancy, research shows. (uia.no)
  • Many mothers struggle to get back their pre-pregnancy weight. (uia.no)
  • MOTHER EARTH NEWS evaluating the best garden soil tests for 1985. (motherearthnews.com)
  • There came to mind the grief-stricken mother of each fallen man as she held in her hand the news of her precious son's supreme sacrifice. (lds.org)
  • In news that has prompted an outcry from film geeks across the Internet, indie darling Greta Gerwig has been cast in the pilot for CBS' "How I Met Your Mother" spinoff, "How I Met Your Dad. (dailypress.com)
  • Mother Jones was founded as a nonprofit in 1976 because we knew corporations and the wealthy wouldn't fund the type of hard-hitting journalism we set out to do. (motherjones.com)
  • If the mother is misusing drugs and goes into withdrawal, the fetus will go through withdrawal, too. (atforum.com)
  • Like most Worlds of Wonder toys, such as Teddy and Mickey, Mother Goose used specially-coded cassettes and 4 "C" batteries to operate. (wikipedia.org)
  • As with Grubby in the Teddy Ruxpin line and Goofy in the Talking Mickey Mouse line, he could not function alone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Shame on all who thus make of a noble woman "mother forgotten. (lds.org)
  • And if it is disgusting - well, does that mean we should start thinking differently about all the other ways we use the human body - to make wigs, to transfuse blood, to be surrogate mothers? (nydailynews.com)
  • Hit the jump for my full review of Two Mothers . (collider.com)
  • The nursing homes are crowded, the hospital beds are full, the days come and go-often the weeks and months pass-but mother is not visited. (lds.org)
  • Following her first stroke on 5 Sep 2001, Mother Angelica returns to taping her show twice a week on 25 Sep 2001. (imdb.com)
  • Rivers was the man of this night, putting on a show of shows in the third quarter en route to a playoff career-high 25 points that sparked the Clippers to a 124-99 Game 3 thumping of the Rockets on Friday night at Staples Center. (latimes.com)
  • Frecheville's character stumbles upon his mother sneaking out of Samuel's room with her pants in her hand, and thus abruptly leaves the house. (collider.com)
  • or in my case, talking about how holistic healing changed her life while she digs in her worn jean pockets for quarters at the Newark Laundromat. (udreview.com)
  • More Than Meets the Eye: True Stories about Death, Dying and Afterlife is a book that address topics that many people are not comfortable talking about such as suicide, the near-death experience, end of life decisions, and euthanasia. (blogspot.com)
  • He said that maybe he should be alone for the rest of his life - but this may just be grief talking, perhaps fear of losing another person he loves. (loveshack.org)
  • A long-term agreement is on the horizon, based on a decision made last year at talks in Durban. (mnn.com)
  • During her trip to launch Hamlin Fistula USA -the newest member of Hamlin Fistula International -87-year-old Hamlin sat down with me to talk. (christianitytoday.com)
  • Wednesday morning, Ryan Lewis furthered that loving image by appearing with his mother on "CBS This Morning" to discuss her 30-year battle with HIV. (latimes.com)
  • WATTS, LOS ANGELES (KABC) -- A vigil was held Thursday night for 2-year-old twin boys who died in a house fire in Watts, and their mother talked about her loss. (abc7.com)
  • Now his mother, 75-year-old Zuhra Waliullina, says she has lost hope of ever seeing her son again. (rferl.org)
  • Their experiences have struck fear in Mingazov, whose mother told RFE/RL last year that he was afraid to come home. (rferl.org)
  • A 17-year-old boy in Britain was on Tuesday found guilty of stabbing his mother 94 times after he lost his temper. (sify.com)
  • AT Forum interviewed the lead author of the current study, Karol Kaltenbach, PhD, and a co-author, Hendrée Jones, PhD, the lead author of the MOTHER randomized controlled trial. (atforum.com)
  • Mother Goose moved her eyes, beak, and, unlike most of the toys, Mother Goose was able to move her head from side-to-side. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike Fulton Sheen, Mother Angelica doesn't keep the audience watching her on the edge of their seats. (imdb.com)
  • The character is portrayed as a goose, rather than the woman of the Mother Goose stories. (wikipedia.org)
  • I understand the visceral reaction - drinking milk from a woman other than your mother is a pretty big taboo in many cultures. (nydailynews.com)
  • In one of our training programs, one woman said she talked to her sister on the phone for an hour, and when she was done, her husband exclaimed, "You just talked to your sister about nothing for an hour! (psychologytoday.com)
  • The new place holds a small party for her, but she sits there, shoulders slumped, her mouth a line, refusing to talk. (psychologytoday.com)
  • Roland Orzabal While America saw "Everybody Wants to Rule the World" as the first single release from the Songs from the Big Chair LP, "Mothers Talk" was eventually released there as the fourth and final single from the album in April 1986, peaking at no. 27 on the Billboard Hot 100. (wikipedia.org)
  • The United Nations talks' modest progress contrasted with the simultaneous alarms related to global warming, ranging from extreme events - most recently, the Bopha typhoon in the Philippines and Hurricane Sandy along the U.S. East Coast - to reports, such as one from the World Bank , which outlined the havoc a 7.2-degree Fahrenheit (4-degree Celsius) increase in global temperatures would wreak. (mnn.com)
  • He also talked about the family's 30/30 Project, which supports the cause of making HIV treatment available in disadvantaged communities around the world. (latimes.com)
  • With Hector, Worlds of Wonder finally came into the world of nursery rhymes, with Hector being the main character and Mother Goose being the supporting narrator. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is no stopping the high-tech transformation of the world economy -- except by Mother Nature, of course, with one of her standard cataclysms (a perennial Paglia prophecy). (salon.com)
  • Label: New World Records Virgil Thomson: The Mother of Us All - Noragh Devlin (as Susan B. Anthony), Scott Russell (Daniel Webster), Alexander Frankel (Jo the Loiterer), Addison Hamilton (Constance Fletcher), Carlton Moe (John Adams), et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • The vision of Mother Raw is rooted in the company's belief that what goes on plants and veggies should be as healthy as plants and veggies. (edmontonsun.com)
  • For whatever reasons his mother has never let her darling boy actually grow up and they are actively dependent on one another, theirs is not a healthy relationship at all but an unhealthy and dysfunctional one. (mumsnet.com)