White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.
CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.
A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.
A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.
Viruses which enable defective viruses to replicate or to form a protein coat by complementing the missing gene function of the defective (satellite) virus. Helper and satellite may be of the same or different genus.
Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
A classification of lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
The number of LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Measure of histocompatibility at the HL-A locus. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from two individuals are mixed together in tissue culture for several days. Lymphocytes from incompatible individuals will stimulate each other to proliferate significantly (measured by tritiated thymidine uptake) whereas those from compatible individuals will not. In the one-way MLC test, the lymphocytes from one of the individuals are inactivated (usually by treatment with MITOMYCIN or radiation) thereby allowing only the untreated remaining population of cells to proliferate in response to foreign histocompatibility antigens.
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Mucoproteins isolated from the kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris); some of them are mitogenic to lymphocytes, others agglutinate all or certain types of erythrocytes or lymphocytes. They are used mainly in the study of immune mechanisms and in cell culture.
A MANNOSE/GLUCOSE binding lectin isolated from the jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). It is a potent mitogen used to stimulate cell proliferation in lymphocytes, primarily T-lymphocyte, cultures.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Lymphocytes that show specificity for autologous tumor cells. Ex vivo isolation and culturing of TIL with interleukin-2, followed by reinfusion into the patient, is one form of adoptive immunotherapy of cancer.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.
A CELL LINE derived from human T-CELL LEUKEMIA and used to determine the mechanism of differential susceptibility to anti-cancer drugs and radiation.
Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.
A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
The transfer of lymphocytes from a donor to a recipient or reinfusion to the donor.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Substances that stimulate mitosis and lymphocyte transformation. They include not only substances associated with LECTINS, but also substances from streptococci (associated with streptolysin S) and from strains of alpha-toxin-producing staphylococci. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Immunosuppression by reduction of circulating lymphocytes or by T-cell depletion of bone marrow. The former may be accomplished in vivo by thoracic duct drainage or administration of antilymphocyte serum. The latter is performed ex vivo on bone marrow before its transplantation.
T-cell enhancement of the B-cell response to thymic-dependent antigens.
The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
The in vitro formation of clusters consisting of a cell (usually a lymphocyte) surrounded by antigenic cells or antigen-bearing particles (usually erythrocytes, which may or may not be coated with antibody or antibody and complement). The rosette-forming cell may be an antibody-forming cell, a memory cell, a T-cell, a cell bearing surface cytophilic antibodies, or a monocyte possessing Fc receptors. Rosette formation can be used to identify specific populations of these cells.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.
Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.
An integrin heterodimer widely expressed on cells of hematopoietic origin. CD11A ANTIGEN comprises the alpha chain and the CD18 antigen (ANTIGENS, CD18) the beta chain. Lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 is a major receptor of T-CELLS; B-CELLS; and GRANULOCYTES. It mediates the leukocyte adhesion reactions underlying cytolytic conjugate formation, helper T-cell interactions, and antibody-dependent killing by NATURAL KILLER CELLS and granulocytes. Intracellular adhesion molecule-1 has been defined as a ligand for lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1.
A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.
Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.
Cell surface glycoproteins on lymphocytes and other leukocytes that mediate adhesion to specialized blood vessels called high endothelial venules. Several different classes of lymphocyte homing receptors have been identified, and they appear to target different surface molecules (addressins) on high endothelial venules in different tissues. The adhesion plays a crucial role in the trafficking of lymphocytes.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated gamma and delta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4-/CD8- T-cells. The receptors appear to be preferentially located in epithelial sites and probably play a role in the recognition of bacterial antigens. The T-cell receptor gamma/delta chains are separate and not related to the gamma and delta chains which are subunits of CD3 (see ANTIGENS, CD3).
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.
Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.
Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.
Proteins isolated from the roots of the pokeweed, Phytolacca americana, that agglutinate some erythrocytes, stimulate mitosis and antibody synthesis in lymphocytes, and induce activation of plasma cells.
The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
A calcium-dependent pore-forming protein synthesized in cytolytic LYMPHOCYTES and sequestered in secretory granules. Upon immunological reaction between a cytolytic lymphocyte and a target cell, perforin is released at the plasma membrane and polymerizes into transmembrane tubules (forming pores) which lead to death of a target cell.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A class of lymphocytes characterized by the lack of surface markers specific for either T or B lymphocytes.
Form of adoptive transfer where cells with antitumor activity are transferred to the tumor-bearing host in order to mediate tumor regression. The lymphoid cells commonly used are lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL). This is usually considered a form of passive immunotherapy. (From DeVita, et al., Cancer, 1993, pp.305-7, 314)
The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.
A method for the detection of very small quantities of antibody in which the antigen-antibody-complement complex adheres to indicator cells, usually primate erythrocytes or nonprimate blood platelets. The reaction is dependent on the number of bound C3 molecules on the C3b receptor sites of the indicator cell.
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
Cells of the lymphoid series that can react with antigen to produce specific cell products called antibodies. Various cell subpopulations, often B-lymphocytes, can be defined, based on the different classes of immunoglobulins that they synthesize.
Leukemia associated with HYPERPLASIA of the lymphoid tissues and increased numbers of circulating malignant LYMPHOCYTES and lymphoblasts.
A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.
Agents that promote the production and release of interferons. They include mitogens, lipopolysaccharides, and the synthetic polymers Poly A-U and Poly I-C. Viruses, bacteria, and protozoa have been also known to induce interferons.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
Proteins secreted from an organism which form membrane-spanning pores in target cells to destroy them. This is in contrast to PORINS and MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that function within the synthesizing organism and COMPLEMENT immune proteins. These pore forming cytotoxic proteins are a form of primitive cellular defense which are also found in human LYMPHOCYTES.
A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that was originally discovered on cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage, including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS. It plays an important role in immune homeostasis and cell-mediated toxicity by binding to the FAS RECEPTOR and triggering APOPTOSIS.
A round-to-oval mass of lymphoid tissue embedded in the lateral wall of the PHARYNX. There is one on each side of the oropharynx in the fauces between the anterior and posterior pillars of the SOFT PALATE.
An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.
Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.
A family of serine endopeptidases found in the SECRETORY GRANULES of LEUKOCYTES such as CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS. When secreted into the intercellular space granzymes act to eliminate transformed and virus-infected host cells.
Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).
The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.
Deliberate prevention or diminution of the host's immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of immunosuppressive agents (drugs or radiation) or by lymphocyte depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of antigen and immunosuppressive drugs.
Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.
Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
A method to identify and enumerate cells that are synthesizing ANTIBODIES against ANTIGENS or HAPTENS conjugated to sheep RED BLOOD CELLS. The sheep red blood cells surrounding cells secreting antibody are lysed by added COMPLEMENT producing a clear zone of HEMOLYSIS. (From Illustrated Dictionary of Immunology, 3rd ed)
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Soluble factors which stimulate growth-related activities of leukocytes as well as other cell types. They enhance cell proliferation and differentiation, DNA synthesis, secretion of other biologically active molecules and responses to immune and inflammatory stimuli.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.
An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.
Syndromes in which there is a deficiency or defect in the mechanisms of immunity, either cellular or humoral.
Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Reduction in the number of lymphocytes.
Soluble protein factors generated by activated lymphocytes that affect other cells, primarily those involved in cellular immunity.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A protein extracted from boiled culture of tubercle bacilli (MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS). It is used in the tuberculin skin test (TUBERCULIN TEST) for the diagnosis of tuberculosis infection in asymptomatic persons.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A proinflammatory cytokine produced primarily by T-LYMPHOCYTES or their precursors. Several subtypes of interleukin-17 have been identified, each of which is a product of a unique gene.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Benzene derivatives which are substituted with three nitro groups in any position.
Serum containing GAMMA-GLOBULINS which are antibodies for lymphocyte ANTIGENS. It is used both as a test for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY and therapeutically in TRANSPLANTATION.
Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of immune system, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electrical equipment.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.
A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)
Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that serves as a homing receptor for lymphocytes to lymph node high endothelial venules.
A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.
The largest lymphatic vessel that passes through the chest and drains into the SUBCLAVIAN VEIN.
An immunological attack mounted by a graft against the host because of tissue incompatibility when immunologically competent cells are transplanted to an immunologically incompetent host; the resulting clinical picture is that of GRAFT VS HOST DISEASE.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Subset of helper-effector T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete IL-17, IL-17F, and IL-22. These cytokines are involved in host defenses and tissue inflammation in autoimmune diseases.
This enzyme is a lymphoid-specific src family tyrosine kinase that is critical for T-cell development and activation. Lck is associated with the cytoplasmic domains of CD4, CD8 and the beta-chain of the IL-2 receptor, and is thought to be involved in the earliest steps of TCR-mediated T-cell activation.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.
Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.
Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) specific immune responses in anti-HCV positive patients without hepatitis C viraemia. (1/3362)

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Most patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) develop chronic infection and persistent viraemia. The immune mechanisms responsible for resolution of viraemia remain poorly understood. HCV specific humoral and cellular immune responses in patients with and without viraemia were investigated. METHODS: In vitro T helper (TH) lymphocyte responses to structural and non-structural HCV proteins were determined by means of proliferative response and cytokine production in 35 anti-HCV positive/HCV RNA negative patients and in 31 patients with chronic HCV infection and persistent viraemia. Humoral responses were determined by measuring HCV specific antibody quantity and specificity. RESULTS: A TH response to two or more HCV proteins was present in 18 of 35 patients with serological viral clearance compared with just one of 31 viraemic patients (p = 0.00001). HCV specific interferon-gamma production was increased only in the former group. In contrast, the antibody levels were significantly lower and directed at fewer HCV antigens in patients with undetectable HCV RNA. CONCLUSIONS: Patients without viraemia after HCV infection frequently have strong TH lymphocyte responses of the TH1 type to multiple HCV antigens many years after the onset of infection, whereas antibody responses are less marked. These results suggest that control of HCV replication may depend on effective TH lymphocyte activation.  (+info)

A technique for dual determination of cytotoxic and helper lymphocyte precursor frequency by a miniaturized dye release method. (2/3362)

Helper (HTLPf) and cytotoxic (CTLPf) lymphocyte precursor frequency assays are increasingly used in bone marrow stem cell and organ transplant compatibility testing. Current techniques require large cell numbers and radioisotopes. To improve the technique, we developed a miniaturized fluorescent read-out combined HTLPf/CTLPf limiting dilution assay. The assay requires only 5 x 10(6) stimulators, 2 x 10(6) responders and 0.24 x 10(6) target cells in Terasaki plates (40 microl/well). For the HTLPf, culture supernatants from each well were assayed for IL-2 production. The IL-2-dependent proliferation of the mouse 9.12 cell line was detected by a semi-automated fluorescent dye technique. After addition of rhIL-2 (recombinant human IL-2) on days 3 and 7, CTLPs were detected on day 10 by measuring the lysis of dye-labeled targets. Results were comparable to standard radioisotope-based techniques. The assay had a coefficient of variation of approximately 30%. The assay detected helper CD4 cells, pure cytotoxic CD8, helper CD8 cells and helper/cytotoxic CD8 cells. Discrimination was demonstrated between HLA-matched related and non-related pairs. The ease of testing and small cell numbers required should facilitate further evaluation of HTLPf and CTLPf for compatibility testing in unrelated donor transplantation and monitoring immune responses following adoptive transfer of lymphocytes.  (+info)

Altered helper T lymphocyte function associated with chronic hepatitis B virus infection and its role in response to therapeutic vaccination in humans. (3/3362)

Theradigm-hepatitis B virus (HBV) is an experimental lipopeptide vaccine designed to stimulate induction of HBV-specific CTL responses in HLA-A2 individuals. Previous studies had demonstrated high immunogenicity in healthy volunteers, but comparatively weak CTL responses in chronically infected HBV patients. Herein, we examined helper T lymphocyte (HTL) responses in chronically infected patients. Despite normal proliferation and IL-2 secretion, IL-12 and IFN-gamma secretion in vitro in response to the vaccine was reduced compared with healthy volunteers. A similar pattern of cytokine secretion was observed following mitogen stimulation, suggesting a general altered balance of Th1/Th2 responses. Further analysis indicated that HTL recall responses to whole tetanus toxoid protein were reduced in chronically infected subjects, and reduced responsiveness correlated with the outcome of Theradigm-HBV immunization. Finally, experiments in HBV transgenic mice indicated that the nonnatural Pan DR HTL epitope, PADRE, is capable of inducing high levels of IFN-gamma secretion and that its inclusion in a lipopeptide incorporating an immunodominant Ld-restricted CTL epitope resulted in breaking tolerance at the CTL level. Overall, our results demonstrate an alteration in the quality of HTL responses induced in chronically infected HBV patients and suggest that use of a potent HTL epitope may be important to overcome CTL tolerance against specific HBV Ags.  (+info)

Immune responses against human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 virus-like particles in a cohort study of women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. I. Differential T-helper and IgG responses in relation to HPV infection and disease outcome. (4/3362)

T-helper (Th) cell-dependent IL-2 production and plasma IgG responses to virus-like particles consisting of the human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) major capsid protein L1 (L1-VLP) were determined in patients with cytological evidence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) participating in a non-intervention prospective cohort study. IgG responses were associated with HPV-16 persistence and high-grade CIN lesions, while high frequencies of Th responses were observed in patients with both virus clearance and virus persistence, irrespective of CIN grade. The IgG response was found in conjunction with an IL-2 response to L1-VLP in 87% of the patients. Recognition of the HPV-16 L1 Th epitope (amino acids 311-335) was found to be more closely associated than recognition of L1-VLP as a whole to HPV exposure and CIN development. Among the HPV-16+ patients included in this study, those showing a Th response to amino acids 311-335 were more likely to carry the HLA DRB1*11/DQB1*0301 haplotype, while those showing an IgG response to L1-VLP were more likely to carry DRB1*0101/DQB1*0501. However, neither cell-mediated nor humoral immune responses against HPV-16 L1 appear to be sufficient for the natural control of HPV infection and CIN development.  (+info)

Intracellular adhesion molecule-1 modulates beta-chemokines and directly costimulates T cells in vivo. (5/3362)

The potential roles of adhesion molecules in the expansion of T cell-mediated immune responses in the periphery were examined using DNA immunogen constructs as model antigens. We coimmunized cDNA expression cassettes encoding the adhesion molecules intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), lymphocyte function associated-3 (LFA-3), and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) along with DNA immunogens, and we analyzed the resulting antigen-specific immune responses. We observed that antigen-specific T-cell responses can be enhanced by the coexpression of DNA immunogen and adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and LFA-3. Coexpression of ICAM-1 or LFA-3 molecules along with DNA immunogens resulted in a significant enhancement of T-helper cell proliferative responses. In addition, coimmunization with pCICAM-1 (and more moderately with pCLFA-3) resulted in a dramatic enhancement of CD8-restricted cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses. Although VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 are similar in size, VCAM-1 coimmunization did not have any measurable effect on cell-mediated responses. These results suggest that ICAM-1 and LFA-3 provide direct T-cell costimulation. These observations are further supported by the finding that coinjection with ICAM-1 dramatically enhanced the level of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and beta-chemokines macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha (MIP-1alpha), MIP-1beta, and regulated on activation normal T-cell expression and secreted (RANTES) produced by stimulated T cells. Through comparative studies, we observed that ICAM-1/LFA-1 T-cell costimulatory pathways are independent of CD86/CD28 pathways and that they may synergistically expand T-cell responses in vivo.  (+info)

Evidence of cell-mediated cardiac myocyte injury involved in the heart failure of a patient with progressive systemic sclerosis. (6/3362)

A 54-year-old woman with progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS) was admitted to hospital because of dyspnea and chest pain. Echocardiogram revealed diffuse hypokinesis of the left ventricle (ejection fraction 24%). Methylprednisolone, heparin, and diuretics were administered, without benefit. Anemia, thrombocytopenia, and renal dysfunction rapidly progressed, and she died of heart failure on the 14th hospital day. Immunohistochemical study of the myocardial tissue showed mild to moderate cell infiltration, mainly consisting of natural killer (NK) cells, macrophages, cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), and T helper cells. Perforin, a cytolytic factor, was expressed in the infiltrating CTLs and NK cells, indicating that these cells were activated killer cells. Furthermore, human leukocyte antigen classes I and II, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, as well as costimulatory molecules B7-1, B7-2, and CD40, all of which are known not to be expressed in cardiac myocytes under normal conditions, were moderately to strongly expressed in cardiac myocytes. There was no detectable level of enterovirus genomes in the polymerase chain reaction products from the myocardial tissue of this patient. These findings strongly suggest that the infiltrating killer cells recognized cardiac myocytes as target cells and directly damaged them by releasing perforin. Enhanced expression of these antigens may have played an important role in the activation and cytotoxicity of the infiltrating killer cells. Absence of enterovirus genomes in the myocardial tissue may suggest that this autoimmune process is primarily induced by PSS.  (+info)

A contraceptive peptide vaccine targeting sulfated glycoprotein ZP2 of the mouse zona pellucida. (7/3362)

In this study, we have mapped and characterized a B cell epitope of sulfated glycoprotein ZP2 (ZP2) as a step toward the development of a multi-epitope zona pellucida (ZP) vaccine. Recombinant polypeptides expressed by random deoxyribonuclease-digested fragments of ZP2 cDNA were screened for binding to IE-3, a monoclonal antibody to murine ZP2. Positive clones contained cDNA inserts encoding polypeptide corresponding to ZP2(103-134). When normal or ovariectomized female mice were immunized with three overlapping peptides that span this region of ZP2 (101-120, 111-130, 121-140), only ZP2(121-140) elicited IgG antibodies that reacted with mouse ovarian ZP, indicative of the presence of native B epitope and helper T cell epitope in ZP2(121-140). To more finely map the ZP2 B cell epitope, a random peptide display library was screened with the IE-3 antibody, and a consensus tetramer sequence VxYK that matched the ZP2(123-126) sequence VRYK was located. Competitive immunofluorescence analysis with single alanine-substituted VxYK peptides ranked the relative contribution of the three critical B cell epitope residues as Y > V > K. A chimeric peptide was constructed that contained the YRYK motif of ZP2 and a bovine RNase T cell epitope. Although (C57BL/6xA/J) F1 (B6AF1) female mice immunized with the chimeric peptide developed ZP antibody response, this peptide elicited antibody only in mice of the histocompatibility complex (MHC) H-2(k or b) haplotype. In contrast, ZP2(121-140) peptide elicited antibody in inbred mice with three additional mouse MHC haplotypes. Moreover, although ZP2(121-140) contained a T cell epitope, no oophoritis was observed after immunization of B6AF1 mice with ZP2(121-140) in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). In a preliminary trial, female B6AF1 mice immunized with ZP2(121-140) in CFA had reduced litter sizes as compared with mice injected with CFA alone.  (+info)

Differential protective efficacy of DNA vaccines expressing secreted proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. (8/3362)

The development of more-effective antituberculosis vaccines would assist in the control of the global problem of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. One recently devised vaccination strategy is immunization with DNA plasmids encoding individual microbial genes. Using the genes for the M. tuberculosis secreted proteins MPT64 (23 kDa), Ag85B (30 kDa), and ESAT-6 (6 kDa) as candidate antigens, DNA vaccines were prepared and tested for immunogenicity and protective efficacy in a murine model of aerosolized tuberculosis (TB). Intramuscular immunization with DNA-64 or DNA-85B resulted in the activation of CD4(+) T cells, which produce gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), and high titers of specific immunoglobulin G antibodies. Further, DNA-64 induced major histocompatibility complex class I-restricted CD8(+) cytotoxic T cells. The addition of a eukaryotic leader sequence to mpt64 did not significantly increase the T-cell or antibody response. Each of the three DNA vectors stimulated a significant reduction in the level of M. tuberculosis infection in the lungs of mice challenged 4 weeks after immunization, but not to the levels resulting after immunization with Mycobacterium bovis BCG. The vaccines showed a consistent hierarchy of protection, with the most effective being Ag85B, followed by ESAT-6 and then MPT64. Coimmunization with the three vectors resulted in a greater degree of protection than that induced by any single vector. This protective efficacy was associated with the emergence of IFN-gamma-secreting T cells earlier than in infected animals immunized with a control vector. The efficacy of these DNA vaccines suggests that multisubunit vaccination may contribute to future vaccine strategies against TB.  (+info)

Development of long-lived humoral immunity is dependent on CXCR5-expressing T follicular helper (Tfh) cells, which develop concomitantly to effector Th cells that support cellular immunity. Conventional dendritic cells (cDCs) are critical APCs for initial priming of naive CD4+ T cells but, importantly, also provide accessory signals that govern effector Th cell commitment. To define the accessory role of cDCs during the concurrent development of Tfh and effector Th1 cells, we performed high-dose Ag immunization in conjunction with the Th1-biased adjuvant polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (pI:C). In the absence of cDCs, pI:C failed to induce Th1 cell commitment and IgG2c production. However, cDC depletion did not impair Tfh cell differentiation or germinal center formation, and long-lived IgG1 responses of unaltered affinity developed in mice lacking cDCs at the time point for immunization. Thus, cDCs are required for the pI:C-driven Th1 cell fate commitment but have no crucial accessory function ...
Follicular helper CD4 T (Tfh) cells are a distinct type of differentiated CD4 T cells uniquely specialized for B cell help. In this study, we examined Tfh cell fate commitment, including distinguishing features of Tfh versus Th1 proliferation and survival. Using cell transfer approaches at early time points after an acute viral infection, we demonstrate that early Tfh cells and Th1 cells are already strongly cell fate committed by day 3. Nevertheless, Tfh cell proliferation was tightly regulated in a TCR-dependent manner. The Tfh cells still depend on extrinsic cell fate cues from B cells in their physiological in vivo environment. Unexpectedly, we found that Tfh cells share a number of phenotypic parallels with memory precursor CD8 T cells, including selective upregulation of IL-7Rα and a collection of coregulated genes. As a consequence, the early Tfh cells can progress to robustly form memory cells. These data support the hypothesis that CD4 and CD8 T cells share core aspects of a memory ...
Several experiences induced us to consider genital HPV infection as an expression of a local immunodeficiency. The aim of our study was to research the effect of immunotherapy on the lymphocyte subpopulations and Langerhans cells in vulvar condyloma. Twenty women with persistent vulvar condylomata, treated with 2,000,000 IU/die of beta-interferon for 15 days, were submitted to vulvar biopsy before and 2-5 months after medical treatment. The frozen sections obtained were assayed with the following monoclonal antibodies: OKT4 (T helper lymphocytes), OKT8 (T suppressor lymphocytes), OKB7 (B lymphocytes) and S-100 protein (Langerhans cells). Using a morphometric evaluation, the average number of both intraepithelial and stromal lymphocyte subsets and of the intraepithelial Langerhans cells was assessed. In all the biopsies preceding the medical treatment we found a low number of T helper lymphocytes both in the epithelium and stroma, with inversion of T4/T8 lymphocyte ratio and rare presence of ...
We recently observed a very weak type I (IFN-α/β) ISG response in two chimpanzees with acute hepatitis A (Lanford et al., 2011). The present study was undertaken to assess cellular immunity in the setting of weak ISG activity, and to define protective mechanisms that contribute to resolution of acute symptomatic hepatitis A and prevent relapse of liver disease that is observed in some individuals after apparent control of the infection. Our results indicate that control of acute hepatitis A was most closely associated with a CD4+ T cell response that was strong and sustained despite weak ISG activity.. Control of HCV and HBV infections is critically dependent on CD8+ T cells. Studies in humans and chimpanzees have documented a temporal association between the development of a functional CD8+ T cell response and control of liver infection (Rehermann, 2009; Chisari et al., 2010; Walker, 2010). Moreover, infection is prolonged or persists in HCV and HBV-infected chimpanzees after ...
Several elegant models of AAD have been described whereby transfer of in vitro-polarized Th2 cells induces pulmonary eosinophilia 18,19,20,21. However, the Th cells used for these studies were, in general, polarized for short times in culture. Therefore, we set out to develop a system whereby Th cells were maximally polarized to ensure differential chemokine receptor expression, and thus induced multiple pathophysiological endpoints after transfer in vivo. Th2 or Th1 cells were generated in vitro after several rounds of polarizing cytokines before transfer in vivo, when mice received multiple serial in vivo antigen challenges. Accordingly, Th1 or Th2 cells were transferred intravenously to unsensitized BALB/c recipient mice, and changes in lung function were measured at various time intervals after antigen challenge. Mice were then killed at day 4 or 7, and the extent of inflammation was determined in the BAL and tissue (Fig. 1). Control mice that received cells but no antigen challenge showed ...
T helper cell factors (HF) have been preparated against protein and synthetic antigens by restimulating in vitro induced helper cells with small amounts of antigen. HF when tested in vitro are antigen specific and capable of replacing T cells, initiating a thymus dependent IgM response. In the in vivo adoptive transfer assay HF is capable of replacing T helper cells and is active at very high dilution, inducing both IgM and IgG responses. When tested on unirradiated DNP primed animals the HF was able to initiate a thymus dependent anti-hapten response, comparable to that seen with helper T cells, of both IgM and IgG class. It was also shown that HF acts on anti-Thy 1 treated spleen cells. The results indicate that antigen specific helper factors may be one of the physiologic mediators of T-B interactions in intact animals.
An overview chapter discussing extracellular nucleotides, in particular ATP, and its complex effects and regulation of immune responses & inflammatory reactions
CD4+ T cells are critical for host defense but are also major drivers of immune-mediated disease. These T cells specialize to become distinct subsets and produce restricted patterns of cytokines, which are tailored to combat various microbial pathogens. Although classically viewed as distinct lineages, recent work calls into question whether helper CD4+ T cell subsets are more appropriately viewed as terminally differentiated cells or works in progress. Herein, we review recent advances that pertain to this topic and the mechanisms that contribute to helper CD4+ T cell commitment and plasticity. The therapeutic implications of these new findings are also considered.. ...
HIV-specific CD4+ T helper lymphocytes are preferred targets for infection. Although complete interruption of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) can form part of therapeutic manipulations, there is grave concern that the resumption of viral replication might destroy, perhaps irreversibly, these T helper populations. High viremia blocks the proliferation capacity of HIV-specific helper cells. However, cytokine production assays imply that some antigen-specific effector function is retained. Despite this careful work, it remains unclear whether the return of HIV-1 replication physically destroys HIV-1-specific T helper cells in the peripheral blood. Difficulties in producing stable peptide-MHC class II complexes and the very low frequencies of antigen-specific CD4+ T cells have delayed the application of this powerful technique. Here we employ HLA class II tetramers and validate a sensitive, quantitative cell-enrichment technique to detect HIV-1 T helper cells. We studied patients with early-stage
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The follicular helper T (Tfh) cells help is critical for activation of B cells, antibody class switching and germinal center formation. The Tfh cells are characterized by the expression of CXCR5, ICOS, PD-1, Bcl-6, and IL-21. They are involved in clearing infections and are adversely linked with autoimmune diseases and also have a role in viral replication as well as clearance. Tfh cells are generated from naïve CD4 T cells with sequential steps involving cytokine signaling (IL-21, IL-6, IL-12, activin A), migration and positioning in the germinal center by CXCR5, surface receptors (ICOS/ICOSL, SAP/SLAM) as well as transcription factor (Bcl-6, c-Maf, STAT3) signaling and repressor miR155. On the other hand Tfh generation is negatively regulated at specific steps of Tfh generation by specific cytokine (IL-2, IL-7), surface receptor (PD-1, CTLA-4), transcription factors Blimp-1, STAT5, T-bet, KLF-2 signaling and repressor miR 146a. Interestingly, miR 17-92 and FOXO1 acts as a positive as well as a
B cell activation and antibody production against foreign antigens is a central step of host defense. This is achieved via highly regulated multi-phase processes that involve a variety of cells of both innate and adaptive arms of the immune system. MHC class II-restricted CD4+ T cells specific for peptide antigens, which acquire professional follicular B cell helper functions, have been long recognized as key players in this process. Recent data, however, challenge this paradigm by showing the existence of other helper cell types. CD1d restricted NKT cells specific for lipid antigens are one such new player and can coopt bona fide follicular helper phenotypes. Their role in helping antigen-specific B cell response to protein antigens, as well as to the so called
Methods to prime human CD4+ T cells in vitro would be of significant value for the pre-clinical evaluation of vaccine candidates and other immunotherapeutics. However, to date, there is no reliable method for the induction of primary human T cell responses in the laboratory. Here, we optimized a culture strategy incorporating highly purified lymphocytes and dendritic cells, in the absence of any exogenous growth factors, for the in vitro sensitization of naïve CD4+ T cells against a variety of protein antigens. This fully autologous approach, which was superior to the more traditional PBMC assay for supporting the induction of primary human T helper cell responses in culture, elicited effector cells capable of producing a variety of Th cytokines, including IFN?, TNFa, IL-2, IL-5, IL-17 and IL-21, and memory cells that could be restimulated multiple times with a specific antigen. Through simple modifications to this culture method, we evaluated the role of dendritic cell maturation state and ...
The lymphoid follicle is critical for the development of humoral immune responses. Cell circulation to this site is highly regulated by the differential expression of chemokine receptors. This feature contributes to the establishment of viral reservoirs in lymphoid follicles and the development of some types of malignancies that are able to evade immune surveillance, especially conventional CD8+ T cells. Interestingly, a subtype of CD8+ T cells located within the lymphoid follicle (follicular CD8+ T cells) was recently described; these cells have been proposed to play an important role in viral and tumor control, as well as to modulate humoral and T follicular helper cell responses. In this review we summarize the knowledge on this novel CD8+ T cell population, its origin, function and potential role in health and disease, in particular, in the context of the infection by the human immunodeficiency virus.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Peptide epitope identification for tumor-reactive CD4 T cells. AU - Kobayashi, Hiroya. AU - Celis, Esteban. PY - 2008/4/1. Y1 - 2008/4/1. N2 - Because T lymphocytes have the capacity to recognize tumor cells, significant efforts are being devoted towards the development of T cell-based immunotherapy for cancer. Most of this work has centered in the induction of anti-tumor CD8 T cells, which exhibit cytolytic activity towards tumor cells expressing tumor-specific or tumor associated antigens. Unfortunately to this day, T cell-based immunotherapy for cancer remains suboptimal. One of the possible explanations is that these immunotherapies have ignored the role that CD4 T helper lymphocytes play in the generation and persistence of CD8 T cell responses. Thus, we believe that in order to obtain clinical benefits T cell-based immunotherapy must stimulate both CD8 and CD4 tumor-reactive T cell responses. During the past seven years our group has focused on the identification of CD4 T ...
T cell autoreactivity is a hallmark of autoimmune diseases but can also benefit self-maintenance and foster tissue repair. Here, we investigated whether heart-specific T cells exert salutary or detrimental effects in the context of myocardial infarction (MI), the leading cause of death worldwide. After screening more than 150 class II-restricted epitopes, we found that myosin heavy chain α (MYHCA) was a dominant cardiac antigen triggering post-MI CD4+ T cell activation in Balb/c mice. Transferred MYHCA614-629-specific CD4+ T cells (TCR-M cells) selectively accumulated in the myocardium and mediastinal lymph nodes (med-LNs) of infarcted mice, acquired a Treg phenotype with a distinct prohealing gene expression profile, and mediated cardioprotection. Myocardial Tregs were also detected in autopsy samples from patients who had had a MI. Noninvasive PET/CT imaging using a CXCR4 radioligand revealed enlarged med-LNs with increased cellularity in patients with MI. Notably, the med-LN alterations ...
The pathophysiology of AIDS is complex, as is the case with all syndromes. Ultimately, HIV causes AIDS by depleting CD4+ T helper lymphocytes. This weakens the immune system and allows opportunistic infections. T lymphocytes are essential to the immune response and without them, the body cannot fight infections or kill cancerous cells. The mechanism of CD4+ T cell depletion differs in the acute and chronic phases. During the acute phase, HIV-induced cell lysis and killing of infected cells by cytotoxic T cells accounts for CD4+ T cell depletion, although apoptosis may also be a factor. During the chronic phase, the consequences of generalized immune activation coupled with the gradual loss of the ability of the immune system to generate new T cells appear to account for the slow decline in CD4+ T cell numbers. Although the symptoms of immune deficiency characteristic of AIDS do not appear for years after a person is infected, the bulk of CD4+ T cell loss occurs during the first weeks of ...
The pathophysiology of AIDS is complex, as is the case with all syndromes. Ultimately, HIV causes AIDS by depleting CD4+ T helper lymphocytes. This weakens the immune system and allows opportunistic infections. T lymphocytes are essential to the immune response and without them, the body cannot fight infections or kill cancerous cells. The mechanism of CD4+ T cell depletion differs in the acute and chronic phases. During the acute phase, HIV-induced cell lysis and killing of infected cells by cytotoxic T cells accounts for CD4+ T cell depletion, although apoptosis may also be a factor. During the chronic phase, the consequences of generalized immune activation coupled with the gradual loss of the ability of the immune system to generate new T cells appear to account for the slow decline in CD4+ T cell numbers. Although the symptoms of immune deficiency characteristic of AIDS do not appear for years after a person is infected, the bulk of CD4+ T cell loss occurs during the first weeks of ...
A team of Whitehead Institute researchers recently discovered how T follicular helper cells function in the body, a key to understanding the human immune system.
BACKGROUND: CD40 is a 48 kDa type I transmembrane protein that is constitutively expressed on hematopoietic cells such as dendritic cells, macrophages, and B cells. Engagement of CD40 by CD40L expressed on T cells results in the production of proinflammatory cytokines, induces T helper cell function, and promotes macrophage activation. The involvement of CD40 in chronic immune activation has resulted in CD40 being proposed as a therapeutic target for a range of chronic inflammatory diseases. CD40 antagonists are currently being explored for the treatment of autoimmune diseases and several anti-CD40 agonist mAbs have entered clinical development for oncological indications. RESULTS: To better understand the mode of action of anti-CD40 mAbs, we have determined the x-ray crystal structures of the ABBV-323 (anti-CD40 antagonist, ravagalimab) Fab alone, ABBV-323 Fab complexed to human CD40 and FAB516 (anti-CD40 agonist) complexed to human CD40. These three crystals structures 1) identify the ...
Cell-mediated immune responses to HCV antigens may play a role in the pathogenes is of chronic liver disease, viral persistence, and treatment outcome in patients with HCV infection. Observations suggest that CD8 + T cells may be critical for successful HCV clearance. Continue reading HCV Clearance: IFN Treatment and T Helper Cell Response →. ...
The invention discloses methods for inducing a desired T helper lymphocyte regulated immune response by delivering an immunogen to a preselected region of the gastrointestinal tract of a subject. The
2020. Hilligan KL, Ronchese F (2020). Antigen presentation by dendritic cells and their instruction of CD4+ T helper cell responses. Cell Mol Immunol. 17(6):587-599. Bosteels C, Neyt K, Vanheerswynghels M, van Helden MJ, Sichien D, Debeuf N, De Prijck S, Bosteels V, Vandamme N, Martens L, Saeys Y, Louagie E, Lesage M, Williams DL, Tang SC, Mayer JU, Ronchese F, Scott CL, Hammad H, Guilliams M, Lambrecht BN (2020). Inflammatory Type 2 cDCs Acquire Features of cDC1s and Macrophages to Orchestrate Immunity to Respiratory Virus Infection. Immunity. S1074-7613(20)30163-1.. Ronchese F, Hilligan KL, Mayer JU (2020). Dendritic Cells and the Skin Environment. Curr Opin Immunol. 64:56-62.. Giladi A, Cohen M, Medaglia C, Baran Y, Li B, Zada M, Bost P, Blecher-Gonen R, Salame TM, Mayer JU, David E, Ronchese F, Tanay A, Amit I (2020). Dissecting cellular crosstalk by sequencing physically interacting cells. Nat Biotechnol. 38(5):629-637 Shepherd AL, Smith AAT, Wakelin KA, Kuhn S, Yang J, Eccles DA, Ronchese ...
If you have a question about this talk, please contact Danielle Stretch.. Gene expression levels are believed to be continuously distributed from very low to very high levels, with most genes at an intermediate level. We have studied the transcriptome-wide distribution of expression levels in mouse T helper cells using RNA -seq technology, and have developed a variety of ways to model the expected background levels. This is critical for definition of a threshold level of expression of a gene in a given cell type. In order to calibrate the RNA -seq expression levels in terms of molecules of mRNA per cell, we have intregrated the RNA -seq data with single molecule mRNA-FISH experiments.. The results of these analyses and experiments show that many genes are expressed at > ~1 molecule per cell and that two major expression levels can be identified which vary by roughly one to two orders of magnitude. This gives rise to bimodal distributions of gene expression levels in cell populations. Analysis of ...
Ruxolitinib reverses dysregulated T helper cell responses and controls autoimmunity caused by a novel signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) gain-of-function mutation. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2017 May; 139(5):1629-1640.e2 ...
Hi and welcome to the forum! I am glad that I can help you.You would like to know whether you are at risk of being infected with HIV although you received a negative HIV test 5 months and a week after the suspicious event.HIV causes weakening of the immune system by affecting the T helper lymphocytes leading to a cond
Ac-Choline Receptor Alpha1 (129-145) (Human, Bovine, Mouse, Rat), 10 mg. This fragment of a conserved sequence in nicotinic acetylcholine receptor activates T helper lymphocytes and induces the production of autoantibodies that cause electrophysiologic
Helper activity of several murine CD4+ T cell subsets was examined. Effector Th, derived from naive cells after 4 days of in vitro stimulation with alloantigen, when generated in the presence of IL-4, secreted high levels of IL-4, IL-5, and IL-6, and low levels of IL-2 and IFN-gamma, and induced the secretion of all Ig isotypes particularly IgM, IgG1, IgA, and IgE from resting allogeneic B cells. Effectors generated with IL-6 secreted IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IFN-gamma, and induced similar levels of total Ig, 25 to 35 micrograms/ml, but with IgM, IgG3, IgG1, and IgG2a isotypes predominating. Helper activity of these Th was significantly greater than that of effectors generated with IL-2 (10-15 micrograms/ml Ig) and of 24-h-activated naive and memory cells (2-4 micrograms/ml), both of which induced mainly IgM. Unlike other isotypes, IgE was induced only by effector Th generated with IL-4. Blocking studies showed that secretion of all isotypes in response to IL-6-primed effectors was dependent ...
T helper cells (also known as effector T cells or Th cells) are a sub-group of lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell or leukocyte) that play an important role in establishing and maximizing the capabilities of the immune system. .   they have no cytotoxic or phagocytic activity; they cannot kill infected host (also known as somatic) cells or pathogens, Th cells are involved in activating and directing other immune cells, and are particularly important in the immune system .  Mature Th cells are believed to always express the surface protein CD4. T cells expressing CD4 are also known as CD4+ T cells. .  Cytotoxic T cells (TC cells, or CTLs) destroy virally infected cells and tumor cells, and are also implicated in transplant rejection. These cells are also known as CD8+ T cells (associated with MHC class I), since they express the CD8 glycoprotein at their surface. Through SLOB[ clarification needed] interaction with T regulatory CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ cells, these cells can be ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Cloned helper T lymphocytes exposed to interleukin 2 become unresponsive to antigen and concanavalin A but not to calcium ionophore and phorbol ester. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
To make the video memorable, it has to feel like a journey and have a punch line at the end - a complete story arc or a loop of information. Thus, I think it would be best to present a threat in the beginning then focus on the roles of B-Cells and use them as the story driver: The audience needs a reason to go on a journey so the B-Cells could be presented in a way that feels as if they are waiting for activation by the Helper T-Cells and their Cytokines. (Cytokines are proteins that stimulate the other cells to be more active) The film will move on to show what is keeping the Phagocytes busy and how they then interact with Helper T-Cells. The explanation of the exact roles of Helper T-Cells would lead back to the activation of the B-Cells and the 3/4 change of pace of the video. A final illustration of the battle between this whole system and the pathogen presents itself as a satisfying conclusion for our story arc ...
Although in vivo priming of CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) generally requires the participation of CD4+ T-helper lymphocytes, the nature of the help provided to CTLs is unknown. One widely held view is that help for CTLs is mediated by cytokines produced by T-helper cells activated in proximi …
The mammalian Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (STAT) family members is composed of 7 users (1, 5a, 5b and 6). STAT molecules exert essential
In response to antigen presentation, helper T lymphocytes (TH cells) initiate store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) and differentiate into effector subtypes such as TH1 and TH2 cells. These cells play essential roles in adaptive immunity and the pathogenesis of various autoimmune and allergic diseases. The differentiation and activity of TH cells are also critically regulated by paracrine and autocrine soluble factors in the cell microenvironment. Previous studies have reported that TH cells produce gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) via glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) and express A-type GABA receptors (GABAARs), forming an autocrine GABA signaling system. In addition, GABA executes anti-inflammatory actions in TH1-autoimmune diseases. This project sought to examine whether autocrine GABA signaling distinctively regulates the function of different TH effector cells using two unique lines of human TH cells: Jurkat and CCRF-CEM. Our results showed that Jurkat and CCRF-CEM cells exhibited features of TH1 and TH2
CD4+ T cells are central mediators of autoimmune pathology; however, defining their key effector functions in specific autoimmune diseases remains challenging.
4 ± 88.4 (log10 2.45 ± 1.95). YC-Brij700chitosan-gp140 but not YC-SDS-gp140 nor YC-NaMA-gp140 promoted significant specific-gp140 IgA titers (P < 0.05) after three immunizations (90 days). Such effect was comparable to that of Alum at the same time point (P < 0.05). However, the effect of NP as a whole on serum specific-gp140 IgA after i.d. immunization was low because the kinetics and magnitude of specific-gp140 IgA responses promoted by Alum after the first boost (60 days) was significantly superior to those of NP ( Fig. 4C). To test whether YC-wax NP modulated T-helper cell responses, the gp140 specific IgG1/IgG2a. ratio was also determined by ELISA. Of note, gp140 alone induced an IgG response that was biased selleck screening library towards a Th2 phenotype. Such a response did not appear to be modulated by Alum, YC-wax NaMA or YC-wax Brij700-chitosan (Fig. 4D). However, YC-wax SDS appeared to induce a more balanced Th1/Th2 response. (Fig. 4D). To test whether NP were also capable of ...
2016 Mar 17 doi 1111/all.12887 (epub ahead of print).. OMahony L, Akdis CA, Eiwegger T. Innate mechanisms can predict successful allergy immunotherapy. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2016 Feb, 137(2):559-61.. Christiansen A, Kringelum JV, Hansen CS, Bogh KL, Sullivan E, Patel J, Rigby NM, Eiwegger T, Szepfalusi Z, de Masi F, Nielsen M, Lund O, Dufva M. High-throughput sequencing enhanced phage display enables the identification of patient-specific epitope motifs in serum. Sci Rep 2015; 5: 12913.. Soyka MB, Holzmann D, Basinski TM, Wawrzyniak M, Bannert C, Bürgler S, Akkoc T, Treis A, Rückert B, Akdis M, Akdis CA, Eiwegger T.. The induction of IL-33 in the sinus epithelium and its influence on T-helper cell responses. PlosOne 2015; 10: e0123163.. Boyman O, Kaegi S, Akdis S, Bavbek S, Bossios A, Chatzipetrou A, Eiwegger T, Firinu D, Harr T, Knol E, Matucci A, Palomares O, Schmidt-Weber C, Simon HU, Steiner UC, Vultaggio A, Akdis CA and Spertini F. EAACI IG Biologicals task force paper on the use of ...
Biology Animations includes selected, high quality biological animations; about cell biology, microbiology, genetics, immunology, cancer treatments and diagnosis.... ...
Hatzi K, J Nance P, Kroenke MA, Bothwell M, Haddad EK, Melnick A, Crotty S. 2015. BCL6 orchestrates Tfh cell differentiation via multiple distinct mechanisms.. J Exp Med. 212(4):539-53. ...
Results: Mean IL-4R expression on monocytes and Th lymphocytes did not differ at birth. After one year it increased on Th-lymphocytes and decreased on monocytes. However, among 10 children with severe atopy during the observation period, 8 displayed IL-4R above the mean value for the group on both monocytes and Th cells at birth as well as one year later. No correlation was found between IL-4 or IFN-γ and IL-4R expression at birth. After one year, significant IL-4 increases and IFN-γ decreases were observed which correlated with IL-4R expression. IL-4R expression on the newborns monocytes correlated negatively with IL-12 plasma level; however, it was statistically significant only in the children developing allergy. Moreover, only in these patients was a significant decrease in IL-12 found after one year ...
R. A. Maldonado, Soriano, M. A., L. Perdomo, C., Sigrist, K., Irvine, D. J., Decker, T., and Glimcher, L. H., Control of T helper cell differentiation through cytokine receptor inclusion in the immunological synapse, Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol. 206, no. 4, pp. 877 - 892, 2009. ...
Pawelec, G.; Brocker, Thomas; Busch, Friedrich W.; Bühring, Hans-Jörg; Fernandez, N.; Schneider, E. M. und Wernet, P. (1988): Tolerization of human T-helper cell clones by chronic exposure to alloantigen. Culture conditions dictate autocrine proliferative status but not acquisition of cytotoxic potential and suppressor-induction capacity. In: The Journal of Molecular and Cellular Immunology, Vol. 4, Nr. 1: S. 21-34 [PDF, 2MB] ...
Funkcjonalne zróżnicowanie limfocytów pomocniczych T. Existența subseturi de T helper CD4 + limfocite care diferă în modelele lor de secreție de citokine și funcțiile efectoare oferă un cadru pentru înțelegerea eterogenitatea răspunsurilor imune normale și patologice. Definirea ularului celular și a mecanismelor moleculare ale diferențierii helper- celule T ar trebui să conducă la strategii raționale de manipulare a răspunsurilor imune pentru profilaxie și terapie. Czynnik wzrostu komórek T: […]. ...
a cytokine released by monocytes, macrophages and other immune cells that fight infection. IL-1 activates helper T-cells, mediates acute systemic immune symptoms (e.g., fever) and acts on the hypothalamus to decrease appetite ...
CD4, 50 µg. The CD4 antigen is highly expressed on human T helper cells and thymocytes, and at lower levels on monocytes and dendritic cells.
that prosecutes therapeutic technology. It is a class of technology that allows the T helper cells in the body to recognize cancer in their bodies. When the T helper cells in the immune system of the body are trained to recognize the cancer cells, it kills the cancer cells. This technology is going to be extremely important for patients that are undergoing surgery. There are still loose cells of the tumor traveling through the body and it is very difficult to detect and kill them with chemotherapy. The best way is to use our technology in a therapeutic format. Patients with breast cancer and other cancers could expect in using our technologies, to be able to see a much higher survival rate. Presently we are in the clinic with this technology and we are dosing patients and we are hoping that in the next six months we will be ready ...
T-rakud, mis reageerides makrofaagide poolt eksponeeritavale antigeenile, stimuleerivad B- ja T-lümfotsüüte, et neist areneksid vastavalt antikehasid moodustavad plasmarakud ja tapja-T-rakud.. ...
Two synergizing antigen-specific helper T (Th) cell populations are required for an optimal TEPC15 (T15)-dominated antiphosphorylcholine (PC) plaque- forming cell response . In these studies, the two Th cell sets are shown to differ in their requirements for recognition of self-major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-encoded determinants by testing the ability of Th cells from F(1) {arrow} parent bone marrow chimeras to collaborate with PC-specific B cells bearing MHC-encoded determinants of either parental haplotypes. Previous studies have shown that one antigen-specific Th cell population is required for T-dependent anti-PC responses and activates PC-specific B cells only if the hapten, PC, is physically linked to the priming antigen. This Th cell, referred to as ThMHC, induces anti-PC responses that are mainly non-T15 in character, and it appears to be identical to the conventional antigen- specific Th cell. In these experiments, using T cells from (A X B)F(1) {arrow} parent A chimeras, ThMHC ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - BCL6 represses antiviral resistance in follicular T helper cells. AU - Amet, Tohti. AU - Son, Young Min. AU - Jiang, Li. AU - Cheon, In Su. AU - Huang, Su. AU - Gupta, Samir K.. AU - Dent, Alexander L.. AU - Montaner, Luis J.. AU - Yu, Qigui. AU - Sun, Jie. N1 - Funding Information: This study was supported by the U.S. National Institutes of Health Creative and Novel Ideas in HIV Research (CNIHR) program. Grants R21 AI119612, RO1 AI112844, RO1 HL126647, and RO1 AG047156 were awarded to J.S.; Grant RO1 AI117835 to Q.Y.; and Grants RO1 AI094603, U01 AI110434, and UM1 AI126620 to L.J.M. The authors thank Dr. Shekhar A. Kubal at IUSM (Transplant Surgery) and physicians at IU Riley Hospital for providing human spleen, lymph node, and tonsil specimens.. PY - 2017/8. Y1 - 2017/8. N2 - Follicular Th (Tfh) cells are a distinct subset of Th cells that help B cells produce class-switched antibodies. Studies have demonstrated that Tfh cells are highly prone to HIV infection and replication. ...
Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is a type of antibody associated with allergies and response to parasites such as worms. When high-affinity, allergen-specific IgE binds its target, it can cross-link receptors on mast cells that induce anaphylaxis. It remains unclear, however, how B cells are instructed to generate high-affinity IgE. Gowthaman et al. discovered a subset of T follicular helper cells (TFH13) that direct B cells to do just that. TFH13 cells are induced by allergens but not during parasite infection. Transgenic mice lacking these cells show impaired production of high-affinity, anaphylactic IgE. TFH13 cells, which are elevated in patients with food and aeroallergies, may be targeted in future antianaphylaxis therapies.. Science, this issue p. eaaw6433 ...
The CD4 and CD8 molecules are involved in T cell differentiation and activation. Nevertheless, efficient thymic maturation of helper T cells has been shown in the absence of the CD4 molecule. These CD4-deficient helper T cells expressed alpha beta-TCR and were able to control Leishmania infections and to mediate Ab class switch. Using mice deficient for the CD8 alpha-chain, we investigated whether a similar cytotoxic T cell population was generated in the absence of the CD8 coreceptor. A CD8-deficient cytotoxic T cell population corresponding to the described CD4-deficient helper T cell population was virtually absent both functionally and physically. These results support the idea that thymic maturation is asymmetrical and strongly biased toward the helper phenotype. ...
Follicular T helper (Tfh) cells are essential in the formation of high-affinity antibody producing plasma cells and memory B cells. After antigen encounter naive Tfh cells start to upregulate the chemokine receptor CXCR5. This results in homing of the Tfh cells to lymph node follicles where the Tfh cells specifically ... read more localise in germinal centres (GCs). In the GCs the Tfh cells stimulate B cells to differentiate resulting in the production of antibodies. In systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) an increased amount of autoantibodies is seen. Recent studies postulate that an increased amount of autoantibodies can be related to Tfh cells. The exact role of Tfh cells in the production of autoantibodies in SLE remains elusive, but some research papers provide information from which potential roles can be drawn. The essence of these research papers is the increased level of the chemokine ligand CXCL13 in SLE. CXCL13 levels correlate with disease severity. Further knowledge concerning the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Combination peptide immunotherapy suppresses antibody and helper T cell responses to the major human platelet autoantigen GPIIb/IIIa in HLA-transgenic mice. AU - Hall, Lindsay S. AU - Lennon, Charlotte S. AU - Hall, Andrew M. AU - Urbaniak, Stanislaw J.. AU - Vickers, Mark A. AU - Barker, Robert N. N1 - The study was funded by grants from the Medical Research Council (UK) Confidence in Concept, the Scottish National Blood Transfusion Service and the Wellcome Trust (UK). PY - 2019/5. Y1 - 2019/5. N2 - Platelet destruction in immune thrombocytopenia is caused by autoreactive antibody and T cell responses, most commonly directed against platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa. Loss of self-tolerance in the disease is also associated with deficient activity of regulatory T cells. Having previously mapped seven major epitopes on platelet glycoprotein IIIa that are recognised by helper T cells from patients with immune thrombocytopenia, the aim was to test whether peptide therapy with any of ...
Follicular helper T cells (Tfh) represent a distinct subset of CD4+ T cells specialized in providing help to B lymphocytes. Studies have indicated that Tfh in circulating blood can act as a prognostic marker for diseases. In the current study, we inv
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Allergen-specific helper T cell response in patients with cows milk allergy: Simultaneous analysis of proliferation and cytokine production by carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester dilution assay. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Wong, M.T., Chen, J., Narayanan, S. et al.. Single-cell analysis technologies such as mass cytometry allow for measurements of cellular heterogeneity with unprecedented dimensionality. Here, we applied dimensionality reduction and automated clustering methods on human T helper (TH) cells derived from peripheral blood and tonsils, which showed differential cell composition and extensive TH cell heterogeneity. Notably, this analysis revealed numerous subtypes of follicular helper T (TFH) cells that followed a continuum spanning both blood and tonsils. Furthermore, we identified tonsillar CXCR5loPD-1loCCR7lo TFH cells expressing interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-17 (IL-17), or Foxp3, indicating that TFH cells exhibit diverse functional capacities within extrafollicular stages. Regression analysis demonstrated that CXCR5loPD-1(-) and CXCR5loPD-1lo cells accumulate during childhood in secondary lymphoid organs, supporting previous findings that these subsets represent memory TFH cells. This study ...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30669756?dopt=Abstract. [Role of circulating T follicular helper subsets and T follicular helper effector memory cells in systemic lupus erythematosus].. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi. Related Articles. [Role of circulating T follicular helper subsets and T follicular helper effector memory cells in systemic lupus erythematosus].. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2019 Jan 15;99(3):164-168. Authors: Liang YC, Yao Y, Zhang RJ, Shao M, Sun XL, Shi GX, Gao C, Yu D, He J. Abstract. Objective: To investigate the role of T follicular helper (Tfh) subsets and T follicular helper effector memory (Tfhem) cells in circulation of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and explore their roles in SLE disease activity index as biomarkers. Methods: This study enrolled 64 patients with SLE and 15 healthy controls. In peripheral blood from patients with SLE and health controls, the percentage of Tfhem (CD3(+)CD4(+)CD45RA(-)CXCR5(+)CCR7(low)PD-1(high)) cells, Tfh ...
Gonorrhea is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted diseases in the world. A naturally occurring variation of the terminal carbohydrates on the lipooligosaccharide (LOS) molecule correlates with altered disease states. Here, we investigated t
An interactive resource for Follicular Helper T (Tfh) Cell Markers that includes links to related antibodies and data showcasing the detection of Tfh cells.
TY - JOUR. T1 - FAS-ligand regulates differential activation-induced cell death of human T-helper 1 and 17 cells in healthy donors and multiple sclerosis patients. AU - Cencioni, M. T.. AU - Santini, S.. AU - Ruocco, G.. AU - Borsellino, G.. AU - De Bardi, M.. AU - Grasso, M. G.. AU - Ruggieri, S.. AU - Gasperini, C.. AU - Centonze, D.. AU - Barilá, D.. AU - Battistini, L.. AU - Volpe, E.. PY - 2015/5/1. Y1 - 2015/5/1. N2 - Functionally distinct T-helper (Th) subsets orchestrate immune responses. Maintenance of homeostasis through the tight control of inflammatory Th cells is crucial to avoid autoimmune inflammation. Activation-Induced Cell Death (AICD) regulates homeostasis of T cells, and it has never been investigated in human Th cells. We generated stable clones of inflammatory Th subsets involved in autoimmune diseases, such as Th1, Th17 and Th1/17 cells, from healthy donors (HD) and multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and we measured AICD. We find that human Th1 cells are sensitive, whereas ...
Nitrophenyl (NP)-specific helper cells and suppressor cells were induced in vitro using NP-T4 bacteriophage as antigen. These cells could mediate their effects also by secreted effector molecules, helper and suppressor factors. The function of both NP-specific helper and suppressor cells was abolished by treatment with anti-Thy1.2 plus C, but they were not retained on nylon wool columns, suggesting that NP-specific helpers and suppressors were T cells. The membrane phenotype of both NP-specific helper and suppressor cells was found to be Ly1+2+I-J+(I-A-). The secreted effector molecules, helper and suppressor factors which mediate helper or suppressor function, bound to NP immunoadsorbents and are NP-specific in their function. They do not have conventional Ig determinants, but both bear determinants coded by the I-J subregion of H-2. The unusual phenotype of NP-specific helper and suppressor cells is discussed, as is the potential use of these hapten-specific T cells and their secreted effector
Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease, which is associated with systemic inflammation and comorbidities, such as psoriatic arthritis and cardiovascular diseases. The autoimmune nature of psoriasis has been established only recently, conferring a central role to epidermal CD8 T cells recognizing self-epitopes in the initial phase of the disease. Different subsets of helper cells have also been reported as key players in the psoriasis pathogenesis. Here, we reviewed the knowledge on the role of each subset in the psoriatic cascade and in the different clinical manifestations of the disease. We will discuss the role of Th1 and Th17 cells in the initiation and in the amplification phase of cutaneous inflammation. Moreover, we will discuss the recently proposed role of tissue resident Th22 cells in disease memory in sites of recurrent psoriasis and the possible involvement of Th9 cells. Finally, we will discuss the hypothesis of a link between T helper cell subsets recirculating from the skin and
Infection with L. major is a well-characterized model in which differentiation of class II-restricted T cells into the two mature helper subsets is required for expression of the resistant and susceptible disease phenotype. Ii is required for stable expression of surface class II molecules and, as predicted, cells from Ii −/− mice have substantially lower amounts of surface class II that do not assume the compact conformation that characterizes stable peptide binding ((17), (28), (29)). The major immunologic consequences are twofold: a severely compromised ability to present processed antigens via the class II pathway, and a quantitatively and qualitatively altered CD4+ population due to aberrant selection by thymic epithelial cells unable to present self peptides in a normal manner ((40), (41)). Despite this drastic effect on the class II-dependent immune response, we could discern little consequence to the host in generating either Th1 or Th2 responses to L. major. How might we explain ...
Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) that can be induced in animals to model immunological processes involved in human diseases such as multiple sclerosis, neuromyelitis optica, and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. EAE is initiated by CD4+ T helper lymphocytes of the Th1 or Th17 subset that recognize myelin peptides through their T cell receptors [1]. These cells do not act alone, but in concert with different myeloid cells, including monocyte-derived CD11c+ dendritic cells [2-5], which activate them by presenting the myelin peptides together with costimulatory signals [6-12], and monocyte-derived macrophages [2, 4, 13, 14], which execute effector functions leading to demyelination [15]. In addition, recent studies have established that neutrophils importantly contribute to EAE [16-19], although their precise role is still unclear.. To coordinate their actions, immune cells must communicate with each ...
The CD4 antigen is a single-chain transmembrane glycoprotein with a 59 kDa molecular weight. CD4 binds to a non-polymorphic region of MHC Class II molecules and is a co-receptor in MHC Class II restricted antigen-induced activation. CD4 is expressed on the T helper lymphocytes. It is present on most thymocytes where it is frequently co-expressed with CD8. CD4 is also expressed on all monocytes, although with a lower density than on T lymphocytes. CD4+ T lymphocytes are active in inducing and helping the synthesis of immunoglobulins by B cells. CD4 is a receptor for the Human Immunodeficiency Virus type I (HIV-1) envelope protein gp120 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Both a monoclonal antibody and antisera specific for determinants unique to individual cloned helper T cell lines can substitute for antigen and antigen-presenting cells in the activation of T cells. AU - Kaye, Jonathan. AU - Porcelli, Steven. AU - Tite, John. AU - Jones, Barry. AU - Janeway, Charles A.. PY - 1983/9/1. Y1 - 1983/9/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0020602877&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0020602877&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1084/jem.158.3.836. DO - 10.1084/jem.158.3.836. M3 - Article. C2 - 6193236. AN - SCOPUS:0020602877. VL - 158. SP - 836. EP - 856. JO - Journal of Experimental Medicine. JF - Journal of Experimental Medicine. SN - 0022-1007. IS - 3. ER - ...
T helper and suppressor cell control of autologous immunoglobulin production was measured in 14 patients with Crohns disease (CD) using autologous B cells or monocytes to stimulate regulatory T-cell activity. A pronounced defect in suppressor cell function was observed in the patient group but not in matched controls irrespective of whether B cells or monocytes were used as the stimulus. This defect was observed for IgG, A and M. This defect was seen both in patients with active disease and with inactive CD suggesting the possibility that a primary regulatory defect might exist in this disease. The patient group displayed normal helper cell function ...
Retinoic acid solution (RA), a vitamin A metabolite, modulates mucosal T helper cell responses. A metabolite retinoic acidity (RA) is certainly created mostly by DCs in the belly, epidermis, lung area, and their linked depleting LNs (Guilliams et al., 2010). RA creation by DCs is certainly improved by inflammatory stimuli, and 50-42-0 IC50 RA signaling is certainly elevated at sites of irritation (Yokota et al., 2009; Pino-Lagos et al., 2011). The impact of Spry3 RA is certainly mediated by two classes of receptors, the RA receptors (RARs) and the retinoid Back button receptors, which work as transcription elements to regulate gene phrase. These receptors are portrayed by lymphoid cells, and latest research have got highlighted the importance of RA in controlling the homing capability, account activation, and difference of Testosterone levels cells (Iwata et al., 2004; Mora et al., 2006; Area et al., 2011b). RA promotes induction of Compact disc4+Foxp3+ Testosterone levels regulatory cells ...
The generation of T helper cells in vitro requires macrophages or macrophage-derived factors such as genetically related macrophage factor (GRF) or nonspecific macrophage factor (NMF). However, there is a basic difference of T helper cell induction when using particulate antigens. The present study demonstrates that this difference is based on the activation of two different T cell subsets. GRF activates short-lived T1 cells which amplify the induction of T2 cells, which are the helper cell precursors. Thus, the genetic restriction of T helper cell induction seen with soluble antigen or GRF lies on the level of macrophage or GRF interaction with T1 cells. NMF (or macrophages) and particulate antigens directly activate the helper cell precursor (T2) indicating no requirement for T1-T2 cooperation. The direct activation of the helper cell precursor with particulate antigens does not require histocompatible macrophages or NMF from histocompatible macrophages. The present results may explain some of the
Cytokines are small, secreted, glycoproteins that specifically affect the interactions and communications between cells. Cytokines are produced transiently and locally, acting in a paracrine or autocrine manner, and they are extremely potent, ligating high affinity cell surface receptors to elicit changes in gene expression and protein synthesis in the responding cell. Cytokines produced during the differentiation of T follicular helper (Tfh) cells and B cells within the germinal center (GC) niche play an important role in ensuring that the humoral immune response is robust, whilst retaining flexibility, during the generation of affinity matured antibodies. Cytokines produced by B cells, antigen presenting cells and stromal cells are important for the differentiation of Tfh cells and Tfh cell produced cytokines act both in an autocrine fashion to firm Tfh cell differentiation and in a paracrine fashion to support the differentiation of memory B cells and plasma cells. In this review, we discuss the role
The interactions between cytokines from the Th1/Th2 model can be more complicated in some animals. For example, the Th2 cytokine IL-10 inhibits cytokine production of both Th subsets in humans. Human IL-10 (hIL-10) suppresses the proliferation and cytokine production of all T cells and the activity of macrophages, but continues to stimulate plasma cells, ensuring that antibody production still occurs. As such, hIL-10 is not believed to truly promote the Th2 response in humans, but acts to prevent over-stimulation of helper T cells while still maximising the production of antibodies. There are also other types of T cells that can influence the expression and activation of helper T cells, such as natural regulatory T cells, along with less common cytokine profiles such as the Th3 subset of helper T cells. Terms such as regulatory and suppression have become ambiguous after the discovery that helper CD4+ T cells are also capable of regulating (and suppressing) their own responses outside of ...
St. Jude Childrens Research Hospital scientists have discovered that a protein widely known for suppressing tumor formation also helps prevent autoimmune diseases and other problems by putting the brakes on the immune response. The research was published recently online ahead of print in the scientific journal Nature Immunology. Researchers showed that the tumor suppressor protein PTEN is essential for proper functioning of regulatory T cells. This small population of white blood cells helps to maintain immune system balance by suppressing specialized T cells called helper T cells that fuel distinct parts of the immune response. The helper T cells investigated in this study included type 1 T helper (Th1) and follicular T helper (Tfh) cells. The interplay between regulatory T cells and helper T cells is crucial for both combating infections and for preventing misguided immune attacks that lead to autoimmune diseases and other problems. But details of how regulatory T cells control the diverse ...
Function of T helper cells: Antigen presenting cells (APCs) present antigen on their Class II MHC molecules (MHC2). Helper T cells recognize these, with the help of their expression of CD4 co-receptor (CD4+). The activation of a resting helper T cell causes it to release cytokines and other stimulatory signals (green arrows) that stimulate the activity of macrophages, killer T cells and B cells, the latter producing antibodies. Image source: Wikipedia, Mikael Häggström, public domain ...
Fig. 2 Functional analysis of TCRs encoded by peripheral blood TFH cells.. (A) Sorting and gating strategy for follicular helper CD4+ T cells. CD3+CD4+CXCR5+CD45RA− PD1++ TFH cells were isolated from PBMCs at day 7 post vaccination from a donor vaccinated with the Fluzone vaccine. (B) Histogram showing expression of the CD69 activation marker on Jurkat cells expressing exogenous TCRs from the vaccinated donor after 24 hours incubation in the presence or absence of autologous DCs and/or Fluzone 2011-2012 vaccine. Numbers of transfected cells are shown. HT-T-1 and HT-T-2, Jurkat cells transfected with TCRβ:α from peripheral TFH cells; RA14, CMV-specific TCRβ:α as a negative control. (C) CDR3 sequences and gene usages of the HT-T-1 clone. ...
Pratama A، Ramiscal RR، Silva DG، Das SK، Athanasopoulos V، Fitch J، Botelho NK، Chang PP، Hu X، Hogan JJ، Maña P، Bernal D، Korner H، Yu D، Goodnow CC، Cook MC، Vinuesa CG (April 2013). Roquin-2 shares functions with its paralog Roquin-1 in the repression of mRNAs controlling T follicular helper cells and systemic inflammation. Immunity. 38 (4): 669-80. PMID 23583642. doi:10.1016/j.immuni.2013.01.011. ...
Mechanisms underlying the differentiation of stable T helper subsets will be important in understanding how discrete types of immunity develop in response to different pathogens. An evolutionarily conserved {approx}400 base pair non-coding sequence in the IL-4/IL-13 intergenic region, designated CNS-1, was deleted in mice. The capacity to develop Th2 cells was compromised in vitro and in vivo in the absence of CNS-1. Despite the profound effect in T cells, mast cells from CNS-1-deleted mice maintained their capacity to produce IL-4. A T cell-specific element critical for optimal expression of type 2 cytokines may represent evolution of a regulatory sequence exploited by adaptive immunity.
The CD4/CD8 T-cell ratio, also known as the T-lymphocyte helper/suppressor profile, presents the number of lymphocytes in the blood positive for CD4 cells compared with the number positive for CD8 cells. Changes in participants CD4/CD8 T-lymphocyte ratio were assessed by measuring the change from Baseline in the ratio at scheduled study visits ...
Therapy. The AuRx herpes therapy is thought to work via cell-mediated immunity (CMI). It is based on accumulating evidence that recurrent disease is associated with a preponderance of immune regulatory T cells [helper type 2 (Th2)] that function to downregulate the ability of the virus-specific CMI to control virus replication. The AuRx therapy shifts the balance of the virus-specific T cells to a preponderance of protective T cells [helper type 1 (Th1) T cells] and CD8+ killer (cytotoxic) T cells. These cells cause lysis of the virus-infected cells. Soluble mediators are released which produce a response cascade that includes elevated levels of interferon gamma, a stimulator of the Th1 response which also inhibits HSV reactivation from latently infected ganglia. The AuRx therapy also reduces the production of the soluble mediator IL-10 which stimulates the production of Th2 cells.. ...
Interleukin (IL)-12 is an integral factor that induces T helper cell type 1-mediated immunity and inflammatory Alvocidib diseases. recognition mechanisms and exhibited that transmission transducers and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) signalling activated bacterial phagocytosis and was involved in the induction of abnormal IL-12 production. In IL-10 KO mouse bone marrow-derived (BM) macrophages activation induced increased IL-12p70 production compared to lipopolysaccharide combined with interferon (IFN)-γ treatment. Significant repression of IL-12 production was achieved by inhibition of phagocytosis with cytochalasin D and inhibition of protein synthesis with cycloheximide. Induction of IFN regulatory factors-1 and -8 downstream molecules of STAT1 and the key transcription factors for IK-12 transcription following activation were mediated by phagocytosis. Interestingly STAT1 was activated after activation with in IL-10 KO BM macrophages although IFN-γ SLRR4A could not be detected. These ...
Thymocytes adoptively transferred into syngeneic irradiated recipients can be primed with antigen (KLH) to generate two types of helper function termed specific and non-specific. Low doses of KLH given without adjuvant generate high levels of non-specific compared to specific helper T cells. Large doses of KLH given in adjuvant (FCA) generate high levels of both types of helper T cell. Explantations for this observation are discussed.
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New study results suggest that circulating T helper cells have the potential to serve as a target for immunotherapy in type 1 diabetes.
Interleukins are a group of cytokines (secreted proteins and signal molecules) that were first seen to be expressed by white blood cells (leukocytes). The function of the immune system depends in a large part on interleukins, and rare deficiencies of a number of them have been described, all featuring autoimmune diseases or immune deficiency. The majority of interleukins are synthesized by helper CD4 T lymphocytes, as well as through monocytes, macrophages, and endothelial cells. They promote the development and differentiation of T and B lymphocytes, and hematopoietic cells. Interleukin receptors on astrocytes in the hippocampus are also known to be involved in the development of spatial memories in mice. The name interleukin was chosen in 1979, to replace the various different names used by different research groups to designate interleukin 1 (lymphocyte activating factor, mitogenic protein, T-cell replacing factor III, B-cell activating factor, B-cell differentiation factor, and ...
CD4(+) helper T cells play crucial roles for host defense and immune-mediated disease by their ability to differentiate into specialized subsets. These subsets attain restricted patterns of cytokine secretion and specific expression of master transcription factors in response to microbial pathogens. …
The specific immune response involves the action of lymphocytes. The specific immune response involves several stages. Activation of T-helper cells: T-helper cells use their CD4 receptors to attach to APCs (macrophages). This causes the T-helper cell to become activated, dividing producing active cells and T-memory cells.. Clonal selection: APC B cells have complementary receptor to activated T-helper cells and they bind. This releases cytokines and produces B memory cells and B effector cells. The B effector cells then differentiate into plasma cells which can produce antibodies. T-killer cells: Infected cells displaying the antigen of the bacteria on their surface are then labelled by the antibodies produced, and T-killer cells have a complementary receptor and bind to them. This produces T-killer memory cells and active T-killer cells which then go on to bind to the infected cells and release chemicals which cause a pore to form in the cell, initiating cell lysis. ...
next reply other threads:[~2019-03-03 12:29 UTC,newest] Thread overview: 37+ messages / expand[flat,nested] mbox.gz Atom feed top 2019-03-03 12:28 Rohit Ashiwal [this message] 2019-03-03 12:28 ` [PATCH 1/3] test functions: Add new function `test_file_not_empty` Rohit Ashiwal 2019-03-03 13:20 ` Junio C Hamano 2019-03-03 13:29 ` Rohit Ashiwal 2019-03-03 13:33 ` none Junio C Hamano 2019-03-03 14:07 ` Clearing logic Rohit Ashiwal 2019-03-03 16:19 ` Thomas Gummerer 2019-03-03 12:28 ` [PATCH 2/3] t3600: refactor code according to contemporary guidelines Rohit Ashiwal 2019-03-03 13:30 ` Junio C Hamano 2019-03-03 14:13 ` t3600: refactor code according to comtemporary guidelines Rohit Ashiwal 2019-03-03 12:28 ` [PATCH 3/3] t3600: use helper functions from test-lib-functions Rohit Ashiwal 2019-03-03 13:32 ` Junio C Hamano 2019-03-03 23:37 ` [GSoC][PATCH v2 0/3] Use helper functions in test script Rohit Ashiwal 2019-03-03 23:37 ` [GSoC][PATCH v2 1/3] test functions: add function `test_file_not_empty` Rohit ...
Madura Larsen, J.; Benn, C.Stabell.; Fillie, Y.; van der Kleij, D.; Aaby, P.; Yazdanbakhsh, M., 2007: BCG stimulated dendritic cells induce an interleukin-10 producing T-cell population with no T helper 1 or T helper 2 bias in vitro
Despite the specific genes or environmental exposures which may contribute to ASD, one theme that emerges from clinical and experimental studies is inflammation and autoimmunity in individuals with ASD and their families.
... cd4-positive t-lymphocytes MeSH A11.118.637.555.567.569.200.400 - t-lymphocytes, helper-inducer MeSH A11.118.637.555.567.569. ... b-lymphocyte subsets MeSH A11.118.637.555.567.550.500 - t-lymphocyte subsets MeSH A11.118.637.555.567.562 - b-lymphocytes MeSH ... t-lymphocytes, cytotoxic MeSH A11.118.637.555.567.569.500 - t-lymphocyte subsets MeSH A11.118.637.555.567.622 - lymphocytes, ... MeSH A11.063.438.450 - b-lymphocyte subsets MeSH A11.063.438.725 - plasma cells MeSH A11.066.270.500 - langerhans cells MeSH ...
... cd4-positive t-lymphocytes MeSH A15.382.490.555.567.569.200.400 - t-lymphocytes, helper-inducer MeSH A15.382.490.555.567.569. ... cd4-positive t-lymphocytes MeSH A15.145.229.637.555.567.569.200.400 - t-lymphocytes, helper-inducer MeSH A15.145.229.637. ... b-lymphocyte subsets MeSH A15.382.490.555.567.550.500 - t-lymphocyte subsets MeSH A15.382.490.555.567.562 - b-lymphocytes MeSH ... t-lymphocyte subsets MeSH A15.145.229.637.555.567.562 - b-lymphocytes MeSH A15.145.229.637.555.567.562.450 - b-lymphocyte ...
... s include both inducer/helper functions (Inducer Factors) and regulator functions (Regulator Factors)- ... This lymphocyte product is sometimes referred to as "dialyzable leukocyte extract" in the scientific literature due to being an ... specific immunity inducer) obtained from bovine colostrum and milk". Acta Virologica. 32 (1): 6-18. PMID 2897772. "Transfer ... historically called "suppressor functions". The Inducer Factors translate an apparently mature immune response from the donor ...
ILCs, on the contrary, may set the helper T lymphocytes in the state of anergy. In the case of ILC 3, the ability to express ... "Lymphoid tissue inducer-like cells are an innate source of IL-17 and IL-22." Journal of Experimental Medicine 206.1 (2009): 35- ... They produce cytokines typical for the population of Th17 helper lymphocytes. The characteristic feature of ILC 3 is the ... They suppress the response of CD4 + T lymphocytes to harmless and beneficial intestinal bacteria. If this tolerance is not ...
They are named 'common helper like' due to their similarity to the T helper effector cell fates. Each stage of differentiation ... January 2009). "Lymphoid tissue inducer-like cells are an innate source of IL-17 and IL-22". The Journal of Experimental ... of the resident lymphocyte population, in human lean adipose depots. A high fat diet increases ILC1 number, and activation of ... March 2014). "Group 2 innate lymphoid cells are critical for the initiation of adaptive T helper 2 cell-mediated allergic lung ...
Support is lent to this idea by the observation that a receptor for IL-12 is important for IFNγ production by lymphocytes. T ... It promotes the development of Th1 responses and is a powerful inducer of IFNγ production by T and NK cells. A child with ... promote type 2 cytokine production in maturing human naive T helper cells". Journal of Immunology. 159 (1): 28-35. PMID 9200435 ... IL-12 mediates enhancement of the cytotoxic activity of NK cells and CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes. There also seems to be a ...
In peripheral blood, GPR15 is mainly found on T cells, especially on CD4+ T helper cells, and less prominent on B cells. By ... Protein expression in lymphocytes is strongly associated with hypomethylation of its gene. Tissue distribution High gene ... Lifestyle Chronic tobacco smoking is a very strong inducer of GPR15-expressing T cells in peripheral blood. Although the ... It is found in epithelial cells, synovial macrophages, endothelial cells and lymphocytes especially T cells. From the mRNA ...
It was also shown to be produced in human lymphocytes. or tuberculin-sensitized mouse peritoneal lymphocytes challenged with ... Next the Th1 helper cells aggregate around the macrophages and release IFNγ, which activates the macrophages. Further ... IFNγ is an important activator of macrophages and inducer of major histocompatibility complex class II molecule expression. ... On the contrary, it was stressed: "Interferon-γ secreted by CD8-positive lymphocytes upregulates PD-L1 on ovarian cancer cells ...
2001). "Aberrant in vivo T helper type 2 cell response and impaired eosinophil recruitment in CC chemokine receptor 8 knockout ... 2000). "CCR6 mediates dendritic cell localization, lymphocyte homeostasis, and immune responses in mucosal tissue". Immunity. ... "CXCL13 expression in the gut promotes accumulation of IL-22-producing lymphoid tissue-inducer cells, and formation of isolated ...
FDCs assist the development of the germinal center via an interaction with B lymphocytes and helper T-lymphocytes. B ... Crosstalk LEC, lymphoid tissue inducer cells and mesenchymal stromal organizer cells initiate the formation of lymph nodes. ... In the nodules, T lymphocytes are located in the T cell zone. B lymphocytes are located in the B cell follicle. The primary B ... Their numbers compensate for the removal of dead peripheral lymphocytes. B and T lymphocytes leave the lymph node based on ...
In addition, IL-21 expression is up-regulated in Th2 and Th17 subsets of T helper cells, as well as T follicular cells. In fact ... Dose-limiting toxicities included low lymphocyte, neutrophil, and thrombocyte count as well as hepatotoxicity. According to the ... a novel inducer of Blimp-1 and Bcl-6". Journal of Immunology. 173 (9): 5361-71. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.173.9.5361. PMID 15494482 ... Chtanova T, Tangye SG, Newton R, Frank N, Hodge MR, Rolph MS, Mackay CR (July 2004). "T follicular helper cells express a ...
... and by others as a product of antigen-stimulated lymphocytes[6][7] or tuberculin-sensitized mouse peritoneal lymphocytes[8] ... IFNγ is secreted by T helper cells (specifically, Th1 cells), cytotoxic T cells (TC cells), macrophages, mucosal epithelial ... IFNγ is an important activator of macrophages and inducer of Class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecule ... It was also shown to be produced in human lymphocytes *^ Green JA, Cooperband SR, Kibrick S (1969). "Immune specific induction ...
The Branch comprises one section: Lymphocyte Cell Biology Section Conducts research into the molecular basis of cytokine action ... Ghoreschi, Kamran; Laurence, Arian; Yang, Xiang-Ping; Hirahara, Kiyoshi; O'Shea, John J. (2011). "T helper 17 cell ... "Lymphoid tissue inducer-like cells are an innate source of IL-17 and IL-22". Journal of Experimental Medicine. 206 (1): 35-41. ... in 1994 as chief of the Lymphocyte Cell Biology Section of the Arthritis and Rheumatism Branch. He was appointed chief of the ...
This cytokine is expressed by activated macrophages that serve as an essential inducer of Th1 cells development. This cytokine ... Subunit beta of interleukin 12 (also known as IL-12B, natural killer cell stimulatory factor 2, cytotoxic lymphocyte maturation ... "Local production of the p40 subunit of interleukin 12 suppresses T-helper 1-mediated immune responses and prevents allogeneic ... "Entrez Gene: IL12B interleukin 12B (natural killer cell stimulatory factor 2, cytotoxic lymphocyte maturation factor 2, p40)". ...
Follicular helper T cells Cytotoxic T cells - Commonly termed CD8+ T cells Memory T cells Regulatory T cells Natural Killer T ... Group 2 ILC Nuocyte Group 3 ILC Lymphoid Tissue inducer cells (LTi cells) (Non-hematopoietic cells with immune functions) ... SLAMF9 Cadherins Selectins E-selectin L-selectin P-selectin Others Lymphocyte homing receptors CD34 GLYCAM-1 Addressin (MAdCAM- ... Marginal-zone B cells Follicular B cells T cells Naive T cells Helper T cells - Commonly termed CD4+ T cells Th1 cells Th2 ...
These effects are primarily due to the loss of any helper T cell that can interact with the B lymphocyte correctly. Another ... which makes them less susceptible to some inducers of cell death. While we know about the types of cytokine patterns helper T ... Th17 helper cells are a subset of T helper cells developmentally distinct from Th1 and Th2 lineages producing interleukin 17 ( ... "T-BAM/CD40-L on helper T lymphocytes augments lymphokine-induced B cell Ig isotype switch recombination and rescues B cells ...
2004). "Endothelial monocyte-activating polypeptide-II (EMAP-II): a novel inducer of lymphocyte apoptosis". J. Leukoc. Biol. 75 ... As an inflammatory cytokine, AIMp1/p43 has demonstrated the ability to skew T-helper polarization in the direction of Th-1, and ... 2004). "Colorectal cancer cells induce lymphocyte apoptosis by an endothelial monocyte-activating polypeptide-II-dependent ...
These effects are primarily due to the loss of any helper T cell that can interact with the B lymphocyte correctly. Another ... which makes them less susceptible to some inducers of cell death.[11][12] ... Main article: T helper 17 cell. Th17 helper cells are a subset of T helper cells developmentally distinct from Th1 and Th2 ... THαβ helper cells[edit]. THαβ helper cells provide the host immunity against viruses. Their differentiation is triggered by IFN ...
These effects are primarily due to the loss of any helper T cell that can interact with the B lymphocyte correctly. Another ... which makes them less susceptible to some inducers of cell death.[11][12] ... Main article: T helper 17 cell. Th17 helper cells are a subset of T helper cells developmentally distinct from Th1 and Th2 ... The characterisation of another novel T helper subtype, T helper 17 cells (Th17)[16] has cast further doubt on the basic Th1/Th ...
Browsing by Subject "T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer". 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. S. T. U. V. W. ...
For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other ... Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune ... Helper-Inducer T-Lymphocyte. Known as: cell helper t, Helper-Inducer T-Cell, Helper T cell (More). ... The existence of subsets of CD4+ helper T lymphocytes that differ in their cytokine secretion patterns and effector functions… ...
T-Lymphocytes, Suppressor-Effector. Neoplasms. Inosine Pranobex. Killer Cells. T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer. Acquired ... Comparison of total helper and suppressor T-cell number between the groups. ...
... subsets and T follicular helper effector memory (Tfhem) cells in circulation of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE ... span,,b,Objective:,/b, To investigate the role of T follicular helper (Tfh) ... T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer* Substances * Antibodies, Antinuclear Grant support * 31570880, 81429003/Natinal Natural Science ... Role of circulating T follicular helper subsets and T follicular helper effector memory cells in systemic lupus erythematosus] ...
Monoclonal antibodies to T-helper/inducer and T-suppressor/cytotoxic lymphocyte subsets recognize antigens on splenic ... MoAbs to the helper/inducer and suppressor/cytotoxic subsets of T-lymphocytes do not appear to identify Ags unique to these ... In addition to recognizing lymphocytes in the T-zone (periarteriolar lymphoid sheaths), MoAbs to the helper/inducer and ... Monoclonal antibodies to T-helper/inducer and T-suppressor/cytotoxic lymphocyte subsets recognize antigens on splenic ...
... helper T cells play crucial roles for host defense and immune-mediated disease by their ability to differentiate into ... T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer / cytology * T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer / immunology* Substances * MicroRNAs ... Helper T cell diversity and plasticity Curr Opin Immunol. 2012 Jun;24(3):297-302. doi: 10.1016/j.coi.2012.01.014. Epub 2012 Feb ... CD4(+) helper T cells play crucial roles for host defense and immune-mediated disease by their ability to differentiate into ...
T-Lymphocytes [‎4]‎. T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer [‎1]‎. Tablets [‎7]‎. Taboo [‎4]‎. ...
Infiltrates consisted mainly of macrophages and T helper/inducer cells. The T4/T8 ratio was 1.7 in the endomysium and 2.1 in ... Lymphocytes expressing the interleukin-2 receptor were detected in 2 patients. Leu-15+ and Leu-11+ cells were found only to a ...
T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer. *Receptors, Chemokine. *CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes. *TNF. *Cell Movement ... Follicular helper T-cells (Tfh cells) are a subset of CD4(+) T-cells that are essential for normal production of high affinity ... Follicular helper T-cells: expanding roles in T-cell lymphoma and targets for treatment.. Br J Haematol. 2014; 166(3):326-35 [ ... Circulating memory follicular helper T cells were reduced in the majority of patients as well. Naïve B cells exhibited a ...
T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer. *Survival Rate. *Wnt4 Protein. *Mutation. *Cell Proliferation. *Neoplastic Cell Transformation ... Notch signaling plays a pivotal role in cell fate decision and lineage commitment of lymphocytes. Although the role of Notch in ...
T-lymphocytes, Helper-inducer. Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to ... For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other ...
T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer / immunology*. Chemical. Reg. No./Substance: 0/Lectins, C-Type; 0/Lipopolysaccharides; 0/lipid- ... Figure 7 GC are potent inducers of human CD4+ T helper responses. (A) T helper responses induced by GC phenotype C-stimulated ... DC driven polarization of T helper responses The skewing of T helper 1 (Th1) and Th2 responses was determined as previously ... Year: 2004Helicobacter pylori modulates the T helper cell 1/T helper cell 2 balance through phase-variable interaction between ...
Lymphocyte Activation. Lymphokines / immunology*. T-Lymphocyte Subsets / immunology. T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer / immunology ... Next Document: Th0 cells in the thymus: the question of T-helper lineages.. ... 19744686 - Selective infection of cd4+ effector memory t lymphocytes leads to preferential depleti.... 7535476 - Antigen- ... The requirement for restimulation and the requirement for direct and perhaps prolonged contact between the helper effector and ...
Selective tropism of lymphadenopathy associated virus (LAV) for helper-inducer T lymphocytes. ...
Lymphocyte subpopulations in man: characterization of in vivo-educated, alloreactive, cytotoxic lymphocytes. Johnsen, H. E. & ... Helper-Inducer T-Lymphocytes 3 Citations (Scopus) * Lønarbejderliv i nyere forstadsmiljøer. Madsen, M. O., 1980, Aalborg ... Isolation of human T and B lymphocytes by E-rosette gradient centrifugation. Characterization of the isolated subpopulations. ...
Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte. *Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung. *T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer ...
Resistin gene expression is downregulated in CD4+ T helper lymphocytes and CD14+ monocytes in rheumatoid arthritis responding ... Resistin gene expression is downregulated in CD4+ T helper lymphocytes and CD14+ monocytes in rheumatoid arthritis responding ... Resistin gene expression is downregulated in CD4+ T helper lymphocytes and CD14+ monocytes in rheumatoid arthritis responding ... Resistin gene expression is downregulated in CD4+ T helper lymphocytes and CD14+ monocytes in rheumatoid arthritis responding ...
T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer. 1. 2011. 931. 0.020. Why? Interferon-alpha. 1. 2010. 894. 0.020. Why? ...
T- helper cells are also required for the induction of other T- lymphocyte activities. Synonym is T inducer cell, T4 cell, or ... T- HELPER CELLS - T- lymphocytes with the specific capacity to help other cells, such as B- lymphocytes, to make antibodies. ... T- SUPPRESSOR CELLS - T- lymphocytes with specific capacity to inhibit T- helper cell function. ... INDUCER - A chemical or conditional change that activates the expression leading to the production of a desired product. A ...
CD4+ T-lymphocytes (helper T cells) and CD8+ T cells (suppressor/inducer T cells ... CD4+ T-lymphocytes (helper T cells) and CD8+ T cells (suppressor/inducer T cells ... CD4+ T cells (helper T cells) and CD8+ T cells (suppressor/inducer T cells) ... CD4+ T cells (helper T cells) and CD8+ T cells (suppressor/inducer T cells) ...
CD4+ T-lymphocytes (helper T cells) and CD8+ T cells (suppressor/inducer T cells ... CD4+ T cells (helper T cells) and CD8+ T cells (suppressor/inducer T cells) ... CD4+ T cells (helper T cells) and CD8+ T cells (suppressor/inducer T cells) ... HIV infection is characterized by a decrease and, eventually, a depletion of CD4+ T-lymphocytes (helper T cells). Using ...
... helper/inducer T lymphocytes and suppressor/cytotoxic T lymphocytes; (iii) walls extending upwardly from the support surface ... helper/inducer T lymphocytes and suppressor/cytotoxic T lymphocytes are anti-CD3 antibody, OTK4 antibody and OTK8 antibody, ... d. antibody specific for surface antigen present on helper/inducer T lymphocytes; ... controlled by the helper and suppressor T lymphocytes. The number of monocytes, B cells, T helper and suppressor cells and ...
Selective tropism of lymphadenopathy associated virus (LAY) for helper-inducer T lymphocytes. Science 225:59-63. Klatzmann, D ... Such lymphocytes, most of which are included in what is functionally defined as the helper/inducer subset, constitute the major ... ruses proliferate a type of white blood cell known as a T lymphocyte. Rather than continuing to proliferate, T lymphocytes ... T-lymphocyte T4 molecule behaves as the receptor for human retrovirus LAV. Nature 312:767-768. Kreiss, J. K., D. Koech, F. A. ...
It is expressed on T-helper/inducer lymphocytes and monocytes. CD3+CD4+ T cells comprise approximately 28% to 58% of normal ... peripheral blood lymphocytes. CD4 is also expressed on 80% to 95% of normal thymocytes. The CD4 antigen is present in low ...
It is expressed on T-helper/inducer lymphocytes and monocytes. CD3+CD4+ T cells comprise approximately 28% to 58% of normal ... peripheral blood lymphocytes. CD4 is also expressed on 80% to 95% of normal thymocytes. The CD4 antigen is present in low ...
... as a newly discovered subset of T lymphocytes, plays an important role in autoimmune d... ... The disequilibrium of T helper (Th) cells play an important role in the occurrence and development of immune thrombocytopenic ... Keywords: Cytokines, Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic, T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer. Full Text Order reprints Export ... MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study explored the role of different lymphocyte subsets in chronic ITP. To explore the value of Th22 ...
On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. T4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV ... On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV ... 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. They are members of the ... 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of ...
Helper-Inducer T lymphocytes). After approximately 4 days, the number of mature DCs will be measured. [0068] Pulsing the ... 0046] In some instance, the lymphoma develops from a B lymphocyte or T lymphocyte. Two major types of lymphoma are Hodgkins ... in activation of a T.sub.H1-type response of CD4+ and CD8+ helper-inducer and cytotoxic-effector CTL. By infecting, but not ... DV has affinity for immature B-lymphocytes and antigen-presenting cells (APC) of monocyte/macrophage and DC lineage. A unique ...
Heterogeneity of helper/inducer T lymphocytes: lymphokine production and lymphokine response. J. Exp. Med. 166: 1774. ... The purified cells are Ly-6C−, CD25−, and CD69− and have the forward scatter profile of small resting lymphocytes, consistent ... IL-6/BSF-2 functions as a killer helper factor in the in vitro induction of cytotoxic T cells. J. Immunol. 141: 1543. ... A, Number of 2C cells in draining lymph nodes on day 3. 2C cells accounted for 0.16% of the total lymphocytes in transfer only ...
T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer (immunology) Join CureHunter, for free Research Interface BASIC access!. ...
  • To investigate the role of T follicular helper (Tfh) subsets and T follicular helper effector memory (Tfhem) cells in circulation of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and explore their roles in SLE disease activity index as biomarkers. (nih.gov)
  • Monoclonal antibodies to T-helper/inducer and T-suppressor/cytotoxic lymphocyte subsets recognize antigens on splenic sinusoidal lining cells. (duke.edu)
  • Most of the monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) to T-lymphocyte subsets are, with few exceptions thought to recognize antigens (Ags) unique to T-cells. (duke.edu)
  • The authors examined the distribution of cells reacting with MoAbs to the helper/inducer (OKT4, anti-Leu-3a,b) and suppressor/cytotoxic (OKT8, anti-Leu-2a) T-lymphocyte subsets and to 'pan T' Ags (anti-Leu-1, anti-Leu-4) in sections from frozen human spleen. (duke.edu)
  • In addition to recognizing lymphocytes in the T-zone (periarteriolar lymphoid sheaths), MoAbs to the helper/inducer and suppressor/cytotoxic T-cell subsets reacted distinctly with the red pulp sinusoidal lining cells. (duke.edu)
  • MoAbs to the helper/inducer and suppressor/cytotoxic subsets of T-lymphocytes do not appear to identify Ags unique to these cells. (duke.edu)
  • CD4(+) helper T cells play crucial roles for host defense and immune-mediated disease by their ability to differentiate into specialized subsets. (nih.gov)
  • Classically, the various helper CD4(+) T cell subsets have been viewed as terminally differentiated lineages with limited flexibility. (nih.gov)
  • Helper T-cell subsets: phenotype, function and the role of lymphokines in regulating their development. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This study explored the role of different lymphocyte subsets in chronic ITP. (medscimonit.com)
  • These cells have the characteristic T3 surface marker and may be further divided into subsets according to function, such as helper, cytotoxic, etc. (fpnotebook.com)
  • A panel of monoclonal antibodies was used to determine the relative proportions of phenotypically distinct subsets of macrophages and lymphocytes in the patients with sarcoidosis and to correlate them with clinical indices, such as disease duration, serum angiotensin converting enzyme, the chest radiograph, and results of pulmonary function tests. (bmj.com)
  • The discovery of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) with selective production of cytokines typically attributed to subsets of T helper cells forces immunologists to reassess the mechanisms by which selective effector functions arise. (frontiersin.org)
  • 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Patients with sarcoidosis whose clinical indices suggested activity showed an increased number of macrophages coexpressing RFD1 and RFD7 antigens, of macrophages expressing UCHM1 and lymphocytes expressing activation markers. (bmj.com)
  • Antibody to CD4 recognizes T-helper cells required for recognition of class II antigens. (prospecbio.com)
  • Consistent immunologic abnormalities noted in these animals include: dramatically diminished proliferative responses of peripheral blood lymphocytes to lectins and antigens. (brown.edu)
  • Autoreactive B lymphocytes first encountering self-antigens in peripheral tissues are normally regulated by induction of anergy or apoptosis. (nih.gov)
  • Lymphocyte blastogenesis assay in response to different mitogens and antigens produced two groups: responders (acute cases) and nonresponders (chronic cases). (who.int)
  • The orphan nuclear receptor RORgammat directs the differentiation program of proinflammatory IL-17+ T helper cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • MoAbs to 'pan T' Ags also reacted with T-zone lymphocytes but did not react with sinusoidal lining cells. (duke.edu)
  • Infiltrates consisted mainly of macrophages and T helper/inducer cells. (nih.gov)
  • Neoplastic Cells of Primary Cutaneous CD4+ Small/Medium-sized Pleomorphic T-cell Lymphoma Lack the Expression of Follicular T-helper Cell Defining Chemokine Receptor CXCR5. (cancerindex.org)
  • The requirement for restimulation and the requirement for direct and perhaps prolonged contact between the helper effector and the APC-B cell can be expected to help ensure that these lymphokines are localized (reviewed in Swain & Dutton 1987, Swain & Croft 1990) and effectively delivered to specific responding cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Th0 cells in the thymus: the question of T-helper lineages. (biomedsearch.com)
  • HIV infection is characterized by a decrease and, eventually, a depletion of CD4+ T-lymphocytes (helper T cells). (cdc.gov)
  • Using immunophenotyping, HIV-positive blood samples and age-matched controls were tested for the proportion of lymphocytes that are T cells, B cells, natural killer (NK) cells, CD4+ T cells (helper T cells), and CD8+ T cells (suppressor/inducer T cells). (cdc.gov)
  • CD3+CD4+ T cells comprise approximately 28% to 58% of normal peripheral blood lymphocytes. (fishersci.com)
  • The disequilibrium of T helper (Th) cells play an important role in the occurrence and development of immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). (medscimonit.com)
  • Th22 cells, as a newly discovered subset of T lymphocytes, plays an important role in autoimmune disorders and inflammatory diseases. (medscimonit.com)
  • We show that twist1 is expressed by activated T helper (Th) 1 effector memory (EM) cells. (rupress.org)
  • CD4 (helper/inducer cells) 3. (purdue.edu)
  • CD4 + and CD8 + T cells, as well as whole lymphocyte populations, were isolated from SMLN of Giardia muris -infected mice for adoptive transfer. (asm.org)
  • Mice that received enriched CD8 + and whole SMLN lymphocytes, but not CD4 + T cells, from infected donors showed diffuse shortening of microvilli, loss of brush border surface area, impaired sucrase activity, and increased crypt/villus ratios compared to respective controls. (asm.org)
  • Transfer of whole SMLN lymphocytes, as well as enriched CD4 + or CD8 + T cells, from infected donors led to increased IEL numbers in the recipient jejunum. (asm.org)
  • T lymphocyte cells form rosettes with sheep erythrocytes and, in the presence of transforming agents (mitogens), differentiate and divide. (fpnotebook.com)
  • The data generally accepted as proving the HIV theory of AIDS, HIV cytopathy, destruction of T4 lymphocytes, and the relationsip between T4 cells, HIV and the acquired immune deficiency clinical syndrome are critically evaluated. (sidasante.com)
  • 1985) showed that in mitogenically stimulated lymphocyte cultures from AIDS patients or in cultures from healthy donors 'infected' with HIV, there is a decrease in the total number of viable cells. (sidasante.com)
  • Conjunctival scrapings showed the presence of mast cells, lymphocytes, plasma cells, polymorphonuclear leucocytes, and very few basophils in all the specimens. (bmj.com)
  • The limbic lesion area showed the presence of necrotic epithelial cells mixed with inflammatory cells, including eosinophils, mast cells, lymphocytes, plasma cells, and polymorphonuclear leucocytes and very few basophils. (bmj.com)
  • T-lymphocytes including a few helper/inducer cells and many suppressor/cytotoxic cells, were detected in the infiltrate. (bmj.com)
  • Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated severe depletion of CD4 + CD8 − single-positive T cells and CD4 + CD8 + double-positive T cells in intestinal lamina propria lymphocytes (LPL) and intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) during primary SIV infection which persisted through the entire course of SIV infection. (asm.org)
  • Fresh Human lymph node lymphocytes depleted of surface immunoglobulin positive cells. (abcam.com)
  • ab90972 allows simultaneous detection and enumeration of the helper/inducer T cell subset and CD45RA+ cells. (abcam.com)
  • Cytolytic T lymphocytes (CTL) were identified during the late 1960's (1,2) and are thought to be important effector cells in immunity to viruses (3) and in allograft rejection (4), Despite considerable effort during the past decade, little has been learned about the biochemical basis for the killing event. (springer.com)
  • Rapid specific lysis of Cr-labeled allogeneic target cells by highly unstable high MW lymphotoxin-receptor complex (es) released in vitro by activated alloimmune murine T lymphocytes. (springer.com)
  • Vitamin A deficiency results in reduction in the weight of the thymus, decreased lymphocyte proliferation, impaired natural killer cell and macrophage activities, and increased bacterial adherence to epithelial cells (8-11). (altheal.org)
  • Daily supplementation of beta-carotene among elderly volunteers has led to an increase of T-lymphocytes and cells with interleukin-2 receptors (13). (altheal.org)
  • The paramount feature revealed by immunohistological double marker analyses was the intimate association of myoid cells (antigen producing) with interdigitating reticulum cells (potentially antigen presenting cells), both of which were surrounded by T3+ lymphocytes in thymus medulla. (jci.org)
  • The parallelism between ILCs and T cells extends beyond these two cell types and comprises other innate-like T lymphocytes. (frontiersin.org)
  • Beyond the recognition of specialized effector functionalities in diverse lymphocytes, features typical of T cells, such as plasticity and memory, are also relevant for innate lymphocytes. (frontiersin.org)
  • Although NK cells were recognized 40 years ago, other innate lymphocytes with helper features were unknown until recently ( 10 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Type 1 ILCs include both NK cells and ILC1 which may be viewed as the innate counterpart of CD8 + cytotoxic T lymphocytes, and T helper (Th) 1 cells, respectively. (frontiersin.org)
  • 10 ) described a lower percentage of helper-inducer cells and a decreased helper-to-suppressor cell ratio in children with autism, as well as a lower percentage of lymphocytes expressing bound interleukin-2 receptors, following mitogenic stimulation compared with control subjects. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Evidence for an abnormality affecting individual helper and suppressor T cells. (jci.org)
  • We co-cultivated peripheral blood lymphocytes from two macaques with this syndrome with Raji cells, a lymphoblastoid B cell line of human origin. (brown.edu)
  • Immunological studies among jaundiced patients revealed significant changes in T-helper and T-suppressor cells among chronic HBV cases from the acute and control groups. (who.int)
  • Plasma tocopherol and tocotrienol were determined by HPLC, lymphocyte proliferation by lymphocyte transformation test (LTT) and enumeration of lymphocytes T and B cells by flow cytometry. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Smoking caused alterations in certain immune parameters and palmvitee supplementation tended to cause an increase in lymphocytes transformation test but had no effect on CD3 + , CD4 + , CD8 + , NK cells and B cells except B cells percentage in nonsmokers. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Flow cytometry analysis of T lymphocytes showed that DNase activity associated with CD4+ lymphocyte granules correlated with the ratio CD4+CD45RO+/CD4+CD45RA+ (memory and cytotoxic cells/naive cells, inducers of suppression). (cun.es)
  • Berrih S, LeBrigand H, Levasseur P, Gaud C, Bach J-F (1983) Depletion of helper/inducer T cells after thymectomy in myasthenia patients. (springer.com)
  • Not only was there a decrease of natural killer (NK) cell activity in splenocytes from STDPBB rats, but there was also a significant reduction in the number of immunocytes such as T lymphocytes (helper/inducer and cytotoxic/suppressor) and NK cells. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In contrast to the changes in T lymphocytes and NK cell activity, there was no change in target β-cells in STDPBB rats with regard to the susceptibility to adoptive transfer of insulitis. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • However, now it is widely accepted that T helper (Th)1 and Th17 lymphocytes contribute to the disease pathogenesis through the release of inflammatory cytokines that promote further recruitment of immune cells, keratinocyte proliferation, and sustained chronic inflammation [ 4 , 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Flow cytometric analysis of CD4 expression on human peripheral blood lymphocytes. (bdbiosciences.com)
  • Dynamic changes in intestinal T lymphocytes were not adequately represented in peripheral lymph nodes or blood. (asm.org)
  • peripheral blood, in contrast, represents only 2 to 5% of total lymphocytes. (asm.org)
  • The CD4 antigen is expressed on a T cell subset (helper/inducer) representing 45 percent of peripheral blood lymphocytes and at a lower level on monocytes. (acronymattic.com)
  • CD4, a single chain transmembrane glycoprotein, is found on a T cell subset (helper/inducer) representing 45% of peripheral blood lymphocytes. (prospecbio.com)
  • Phenotypic analysis of antigen-specific T lymphocytes. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Expression of twist1 in Th1 lymphocytes limited the expression of the cytokines interferon-γ, IL-2, and tumor necrosis factor-α, and ameliorated Th1-mediated immunopathology in delayed-type hypersensitivity and antigen-induced arthritis. (rupress.org)
  • In these models, the induction of inflammation in a particular tissue by Th1 lymphocytes is dependent on restimulation by the cognate antigen in that tissue. (rupress.org)
  • The lymphocytes in lavage fluid from patients with sarcoidosis were characterised by increased expression of activation markers, such as interleukin-2 receptors (anti-Tac+), HLA-DR (RFDR+), and "blast" forms (expressing above normal concentrations of CD7 antigen). (bmj.com)
  • Size-dependent B lymphocyte subpopulations: relationship of cell volume to surface phenotype, cell cycle, proliferative response, and requirements for antibody production to TNP-Ficoll and TNP-BA. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Bona CA, Fauci AS (1980) In vitro idiotypic suppression of chronic lymphocytic leukemia lymphocytes secreting monoclonal immunoglobulin M anti-sheep erythrocyte antibody. (springer.com)
  • CONFIRM anti-CD4 (SP35) positive staining results may aid in identifying T-cell lymphomas and in identifying the T helper-inducer cell subset of T-lymphocytes in normal tissues. (acronymattic.com)
  • It is expressed on T-helper/inducer lymphocytes and monocytes. (fishersci.com)
  • Katz P, Goldstein RA, Fauci AS: Immunoregulation in infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis: The presence of suppressor monocytes and the alteration of subpopulations of T lymphocytes. (springer.com)
  • The presence of a DNase activity associated with secretion granules was detected in T4 and T8 lymphocytes from patients with autoimmune diseases. (cun.es)
  • Treatment with the T. spiralis AES reduced the levels of the DSS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines IFN-γ, IL-6 and IL-17 in the spleens, MLN and colon lymphocytes.The data are presented as the mean ± SE. (nih.gov)
  • The ability of T lymphocytes to produce cytokines in response to pathogenic organisms is crucial in inducing and maintaining effective innate as well as acquired immunity. (asm.org)
  • Stobo JD, Paul S, VanScoy RE, Hermans PE: Suppressor thymus-derived lymphocytes in fungal infection. (springer.com)
  • Aarli JA, Heinman P, Matre R, Thurnold S, Tonder O (1979) Lymphocyte populations in thymus and blood from patients with myasthenia gravis. (springer.com)
  • Clonal analysis of T lymphocytes in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. (jci.org)
  • T helper 1 (Th1) lymphocytes are potent inducers of inflammation. (rupress.org)
  • Two types of murine helper T cell clone. (semanticscholar.org)
  • This has been demonstrated by adoptive transfer of Th1 lymphocytes in murine models of Th1-associated inflammatory diseases such as diabetes ( 6 ), inflammatory bowel disease ( 7 ), and rheumatoid arthritis ( 8 ). (rupress.org)
  • Interleukin-4 (B cell growth factor-II/eosinophil differentiation factor) is a mitogen and differentiation factor for preactivated murine B lymphocytes. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Three restriction points in the cell cycle of activated murine B lymphocytes. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Enumeration of CD4+ lymphocytes in HIV-positive participants and age-matched controls was performed on cryopreserved whole blood using the method reported by Fiebig et. (cdc.gov)
  • This cytokine receptor binds to B-lymphocyte chemoattractant (BLC), and is involved in B-cell migration into B-cell follicles of spleen and Peyer patches. (cancerindex.org)
  • To determine the T. spiralis AES product-induced immunological response, Th1, Th2, Th17 and regulatory cytokine profiles were measured in lymphocytes isolated from colon, mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN), and the spleen of treated mice. (nih.gov)
  • Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. (semanticscholar.org)
  • T lymphocytes can also help control immune responses. (fpnotebook.com)
  • Martz, E. Mechanism of specific tumor cell lysis by allo-immune T-lymphocytes: Resolution and characterization of discrete steps in the cellular interaction. (springer.com)
  • Since intestinal T lymphocytes are localized at functionally distinct sites, including intestinal epithelium and lamina propria, it will be important to examine isolated cell populations for their cytokine responses. (asm.org)
  • Effect of culturing on the human lymphocyte locomotion response to casein, C5a and f-Met-Leu-Phe. (springer.com)
  • Other mucosal changes include crypt hyperplasia and increased numbers of intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL). (asm.org)
  • Purified helper-inducer (T4+) and suppressor-cytotoxic (T8+) lymphocytes from eight patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and eight healthy heterosexual donors were examined by limiting dilution analysis for their ability to be clonally expanded. (jci.org)
  • Furthermore, the T4 (helper/inducer):T8 (suppressor/cytotoxic) ratio of circulating T lymphocytes of the macaques in the colony at greatest risk for developing this syndrome are considerably less than that seen in other macaques. (brown.edu)
  • Acute pulmonary histoplasmosis, rheumatologic, disseminated, and chronic inflammatory manifestations of histoplasmosis were all associated with a significant elevation above normal of OKT 8 + (suppressor-cytotoxic) lymphocytes and a significantly lower than normal OKT 4 + (helper-inducer)-lymphocyte to OKT 8 +-lymphocyte ratio. (springer.com)
  • In contrast, cavitary disease was associated with an increase in OKT 4 + lymphocytes, a decrease in OKT 8 + lymphocytes, and a higher than normal OKT 4 /OKT 8 ratio. (springer.com)
  • The ability to restore helper T cell function in old NZB/W mice with active fractions from young NZB/W mice has implications for further study and treatment of their autoimmune disease. (elsevier.com)
  • Comparison of total helper and suppressor T-cell number between the groups. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Sanderson, C.J. The mechanism of lymphocyte-mediated cytotoxicity. (springer.com)
  • Multiple target cell killing by the cytolytic T-lymphocyte and the mechanism of cytotoxicity. (springer.com)
  • In contrast, T8 lymphocyte DNase activity correlated with the proportion of CD4+ lymphocytes with CD4+CD45RA- phenotype (helpers and inducers of cytotoxicity). (cun.es)
  • It is concluded that the prevention of insulitis and diabetes in STDPBB rats is due to a decrease in macrophage-dependent T lymphocytes and NK cell cytotoxicity. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Whereas N. gonorrhoeae variant A with a terminal N-acetylglucosamine on its LOS was recognized by DC-SIGN and induced significantly more IL-10 production, phenotype C, carrying a terminal N-acetylgalactosamine, primarily interacted with MGL and skewed immunity towards the T helper 2 lineage. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Intestinal CD4 + T-cell depletion and the potential for cytokine responses were examined during SIV infection and compared with results for lymphocytes from lymph nodes and blood. (asm.org)
  • Lymph nodes undergo a sequential progression of changes beginning with follicular hyperplasia early in the disease and ending with an effacement of the nodal architecture and the depletion of lymphocytes. (brown.edu)
  • Ibuprofen was found to decrease neutrophil activity, lymphocyte blastogenesis, and helper or inducer T-lymphocyte infiltration on a sponge model matrix. (medscape.com)
  • These results strongly suggest that, in addition to a quantitative diminution of T4+ lymphocytes in AIDS, there is an intrinsic functional defect in the surviving T4+ and T8+ lymphocytes, which is reflected by a severe decrease in their potential for clonal expansion. (jci.org)
  • Variation of Neisseria gonorrhoeae lipooligosaccharide directs dendritic cell-induced T helper responses. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We show that targeting of different C-type lectins with the N. gonorrhoeae LOS variants results in alterations in dendritic cell cytokine secretion profiles and the induction of distinct adaptive CD4(+) T helper responses. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Zinc deficiency generates lymphoid atrophy, reduces lymphocyte responses and skin delayed hypersensitivity (2,4,7). (altheal.org)
  • Data of 10 consecutive MG patients demonstrate two critical features of MG thymuses that support the concept of intrathymic activation of autoreactive, AChR-specific lymphocytes. (jci.org)
  • Glycoprotein molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes, that react with molecules of antilymphocyte sera, lectins, and other agents which induce blast transformation of lymphocytes. (umassmed.edu)
  • Supplementation with vitamin E in healthy elderly people significantly improved lymphocyte proliferation, IL-2 production, DTH, and response to T-cell-dependent vaccines, and reduced the incidence of infections (20,21). (altheal.org)
  • Proliferation of T and B lymphocytes increased following supplementation with vitamin C (22), and increased levels of vitamin C have been associated with lower rate of infections (23). (altheal.org)
  • Lymphocyte proliferation induced by PHA showed an increasing trend with palmvitee supplementation in both smokers and nonsmokers. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Example 1: Lymphocyte Disorder Panel (chronic lymphocytic leukemia monitor) Markers determined: 1. (purdue.edu)
  • Armstrong RM, Nowak RM, Falk RE (1973) Thymic lymphocyte function in myasthenia gravis. (springer.com)
  • Birnbaum G, Tsairis P (1976) Suppressor lymphocytes in myasthenia gravis and effect of adult thymectomy. (springer.com)
  • Conti-Tronconi BM, Dipadora F, Morguth M, Missiroli A, Frattola L (1977) Stimulation of lymphocytes by cholinergic receptor in myasthenia gravis. (springer.com)
  • Lymphocytes expressing the interleukin-2 receptor were detected in 2 patients. (nih.gov)
  • Th lymphocytes from the inflamed joint or gut tissue of patients with rheumatic diseases, Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis expressed high levels of twist1 . (rupress.org)
  • Papadopulos-Eleopulos, Turner & Papadimitriou, 1992a, 1992b) which claims that the immunological abnormalities seen in AIDS patients, including decreased numbers of T4 lymphocytes, as well as the clinical syndrome, are induced by oxidising agents and not HIV. (sidasante.com)
  • Isolation of T-lymphocyte lines specific for the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor from thymuses of myasthenic patients. (jci.org)
  • Circulating T-lymphocyte subpopulations were enumerated in 65 patients with histoplasmosis and correlated with the different clinical manifestations of the disease. (springer.com)
  • Le test de prolifération lymphocytaire en réponse aux différents mitogènes et antigènes a produit deux groupes: les patients répondants (cas aigus) et les patients non-répondants (cas chroniques). (who.int)
  • Les deux groupes étaient semblables en ce qui concerne leur réponse proliférative aux antigènes de surface de l'hépatite B (HBsAg) mais une réponse vigoureuse aux antigènes centraux de l'hépatite B (HBcAg) était une caractéristique importante chez les patients répondants. (who.int)
  • Stimulation of human T-lymphocyte chemokinesis by arachidonic acid. (springer.com)
  • Inhibitors of topoisomerases are being widely studied as potential inducers of tumor cell apoptosis. (elsevier.com)
  • We suggest that this DNase activity could be implicated in some of the alterations of the autoimmune response depending on cytotoxic T lymphocytes or T cell inducers of apoptosis. (cun.es)
  • Martz, E. Early steps in specific tumor cell lysis by sensitized mouse T lymphocytes. (springer.com)
  • A thymocyte-derived lymphocyte of immunological importance that is long-lived (months to years) and is responsible for cell-mediated immunity. (fpnotebook.com)
  • Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. (fpnotebook.com)
  • It is not known whether intestinal T lymphocytes exhibit similar functional defects. (asm.org)
  • Functional activity determined by coculture techniques correlated closely with T-lymphocyte subset measurements. (springer.com)