Pupil: The aperture in the iris through which light passes.Pupil Disorders: Conditions which affect the structure or function of the pupil of the eye, including disorders of innervation to the pupillary constrictor or dilator muscles, and disorders of pupillary reflexes.Tonic Pupil: A pupillary abnormality characterized by a poor pupillary light reaction, reduced accommodation, iris sector palsies, an enhanced pupillary response to near effort that results in a prolonged, "tonic" constriction, and slow pupillary redilation. This condition is associated with injury to the postganglionic parasympathetic innervation to the pupil. (From Miller et al., Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, pp492-500)Reflex, Pupillary: Constriction of the pupil in response to light stimulation of the retina. It refers also to any reflex involving the iris, with resultant alteration of the diameter of the pupil. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Mydriatics: Agents that dilate the pupil. They may be either sympathomimetics or parasympatholytics.Tropicamide: One of the MUSCARINIC ANTAGONISTS with pharmacologic action similar to ATROPINE and used mainly as an ophthalmic parasympatholytic or mydriatic.Mydriasis: Dilation of pupils to greater than 6 mm combined with failure of the pupils to constrict when stimulated with light. This condition may occur due to injury of the pupillary fibers in the oculomotor nerve, in acute angle-closure glaucoma, and in ADIE SYNDROME.Iris: The most anterior portion of the uveal layer, separating the anterior chamber from the posterior. It consists of two layers - the stroma and the pigmented epithelium. Color of the iris depends on the amount of melanin in the stroma on reflection from the pigmented epithelium.Anisocoria: Unequal pupil size, which may represent a benign physiologic variant or a manifestation of disease. Pathologic anisocoria reflects an abnormality in the musculature of the iris (IRIS DISEASES) or in the parasympathetic or sympathetic pathways that innervate the pupil. Physiologic anisocoria refers to an asymmetry of pupil diameter, usually less than 2mm, that is not associated with disease.Miosis: Pupillary constriction. This may result from congenital absence of the dilatator pupillary muscle, defective sympathetic innervation, or irritation of the CONJUNCTIVA or CORNEA.Accommodation, Ocular: The dioptric adjustment of the EYE (to attain maximal sharpness of retinal imagery for an object of regard) referring to the ability, to the mechanism, or to the process. Ocular accommodation is the effecting of refractive changes by changes in the shape of the CRYSTALLINE LENS. Loosely, it refers to ocular adjustments for VISION, OCULAR at various distances. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Adie Syndrome: A syndrome characterized by a TONIC PUPIL that occurs in combination with decreased lower extremity reflexes. The affected pupil will respond more briskly to accommodation than to light (light-near dissociation) and is supersensitive to dilute pilocarpine eye drops, which induce pupillary constriction. Pathologic features include degeneration of the ciliary ganglion and postganglionic parasympathetic fibers that innervate the pupillary constrictor muscle. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p279)Refraction, Ocular: Refraction of LIGHT effected by the media of the EYE.Aberrometry: The use of an aberrometer to measure eye tissue imperfections or abnormalities based on the way light passes through the eye which affects the ability of the eye to focus properly.Schools: Educational institutions.Eye Color: Color of the iris.Cyclopentolate: A parasympatholytic anticholinergic used solely to obtain mydriasis or cycloplegia.Refractive Errors: Deviations from the average or standard indices of refraction of the eye through its dioptric or refractive apparatus.Corneal Topography: The measurement of curvature and shape of the anterior surface of the cornea using techniques such as keratometry, keratoscopy, photokeratoscopy, profile photography, computer-assisted image processing and videokeratography. This measurement is often applied in the fitting of contact lenses and in diagnosing corneal diseases or corneal changes including keratoconus, which occur after keratotomy and keratoplasty.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Visual Acuity: Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.Optics and Photonics: A specialized field of physics and engineering involved in studying the behavior and properties of light and the technology of analyzing, generating, transmitting, and manipulating ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION in the visible, infrared, and ultraviolet range.Glare: Relatively bright light, or the dazzling sensation of relatively bright light, which produces unpleasantness or discomfort, or which interferes with optimal VISION, OCULAR. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Presbyopia: The normal decreasing elasticity of the crystalline lens that leads to loss of accommodation.Faculty: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in an educational institution.Astigmatism: Unequal curvature of the refractive surfaces of the eye. Thus a point source of light cannot be brought to a point focus on the retina but is spread over a more or less diffuse area. This results from the radius of curvature in one plane being longer or shorter than the radius at right angles to it. (Dorland, 27th ed)Diagnostic Techniques, Ophthalmological: Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases of the eye or of vision disorders.Eye, Artificial: A ready-made or custom-made prosthesis of glass or plastic shaped and colored to resemble the anterior portion of a normal eye and used for cosmetic reasons. It is attached to the anterior portion of an orbital implant (ORBITAL IMPLANTS) which is placed in the socket of an enucleated or eviscerated eye. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Students, Medical: Individuals enrolled in a school of medicine or a formal educational program in medicine.Writing: The act or practice of literary composition, the occupation of writer, or producing or engaging in literary work as a profession.Universities: Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.Teaching: The educational process of instructing.Digestive System Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.p-Hydroxyamphetamine: Amphetamine metabolite with sympathomimetic effects. It is sometimes called alpha-methyltyramine, which may also refer to the meta isomer, gepefrine.Digestive System Diseases: Diseases in any part of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT or the accessory organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).Digestive System: A group of organs stretching from the MOUTH to the ANUS, serving to breakdown foods, assimilate nutrients, and eliminate waste. In humans, the digestive system includes the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and the accessory glands (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).Diagnostic Errors: Incorrect diagnoses after clinical examination or technical diagnostic procedures.Digestive System and Oral Physiological Phenomena: Properties and processes of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM and DENTITION as a whole or of any of its parts.Child, Exceptional: A child whose needs, abilities, or other characteristics vary so much from the average in mental, physical, or social areas that a greater than usual level of services is needed to facilitate the child's maximum potential development.School Health Services: Preventive health services provided for students. It excludes college or university students.War: Hostile conflict between organized groups of people.Bell Palsy: A syndrome characterized by the acute onset of unilateral FACIAL PARALYSIS which progresses over a 2-5 day period. Weakness of the orbicularis oculi muscle and resulting incomplete eye closure may be associated with corneal injury. Pain behind the ear often precedes the onset of paralysis. This condition may be associated with HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN infection of the facial nerve. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1376)Child Day Care Centers: Facilities which provide care for pre-school and school-age children.KansasAutistic Disorder: A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Saliva: The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.Child Development Disorders, Pervasive: Severe distortions in the development of many basic psychological functions that are not normal for any stage in development. These distortions are manifested in sustained social impairment, speech abnormalities, and peculiar motor movements.BooksCurriculum: A course of study offered by an educational institution.Book SelectionBook Reviews as Topic: Critical analyses of books or other monographic works.Rare Books
  • Christa Anderson, left, University of Kansas assistant research professor, and Kathryn Unruh, 2012 KU honors graduate in behavioral neuroscience, use technologies such as eye-tracking, pupil measurement, salivary responses and neuroimaging to look for biomarkers of autism and investigate the autonomic nervous system as a possible nexus of the disorder. (medicalxpress.com)
  • But Anderson and Colombo also see pupil size and sAA levels as biomarkers that could be the physiological signatures of a possible dysfunction in the autonomic nervous system. (medicalxpress.com)
  • We present the results of a method that separates the influence of the parasympathetic and sympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous system on the pupil response during speech perception. (dtu.dk)
  • Figure drawn by the authors, incorporating material from Gray's Anatomy 31st Edition 1954, and from Cannon and Rosenblueth Physiology of the Autonomic Nervous System , 1937. (scholarpedia.org)
  • The term autonomic nervous system (ANS) refers to collections of motor neurons (ganglia) situated in the head, neck, thorax, abdomen, and pelvis, and to the axonal connections of these neurons (Figure 1 ). (scholarpedia.org)
  • Langley (1852-1925) coined the term autonomic nervous system. (scholarpedia.org)
  • Thus the ANS is best seen as one of the outflows whereby the CNS controls bodily organs, so that "peripheral autonomic pathways" is a better term, but "autonomic nervous system" is well-established. (scholarpedia.org)
  • The two major divisions of the efferent nervous system are the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system which controls the activities of the myocardium and the vascular smooth muscles (see "Overview of. (apologeticspress.org)
  • The ability of the autonomic nervous system to excite and inhibit targets directly, combined with the anatomical arrangement of effector neurons in the interconnected autonomic ganglia, permits the system to respond to environmental demands in a concerted fashion (1991, p. 763). (apologeticspress.org)
  • The autonomic nervous system innervates primarily involuntary structures such as smooth muscle lining the vessels and digestive system, as well as organs and glands. (apologeticspress.org)
  • The autonomic nervous system is disynaptic, with one synapse taking place in a peripheral autonomic ganglion, and the other taking place at the target organ. (apologeticspress.org)
  • Pulumani said the department encouraged teachers and pupils to make use of mental health checks with district teams that have been deployed for telehealth services through the Sikuncede Njani toll-free line 080 1212 570. (sowetanlive.co.za)
  • But, the vast majority of the top 30 independent schools, such as Eton College and Wellington College, opted to take the international GCSE this summer, amid fears the new system might see state students "shut out from top universities", The Sunday Times reported. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • GCSE results day 2017: what is the new 9 - 1 grading system and why are so many students confused? (telegraph.co.uk)
  • Disadvantaged A-level and GCSE pupils are most likely to be affected by the government's exam grading scheme despite an eleventh hour U-turn on mock exam grades, education unions have warned. (cypnow.co.uk)
  • A Cambridge professor has published a list of 31 key dates from history that all GCSE pupils should know. (itv.com)
  • No. 5,042,937, for "Optical System for an Ophthamological Instrument for Examination of Pupillary Responses" and assigned to a common assignee. (justia.com)
  • The overall physiological system that controls pupil size includes many components, and because the various components may be affected in various ways by different diseases, toxins, tumors, and the like, disorders are often reflected in abnormal pupillary responses. (justia.com)
  • Therefore, examination of the responses of the pupillary system is an important part of most neurological and ophthalmological medical examinations. (justia.com)
  • On the inner edge lies a prominent structure, the collarette, marking the junction of the embryonic pupillary membrane covering the embryonic pupil. (wikipedia.org)
  • The view that fast pupillary adjustments to light reflect the operation of a separate subcortical neural network would seem supported by the clinical observation that in patients whose visual cortex is completely damaged and who have lost all conscious visual perception, the pupils continue to respond to sudden changes in room illumination ( 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • Pupillary inequality, irregularity, and iris atrophy without reaction to light are the hallmarks, clinically distinguishable from the Holmes-Adie myotonic pupil. (bmj.com)
  • Nineteen hearing-impaired and 27 age-matched normal-hearing listeners performed speech reception threshold tests targeting a 50% correct performance level while pupil responses were recorded. (dtu.dk)
  • To perform an examination of pupil responses, the physician dims the room lights, illuminates one eye and then the other with a small light, and observes the responses. (justia.com)
  • Here, we examined the role of the primate SC in the control of pupil dynamics. (jneurosci.org)
  • According to Shine, the relationship between pupil shape and hunting technique is likely to apply to other animals with vertical pupils too, such as many cats and foxes. (thaindian.com)
  • The pupils reflect the extent of mental effort in an incredibly precise way,' Kahneman said in an interview with the German news magazine Der Spiegel, adding, 'I have never done any work in which the measurement is so precise. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Such an objective system may be used for determining directions, the measurement of the angles being converted into a measurement of displacement. (google.com)
  • Still another example of the use of measurements of geometric properties of the pupil relates to medical diagnostic applications that require continuous measurement of gaze direction, i.e., orientation of the visual axis of the eye. (google.com)
  • The abnormal pupil is probably caused by damage to cells in the pretectal region of the midbrain. (bmj.com)
  • Animal eyes that are primarily used under low-light conditions usually have optical systems of short depth of focus, such that chromatic defocus may lead to considerable blurring of the images. (biologists.org)
  • An off-axis pupil and the principle of chromatic aberration (where different wavelengths come to focus at different distances behind a lens) can combine to provide "color-blind" animals with a way to distinguish colors. (pnas.org)
  • We compute a quantitative image quality budget for this visual system and show how chromatic blurring dominates the visual acuity in these animals in shallow water. (pnas.org)
  • We quantitatively show, through numerical simulations, how chromatic aberration can be exploited to obtain spectral information, especially through nonaxial pupils that are characteristic of coleoid cephalopods. (pnas.org)
  • In particular, the post-illumination pupil response (PIPR), as evaluated by chromatic pupillometry, can be used as a reliable marker of mRGC function in vivo . (frontiersin.org)
  • This revealed that snakes that ambush their prey and hunt at night tend to have vertical pupils, while round pupils were more characteristic of diurnal snakes that actively seek out and pursue their prey. (thaindian.com)
  • Just like a smaller aperture on a camera lens, a smaller pupil creates a deeper field of focus. (thaindian.com)
  • A partially constricted circular pupil would shade the peripheral zones of the lens, leading to the loss of well-focused images at relevant wavelengths. (biologists.org)
  • From top to bottom: vertical-slit pupil of the domestic cat, vertically elongated (subcircular) pupil of the lynx, circular pupil of man, and horizontal pupil of the domestic sheep. (sciencemag.org)
  • London, Aug 7 (ANI): Vertical pupils don't just help snakes see at night, but also help them stalk prey without being seen. (thaindian.com)
  • Richard Shine and Francois Brischoux at the University of Sydney, Australia, scoured the literature and found that vertical pupils on most animals become round in low light. (thaindian.com)
  • This challenges common theory that vertical pupils evolved to give animal's night vision. (thaindian.com)
  • Vertical pupils are smaller in the horizontal plane only, meaning they offer a greater depth of field in the horizontal plane but still let enough light into the eye for night vision. (thaindian.com)
  • Brischoux suggests vertical pupils might also assist with camouflage by mimicking surrounding grasses. (thaindian.com)
  • The ocular examination consists of the external examination, pupil examination, red reflex testing to assess ocular media, the examination of the ocular fundus by using ophthalmoscopy, and an assessment of visual function. (aappublications.org)
  • The pupil light reflex (PLR) is our brain's first and most fundamental mechanism for light adaptation. (jneurosci.org)
  • Here, we report that microstimulation in the prefrontal cortex modulates the gain of the pupil light reflex-changing how a simple reflex circuit responds to physically identical probes. (jneurosci.org)
  • Sometimes, the pupil of the eye may appear white, or the normal red reflex may appear to be white. (medlineplus.gov)
  • There are many different causes of white pupil or white reflex. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The pupil response to cognitive and emotional events occurs on an even smaller scale than the light reflex, with changes generally less than half a millimeter. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Pupil Stretching Is Also Maximized, With The Pupil Dilator (8-09133-A) Introduced Through The Phaco Incision And Stretching The Pupil Into A Cat's Eye Shape When The Push/Pull Mechanism Is Opened. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Meanwhile the secondary schools provided an education that, in its way, wasn't totally dissimilar from today's comprehensive curriculum, but at the same time it encouraged non-academic interests and abilities also and not only prepared pupils for the job market, but also the apprenticeship system which seemed to vanish as the secondary school system vanished. (yorkshirepost.co.uk)
  • Secondary school pupils know so very little about careers in languages. (proz.com)
  • By the end of April, addition information will be provided on the pupils making the transition from primary to secondary and secondary to upper secondary school. (swissinfo.ch)
  • one that delivers controlled lights to the patient's eyes, another that forms images of the two pupils on a video camera, and a third that moves the optics to maintain alignment with the patient's eyes. (justia.com)
  • The present invention specifically relates to an electro-mechanical positioning system for independently moving the pupil imaging optics for the left and right pupils. (justia.com)
  • Older literature on optics sometimes refers to the exit pupil as the Ramsden disc, named after English instrument-maker Jesse Ramsden. (wikipedia.org)
  • We describe a means of obtaining spectral information using the principles of physical optics and an off-axis pupil shape without requiring spectrally distinct photoreceptor classes. (pnas.org)
  • The company started experimenting with infinity-corrected optical systems as early as the 1930s followed later by Leica and Zeiss, but these optics did not become standard equipment with most manufacturers until the 1980s. (microscopyu.com)
  • In Adaptive Optics Systems Iv . (dur.ac.uk)
  • We studied species of terrestrial vertebrates from a variety of phylogenetic groups to establish how widespread multifocal lenses are and how pupil shapes are adapted to the optical systems. (biologists.org)
  • By studying the evolutionary relationship between the various species, the team found that vertical and circular pupils evolved several times in different groups of snakes, and that hunting behaviour was the strongest driver for pupil shape. (thaindian.com)
  • There is a striking correlation between terrestrial species' pupil shape and ecological niche (that is, foraging mode and time of day they are active). (sciencemag.org)
  • Species with vertically elongated pupils are very likely to be ambush predators and active day and night. (sciencemag.org)
  • Species with horizontally elongated pupils are very likely to be prey and to have laterally placed eyes. (sciencemag.org)
  • Subsequent research found that the pupils of more intelligent people (as defined by their Scholastic Aptitude Test scores) dilated less in response to cognitive tasks compared with those of lower-scoring participants, indicating more efficient use of brainpower. (scientificamerican.com)
  • We recorded by use of an infrared eye-tracker the pupil diameters of participants while they observed visual illusions of lightness or brightness. (pnas.org)
  • A scene illumination system is provided that produces spatially uniform or controlled brightness levels for machine vision applications. (google.es)
  • 5 . The system of claim 4 , wherein the controller is configured for amplitude modulation of at least one of the current and the voltage to the first light source to provide the desired brightness level. (google.es)