Classification: The systematic arrangement of entities in any field into categories classes based on common characteristics such as properties, morphology, subject matter, etc.International Classification of Diseases: A system of categories to which morbid entries are assigned according to established criteria. Included is the entire range of conditions in a manageable number of categories, grouped to facilitate mortality reporting. It is produced by the World Health Organization (From ICD-10, p1). The Clinical Modifications, produced by the UNITED STATES DEPT. OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES, are larger extensions used for morbidity and general epidemiological purposes, primarily in the U.S.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Pattern Recognition, Automated: In INFORMATION RETRIEVAL, machine-sensing or identification of visible patterns (shapes, forms, and configurations). (Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed)Artificial Intelligence: Theory and development of COMPUTER SYSTEMS which perform tasks that normally require human intelligence. Such tasks may include speech recognition, LEARNING; VISUAL PERCEPTION; MATHEMATICAL COMPUTING; reasoning, PROBLEM SOLVING, DECISION-MAKING, and translation of language.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Discriminant Analysis: A statistical analytic technique used with discrete dependent variables, concerned with separating sets of observed values and allocating new values. It is sometimes used instead of regression analysis.Support Vector Machines: Learning algorithms which are a set of related supervised computer learning methods that analyze data and recognize patterns, and used for classification and regression analysis.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted: Application of computer programs designed to assist the physician in solving a diagnostic problem.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Neural Networks (Computer): A computer architecture, implementable in either hardware or software, modeled after biological neural networks. Like the biological system in which the processing capability is a result of the interconnection strengths between arrays of nonlinear processing nodes, computerized neural networks, often called perceptrons or multilayer connectionist models, consist of neuron-like units. A homogeneous group of units makes up a layer. These networks are good at pattern recognition. They are adaptive, performing tasks by example, and thus are better for decision-making than are linear learning machines or cluster analysis. They do not require explicit programming.Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Observer Variation: The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Decision Trees: A graphic device used in decision analysis, series of decision options are represented as branches (hierarchical).Sequence Analysis, Protein: A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health: The World Health Organization's classification categories of health and health-related domains. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) consists of two lists: a list of body functions and structure, and a list of domains of activity and participation. The ICF also includes a list of environmental factors.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Databases, Protein: Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.Principal Component Analysis: Mathematical procedure that transforms a number of possibly correlated variables into a smaller number of uncorrelated variables called principal components.ROC Curve: A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.Fuzzy Logic: Approximate, quantitative reasoning that is concerned with the linguistic ambiguity which exists in natural or synthetic language. At its core are variables such as good, bad, and young as well as modifiers such as more, less, and very. These ordinary terms represent fuzzy sets in a particular problem. Fuzzy logic plays a key role in many medical expert systems.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Bayes Theorem: A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.Book Classification: A general term covering bibliographical and bibliothecal classifications. It mostly refers to library CLASSIFICATION for arrangement of books and documents on the shelves. (Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed, p85)Equipment Safety: Freedom of equipment from actual or potential hazards.Data Mining: Use of sophisticated analysis tools to sort through, organize, examine, and combine large sets of information.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Information Storage and Retrieval: Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.Data Interpretation, Statistical: Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.United StatesProspective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Device Approval: Process that is gone through in order for a device to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required preclinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance. It is not restricted to FDA.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Biopharmaceutics: The study of the physical and chemical properties of a drug and its dosage form as related to the onset, duration, and intensity of its action.Natural Language Processing: Computer processing of a language with rules that reflect and describe current usage rather than prescribed usage.Clinical Coding: Process of substituting a symbol or code for a term such as a diagnosis or procedure. (from Slee's Health Care Terms, 3d ed.)User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Vocabulary, Controlled: A specified list of terms with a fixed and unalterable meaning, and from which a selection is made when CATALOGING; ABSTRACTING AND INDEXING; or searching BOOKS; JOURNALS AS TOPIC; and other documents. The control is intended to avoid the scattering of related subjects under different headings (SUBJECT HEADINGS). The list may be altered or extended only by the publisher or issuing agency. (From Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed, p163)Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.Automation: Controlled operation of an apparatus, process, or system by mechanical or electronic devices that take the place of human organs of observation, effort, and decision. (From Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 1993)Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Disability Evaluation: Determination of the degree of a physical, mental, or emotional handicap. The diagnosis is applied to legal qualification for benefits and income under disability insurance and to eligibility for Social Security and workmen's compensation benefits.Automatic Data Processing: Data processing largely performed by automatic means.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Nursing Process: The sum total of nursing activities which includes assessment (identifying needs), intervention (ministering to needs), and evaluation (validating the effectiveness of the help given).Disease: A definite pathologic process with a characteristic set of signs and symptoms. It may affect the whole body or any of its parts, and its etiology, pathology, and prognosis may be known or unknown.Least-Squares Analysis: A principle of estimation in which the estimates of a set of parameters in a statistical model are those quantities minimizing the sum of squared differences between the observed values of a dependent variable and the values predicted by the model.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted: Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Cerebral Palsy: A heterogeneous group of nonprogressive motor disorders caused by chronic brain injuries that originate in the prenatal period, perinatal period, or first few years of life. The four major subtypes are spastic, athetoid, ataxic, and mixed cerebral palsy, with spastic forms being the most common. The motor disorder may range from difficulties with fine motor control to severe spasticity (see MUSCLE SPASTICITY) in all limbs. Spastic diplegia (Little disease) is the most common subtype, and is characterized by spasticity that is more prominent in the legs than in the arms. Pathologically, this condition may be associated with LEUKOMALACIA, PERIVENTRICULAR. (From Dev Med Child Neurol 1998 Aug;40(8):520-7)Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Abstracting and Indexing as Topic: Activities performed to identify concepts and aspects of published information and research reports.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Normal Distribution: Continuous frequency distribution of infinite range. Its properties are as follows: 1, continuous, symmetrical distribution with both tails extending to infinity; 2, arithmetic mean, mode, and median identical; and 3, shape completely determined by the mean and standard deviation.Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Brain-Computer Interfaces: Instrumentation consisting of hardware and software that communicates with the BRAIN. The hardware component of the interface records brain signals, while the software component analyzes the signals and converts them into a command that controls a device or sends a feedback signal to the brain.Diagnosis-Related Groups: A system for classifying patient care by relating common characteristics such as diagnosis, treatment, and age to an expected consumption of hospital resources and length of stay. Its purpose is to provide a framework for specifying case mix and to reduce hospital costs and reimbursements and it forms the cornerstone of the prospective payment system.Societies, Medical: Societies whose membership is limited to physicians.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Nursing: The field of nursing care concerned with the promotion, maintenance, and restoration of health.Metagenomics: The genomic analysis of assemblages of organisms.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Photography: Method of making images on a sensitized surface by exposure to light or other radiant energy.Image Enhancement: Improvement of the quality of a picture by various techniques, including computer processing, digital filtering, echocardiographic techniques, light and ultrastructural MICROSCOPY, fluorescence spectrometry and microscopy, scintigraphy, and in vitro image processing at the molecular level.EuropeStatistics as Topic: The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.Probability: The study of chance processes or the relative frequency characterizing a chance process.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.United States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Proteomics: The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.Markov Chains: A stochastic process such that the conditional probability distribution for a state at any future instant, given the present state, is unaffected by any additional knowledge of the past history of the system.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Forms and Records Control: A management function in which standards and guidelines are developed for the development, maintenance, and handling of forms and records.Wavelet Analysis: Signal and data processing method that uses decomposition of wavelets to approximate, estimate, or compress signals with finite time and frequency domains. It represents a signal or data in terms of a fast decaying wavelet series from the original prototype wavelet, called the mother wavelet. This mathematical algorithm has been adopted widely in biomedical disciplines for data and signal processing in noise removal and audio/image compression (e.g., EEG and MRI).Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.Expert Systems: Computer programs based on knowledge developed from consultation with experts on a problem, and the processing and/or formalizing of this knowledge using these programs in such a manner that the problems may be solved.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Leukemia: A progressive, malignant disease of the blood-forming organs, characterized by distorted proliferation and development of leukocytes and their precursors in the blood and bone marrow. Leukemias were originally termed acute or chronic based on life expectancy but now are classified according to cellular maturity. Acute leukemias consist of predominately immature cells; chronic leukemias are composed of more mature cells. (From The Merck Manual, 2006)Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Subject Headings: Terms or expressions which provide the major means of access by subject to the bibliographic unit.Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Databases as Topic: Organized collections of computer records, standardized in format and content, that are stored in any of a variety of computer-readable modes. They are the basic sets of data from which computer-readable files are created. (from ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Disabled Persons: Persons with physical or mental disabilities that affect or limit their activities of daily living and that may require special accommodations.Semantics: The relationships between symbols and their meanings.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Area Under Curve: A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)Stomach Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Medical Records: Recording of pertinent information concerning patient's illness or illnesses.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Activities of Daily Living: The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Consensus: General agreement or collective opinion; the judgment arrived at by most of those concerned.Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Computer systems or networks designed to provide radiographic interpretive information.Likelihood Functions: Functions constructed from a statistical model and a set of observed data which give the probability of that data for various values of the unknown model parameters. Those parameter values that maximize the probability are the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters.Lymphatic Metastasis: Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Unified Medical Language System: A research and development program initiated by the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE to build knowledge sources for the purpose of aiding the development of systems that help health professionals retrieve and integrate biomedical information. The knowledge sources can be used to link disparate information systems to overcome retrieval problems caused by differences in terminology and the scattering of relevant information across many databases. The three knowledge sources are the Metathesaurus, the Semantic Network, and the Specialist Lexicon.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Pathology, Clinical: A subspecialty of pathology applied to the solution of clinical problems, especially the use of laboratory methods in clinical diagnosis. (Dorland, 28th ed.)Product Labeling: Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a product or its container or wrapper. It includes purpose, effect, description, directions, hazards, warnings, and other relevant information.Pharmaceutical Preparations: Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.Consensus Development Conferences as Topic: Presentations of summary statements representing the majority agreement of physicians, scientists, and other professionals convening for the purpose of reaching a consensus--often with findings and recommendations--on a subject of interest. The Conference, consisting of participants representing the scientific and lay viewpoints, is a significant means of evaluating current medical thought and reflects the latest advances in research for the respective field being addressed.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Electronic Nose: A device used to detect airborne odors, gases, flavors, volatile substances or vapors.Trauma Severity Indices: Systems for assessing, classifying, and coding injuries. These systems are used in medical records, surveillance systems, and state and national registries to aid in the collection and reporting of trauma.Nursing Diagnosis: Conclusions derived from the nursing assessment that establish a health status profile for the patient and from which nursing interventions may be ordered.Database Management Systems: Software designed to store, manipulate, manage, and control data for specific uses.JapanHealth Status Indicators: The measurement of the health status for a given population using a variety of indices, including morbidity, mortality, and available health resources.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Cause of Death: Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.Databases, Nucleic Acid: Databases containing information about NUCLEIC ACIDS such as BASE SEQUENCE; SNPS; NUCLEIC ACID CONFORMATION; and other properties. Information about the DNA fragments kept in a GENE LIBRARY or GENOMIC LIBRARY is often maintained in DNA databases.Documentation: Systematic organization, storage, retrieval, and dissemination of specialized information, especially of a scientific or technical nature (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983). It often involves authenticating or validating information.Hazardous Substances: Elements, compounds, mixtures, or solutions that are considered severely harmful to human health and the environment. They include substances that are toxic, corrosive, flammable, or explosive.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Decision Support Techniques: Mathematical or statistical procedures used as aids in making a decision. They are frequently used in medical decision-making.Genes, Neoplasm: Genes whose abnormal expression, or MUTATION are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Satellite Imagery: Composition of images of EARTH or other planets from data collected during SPACE FLIGHT by remote sensing instruments onboard SPACECRAFT. The satellite sensor systems measure and record absorbed, emitted, or reflected energy across the spectra, as well as global position and time.Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: Categorical classification of MENTAL DISORDERS based on criteria sets with defining features. It is produced by the American Psychiatric Association. (DSM-IV, page xxii)Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.GermanyThymoma: A neoplasm originating from thymic tissue, usually benign, and frequently encapsulated. Although it is occasionally invasive, metastases are extremely rare. It consists of any type of thymic epithelial cell as well as lymphocytes that are usually abundant. Malignant lymphomas that involve the thymus, e.g., lymphosarcoma, Hodgkin's disease (previously termed granulomatous thymoma), should not be regarded as thymoma. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.BrazilFalse Positive Reactions: Positive test results in subjects who do not possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of healthy persons as diseased when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin: Any of a group of malignant tumors of lymphoid tissue that differ from HODGKIN DISEASE, being more heterogeneous with respect to malignant cell lineage, clinical course, prognosis, and therapy. The only common feature among these tumors is the absence of giant REED-STERNBERG CELLS, a characteristic of Hodgkin's disease.Diagnostic Errors: Incorrect diagnoses after clinical examination or technical diagnostic procedures.Structural Homology, Protein: The degree of 3-dimensional shape similarity between proteins. It can be an indication of distant AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and used for rational DRUG DESIGN.Proteome: The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease: A particular type of FEMUR HEAD NECROSIS occurring in children, mainly male, with a course of four years or so.Neuroendocrine Tumors: Tumors whose cells possess secretory granules and originate from the neuroectoderm, i.e., the cells of the ectoblast or epiblast that program the neuroendocrine system. Common properties across most neuroendocrine tumors include ectopic hormone production (often via APUD CELLS), the presence of tumor-associated antigens, and isozyme composition.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Computer Graphics: The process of pictorial communication, between human and computers, in which the computer input and output have the form of charts, drawings, or other appropriate pictorial representation.Diagnosis: The determination of the nature of a disease or condition, or the distinguishing of one disease or condition from another. Assessment may be made through physical examination, laboratory tests, or the likes. Computerized programs may be used to enhance the decision-making process.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Disease-Free Survival: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man
MIM classification system. See also: List of OMIM disorder codes. MIM numbers. Each OMIM entry is given a unique ... The database may be used as a resource for locating literature relevant to inherited conditions, and its numbering system is ... Medical classification. *Comparative Toxicogenomics Database, a database that integrates chemicals and genes with human ... Because OMIM has responsibility for the classification and naming of genetic disorders, these numbers are stable identifiers of ...
... classification system. Their goal is to empirically test both the six autonomous classification types (KRs) and the ... folklorists and anthropologists of the time needed a system to organise these items. The Aarne-Thompson classification system ... Classification systems. As folktales and other types of oral literature became collectibles throughout Europe in the 19th ... A more granular classification system used widely by folklorists and cultural anthropologists is the Thompson Motif Index, ...
Earlier classification systems. The Cronquist system of 1981 recognizes the family but places it in the water lily order ... In the older classification systems it was recognized under the biological order Nymphaeales or Nelumbonales. Nelumbo is ... Traditional classification systems recognized Nelumbo as part of the Nymphaeaceae, but traditional taxonomists were likely ... The Dahlgren system of 1985 and Thorne system of 1992 both recognize the family and place it in its own order, Nelumbonales. ...
Classification. APG system. In the APG IV system, of 2016, this order is placed in the clade magnoliids and is ... Earlier systems. The Cronquist system, of 1981, placed the order in the subclass Magnoliidae of class Magnoliopsida [= ... The Wettstein system, latest version published in 1935, assigned the order to the Monochlamydeae in subclass Choripetalae of ... The Engler system, in its update of 1964, placed the order in subclassis Archichlamydeae in class Dicotyledoneae [=dicotyledons ...
1 Classification. *2 Reporting systems *2.1 United Kingdom. *2.2 United States. *2.3 Australia ... In the United States several reporting systems have been built, such as the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), the ... Classification. In terms of drugs, adverse events may be defined as: "Any untoward medical occurrence in a patient or ... Reporting systems. In many countries, adverse effects are required by law to be reported, researched in clinical trials ...
4 Classification. *5 Writing system *5.1 Linear B. *5.2 Cypriot syllabary. *5.3 Greek alphabet *5.3.1 Diacritics ... The traditional system, now called the polytonic orthography (or polytonic system), is still used internationally for the ... Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B and the ... a limited but productive system of compounding and a rich inflectional system. Although its morphological categories have ...
... including Linnaeus's system of sexual classification. Later came systems based on a more complete consideration of the ... the Linnaean system has progressed to a system of modern biological classification based on the evolutionary relationships ... Modern system of classification. Main articles: Evolutionary taxonomy and Phylogenetic nomenclature ... Recent comprehensive classifications. Partial classifications exist for many individual groups of organisms and are ...
Classification. United States classification. Medical devices are classified by the US Food and Drug Administration ... Other organs and systems. Other types of organ dysfunction can occur in the systems of the body, including the ... The trigger of the immune system response can be accompanied by inflammation. The immune system response may lead to chronic ... The immune system may encapsulate the implant as an attempt to remove the foreign material from the site of the tissue by ...
Bretton Woods system
In a sense, the new international monetary system was a return to a system similar to the pre-war gold standard, only using U.S ... Setting up a system of rules, institutions, and procedures to regulate the international monetary system, these accords ... Floating-rate system during 1968-1972. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding ... provided for a system of fixed exchange rates. The rules further sought to encourage an open system by committing members to ...
Episodes that last less than 30 seconds are not considered in this classification system. Also, this system does not apply to ... Levy S (2000). "Classification system of atrial fibrillation". Current Opinion in Cardiology. 15 (1): 54-57. doi:10.1097/ ... recommend in their guidelines the following classification system based on simplicity and clinical relevance. ... The normal electrical conduction system of the heart allows electrical impulses generated by the heart's own pacemaker (the ...
Strunz classification. 2.CB.05a. Dana classification. 02.08.02.01. Crystal system. Cubic. ... The mineral crystallizes in the cubic crystal system. In the crystal structure, zinc and sulfur atoms are tetrahedrally ... Sphalerite crystallizes in the isometric crystal system and possesses perfect dodecahedral cleavage. ...
Classification by symmetry. Main article: Crystal system. The defining property of a crystal is its inherent symmetry, by ... Lattice systems. These lattice systems are a grouping of crystal structures according to the axial system used to ... Crystal systems. A crystal system is a set of point groups in which the point groups themselves and their corresponding ... These point groups are assigned to the trigonal crystal system. Crystal family Crystal system Point group / Crystal class ...
Strunz classification. 1.CB.10a. Dana classification. 126.96.36.199. Crystal system. Cubic. ... This is a stringent tracking system of diamonds and helps protect the "conflict free" label of Canadian diamonds. ... The isotopic signatures of some nanodiamonds indicate they were formed outside the Solar System in stars. ...
Strunz classification. 4.BB.05. Crystal system. Isometric. Crystal class. Hexoctahedral (m3m) H-M symbol: (4/m 3 2/m). ... Kishkinev, D A; Chernetsov, N S (2014). "[Magnetoreception systems in birds: a review of current research]". Zhurnal Obshcheĭ ... making it an important cleanup tool in the case of heavy metals introduced into water systems. These heavy metals can ... Biomagnetites account for the effects of weak magnetic fields on biological systems. There is also a chemical basis for ...
Classification. These color charts show how different colorblind people see compared to a person with normal color vision ... "In Kolb H, Fernandez E, Nelson R (eds.). Webvision: The Organization of the Retina and Visual System. University of Utah Health ... Tovee, Martin J. (2008). An Introduction to the Visual System. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-70964-4. .. ... When one cone system is compromised, dichromacy results. The most frequent forms of human color blindness result from problems ...
Classification. Main article: extrapyramidal system. The vestibulospinal tract is part of the "extrapyramidal system" of ... "Motor Systems". Retrieved 2 November 2011.. *^ Voron, Stephen. "The Vestibular System". University of Utah School of Medicine. ... In human anatomy, the extrapyramidal system is a neural network located in the brain that is part of the motor system involved ... The vestibulospinal tract is part of the vestibular system in the CNS. The primary role of the vestibular system is to maintain ...
Strunz classification. 4.DA.05 (Oxides). Dana classification. 75.01.03.01 (tectosilicates). Crystal system. α-quartz: trigonal ... β-quartz belongs to the hexagonal system, space group P6222 and P6422, respectively. These space groups are truly chiral ( ... Quartz belongs to the trigonal crystal system. The ideal crystal shape is a six-sided prism terminating with six-sided pyramids ... α-quartz crystallizes in the trigonal crystal system, space group P3121 or P3221 depending on the chirality. ...
"The Johns Hopkins Hospital, and Johns Hopkins Health System.. *^ de Jong T, Bannink N, Bredero-Boelhouwer HH, van Veelen ML, ... ClassificationEdit. There are several ways to classify craniosynostosis. *For example, one can consider the number of closed ... A second classification scheme gives a clinical description of the resulting shape of the skull. This will be further discussed ... Blount JP, Louis RG, Tubbs RS, Grant JH (October 2007). "Pansynostosis: a review". Child's Nervous System. 23 (10): 1103-9. doi ...
Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act
EPA Pesticide Product Label System *Copies of the labels of most pesticides registered in the USA can be obtained at Crop Data ... Advertising a restricted-use pesticide without giving the product classification.. *Making a restricted-use pesticide available ... FIFRA established a system of examination and certification both at the private level and at the commercial level for ... system of pesticide regulation to protect applicators, consumers, and the environment. It is administered and regulated by ...
Baytown's climate is classified as humid subtropical (Cfa in Köppen climate classification system). Spring supercell ... Houston is buffered by Galveston Island - which sits in the way of the surge - and the bay system. Spinner, Kate (May 31, 2009 ... "The acreage of swamps and bottomlands ... found in the Galveston Bay system ... [is] about 36,000 acres...". Eubanks (2006), p ... In addition Baytown residents are served by the Harris County Public Library system. ...
Type 2 diabetes
"In Lee M (ed.). Basic Skills in Interpreting Laboratory Data (5th ed.). Bethesda, MD: American Society of Health-System ... Part 1. Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus". Archived from the original on 2007-05-29. Retrieved 2007-05-29.. ... "Definition, diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus and its complications: Report of a WHO Consultation. ... Diseases of the endocrine system (ICD-10 Chapter IV: Endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases - Endocrine diseases, E00- ...
In the Nordic System of labour market regulation, the government's legislative role is limited in the same way as in the Anglo- ... Beyond the classification listed above, unions' relations with political parties vary. In many countries unions are tightly ... Saxon system. However, in contrast to the countries in the Anglo-Saxon system category, this is a much more widespread network ... In the Baltic states trade unions were the part of the Soviet Union trade union system and closely connected with the party in ...
Young babies eat pureed baby foods because they have few teeth and immature digestive systems. Between 8 and 12 months of age, ... they are just obtaining nutrients from materials originating from sources that do not seemingly complement their classification ... By 18 months, babies often have enough teeth and a sufficiently mature digestive system to eat the same foods as adults. ... There are environmental signals, signals from the gastrointestinal system, and metabolic signals that trigger hunger. The ...
Harold E. Palmer
Elton organized species into functional groups, which formed the basis for the trophic system of classification in Raymond ... Lindeman emphasized the important role of decomposer organisms in a trophic system of classification. The notion of a food web ... N ratios are much higher in terrestrial systems while N:P ratios are equal between the two systems. Mineral ... This realization has made trophic classifications more complex. Trophic dynamics. The trophic level concept was ...
A US agency, National Center on Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH), has created a classification system for branches ... "An alternative medical system is a set of practices based on a philosophy different from Western biomedicine." ... Unscientific belief systems. Alternative medicine, such as using naturopathy or homeopathy in place of conventional medicine, ... Boundaries within CAM and between the CAM domain and the domain of the dominant system are not always sharp or fixed." ...
Classification schemes vary widely, but most geologists have adopted the Dott scheme,[better source needed] which uses the ... An example of clastic environment would be a river system in which the full range of grains being transported by the moving ... Towards a classification of Shales. J. geol. soc., London, 137, 1990. *^ Blatt, h., Middleton, G. V. & Murray, R. C. 1972. ... Classification schemes for mudrocks tend to vary but most are based on the grain size of the major constituents. In mudrocks, ...
Jonas Keiler; Stefan Richter; Christian S. Wirkner (2013). "Evolutionary morphology of the hemolymph vascular system in hermit ... and therefore a separate superfamily in the classification poorly reflects the phylogenetic relationship of this taxon. ... "A classification of living and fossil genera of decapod crustaceans" (PDF). The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology. Suppl. 21: 1-109 ...
ಟ್ಯಾಕ್ಸಾನಮಿ - ವಿಕಿಪೀಡಿಯ
೨೫.೦ ೨೫.೧ Cavalier-Smith, T. (1998). "A revised six-kingdom system of life". Biological Reviews. 73 (03): 203-66. doi:10.1111/j ... Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009), "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of ... Woese, C.; Kandler, O.; Wheelis, M. (1990). "Towards a natural system of organisms: proposal for the domains Archaea, Bacteria ...
As with many natural flora, it can become pathogenic under the right conditions, typically when the immune system of the host ... Final Report of the Committee of the Society of American Bacteriologists on Characterization and Classification of Bacterial ... However, in susceptible individuals with weaker immune systems, such as the elderly and young children, the bacterium may ... pneumoniae can be found in the human upper respiratory system. A study of competition in vitro revealed S. pneumoniae ...
Classification and relation with Portuguese. Map showing the historical retreat and expansion of Galician (Galician and ... Sometimes this system is even further reduced to just a single /s/. On the other hand, in some areas final /s/ is produced as / ... There are three main sibilant systems, all derived from the medieval Galician one, which were richer and more complex: *The ... In the Limia Baixa region an old six sibilant system is still preserved, with voiced/voiceless opposition: /ʃ/ - /ʒ/; /s̺/ - /z ...
Positron emission tomography
The system detects pairs of gamma rays emitted indirectly by a positron-emitting radioligand, most commonly fluorine-18, which ... clinical experience and proposed classification". Journal of Nuclear Medicine. 45 (7): 1146-1154. PMID 15235060.. ... Time-of-flight (TOF) PET: For modern systems with a higher time resolution (roughly 3 nanoseconds) a technique called "Time-of- ... PET/CT-System with 16-slice CT; the ceiling mounted device is an injection pump for CT contrast agent ...
In "kindling", repeated stimulation of hippocampal or amygdaloid neurons in the limbic system eventually leads to seizures in ... In the DSM-5, the term addiction is synonymous with the classification of severe substance-use disorder.. ... Teicher MH, Glod CA, Surrey J, Swett C, Jr (1993). "Early childhood abuse and limbic system ratings in adult psychiatric ... 2001). Immunobiology 5: The Immune System in Health and Disease. New York: Garland Pub., ISBN 0-8153-3642-X ...
A number of different classification systems of the patterns of leaf veins (venation or veination) have been described, ... A modified form of the Hickey system was later incorporated into the Smithsonian classification (1999) which proposed seven ... A revised classification of the architecture of dicotyledonous leaves. pp. i 5-39.. , in Metcalfe & Chalk (1979) ... Other systemsEdit. Alternatively, Simpson uses:. Uninervous. Central midrib with no lateral veins (microphyllous), seen in ...
Immune system evasion. Filoviral infection also interferes with proper functioning of the innate immune system. EBOV ... C.M. Fauquet (2005). Virus taxonomy classification and nomenclature of viruses; 8th report of the International Committee on ... This enables the virus to evade the immune system by inhibiting early steps of neutrophil activation.[medical citation needed] ... The potential for widespread infections in countries with medical systems capable of observing correct medical isolation ...
Amphibian - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Senses and skeletal system[change , change source]. Amphibians' eyes have lids, glands and ducts. They have good colour vision[ ... The skeletal system of amphibians are similar to other four-legged animals. They have a spine, rib cage, long bones such as the ... Scientific classification Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Clade: Batrachomorpha Class: Amphibia. Gray 1825 ... especially in the low-lying tropical river systems. In drier conditions, they were less effective, and the ancestors of mammals ...
Tropical monsoon climate
Organulo, ang malayang ensiklopedya
Designing an Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Logic System for Handling Uncertainty Effects in Brain-Computer Interface Classification of...
Designing an Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Logic System for Handling Uncertainty Effects in Brain-Computer Interface Classification of ... This poses a severe problem for existing approaches to the classification task within brain-computer interface (BCI) systems. ... 2017 (English)In: IEEE transactions on fuzzy systems, ISSN 1063-6706, E-ISSN 1941-0034, Vol. 25, no 1, 29-42 p.Article in ... IEEE transactions on fuzzy systems On the subject. Computer and Information Sciences Search outside of DiVA. GoogleGoogle ...
New Root Canal Classification System
Palmer Notation Numbering System or the FDI World Dental Federation System) * 13. Classification System Ahmed HMA, Versiani MA ... Classification System Ahmed HMA, Versiani MA, De-Deus G, Dummer PMH. A new system for classifying root and root canal ... Classification System Ahmed HMA, Versiani MA, De-Deus G, Dummer PMH. A new system for classifying root and root canal ... Classification System : Application in Single-Rooted Teeth Ahmed HMA, Versiani MA, De-Deus G, Dummer PMH. A new system for ...
New Headache Classification System Published
The third edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders is ready for field testing before publication of ... An important "rule" with the new classification system is still "to put a diagnosis on every single distinct kind of headache ... Olesen, who chaired the working group on migraine, encouraged delegates to start citing this new classification system and to ... Separating out chronic migraine is "parallel" to how tension type headache is treated in the classification system, he said. " ...
Census Industry & Occupational Classification System | NIOSH | CDC
Census industry and occupation codes are derived from the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) and the ... Crosswalk coding is the mapping of a code from one industry and occupation classification coding scheme to another or to a ... and more digits in the code signifies greater classification detail. ... Standard Occupational Classification (SOC). Census codes are revised after the NAICS and SOC codes are updated. ...
The ACM Computing Classification System (1998)
About ACM Publications. For more than 60 years, the best and brightest minds in computing have come to ACM to meet, share ideas, publish their work and change the world. ACM's publications are among the most respected and highly cited in the field because of their longstanding focus on quality and their ability to attract pioneering thought leaders from both academia and industry.. [Learn More about ACM Publications...] ...
Commons:Image classification system - Wikimedia Commons
This system is called the Design Search Code Manual. As this is a U.S. Government created classification scheme it is in the ... The following explains how to use the system and how to classify an image. If you only want to find an image by classification ... The system is the equivalent of a filing system for paper records, so that one may search for a type of image by the ... Note that the original system used by the USPTO may be expanded by this commons to cover additional classification, divisions ...
The Baltimore Classification System
This article describes The Baltimore Classification System, a scheme for classifying viruses based on the type of genome and ... The Baltimore system is based on how viruses use that machinery. Using this classification system, messenger RNA (mRNA) is at ... The Baltimore Classification System is a scheme for classifying viruses based on the type of genome and its replication ... The Baltimore Classification System initially included six classes of viruses. However, a seventh class was added to ...
Classification system - Conservapedia
Under the old classification system, Pluto was classified as a "planet", but under the new classification system, its ... and more than one useful classification system for any list of items is possible. However, some systems may be better, or more ... classification systems sometimes change their definitions. A recent very public and controversial change was the system for ... However, the writers of the Bible were simply using a different classification system (e.g. a bird is a flying creature) than ...
The IUBMB-endorsed transporter classification system. - PubMed - NCBI
Bi-Bl (Census Occs beginning with) - Occupational Classification System Manual
Br-By (Census Occs beginning with) - Occupational Classification System Manual
Occupational Classification System Manual. Major Occupational Groups: A. , B. , C. , D. , E. , F. , G. , H. , K About the ... Occupational Classification System Manual Code Census Job Title Industries Affected A208 Brace maker 3827,384,385,806-809 E647 ... All Industries A065 Business-systems analyst All Industries K443 Busser 58 E696 Butadiene-compressor operator 281,282,284,286- ...
Classification system for bladder cancer prognosis | EurekAlert! Science News
Researchers at Lund University have developed a classification system to determine the prognosis for bladder cancer. It is ... "With this new classification system we can better predict which patients have a poor prognosis compared to current methods", ... The research on the classification system has its roots in an interdisciplinary collaboration in the Lund research group on ... Researchers at Lund University have developed a classification system to determine the prognosis for bladder cancer. It is ...
North American industry classification system (NAICS): revision for 2007 - Google Books
... gb-gplus-shareNorth American industry classification system (NAICS). ... books.google.comhttps://books.google.com/books/about/North_American_industry_classification_s.html?id=jFlYAAAAYAAJ&utm_source= ... 0 Reviewshttps://books.google.com/books/about/North_American_industry_classification_s.html?id=jFlYAAAAYAAJ ...
Hynek Classification System, page 1
Hynek Classification System For those who are unfamiliar with the term, the Hynek Classification system is a tool used by ... created the first attempt at a system of scientific study of UFOs. He created a system of classification for the types of UFO ... The Vallee Classification System is a bit more comprehensive, but it doesnt have the good marketing snap of Hyneks. People ... I did tinwiki article on the Hynek Classification system, and realized we really dont have any good threads about it. Here is a ...
APACHE II: a severity of disease classification system. - PubMed - NCBI
A Classification System for Hospital-Based Infection Outbreaks
A Classification System for Hospital-Based Infection Outbreaks
... Paul S. Ganney,1,2 Maurice Madeo,3 and Roger Phillips2 ... This classification system may then be used in comparing appropriate computer models to real outbreaks, as well as in comparing ... As part of our work on modelling such outbreaks, we have developed a classification system to describe the impact of a ... A classification system consisting of seven elements is described, along with a goodness-of-fit method for comparing a new ...
Classification Of Information For The Healthcare System | Bartleby
More about Classification Of Information For The Healthcare System. * Forecasting The Climate Of Healthcare Information Systems ... Classification Of Information For The Healthcare System. 1008 Words Sep 7th, 2014 5 Pages ... Healthcare Information System Essay. 1615 Words , 7 Pages * Information Technology Healthcare System Applications. 1687 Words ... Some Terms of Healthcare Information Systems. 951 Words , 4 Pages * Electronic Healthcare Information Systems Analysis. 1348 ...
Revised Classification System for Alloys for Fixed Prosthodontics
The Council revised this classification system based on a review of the scientific literature, particularly with regard to the ... The ADA Council on Scientific Affairs has finalized a revised classification system for alloys for fixed prosthodontics. ... Revised Classification System for Alloys for Fixed Prosthodontics The ADA Council on Scientific Affairs has archived the 2003 ...
Ex-federal official calls U.S. classification system 'dysfunctional' - The Washington Post
... "contained no information which met the standards of the classification system.". Until January 2008, Leonard was the director ... which has policy oversight of the executive branchs national security information classification system. In 34 years of ... "The idea that someone risked decades of prison over this document is an indictment of the agency and its classification policy ... The witness, J. William Leonard, the governments former classification czar, planned to testify about the harm to democracy ...
Henry Classification System - Wikipedia
Expanding on Galtons classification system, Sir Henry developed the Henry Classification System between the years 1896 and ... However, other than for legacy systems, the Henry Classification System is not essential for automated systems. (Carlton)  ... they devised very similar fingerprint classification systems. It is unclear whom to credit for the classification system. ... This system should NEVER be used for individualization. The Henry Classification System assigns each finger a number according ...
Putnam Classification System - Wikipedia
The Putnam Classification System is a library classification system developed by George Herbert Putnam. Putnam was the ... where he retooled his system and developed the current Library of Congress Classification system. Complete text of System of ... "A library classification system thats older than the Dewey Decimal and Library of Congress models". Andy Sturdevant. "Cracking ... The system for shelving is in a zigzag pattern. The system is still in use in parts of the Hennepin County Library. Putnam went ...
What is the ACR/EULAR classification system for rheumatoid arthritis (RA)?
The ACR/EULAR classification system is a score-based algorithm for RA that incorporates the following 4 factors: Joint ... The ACR/EULAR classification system is a score-based algorithm for RA that incorporates the following 4 factors:. * Joint ... What is the ACR/EULAR classification system for rheumatoid arthritis (RA)?. Updated: Feb 07, 2020 ... A classification of definitive RA requires a score of 6/10 or higher. Patients with a score lower than 6/10 should be ...
U.S. Patent Classification System - Classification Definitions, Class Listing
U.S. Patent Classification System - Classification Definitions. as of June 30, 2000. ... ELECTRICAL COMPUTERS AND DIGITAL DATA PROCESSING SYSTEMS: INPUT/OUTPUT 711. ELECTRICAL COMPUTERS AND DIGITAL PROCESSING SYSTEMS ... ELECTRICAL COMPUTERS AND DIGITAL PROCESSING SYSTEMS: SUPPORT 714. ELECTRICAL COMPUTERS AND DIGITAL PROCESSING SYSTEMS: ERROR ... ORGANIC COMPOUNDS CONTAINING A Bi, Sb, As, OR P ATOM OR CONTAINING A METAL ATOM OF THE 6TH TO 8TH GROUP OF THE PERIODIC SYSTEM ...
Revised System for the Classification of Exchange Rate Arrangements
Experience in operating this classification system has highlighted a need for changes. The present paper provides information ... The changes are expected to allow for greater consistency and objectivity of classifications across countries, expedite the ... the staff of the International Monetary Fund has published a classification of countries de facto exchange rate arrangements. ... "Revised System for the Classification of Exchange Rate Arrangements," IMF Working Papers 09/211, International Monetary Fund. ...
System and Data Classification Policy and Procedures | William & Mary
IT System Classification. Systems at the College of William and Mary are classified as either critical or non-critical. Using ... This document defines the Colleges system and data classification scheme and established procedures for protecting critical IT ... Additionally, any system identified as essential during an emergency event is also classified as critical. Critical IT systems ... Data Classification. Data owned, used, created or maintained by the College is classified into the following three categories: ...
The Revised ASTM Standard on the Unified Classification System
If boarderline classifications are used, the classification symbols are separated with a slash with the classification symbol ... If boarderline classifications are used, the classification symbols are separated with a slash with the classification symbol ... If boarderline classifications are used, the classification symbols are separated with a slash with the classification symbol ... The Revised ASTM Standard on the Unified Classification System. Published Online: 01 December 1984 ...
Cardiologists Devise New Classification System for Cardiomyopathy
There has been quite some development in the new classification system called MOGE(S) for cardiomyopathies, the diseases of the ... classification system. "We have made the MOGE(S) classification quite flexible and expandable. We hope classification, quite ... The new cardiomyopathy classification system was published simultaneously on November 18 by the Journal of the American College ... Cardiologists Devise New Classification System for Cardiomyopathy. by Rukmani Krishna on December 7, 2013 at 2:01 AM Heart ...
ASA Physical Status Classification System
... , ASA Physical Status, American Society Anesthesiology Physical Status. ... ASA Physical Status Classification System. Aka: ASA Physical Status Classification System, ASA Physical Status, American ... www.asahq.org/resources/clinical-information/asa-physical-status-classification-system ... physical status classification, American society of anaesthesiologists physical status classification, American Society of ...
ASA Physical Status Classification System | American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA)
ASA Physical Status Classification System. Developed By: ASA House of Delegates/Executive Committee. Last Amended: October 15, ... References related to use of the ASA PS Classification System. * Guidelines for the use of Sedasys by non-anesthesia trained ... Selected References Addressing Inter-Rater Reliability of the ASA PS Classification System ... ASA PS Classification. Definition. Examples, including, but not limited to: ASA I. A normal healthy patient. Healthy, non- ...
Six Kingdom System of Classification by Hiba Chughtai on Prezi
Transcript of Six Kingdom System of Classification. Six Kingdom System of Classification Eukaryotic Multicellular. Cell wall ... Have a nervous system with a ganglia, circum- oesophagal ring, and paired nerve chords. Have an open-circulatory system. Have a ... Their nervous system is dorsal (belly) and the. circulatory system is open and ventral (back). Squid. Teuthida. Bilaterally ... Have a nervous system with a pharyngeal nerve ring. No blood system. Many species are endoparasites. Basically feed on ...
Computing Classification SystemDefinitions1991World OrganizationTaxonomic classification1992TumoursClinicalFunctional Classification SystemFactoResearchers at Lund UniversityTumorsCharacteristicsBladder cancerRevisionStandard Occupational CClimate classiVarious classification systemsDiagnosis and TreatmentPatients2001AnatomicalDescribesInfection19941995American Society of Anesth19872000StandardizationTerminologyPediatricConsistencyLibrary classification1990sAlgorithmRevisionsBacteriaDiagnostic1998Fuzzy systemHealthcare Information SystemsDiseasesCriteriaCentral Cord SynDataContentMorphologicalFungiDetectionGuidelinesAdditionallyContinuousDiagnoseCategorizationDevelopVariationArticleCommonlyCancersOrganismsPage
Computing Classification System3
- For authors using the 2012 classification system, an important aspect of preparing your paper for publication by ACM Press is to provide the proper indexing and retrieval information from the ACM 2012 Computing Classification System (CCS) . (acm.org)
- Please read the HOW TO CLASSIFY WORKS USING ACM'S 2012 COMPUTING CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM for instructions on how to classify your document using the 2012 ACM Computing Classification System and insert the index terms into your LaTeX or Microsoft Word source file. (acm.org)
- CHARLOTTESVILLE, VA - Silverchair's Semedica division has been contracted by the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), the world's largest educational and scientific computing society, for a major update and redevelopment of the Computing Classification System (CCS), which has served as the de facto standard classification system for the computing field since 1964. (thomasnet.com)
- Additionally, classification systems sometimes change their definitions. (conservapedia.com)
- As part of the ventilation review, BS EN 60079:10 has been reviewed in detail and in this report we have made a clear distinction between the two definitions given for the gas cloud volume Vz. (hse.gov.uk)
- Here, we compare the 2 solar climate definitions and the Köppen-Geiger climate classification system to determine whether the 1999 Vancouver Island outbreak was the first-ever detection of C. gattii s.l. in a temperate environment and which system should be used for a global systematic climate classification framework. (cdc.gov)
- However, more inclusive definitions and classifications of HTLV-111/LAV infection are needed for optimum patient care, health planning, and public health control strategies, as well as for epidemiologic studies and special surveys. (nap.edu)
- The classification is based on population figures and Statistical Local Area boundaries as at the 1991 census. (health.gov.au)
- Rural, Remote and Metropolitan Areas Classification categorises geographic areas into an index of remoteness according to population size based on the 1991 Census. (health.gov.au)
- In 1991, CDC convened a working group of Public Health Service and other consultants to discuss revision of the pediatric HIV classification system. (cdc.gov)
- The 1994 revised classification system was developed through ongoing colla- borations with the consultants following the 1991 meeting. (cdc.gov)
- Report of the Classification Committee of the World Organization of National Colleges, Academies, and Academic Associations of General Practitioners/Family Physicians. (springer.com)
- Report of the Classification Committee of the World Organization of National Colleges, Academies and Academic Associations of General Practitioners/Family Physician (WONCA) J Fam Pract 13: 671-681, 1981. (springer.com)
- At the 1992 UN Conference in Rio de Janeiro on environment and development, it was agreed to develop a Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS). (admin.ch)
- The 1992 Classification system also defined spinal cord injury syndromes, including central cord syndrome, Brown-Séquard syndrome, anterior spinal cord syndrome, conus medullaris syndrome, and cauda equina syndrome. (rutgers.edu)
- We also hope that the system could form a kind of risk analysis for what type of treatment to give, for example more extensive chemotherapy treatment for more aggressive tumours. (eurekalert.org)
- WHO Classification of Tumours of the Central Nervous System is the Revised 4th Edition of the WHO series on histological and genetic typing of human tumours. (tsoshop.co.uk)
- This new revised edition supersedes the WHO Classification of Tumours of the Central Nervous System 4th edition, ISBN 978283224303 published July 2007. (tsoshop.co.uk)
- Digestive System Tumours is the first volume in the fifth edition of the WHO series on the classification of human tumors. (martinus.sk)
- More recently, improvements in non-destructive digital image systems, such as cone-beam and micro-computed tomography, as well as the use of magnification in clinical practice, have increased the number of reports on complex root canal anatomy. (slideshare.net)
- The purpose of this article is to introduce a new classification system that can be adapted to categorize root and root canal configurations in an accurate, simple and reliable manner that can be used in research, clinical practice and training. (slideshare.net)
- The new MOGE(S) classification system will allow us to begin diagnosing early cardiomyopathy better, where disease is not present but genetic information and advanced cardiac imaging shows evidence of increased risk of developing the condition, which will fuel clinical decision making for prevention of cardiomyopathy," adds Dr. Narula. (medindia.net)
- Also, an easy-to-use web application for MOGE(S) can be used on a computer, mobile phone, or other electronic device by medical professionals in daily clinical practice for a descriptive and comprehensive classification of a patient's individual cardiomyopathy type, here: http://moges.biomeris.com. (medindia.net)
- Now, a study published this week in the Journal of Clinical Investigation proposes a new conceptual framework that classifies breast cancers based on whether the cells possess receptors for other molecules, such as androgen and vitamin D. Under this system, current cancer subtypes would be stratified into one of four groups. (nature.com)
- Classification and standardization of uveitis is important, as it enhances the precision and comparability of clinical research from different centers and assists in the development of a complete picture of the course of the disorders and their response to treatment. (medscape.com)
- In 2008, the International Uveitis Study Group (IUSG) designed a simplified, clinical classification system for uveitis based on etiological criteria. (medscape.com)
- Classification systems published to date have been developed primarily to categorize clinical presentations in adult patients and may not be entirely applicable to infants and children (3-5). (cdc.gov)
- OBJECTIVE To quantify the contribution of various risk factors to the risk of amputation in diabetic patients and to develop a foot risk scoring system based on clinical data. (diabetesjournals.org)
- In the new system, infected children are classified into mutually exclusive categories according to three parameters: a) infection status, b) clinical status, and c) immunologic status. (cdc.gov)
- This classifi- cation system categorized clinical manifestations of HIV infection in children based on the limited data available early in the epidemic. (cdc.gov)
- Identification and classification of the dysphagic patient at risk of aspiration is important from a clinical point of view. (biomedsearch.com)
- 1,2 ] Clinical prediction rules [ 4,6 ] and symptom or treatment-based classification systems [ 7,8 ] lack the pathophysiological component(s) clinicians sometimes use to better understand a condition and make clinical decisions. (chiro.org)
- It is still largely unknown whether treatment according to various classification systems results in improved clinical outcomes. (chiro.org)
- 1, 2, 11, 12 ] The purpose of this methodological project was to create a diagnostic classification system with an evidence-based diagnostic checklist tool for use in a chiropractic research clinic conducting clinical trials of LBP [ 13-15 ] and for use in traditional clinical settings. (chiro.org)
- Recognizing the need for more specific diagnostic information, the authors sought to create a LBP diagnostic classification system based on available evidence for use in both a research and clinical setting. (chiro.org)
- The rapid growth of knowledge about human T-lymphotropic virus type 111/ Iymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-111/LAV) has resulted in an increasing need for a system of classifying patients within this spectrum of clinical and laboratory findings attri- butable to HTLV-111/LAV infection (5- 7). (nap.edu)
Functional Classification System1
Researchers at Lund University1
- Our new MOGE(S) system was inspired by the universally accepted TNM staging system for malignant tumors which allows for a common language and code to be used across the oncology community. (medindia.net)
- Ultimately, the researchers then used their classification system to characterize more than 3,000 human breast tumors. (nature.com)
- Proper diagnosis and classification is vital for brain tumors , but until now it hasn't been easy. (mskcc.org)
- Proper diagnosis and classification is vital for brain tumors. (mskcc.org)
- International Classification of Rodent Tumors Pt. (powells.com)
- This series of fascicles comprising an international classification of rodent tumors provides information and guidelines especially adapted for international use in practical toxicological pathology. (powells.com)
- Included in this classification are tumors and relevant pre-neoplastic lesions of the rat for all organ systems. (powells.com)
- This system may be useful for classifying images in order that someone may find a particular image by looking for any image marked with the characteristics of that classification. (wikimedia.org)
- The Institute for Higher Education Policy has devised a new classification system to measure the performance and characteristics of for-profit colleges and universities. (insidehighered.com)
- The Henry Classification System is a long-standing method by which fingerprints are sorted by physiological characteristics for one-to-many searching. (wikipedia.org)
- This system reduces the effort necessary to search large numbers of fingerprint records by classifying fingerprint records according to gross physiological characteristics. (wikipedia.org)
- Two tables are included in the document Appendix 1, entitled Road Classification Criteria is a summary of the characteristics of the different road classes and has been developed to guide the classification of roads. (toronto.ca)
- Road Classification Criteria - a summary table of the characteristics of the different road classes and has been developed to guide the classification of roads. (toronto.ca)
- Road Classification Criteria - a summary table of the characteristics of the different road classes. (toronto.ca)
- Psychiatric comorbidity is an artifactual byproduct of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) classification because of its internal characteristics. (jhu.edu)
- Cladistics uses synapomorphies, which are shared derived characteristics, between groups of organisms to make decisions about how the group fits into the classification system. (ukessays.com)
- For the Köppen-Geiger system, we used a map depicting the climate characteristics observed during 1976-2000 with a spatial resolution of 0.5 degrees ( http://koeppen-geiger.vu-wien.ac.at/shifts.htm ). (cdc.gov)
- In his recent thesis, Gottfrid Sjödahl presents a refined classification system that divides bladder cancer into five sub-groups. (eurekalert.org)
- The research on the classification system has its roots in an interdisciplinary collaboration in the Lund research group on bladder cancer. (eurekalert.org)
- Classification system for bladder cancer. (bio-medicine.org)
- New knowledge about the progression of HIV disease among children warranted revision of the 1987 classification system to better reflect the disease process. (cdc.gov)
- The Fusillo Nature Classification System in English/Latin is the first major revision to Classification in 250 years. (buybooksontheweb.com)
- ICHPPC-2: International Classification of Health Problems in Primary Care, 1979 Revision. (springer.com)
Standard Occupational C1
- In contrast, the Köppen-Geiger system ( 5 ) uses precipitation, temperature, and vegetation traits to produce 5 main climate groups (tropical or equatorial, arid, temperate, continental, and polar) and subgroups and is the most widely used climate classification system by researchers, including medical geographers, worldwide ( 6 ). (cdc.gov)
- The climate classification system of. (city-data.com)
Various classification systems2
Diagnosis and Treatment1
- With this new classification system we can better predict which patients have a poor prognosis compared to current methods", said Gottfrid Sjödahl, a doctoral student at the Division of Oncology, Lund University. (eurekalert.org)
- An assessment of interrater reliability of the ASA physical status classification in pediatric surgical patients. (asahq.org)
- How well do pediatric anesthesiologists agree when assigning ASA physical status classifications to their patients. (asahq.org)
- By employing the Yakes AVM Classification System, a physician is now able to accurately classify AVMs and determine specific endovascular treatment strategies to consistently treat AVMs, and patients can enjoy long-term excellent outcomes. (springer.com)
- We propose a histopathological classification system for hippocampal cell loss in patients suffering from mesial temporal lobe epilepsies (MTLE). (nih.gov)
- Our classification system appears suitable for stratifying the clinically heterogeneous group of MTLE patients also with respect to postsurgical outcome studies. (nih.gov)
- Recently, we have developed techniques to quantify various biomechanical parameters that characterize the dysphagic patient, and have developed an expert system to classify patients based on these measurements. (biomedsearch.com)
- There was a complete agreement between the fuzzy system classification and the clinician's classification in 18 of the 22 patients. (biomedsearch.com)
- The fuzzy system overestimated the risk by half a category in two patients and underestimated by half a category in two patients. (biomedsearch.com)
- This research trial studies a risk-based classification system for patients with newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Patients undergo blood sample collection and bone marrow biopsies at baseline and during and after induction therapy for immunophenotyping for ALL confirmation and classification, DNA ploidy, genomic variation, and cytogenetic (BCR-ABL, trisomies 4+10, and molecular testing for translocations) analysis by flow cytometry and FISH. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Health professionals across such disciplines as orthopedics, physical therapy, and chiropractic have shared the goal of categorizing patients with musculoskeletal low back pain (LBP) according to evidence-based classification systems. (chiro.org)
- In this paper, we introduce an automatic classification framework based on brain imaging features of ADHD patients and present in detail the feature extraction, feature selection, and classifier training methods. (frontiersin.org)
- A classification system of patients for esthetic fixed implant-supported prostheses in the edentulous maxilla. (biomedsearch.com)
- Based on these parameters, a simple new classification system is proposed to classify patients into four categories, which will help facilitate an easier diagnostic and communicative system. (biomedsearch.com)
- The proposed classification system has been based on an analysis of various successfully treated patients with a minimum follow-up period of 2 years. (biomedsearch.com)
- The Australian Standard Geographical Classification Remoteness Area was developed in 2001 by the Australian Bureau of Statistics as a statistical geography that allowed quantitative comparisons between 'city' and 'country' Australia. (health.gov.au)
- The policies, decision routing and individual road classifications which comprise the road classification system came into effect with the 2001 City Council. (toronto.ca)
- Much work has been done on classification of the types of associations between the fungi and the host plants (Brundrett, 2004) but much work remains on differentiation of the organisms beyond this level of classification (Wilkinson, 2001). (ukessays.com)
- The most widely used classification of uveitis is the one devised by the International Uveitis Study Group (IUSG) in 1987, based on the anatomical location of the inflammation. (medscape.com)
- There was consensus by the group members that the anatomical classification of uveitis based on criteria defined by the International Uveitis Study Group (IUSG) should be used. (medscape.com)
- The purpose of this chapter is to present a new Yakes AVM Classification System that has proven therapeutic implications to effectively treat complex AVMs in any anatomical area. (springer.com)
- Thus the system describes the general appearance of an image, not what the image would be used for. (wikimedia.org)
- This page describes the method by which the Library of Congress Classification system (LCCS) was adapted to Wikisource and the subsequent changes to that system. (wikisource.org)
- Also, the document describes the traffic operation and road operation policies in conjunction with Road Classification System and makes recommendations regarding the respective roles of Community Councils and standing committees in dealing with these policies. (toronto.ca)
- BS 5925 describes a method for calculating air change rates that is simple to apply and should provide data of sufficient accuracy to be appropriate for area classification. (hse.gov.uk)
- This revised classification system for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in children replaces the pediatric HIV classification system published in 1987 (1). (cdc.gov)
- These data were analysed using a computer-based algorithm to assign cause of maternal death based on the International Classification of Disease-Maternal Mortality system (trauma, termination of pregnancy-related, eclampsia, haemorrhage, pregnancy-related infection and medical conditions). (rti.org)
- In an attempt to formulate the most appropriate classification system, CDC has sought the advice of a panel of expert consultants' to assist in defining the manifestations of HTLV-111/ LAV infection. (nap.edu)
- The Rural, Remote and Metropolitan Areas (RRMA) classification was introduced in 1994 as a general purpose tool to assist in decision making relevant to rural and remote areas. (health.gov.au)
- To reappraise the Sydney System 4 years after its introduction, a group of gastrointestinal pathologists from various parts of the world met in Houston, Texas, in September 1994. (ovid.com)
American Society of Anesth3
- Aronson WL, McAuliffe MS, Miller K. Variability in the American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status Classification Scale. (asahq.org)
- American Society of Anesthesiologists' physical status system: a multicentre Francophone study to analyse reasons for classification disagreement. (asahq.org)
- McMillan M, Brearley J. Assessment of the variation in American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status Classification assignment in small animal anaesthesia. (asahq.org)
- Optimal Industrial Classification: An Application to the German Industrial Classification System ," Econometric Society World Congress 2000 Contributed Papers 0522, Econometric Society. (repec.org)
- City Council, at its meeting of February 29 and March 1 and 2, 2000, adopted a new Road Classification System to consolidate and replace the various road classification systems inherited from Toronto's seven former municipalities. (toronto.ca)
- Report to Works Committee, dated January 26, 2000, titled Road Classification - Review of Outstanding Issues and Proposed Classifications (All Wards) that reviews a number of policy issues and review of proposed road classification on particular streets throughout the City of Toronto. (toronto.ca)
- Classification of City Streets - June 2000 , a listing of all City-owned streets which are classified as expressway, major and minor arterial and collector. (toronto.ca)
- Report to Works Committee, dated May 10, 2000, titled Review of Specific Road Classifications that reviews a number of outstanding road classifications resulting from City Council's decision on this matter. (toronto.ca)
- The Standardization of Uveitis Nomenclature (SUN) Working Group met in 2009 to standardize the descriptions and terminologies necessary to develop tools such as computerized data entry forms and classification criteria. (medscape.com)
- The lack of precision and standardization of climate classification in the health literature makes comparing emergence areas around the world and determining why or how the organism emerged in that area difficult. (cdc.gov)
- The CPT which is Current Procedural Terminology and the HCPCS which is the Healthcare Common Procedure Coding System are used in various medical settings. (bartleby.com)
- ACM will cement its position of leadership in computer science through this significant terminology and classification update project. (thomasnet.com)
- The changes are expected to allow for greater consistency and objectivity of classifications across countries, expedite the classification process, conserve resources, and improve transparency. (repec.org)
- ASA physical status classifications: A study of consistency of ratings. (asahq.org)
- An assessment of the consistency of ASA physical status classification allocation. (asahq.org)
- The ASA physical status classification: inter-observer consistency. (asahq.org)
- Developed by Hem Chandra Bose, Azizul Haque and Sir Edward Henry in the late 19th century for criminal investigations in British India, it was the basis of modern-day AFIS (Automated Fingerprint Identification System) classification methods up until the 1990s. (wikipedia.org)
- The new interpretation of the term ("biotope = habitat + community") appeared in the United Kingdom in the early 1990s while elaborating the classification of the natural conservation objects of the coastal zone. (marinespecies.org)
- The term was "re-discovered" in the earlier 1990s, when classification and mapping works of the littoral and upper sub-littoral coastal zone of the Great Britain and Ireland began. (marinespecies.org)
- Based on evidence supported by diagnostic utility studies, doctors of chiropractic functioning as members of a research clinic created a diagnostic classification system, corresponding exam and checklist based on strength of evidence, and in-office efficiency. (chiro.org)
- THE DIAGNOSTIC CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM CONTAINS ONE SCREENING CATEGORY, TWO PAIN CATEGORIES: Nociceptive, Neuropathic, one functional evaluation category, and one category for unknown or poorly defined diagnoses. (chiro.org)
- The goal of this classification is to harmonize and standardize the nomenclature and diagnostic criteria to be used worldwide for regulatory purposes. (powells.com)
Healthcare Information Systems3
- Forecasting the Climate of Healthcare Information Systems Healthcare Provider Organizations in the United States are going through a major restructuring process. (bartleby.com)
- Healthcare Reform and Healthcare Information Systems The United States healthcare system needed resuscitation long before President Obama signed the Affordable Care Act (ACA) of 2009 into law. (bartleby.com)
- International Journal of Healthcare Information Systems and Informatics (IJHISI), 10 (3), 1-23. (igi-global.com)
- As in earlier editions, the new classification system distinguishes primary headaches, which are diseases in their own right, from secondary headaches, which are caused by something else. (medscape.com)
- There has been quite some development in the new classification system called MOGE(S) for cardiomyopathies, the diseases of the heart muscle which can lead to heart enlargement and heart failure. (medindia.net)
- Here, we examine 1) the prevalence of selected chronic diseases by US county economic status and by metropolitan classification and 2) the social gradient by county economic status, both overall and by metropolitan classification. (cdc.gov)
- In: Manual of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases, Injuries and Causes of Death. (springer.com)
- Westbury RC, Tarrant M: Classification of diseases in general practice: a comparative study. (springer.com)
- Coded Classification of Diseases: A Problem-Oriented Adaptation of the Royal College of General Practitioners Classification. (springer.com)
Central Cord Syn2
- He created a system of classification for the types of UFO sightings to help organize and catalouge data for further study. (abovetopsecret.com)
- In 2009, the Healthcare Information and Management Systems Society (HIMSS) developed literature that outlined Data Warehousing and its impact within Healthcare Data Management. (bartleby.com)
- Departments should carefully evaluate the appropriate data classification category for their information. (wm.edu)
- The New Classification further defines the originator's drug as the drug that was first approved in the world, supported with complete and sufficient safety and efficacy data for marketing approval. (lexology.com)
- Classification and Aggregation: An Application to Industrial Classification in CPS Data ," Journal of Applied Econometrics , John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 7(1), pages 31-51, Jan.-Marc. (repec.org)
- We used 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data. (cdc.gov)
- Data from the 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) were analyzed. (cdc.gov)
- The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) performance confirmation data acquisition/monitoring system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. (unt.edu)
- Using the system and method, particular information is extracted from at least a subset of the received data records, the particular information being indicative of the particular pattern in at least some of the data records. (google.com)
- To capture classification data for correlative studies accompanying current COG ALL treatment protocols. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- This system could allow public health programmes in low- and middle-income countries to generate transparent and comparable data for maternal COD across time or regions. (rti.org)
- Inter-Unit Reliability and Effect of Data Processing Methods of Global Positioning Systems. (bioportfolio.com)
- The external and internal morphological features of roots are variable and complex, and several classifications have been proposed to define the various types of canal configurations that occur commonly. (slideshare.net)
- 9. The automated classifier of claim 1 further comprising means for making an additional non-neural net classification of nuclear morphological components in addition to integrated optical density, said means being coupled between the primary classifier means and the secondary classifier means. (google.com.au)
- The Sydney System for the classification of gastritis emphasized the importance of combining topographical, morphological, and etiological information into a schema that would help to generate reproducible and clinically useful diagnoses. (ovid.com)
- The aim of the study is to further develop the classification system of ectomychorrhizae fungi and to complement other studies done in the field. (ukessays.com)
- The Algae, Fungi and Lichens as shown in Eichler's classification, are included in this group. (transtutors.com)
- The Fungi is stated separately from Protista in this system of classification because the distinguishing characters such as the cell wall of chitin, cellulose or of chitin and cellulose together, Mitochondria with flat cristae, 10 to 12 sided big pores in Nuclear membrane, Scattered Ribosomes in the cytoplasm, and special organelles controlling the structure of cell-wall are found in them. (transtutors.com)
- This paper presents a road distress detection system involving the phases needed to properly deal with fully automatic road distress assessment. (mdpi.com)
- In addition, the observed performance of the crack detection system is significantly boosted by adapting the parameters to the type of pavement. (mdpi.com)
- Amírola, A. Adaptive Road Crack Detection System by Pavement Classification. (mdpi.com)
- 7. A method as set forth in claim 1 wherein said pattern recognition system is a sonar detection system and said input device is a sonar signal capture device. (google.com)
- The General Guidelines provide broad instructions and procedures for interpreting the classification numbers to be assigned to a particular image. (wikimedia.org)
- More precise guidelines were established, particularly with regard to plasticity, so that only one particular classification will result. (astm.org)
- The Transportation Services Division, through its consultation with staff, Councillors and the public was able to develop the Road Classification System, which is described in the document entitled City of Toronto's Road Classification System - Summary Document . (toronto.ca)
- The purpose of the present investigation was to develop a fuzzy logic diagnosis system for classification of the patient with pharyngeal dysphagia into four categories of risk for aspiration. (biomedsearch.com)
- Many researchers in the health information system field have been attracted to develop computer applications that help in the diagnosis process. (igi-global.com)
- To develop classifications for mid-Atlantic training watersheds, test them in the mid-Atlantic, apply the entire methodology in southern New England (MA, RI, CT), and to generalize the methods for future national application. (epa.gov)
- I did tinwiki article on the Hynek Classification system, and realized we really dont have any good threads about it. (abovetopsecret.com)
- Check out this article to learn more or contact your system administrator. (prezi.com)
- Is the Subject Area "Peripheral nervous system" applicable to this article? (plos.org)
- This article introduces the Sydney System as it was revised at the Houston Gastritis Workshop and represents the consensus of the participants. (ovid.com)
- He adds that the proposed classification system could point to new therapies for breast cancers previously categorized as unlikely to respond to treatment. (nature.com)
- We introduce Pathway-Informed Classification System (PICS) for classifying cancers based on tumor sample gene expression levels. (harvard.edu)