Smog: A mixture of smoke and fog polluting the atmosphere. (Dorland, 27th ed)Air Pollution: The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Sanitary Engineering: A branch of engineering concerned with the design, construction, and maintenance of environmental facilities conducive to public health, such as water supply and waste disposal.Water Pollution: Contamination of bodies of water (such as LAKES; RIVERS; SEAS; and GROUNDWATER.)Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Environmental Pollution: Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Bone Cements: Adhesives used to fix prosthetic devices to bones and to cement bone to bone in difficult fractures. Synthetic resins are commonly used as cements. A mixture of monocalcium phosphate, monohydrate, alpha-tricalcium phosphate, and calcium carbonate with a sodium phosphate solution is also a useful bone paste.Ozone: The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).Acid Rain: Acidic water usually pH 2.5 to 4.5, which poisons the ecosystem and adversely affects plants, fishes, and mammals. It is caused by industrial pollutants, mainly sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides, emitted into the atmosphere and returning to earth in the form of acidic rain water.Particulate Matter: Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.Dental Cements: Substances used to bond COMPOSITE RESINS to DENTAL ENAMEL and DENTIN. These bonding or luting agents are used in restorative dentistry, ROOT CANAL THERAPY; PROSTHODONTICS; and ORTHODONTICS.Nitrogen Dioxide: Nitrogen oxide (NO2). A highly poisonous gas. Exposure produces inflammation of lungs that may only cause slight pain or pass unnoticed, but resulting edema several days later may cause death. (From Merck, 11th ed) It is a major atmospheric pollutant that is able to absorb UV light that does not reach the earth's surface.Sulfur Dioxide: A highly toxic, colorless, nonflammable gas. It is used as a pharmaceutical aid and antioxidant. It is also an environmental air pollutant.Forecasting: The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.Resin Cements: Dental cements composed either of polymethyl methacrylate or dimethacrylate, produced by mixing an acrylic monomer liquid with acrylic polymers and mineral fillers. The cement is insoluble in water and is thus resistant to fluids in the mouth, but is also irritating to the dental pulp. It is used chiefly as a luting agent for fabricated and temporary restorations. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p159)Air Pollution, Indoor: The contamination of indoor air.Germany, WestVehicle Emissions: Gases, fumes, vapors, and odors escaping from the cylinders of a gasoline or diesel internal-combustion engine. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Glass Ionomer Cements: A polymer obtained by reacting polyacrylic acid with a special anion-leachable glass (alumino-silicate). The resulting cement is more durable and tougher than others in that the materials comprising the polymer backbone do not leach out.Weather: The state of the ATMOSPHERE over minutes to months.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Silicate Cement: A relatively hard, translucent, restorative material used primarily in anterior teeth. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p50)Epidemiological Monitoring: Collection, analysis, and interpretation of data about the frequency, distribution, and consequences of disease or health conditions, for use in the planning, implementing, and evaluating public health programs.Polycarboxylate Cement: Water-soluble low-molecular-weight polymers of acrylic or methacrylic acid that form solid, insoluble products when mixed with specially prepared ZnO powder. The resulting cement adheres to dental enamel and is also used as a luting agent.Respiratory Tract DiseasesCoal: A natural fuel formed by partial decomposition of vegetable matter under certain environmental conditions.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Carbon Footprint: A measure of the total greenhouse gas emissions produced by an individual, organization, event, or product. It is measured in units of equivalent kilograms of CARBON DIOXIDE generated in a given time frame.Coal MiningGreenhouse Effect: The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.Energy-Generating Resources: Materials or phenomena which can provide energy directly or via conversion.Economic Development: Mobilization of human, financial, capital, physical and or natural resources to generate goods and services.
Although London was accustomed to heavy fogs, this one was denser and longer-lasting than any previous fog.[13] Visibility was reduced to a few metres ("It's like you were blind"[14]) making driving difficult or impossible. Public transport ceased, apart from the London Underground, and the ambulance service stopped, forcing users to transport themselves to hospital. The smog was so dense that it even seeped indoors, resulting in cancellation or abandonment of concerts and film screenings as visibility decreased in large enclosed spaces, and stages and screens became harder to see from the seats.[15] Outdoor sports events were also cancelled.[citation needed] In the inner London suburbs and away from town centres, there was no disturbance by moving traffic to thin out the dense fog in the back streets. The result was that visibility could be down to a metre or so in the daytime. Walking out of doors became a matter of shuffling one's feet to feel for potential obstacles such as road kerbs. ...
Steven Dale Ittel (born 1946 in Hamilton, Ohio) is an American chemist specializing in organometallic chemistry and homogeneous catalysis. His father was a superintendent of a rural school district and a YMCA camp director, so he spent the first 19 summers of his life at Camp Campbell Gard. He is married with two children. He attended Miami University in Oxford, Ohio, where he received a bachelor's degree in chemistry in 1968. He was then commissioned as an officer in the United States Public Health Service and studyed photochemical smog in the New York City metropolitan area from 1968-1970. He attended Northwestern University where he received his PhD in chemistry under the direction of James A. Ibers in 1974. Ittel worked on hydride activation of lanthanides for Systems for Nuclear Auxiliary Power (SNAP) at Monsanto's Mound Laboratories for a short time. Upon receiving his PhD from Northwestern, Ittel joined DuPont's Central Research Department at the Experimental Station ...
... is quite a serious issue with the major sources being fuelwood and biomass burning, fuel adulteration, vehicle emission and traffic congestion. In autumn and winter months, large scale crop residue burning in agriculture fields - a low cost alternative to mechanical tilling - is a major source of smoke, smog and particulate pollution. India has a low per capita emissions of greenhouse gases but the country as a whole is the third largest after China and the United States. A 2013 study on non-smokers has found that Indians have 30% lower lung function compared to Europeans. The Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act was passed in 1981 to regulate air pollution and there have been some measurable improvements. However, the 2016 Environmental Performance Index ranked India 141 out of 180 countries. In 2015, Government of India, together with IIT Kanpur launched the ...
ஓசோன் (Ozone) என்பது மூன்று ஆக்சிசன் அணுக்கள் சேர்ந்திருக்கும் ஒரு மூலக்கூறு (சேர்மம்). இது வளிம நிலையில் உள்ளது. ஆக்சிசனின் பிறிதொரு மாற்றுரு (allotrope). இது ஈரணு ஆக்சிசன் மூலக்கூறு போல் நிலைத்தன்மை இல்லாதது. எளிதில் சிதைந்து விடும். தரைக்கு அருகே காணப்படும் ஓசோன் சூழல் மாசுத்தன்மை ஊட்டுவதாகக் கருதப்படுகின்றது. ஏனெனில் மாந்தர்கள் உட்பட, விலங்குகள் பலவற்றின் மூச்சு இயக்கத்திற்கு ...
The Air Pollution Control Act of 1955 (Pub.L. 84-159, ch. 360, 69 Stat. 322) was the first Clean Air Act (United States) enacted by Congress to address the national environmental problem of air pollution on July 14, 1955. This was "an act to provide research and technical assistance relating to air pollution control". The act "left states principally in charge of prevention and control of air pollution at the source". The act declared that air pollution was a danger to public health and welfare, but preserved the "primary responsibilities and rights of the states and local government in controlling air pollution". The act put the federal government in a purely informational role, authorizing the United States Surgeon General to conduct ...
Air pollution is the introduction of chemicals, particulate matter, or biological materials that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms, or damages the natural environment into the atmosphere. Ever since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution in the United States, America has had much trouble with environmental issues, air pollution in particular. According to a 2009 report, around "60 percent of Americans live in areas where air pollution has reached unhealthy levels that can make people sick". Pollution in the United States has plummeted in the recent decade, with pollutants such as nitrogen dioxide decreasing despite the fact the number of vehicles on the road isn't. This is due to better regulations, economic shifts, and technological innovations. With respect to nitrogen dioxide, NASA reported a 32% decrease in New York City and a 42% decrease ...
The effects of air pollution on our[who?] general life have been well documented, but a specific interest group focusing on gardens and wildlife have been researched by local organisations. Other national and international organisations monitor air pollution also research its effects on people and vegetation. Public interest has necessitated the need for ready available pollution tools and a forecast map was published by DEFRA (Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs) This site features a colour coded outlook forecast which can be viewed up to five days ahead. A pilot project was undertaken in a Sheffield park to determine the effects of air pollution on plant life growth patterns. The project has since completed and was managed by a research graduate whose work is being verified. This project and future comparative studies will ...
... arises from the increasing airborne chemicals, matter and biological materials in the air. These factors cause harm to human health, the environment and to the economy. In the Canadian context, the main contributor of air pollution stems from burning fossil fuels for power and energy. Fossil fuels continue to be the main source of fuel for Canadians, even though the government is aware of the negative effects that it has on the environment and human health. Air pollution in Canada continues to be an issue due to the pressures with climate change, increased urbanization and continued reliance on vehicles as the primary source of transportation. A major contributor to the problem of Canadian air pollution are the Alberta Oil Sands. Though they are not closely related to major Canadian Metropolitan Areas, the quality of mostly rural Northern Alberta is poorer than areas of similar population densities in ...
... includes any air pollution emitted by motor vehicles, airplanes, locomotives, and other engines and equipment that can be moved from one location to another. Many of these pollutants contribute to environmental degradation and have negative effects on human health. To prevent unnecessary damage to human health and the environment, environmental regulatory agencies such as the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency have established policies to minimize air pollution from mobile sources. Similar agencies exist at the state level. Due to the large number of mobile sources of air pollution, and their ability to move from one location to another, mobile sources are regulated differently from stationary sources, such as power plants. Instead of monitoring individual emitters, such as an individual vehicle, mobile sources are often regulated more broadly through design and fuel standards. Examples of this ...
Diseases caused by pollution lead to the deaths of about 8.4 million people each year. "However, pollution receives a fraction of the interest from the global community. This is in part because pollution causes so many diseases that is it often difficult to draw a straight line between cause and effect. There are many different types of pollution-related diseases, including those caused by air pollution, contaminated soil and water, sanitation and hygiene. Environmental diseases are a direct result from the environment. This includes diseases caused by substance abuse, exposure to toxic chemicals, and physical factors in the environment, like UV radiation from the sun, as well as genetic predisposition. Meanwhile, pollution-related diseases are attributed to exposure to toxins in the air, water, and soil. ...
The Air Pollution Index (API) is a simple and generalized way to describe the air quality, which is used in Malaysia. It is calculated from several sets of air pollution data. It was formerly used in mainland China and Hong Kong. In mainland China the API was replaced by an updated Air Quality Index in early 2012 and on 30 December 2013 Hong Kong moved to a health based index. The air quality in Malaysia is reported as the API (Air Pollutant Index) or in Malay as IPU (Indeks Pencemaran Udara). Four of the index's pollutant components (i.e., carbon monoxide, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide) are reported in ppmv but PM10 particulate matter is reported in μg/m3. This scale below shows the Health classifications used by the Malaysian government. If the API exceeds 500, a state of emergency is declared in the reporting area. Usually, this means that non-essential government services are suspended, and all ports in the affected area are ...
... s are devices that detect and monitor the presence of air pollution in the surrounding area. They can be used for both indoor and outdoor environments. These sensors can be built at home, or bought from certain manufactures. Although there are various types of air pollution sensors, and some are specialized in certain aspects, the majority focuses on five components: ozone, particulate matter, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and nitrous oxide. The sensors were very expensive in the past, but with technological advancements these sensors are becoming more affordable and more widespread throughout the population. These sensors can help serve many purposes and help bring attention to environmental issues beyond the scope of the human eye. The EPA maintains a repository of air quality data through the Air Quality System (AQS), where it stores data from over 10,000 monitors in the United States. While use of ...
... is quite a serious issue with the major sources being fuelwood and biomass burning, fuel adulteration, vehicle emission and traffic congestion. In autumn and winter months, large scale crop residue burning in agriculture fields - a low cost alternative to mechanical tilling - is a major source of smoke, smog and particulate pollution. India has a low per capita emissions of greenhouse gases but the country as a whole is the third largest after China and the United States. A 2013 study on non-smokers has found that Indians have 30% lower lung function compared to Europeans. The Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act was passed in 1981 to regulate air pollution and there have been some measurable improvements. However, the 2016 Environmental Performance Index ranked India 141 out of 180 countries. In 2015, Government of India, together with IIT Kanpur launched the ...
State Council about Forwarding Guiding Opinions on Pushing Forward the Joint Prevention and Control of Atmospheric Pollution to ... As of November 2010, there were only two Chinese coal firms -- Shenhua Group and China National Coal Group -- that had ... Sulfur dioxide and acid rain: Less than 15% of Chinas coal plants have desulphurization systems, or scrubbers; sulfur dioxide ... Roughly one coal-fired power plant was being built each week in China, which currently has an estimated 1,400 such plants. ...
International Effects of Chinese Coal Use. Air Pollution. Smog Journeys: a short film by Jia Zhangke ... As of November 2010, there were only two Chinese coal firms -- Shenhua Group and China National Coal Group -- that had ... Sulfur dioxide and acid rain: Less than 15% of Chinas coal plants have desulphurization systems, or scrubbers; sulfur dioxide ... Chinese coal exports are controlled and a quota is distributed by the central government to a few coal groups. It is adjusted ...
Happy reading, I hope you enjoy this weeks Global Warming news roundup skip to bottom ... 2013/03/06: DerSpiegel: The Coal Monster: Pollution Forces Chinese Leaders to Act. Chinas power plants and factories are ... 2013/03/07: OS: Towards an integrated forecasting system for fisheries on habitat-bound stocks by A. Christensen et al. ... 2013/03/04: Reuters: Carbon pricing needed to control airline CO2 emissions: study. Aviation pollution can only be stabilized ...
An air quality early warning system means smog can be forecasted two or three days in advance, the Ministry of Environmental ... The civil trial of Chinas securities watchdog which is being sued by a former executive of Chinese brokerage firm Everbright ... "The control and prevention of smog will be effective only when we know the main cause. Haze analysis needs more than a year of ... The State Council, Chinas cabinet, on Wednesday announced that tax breaks for small and micro firms will be extended till the ...
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A climate projection is the simulated response of the climate system to a scenario of future emission or concentration of ... Organizations - such as parliaments, regulatory agencies, private firms and community bodies - develop and act in response to ... Air pollution. Degradation of air quality with negative effects on human health or the natural or built environment due to the ... Chinese - Download. Russian - Download. Spanish - Download. Arabic - Download. Draft submitted to 48th Session of IPCC. ...
Solar cell firms generally test their panels in the most ideal of conditions-a Club Med of controlled environments. The ... The operation of a photovoltaic system is silent, and creates no atmospheric pollution. . . . Power can be generated where it ... yields a host of negative side effects such as smog, particulates, co2, and deadly accidents. Americas overwhelming response ... Department of Energys biofuel forecast is similarly tentative. It forecasts that biofuel use will only modestly expand, from 5 ...
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Like many Pakistani industrial firms, political meddling and competition from cheaper Chinese imports left PSM vulnerable.. ... Serology tests can detect bodys immune response to even a low-level viral load. Such an immune response also occurs to a ... The firms motto is Yes, I can.. The facility has the capacity to expand to produce 3 million tonnes of cold and hot-rolled ... Pakistan announced this week that it will seek to raise about $815mn through a sale of shares in Oil and Gas Development Co ( ...
... back from a national emissions trading scheme and as international firms remain concerned about lax pollution controls in China ... Judah Cohen is identified as "the director of seasonal forecasting at an atmospheric and environmental research firm." No ... Two weeks ago, he defended the Rudd governments carbon pollution reduction scheme, dumped by the former prime minister. He ... 23 would thwart efforts to curb air pollution-i.e., smog. So Prop 23 went down in flames, threatening hundreds of thousands of ...
Two Chinese firms are also looking to build gasification and coal mining projects in Thar, industry sources said.. ---------. ... A complex system of subsidies and price controls has limited investment, particularly in resources like coal and natural gas. ... In China, concerns over smog and climate change have prompted a move toward renewables, as have slowing economic growth and a ... However, coal is so inexpensive that one can spend quite a bit on pollution control and still maintain coals competitive ...
Heavy air pollution from Beijing, which saw its worst bout of smog in recent history in January, to Shanghai, where pollution ... patients have been infected in China (2). Although infection rates are said to be controlled in China through severe public ... according to an earlier report by Shanghai-based market research firm iResearch. The firm also predicted that China is likely ... Other than China, Italy, and Iran, most countries have had approximately 2 months to prepare their responses to the COVID-19 ...
Why India should learn from Chinas Taobao villages. *Air pollution kills 1 lakh kids under five every year in India ... Why every state should implement Zero FIR System in India. *This Chennai techie helped NASA find debris of Vikram Lander on ... Voter deletion in Telangana - The contrast in EC & medias response!. *HP Inc to build 3D printing centre in Sunshine Andhra ... PayTm raises $1bn to give a tough fight to International Firm. *AP is Indias renewable energy badland for foreign investors ...
The tank has an independent and effective command and control system for deeper and long-distance operations. Al Khalid-I is ... Meanwhile, Chinese firms can target the vast untapped potential of Pakistani market.. Concerned chiefly about its soaring ... Last week, the Commerce Department placed Huawei and nearly 70 of its affiliates on an "Entity List," which means that U.S. ... And, Tencent is preparing to buy a stake in Oxford Nanopore, a biotech firm leading the UKs charge to develop testing kits for ...
It has been a major beneficiary from Beijings Belt and Road Initiative splurge, working with Chinese firms on coal and power ... Seed quality, fertilizers, and pesticide control should also be improved.. Summary: While Pakistan has lagged in South Asia ... the engineering of food from raw products to the consumers and the restructuring of the distribution system to and from the ... We have received a very positive response from the Pakistani government, and we value their support as we expand our presence ...
  • For investors looking to invest in emerging markets beyond BRIC countries (Brazil, Russia, India and China), this blog is designed to help international investors looking to learn about investing in South Asia with focus on Pakistan. (southasiainvestor.com)
  • Acceptability of policy or system change The extent to which a policy or system change is evaluated unfavourably or favourably, or rejected or supported, by members of the general public (public acceptability) or politicians or governments (political acceptability). (ipcc.ch)
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  • Beyond the 21st century, several elements of the climate system would continue to change even if the global mean temperatures remain stable, including further increases of sea level. (ipcc.ch)
  • In human systems , the process of adjustment to actual or expected climate and its effects, in order to moderate harm or exploit beneficial opportunities. (ipcc.ch)
  • Adaptation that changes the fundamental attributes of a socio-ecological system in anticipation of climate change and its impacts . (ipcc.ch)
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