UracilUracil-DNA Glycosidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the HYDROLYSIS of the N-glycosidic bond between sugar phosphate backbone and URACIL residue during DNA synthesis.Uracil NucleotidesN-Glycosyl Hydrolases: A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.DNA Glycosylases: A family of DNA repair enzymes that recognize damaged nucleotide bases and remove them by hydrolyzing the N-glycosidic bond that attaches them to the sugar backbone of the DNA molecule. The process called BASE EXCISION REPAIR can be completed by a DNA-(APURINIC OR APYRIMIDINIC SITE) LYASE which excises the remaining RIBOSE sugar from the DNA.Deoxyuracil Nucleotides: Uracil nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.Nucleotide Transport Proteins: Proteins involved in the transport of NUCLEOTIDES across cellular membranes.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).ThymineUridineMolecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Bromouracil: 5-Bromo-2,4(1H,3H)-pyrimidinedione. Brominated derivative of uracil that acts as an antimetabolite, substituting for thymine in DNA. It is used mainly as an experimental mutagen, but its deoxyriboside (BROMODEOXYURIDINE) is used to treat neoplasms.Pentosyltransferases: Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a pentose group from one compound to another.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Protein Synthesis Inhibitors: Compounds which inhibit the synthesis of proteins. They are usually ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS or toxins. Mechanism of the action of inhibition includes the interruption of peptide-chain elongation, the blocking the A site of ribosomes, the misreading of the genetic code or the prevention of the attachment of oligosaccharide side chains to glycoproteins.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Uridine Monophosphate: 5'-Uridylic acid. A uracil nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2', 3' or 5' position.TritiumCells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Uracil Mustard: Nitrogen mustard derivative of URACIL. It is a alkylating antineoplastic agent that is used in lymphatic malignancies, and causes mainly gastrointestinal and bone marrow damage.Cytosine: A pyrimidine base that is a fundamental unit of nucleic acids.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.DNA Repair: The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.Cycloheximide: Antibiotic substance isolated from streptomycin-producing strains of Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting elongation during protein synthesis.Deamination: The removal of an amino group (NH2) from a chemical compound.ThymidineLeucine: An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.Uridine Phosphorylase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of ribose from uridine to orthophosphate, forming uracil and ribose 1-phosphate.Cyclization: Changing an open-chain hydrocarbon to a closed ring. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Arabinofuranosyluracil: A pyrimidine nucleoside formed in the body by the deamination of CYTARABINE.Dihydrouracil Dehydrogenase (NADP): An oxidoreductase involved in pyrimidine base degradation. It catalyzes the catabolism of THYMINE; URACIL and the chemotherapeutic drug, 5-FLUOROURACIL.Thiouracil: Occurs in seeds of Brassica and Crucifera species. Thiouracil has been used as antithyroid, coronary vasodilator, and in congestive heart failure although its use has been largely supplanted by other drugs. It is known to cause blood dyscrasias and suspected of terato- and carcinogenesis.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Tegafur: Congener of FLUOROURACIL with comparable antineoplastic action. It has been suggested especially for the treatment of breast neoplasms.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Orotic AcidDactinomycin: A compound composed of a two CYCLIC PEPTIDES attached to a phenoxazine that is derived from STREPTOMYCES parvullus. It binds to DNA and inhibits RNA synthesis (transcription), with chain elongation more sensitive than initiation, termination, or release. As a result of impaired mRNA production, protein synthesis also declines after dactinomycin therapy. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1993, p2015)RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Cell-Free System: A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)Pyrimidine Nucleosides: Pyrimidines with a RIBOSE attached that can be phosphorylated to PYRIMIDINE NUCLEOTIDES.Dihydropyrimidine Dehydrogenase Deficiency: An autosomal recessive disorder affecting DIHYDROPYRIMIDINE DEHYDROGENASE and causing familial pyrimidinemia. It is characterized by thymine-uraciluria in homozygous deficient patients. Even a partial deficiency in the enzyme leaves individuals at risk for developing severe 5-FLUOROURACIL-associated toxicity.Deoxyuridine: 2'-Deoxyuridine. An antimetabolite that is converted to deoxyuridine triphosphate during DNA synthesis. Laboratory suppression of deoxyuridine is used to diagnose megaloblastic anemias due to vitamin B12 and folate deficiencies.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Thymine DNA Glycosylase: An enzyme that removes THYMINE and URACIL bases mispaired with GUANINE through hydrolysis of their N-glycosidic bond. These mispaired nucleotides generally occur through the hydrolytic DEAMINATION of 5-METHYLCYTOSINE to thymine.Chemistry Techniques, Synthetic: Methods used for the chemical synthesis of compounds. Included under this heading are laboratory methods used to synthesize a variety of chemicals and drugs.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Nucleosides: Purine or pyrimidine bases attached to a ribose or deoxyribose. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.DNA-Directed DNA Polymerase: DNA-dependent DNA polymerases found in bacteria, animal and plant cells. During the replication process, these enzymes catalyze the addition of deoxyribonucleotide residues to the end of a DNA strand in the presence of DNA as template-primer. They also possess exonuclease activity and therefore function in DNA repair.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Pyrimidines: A family of 6-membered heterocyclic compounds occurring in nature in a wide variety of forms. They include several nucleic acid constituents (CYTOSINE; THYMINE; and URACIL) and form the basic structure of the barbiturates.Adenine: A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.Puromycin: A cinnamamido ADENOSINE found in STREPTOMYCES alboniger. It inhibits protein synthesis by binding to RNA. It is an antineoplastic and antitrypanosomal agent and is used in research as an inhibitor of protein synthesis.Peptide Biosynthesis: The production of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS by the constituents of a living organism. The biosynthesis of proteins on RIBOSOMES following an RNA template is termed translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC). There are other, non-ribosomal peptide biosynthesis (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NUCLEIC ACID-INDEPENDENT) mechanisms carried out by PEPTIDE SYNTHASES and PEPTIDYLTRANSFERASES. Further modifications of peptide chains yield functional peptide and protein molecules.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Orotidine-5'-Phosphate Decarboxylase: Orotidine-5'-phosphate carboxy-lyase. Catalyzes the decarboxylation of orotidylic acid to yield uridylic acid in the final step of the pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis pathway. EC 18.104.22.168.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Indicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Orotate Phosphoribosyltransferase: The enzyme catalyzing the formation of orotidine-5'-phosphoric acid (orotidylic acid) from orotic acid and 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate in the course of pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis. EC 22.214.171.124.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Chloramphenicol: An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)Chemistry, Organic: The study of the structure, preparation, properties, and reactions of carbon compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Templates, Genetic: Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in DNA REPLICATION; GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of DNA to RNA, and GENETIC TRANSLATION of RNA into POLYPEPTIDES.Oligonucleotides: Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Pyrophosphatases: A group of enzymes within the class EC 3.6.1.- that catalyze the hydrolysis of diphosphate bonds, chiefly in nucleoside di- and triphosphates. They may liberate either a mono- or diphosphate. EC 3.6.1.-.Methionine: A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Bacillus subtilis: A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Pyrimidine Nucleotides: Pyrimidines with a RIBOSE and phosphate attached that can polymerize to form DNA and RNA.Nucleotides: The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)DNA Damage: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Solid-Phase Synthesis Techniques: Techniques used to synthesize chemicals using molecular substrates that are bound to a solid surface. Typically a series of reactions are conducted on the bound substrate that results in either the covalent attachment of specific moieties or the modification of existing function groups. These techniques offer an advantage to those involving solution reactions in that the substrate compound does not have to be isolated and purified between the reaction steps.Cytidine: A pyrimidine nucleoside that is composed of the base CYTOSINE linked to the five-carbon sugar D-RIBOSE.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Sulfites: Inorganic salts of sulfurous acid.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.RNA, Transfer: The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.Enzyme Induction: An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Phenylalanine: An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.Polyribosomes: A multiribosomal structure representing a linear array of RIBOSOMES held together by messenger RNA; (RNA, MESSENGER); They represent the active complexes in cellular protein synthesis and are able to incorporate amino acids into polypeptides both in vivo and in vitro. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Centrifugation, Density Gradient: Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Folic Acid Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of FOLIC ACID in the diet. Many plant and animal tissues contain folic acid, abundant in green leafy vegetables, yeast, liver, and mushrooms but destroyed by long-term cooking. Alcohol interferes with its intermediate metabolism and absorption. Folic acid deficiency may develop in long-term anticonvulsant therapy or with use of oral contraceptives. This deficiency causes anemia, macrocytic anemia, and megaloblastic anemia. It is indistinguishable from vitamin B 12 deficiency in peripheral blood and bone marrow findings, but the neurologic lesions seen in B 12 deficiency do not occur. (Merck Manual, 16th ed)Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Cytidine Deaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of cytidine, forming uridine. EC 126.96.36.199.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Arginine: An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.Floxuridine: An antineoplastic antimetabolite that is metabolized to fluorouracil when administered by rapid injection; when administered by slow, continuous, intra-arterial infusion, it is converted to floxuridine monophosphate. It has been used to treat hepatic metastases of gastrointestinal adenocarcinomas and for palliation in malignant neoplasms of the liver and gastrointestinal tract.RNA, Ribosomal: The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)Hydroxyphenylazouracil: Inhibitor of DNA replication in gram-positive bacteria.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Pentoxyl: 5-Hydroxymethyl-6-methyl- 2,4-(1H,3H)-pyrimidinedione. Uracil derivative used in combination with toxic antibiotics to lessen their toxicity; also to stimulate leukopoiesis and immunity. Synonyms: pentoksil; hydroxymethylmethyluracil.Coliphages: Viruses whose host is Escherichia coli.Ultraviolet Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.Fluorouracil: A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.GuanineDNA-(Apurinic or Apyrimidinic Site) Lyase: A DNA repair enzyme that catalyses the excision of ribose residues at apurinic and apyrimidinic DNA sites that can result from the action of DNA GLYCOSYLASES. The enzyme catalyzes a beta-elimination reaction in which the C-O-P bond 3' to the apurinic or apyrimidinic site in DNA is broken, leaving a 3'-terminal unsaturated sugar and a product with a terminal 5'-phosphate. This enzyme was previously listed under EC 188.8.131.52.Purines: A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Autoradiography: The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Deoxyribonucleotides: A purine or pyrimidine base bonded to a DEOXYRIBOSE containing a bond to a phosphate group.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Palladium: A chemical element having an atomic weight of 106.4, atomic number of 46, and the symbol Pd. It is a white, ductile metal resembling platinum, and following it in abundance and importance of applications. It is used in dentistry in the form of gold, silver, and copper alloys.Enzyme Repression: The interference in synthesis of an enzyme due to the elevated level of an effector substance, usually a metabolite, whose presence would cause depression of the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Thymine Nucleotides: Phosphate esters of THYMIDINE in N-glycosidic linkage with ribose or deoxyribose, as occurs in nucleic acids. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1154)Hypoxanthines: Purine bases related to hypoxanthine, an intermediate product of uric acid synthesis and a breakdown product of adenine catabolism.Oligoribonucleotides: A group of ribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.DNA, Single-Stranded: A single chain of deoxyribonucleotides that occurs in some bacteria and viruses. It usually exists as a covalently closed circle.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
As of 1994[update], there were difficulties in the explanation of the abiotic synthesis of the nucleotides cytosine and uracil ... Robertson, Michael P.; Miller, Stanley L. (29 June 1995). "An efficient prebiotic synthesis of cytosine and uracil". Nature. ... If biosynthesis recapitulates biopoiesis, then the synthesis of amino acids preceded the synthesis of the purine and pyrimidine ... Miller and colleagues suggested that while adenine and guanine require freezing conditions for synthesis, cytosine and uracil ...
"A Novel Method of Caffeine Synthesis from Uracil" (PDF). Synthetic Communications. 33 (19): 3291-3297. doi:10.1081/SCC- ... Plant Polyphenols: Synthesis, Properties, Significance. Richard W. Hemingway,Peter E. Laks,Susan J. Branham (page 263) "Which ... Fischer E, Ach L (1895). "Synthese des Caffeïns" [Synthesis of caffeine]. Berichte der Deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft zu ... "total synthesis"), and two years later, he also derived the structural formula of the compound. This was part of the work for ...
In RNA, which is used for protein synthesis, adenine binds to uracil. Adenine forms adenosine, a nucleoside, when attached to ... The shape of adenine is complementary to either thymine in DNA or uracil in RNA. The image on the right shows pure adenine, as ... "Synthesis of purines under possible primitive earth conditions. I. Adenine from hydrogen cyanide". Archives of Biochemistry and ... It also has functions in protein synthesis and as a chemical component of DNA and RNA. ...
This means that they only work during a specific part of the cell cycle, in this case S-phase (the DNA synthesis phase). For ... The nucleobases are divided into purines (guanine and adenine) and pyrimidines (cytosine, thymine and uracil). Anti-metabolites ... Anti-metabolites are a group of molecules that impede DNA and RNA synthesis. Many of them have a similar structure to the ... These drugs exert their effect by either blocking the enzymes required for DNA synthesis or becoming incorporated into DNA or ...
... mutant is an auxotrophic mutant for uracil. The pyrE from a distantly related genus of T. maritima rescued the uracil ... T. maritima has a great potential in hydrogen synthesis because it can ferment a wide variety of sugars and has been reported ... This mutant explored the role of the pentose phosphate pathway of T. maritima in hydrogen synthesis. The genome of T. maritima ...
RNA also contains adenine, guanine, and cytosine, but replaces thymine with uracil. Thus, DNA synthesis requires dATP, dGTP, ... DNA synthesis uses dNTPs as substrates, while RNA synthesis uses NTPs as substrates. It should be noted that NTPs cannot be ... The synthesis of ATP and GTP (purines) differs from the synthesis of CTP, TTP, and UTP (pyrimidines). Both purine and ... Pyrimidine synthesis is regulated by the allosteric inhibition of orotate synthesis by UDP and UTP. PRPP and ATP are also ...
5-FU can be a metabolic analog of thymine (in DNA synthesis) or uracil (in RNA synthesis). Substitution of this analog inhibits ... In RNA, thymine is replaced with uracil in most cases. In DNA, thymine (T) binds to adenine (A) via two hydrogen bonds, thereby ... In RNA, thymine is replaced by the nucleobase uracil. Thymine was first isolated in 1893 by Albrecht Kossel and Albert Neumann ... As its alternate name (5-methyluracil) suggests, thymine may be derived by methylation of uracil at the 5th carbon. ...
The uracil group of CYN has been identified as a pharmacophore of the toxin. In two experiments, the vinylic hydrogen atom on ... CYN is toxic to liver and kidney tissue and is thought to inhibit protein synthesis and to covalently modify DNA and/or RNA. It ... Sensitivity of key signals in the NMR spectrum to small changes in pH suggested that the uracil ring exists in a keto/enol ... Due to the structure of CYN, which includes sulfate, guanidine and uracil groups, it has been suggested that CYN acts on DNA or ...
For example, the synthesis of phospholipids requires acetyl CoA, while the synthesis of another membrane component, ... However, uracil is only found in RNA. Therefore, after UTP is synthesized, it is must be converted into a deoxy form to be ... In contrast to uracil, thymine bases are found mostly in DNA, not RNA. Cells do not normally contain thymine bases that are ... DNA synthesis is initiated by the RNA polymerase primase, which makes an RNA primer with a free 3'OH. This primer is attached ...
The "antisense" strand of DNA is complementary to the "sense" strand and is the actual template for mRNA synthesis. Knowing the ... The exception to this is that uracil is used for nucleotide sequencing of RNA molecules rather than thymine. Most eukaryotic ... RNA transcripts undergo additional editing prior to being translated for protein synthesis. This process typically involves ...
Cytosine arabinoside interferes with the synthesis of DNA. Its mode of action is due to its rapid conversion into cytosine ... Cytarabine is rapidly deaminated by cytidine deaminase in the serum into the inactive uracil derivative. Cytarabine-5´- ... When used as an antiviral, cytarabine-5´-triphosphate functions by inhibiting viral DNA synthesis. Cytarabine is able to ... Cytosine arabinoside also inhibits both DNA and RNA polymerases and nucleotide reductase enzymes needed for DNA synthesis. ...
"Contribution of de-novo and salvage synthesis to the uracil nucleotide pool in mouse tissues and tumors in vivo". See IUPAC ... The liver is the major organ of de novo synthesis of all four nucleotides. De novo synthesis of pyrimidines and purines follows ... The synthesis of the pyrimidines CTP and UTP occurs in the cytoplasm and starts with the formation of carbamoyl phosphate from ... For reference, the syntheses of the purine and pyrimidine nucleotides are carried out by several enzymes in the cytoplasm of ...
... its synthesis and selective recognition abilities for uracil and uridine" (PDF). Arkivoc. 2: 68-76. Suchý, M.; Hudson, R. H. E ... This complex is able to selectively bind uracil and uridine in a 1:2 ratio both through the adenine part and cyclen part of the ... Atkins, T. J.; Richman, J. E.; Oettle, W. F. (1988). "1,4,7,10,13,16-Hexaazacyclooctadecane". Organic Syntheses. ; Collective ... Volume, 6, p. 652 Reed, David P.; Weisman, Gary R. (2004). "1,4,7,10-Tetraazacyclododecane". Organic Syntheses. ; Collective ...
Uridine monophosphate synthetase
Traut TW, Jones ME (1996). "Uracil metabolism--UMP synthesis from orotic acid or uridine and conversion of uracil to beta- ... P. falciparum OPRTase follows a random pathway in OMP synthesis and degradation. Transition state analyses have used isotopic ... implication for the efficacy of uracil and tegafur-based adjuvant chemotherapy". Oncology Reports. 18 (1): 59-64. doi:10.3892/ ...
In RNA, the complement of adenine (A) is uracil (U) instead of thymine (T), so the pairs that form are adenine:uracil and ... Primary syntheses in quantity involving formamide have been reported. As a class, pyrimidines are typically synthesized by the ... Very rarely, thymine can appear in RNA, or uracil in DNA, but when the other three major pyrimidine bases are represented, some ... As is often the case with parent heterocyclic ring systems, the synthesis of pyrimidine is not that common and is usually ...
The presence of the URA3 gene in yeast restores ODCase activity, facilitating growth on media not supplemented with uracil or ... URA3 encodes Orotidine 5'-phosphate decarboxylase (ODCase), which is an enzyme that catalyzes one reaction in the synthesis of ... pyrimidine ribonucleotides (a component of RNA). Loss of ODCase activity leads to a lack of cell growth unless uracil or ...
Mol CD, Harris JM, McIntosh EM, Tainer JA (Sep 1996). "Human dUTP pyrophosphatase: uracil recognition by a beta hairpin and ... This reaction serves two cellular purposes: providing a precursor (dUMP) for the synthesis of thymine nucleotides needed for ... Elevated levels of dUTP lead to increased incorporation of uracil into DNA, which induces extensive excision repair mediated by ... Ladner RD (Dec 2001). "The role of dUTPase and uracil-DNA repair in cancer chemotherapy". Current Protein & Peptide Science. 2 ...
... thymine occurs only in DNA and uracil only in RNA. Using amino acids and the process known as protein synthesis, the specific ... Transfer RNA serves as the carrier molecule for amino acids to be used in protein synthesis, and is responsible for decoding ... while thymine occurs in DNA and uracil occurs in RNA. The sugars and phosphates in nucleic acids are connected to each other in ... synthesis and strategy for users". Annu. Rev. Biochem. 67: 99-134. doi:10.1146/annurev.biochem.67.1.99. PMID 9759484. Gregory ...
... uracil-DNA glycosylase. Error-prone DNA polymerases are then recruited to fill in the gap and create mutations. The synthesis ... A cytosine:guanine pair is thus directly mutated to a uracil:guanine mismatch. Uracil residues are not normally found in DNA, ... The modern form of this mechanism thus critically depends on AID C-to-U DNA lesions and long tract error-prone cDNA synthesis ... A key feature is its critical dependence on the gap-filling error prone DNA repair synthesis properties of DNA polymerase-eta ...
Bridged nucleic acid
Synthesis of the adenine, cytosine, guanine, 5-methylcytosine, thymine and uracil bicyclonucleoside monomers, oligomerisation, ... "Synthesis of 2′-O,4′-C-methyleneuridine and -cytidine. Novel bicyclic nucleosides having a fixed C3, -endo sugar puckering". ... regulate resistance against nuclease degradation and the synthesis of functional molecules designed for specific applications ... Small RNA research Design and synthesis of RNAaptamers siRNA Antisense probes Diagnostics Isolation Microarray analysis ...
Nucleic acid metabolism
Cytosine and uracil are converted into beta-alanine and later to malonyl-CoA which is needed for fatty acid synthesis, among ... Unlike in purine synthesis, the sugar/phosphate group from PRPP is not added to the nitrogenous base until towards the end of ... For example, the uracil base can be combined with ribose-1-phosphate to create uridine monophosphate or UMP. A similar reaction ... In purine synthesis, PRPP is turned into inosine monophosphate, or IMP. Production of IMP from PRPP requires glutamine, glycine ...
Ceric ammonium nitrate
... and the iodination of ketones and uracil derivatives. Catalytic amounts of aqueous CAN allow the efficient synthesis of ... L. Brener, J. S. McKennis, and R. Pettit "Cyclobutadiene in Synthesis: endo-Tricyclo[4.4.0.02,5]deca-3,8-diene-7,10-dione" Org ... 1976, 55, 43.doi:10.15227/orgsyn.055.0043 Waters, M.; Wulff, W. D. (2008). "The Synthesis of Phenols and Quinones via Fischer ... CAN provides an alternative to the Nef reaction; for example, for ketomacrolide synthesis where complicating side reactions ...
This is important in some organs because some tissues cannot undergo de novo synthesis. The salvaged bases and nucleosides can ... The nucleosides cytidine and deoxycytidine can be salvaged along the uracil pathway by cytidine deaminase, which converts them ... Uridine phosphorylase or pyrimidine-nucleoside phosphorylase adds ribose 1-phosphate to the free base uracil, forming uridine. ...
Locked nucleic acid
Synthesis of the adenine, cytosine, guanine, 5-methylcytosine, thymine and uracil bicyclonucleoside monomers, oligomerisation, ... LNA was independently synthesized by the group of Jesper Wengel in 1998, soon after the first synthesis by the group of Takeshi ... "Synthesis of 2′-O,4′-C-methyleneuridine and -cytidine. Novel bicyclic nucleosides having a fixed C3'-endo sugar puckering". ...
Marshall Warren Nirenberg
They produced RNA composed solely of uracil, a nucleotide that only occurs in RNA. They then added this synthetic poly-uracil ... Leder, P; Nirenberg, MW (1964), "RNA CODEWORDS AND PROTEIN SYNTHESIS, III. ON THE NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE OF A CYSTEINE AND A ... Indeed, as we know now, it is UUU (three uracil bases in a row). This was the first step in deciphering the codons of the ... This implied that the genetic code for phenylalanine on RNA consisted of a repetition of uracil bases. ...
Traube's synthesis involves heating 2,4,5-triamino-1,6-dihydro-6-oxypyrimidine (as the sulfate) with formic acid for several ... and uracil only in RNA. Guanine has two tautomeric forms, the major keto form (see figures) and rare enol form. It binds to ... December 2000). "Abiotic synthesis of guanine with high-temperature plasma". Orig Life Evol Biosph. 30 (6): 557-66. doi:10.1023 ... 10NH3 + 2CH4 + 4C2H6 + 2H2O → 2C5H8N5O (guanine) + 25H2 A Fischer-Tropsch synthesis can also be used to form guanine, along ...
CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Protein synthesis Mycobacterium tuberculosis Nucleotide excision repair Uracil ... "A unique uracil-DNA binding protein of the uracil DNA glycosylase superfamily". Nucleic Acids Research. 43: 8452-8463. doi: ... Varhsney's researches are primarily focused in the area of protein synthesis and DNA repair in Escherichia coli and ... "Project : Mechanism of protein synthesis; and DNA repair in bacteria". ResearchGate. 2016. Retrieved October 17, 2016. " ...
Activation-induced cytidine deaminase
U is analogous to T in DNA and is treated as such when replicated). The uracil may be excised by uracil-DNA glycosylase (UNG), ... This abasic site (or AP, apurinic/apyrimidinic) may be copied by a translesion synthesis DNA polymerase such as DNA polymerase ... It creates mutations in DNA by deamination of cytosine base, which turns it into uracil (which is recognized as a thymine). In ... uracil) mismatch is then subject to one of a number of fates. The U:G mismatch is replicated across creating two daughter ...
Coomassie Brilliant Blue
DNA synthesis involved in DNA repair. • interstrand cross-link repair. • response to glucoside. • DNA recombinase assembly. • ... Uracil-DNA glycosylase. *Poly ADP ribose polymerase. *Nucleotide excision repair/ERCC *XPA ... RAD51 catalyses strand transfer between a broken sequence and its undamaged homologue to allow re-synthesis of the damaged ... Replication errors past these damages (see translesion synthesis), would lead to increased mutations and cancer. ...
... were no known chemical pathways for the abiogenic synthesis of nucleotides from pyrimidine nucleobases cytosine and uracil ... Adenine readily binds uracil or thymine. Uracil is, however, one product of damage to cytosine that makes RNA particularly ... Chemically, uracil is similar to thymine, differing only by a methyl group, and its production requires less energy. In ... RNA also uses a different set of bases than DNA-adenine, guanine, cytosine and uracil, instead of adenine, guanine, cytosine ...
RNA - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
U) Uracil. Adenine forms bonds with uracil, and guanine forms bonds with cytosine. In this way, we say that adenine is ... Protein synthesis RNAs[change , change source]. Messenger RNA[change , change source]. The structure of a mature eukaryotic ... The ribosome binds mRNA and carries out protein synthesis. Several ribosomes may be attached to a single mRNA at any time. ... The first three bases are also found in DNA, but uracil replaces thymine as a complement to adenine. ...
Chemical synthesis. Main article: Peptide synthesis. Short proteins can also be synthesized chemically by a family of methods ... uracil-guanine) is the code for methionine. Because DNA contains four nucleotides, the total number of possible codons is 64; ... where protein synthesis then takes place. The rate of protein synthesis is higher in prokaryotes than eukaryotes and can reach ... which rely on organic synthesis techniques such as chemical ligation to produce peptides in high yield. Chemical synthesis ...
Single cell sequencing
September 2009). "Digital transcriptome profiling using selective hexamer priming for cDNA synthesis". Nature Methods. 6 (9): ... Treatment of DNA with bisulfite converts cytosine residues to uracil, but leaves 5-methylcytosine residues unaffected. ... cDNA synthesis and amplification, and the possibility to accommodate sequence-specific barcodes (i.e. UMIs) or the ability to ...
This means that they only work during a specific part of the cell cycle, in this case S-phase (the DNA synthesis phase). For ... The nucleobases are divided into purines (guanine and adenine) and pyrimidines (cytosine, thymine and uracil). Anti-metabolites ... These are required for thymidylate and purine production, which are both essential for DNA synthesis and cell division.:55- ... Anti-metabolites are a group of molecules that impede DNA and RNA synthesis. Many of them have a similar structure to the ...
However, because thymidine is used in DNA but not in RNA (where uracil is used instead), inhibition of thymidine synthesis via ... They act by binding with DNA molecules and preventing RNA (ribonucleic acid) synthesis, a key step in the creation of proteins ... Antimetabolites may also be antibiotics, such as sulfanilamide drugs, which inhibit dihydrofolate synthesis in bacteria by ... thymidylate synthase selectively inhibits DNA synthesis over RNA synthesis. Due to their efficiency, these drugs are the most ...
Asymmetric synthesis. Chirality is another property that a DNAzyme can exploit. DNA occurs in nature as a right-handed ... such as the additional methyl group of the DNA base thymidine compared to the RNA base uracil or the tendency of DNA to adopt ... Other uses of DNA in chemistry are in DNA-templated synthesis, Enantioselective catalysis, DNA nanowires and DNA computing. ... The pool is synthesized through solid phase synthesis such that each strand has two constant regions (primer binding sites for ...
Nucleic acid sequence
Apart from adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), thymine (T) and uracil (U), DNA and RNA also contain bases that have been ... be digitally altered and be used as templates for creating new actual DNA using artificial gene synthesis. ... These symbols are also valid for RNA, except with U (uracil) replacing T (thymine). ... "The snoRNA box C/D motif directs nucleolar targeting and also couples snoRNA synthesis and localization". The EMBO Journal. 17 ...
জৈৱ ৰসায়ন - অসমীয়া ৱিকিপিডিয়া
Pirimidina bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas
Nuevo M, Milam SN, Sandford SA, Elsila JE, Dworkin JP (2009). "Formation of uracil from the ultraviolet photo-irradiation of ... Organic Syntheses, Coll. Vol. 4, p.182 (1963); Vol. 35, p.34 (1955) Link ... Organic Syntheses, Coll. Vol. 4, p.336 (1963); Vol. 35, p.58 (1955) Link ... Sebagai suatu kelas, pirimidina biasanya disintesis melalui "Principal Synthesis" melibatkan siklisasi senyawa beta-dikarbonil ...
Citric acid cycle
The NADH generated in the citric acid cycle may later be oxidized (donate its electrons) to drive ATP synthesis in a type of ... The pyrimidines are partly assembled from aspartate (derived from oxaloacetate). The pyrimidines, thymine, cytosine and uracil ... The intermediates that can provide the carbon skeletons for amino acid synthesis are oxaloacetate which forms aspartate and ... Several of the citric acid cycle intermediates are used for the synthesis of important compounds, which will have significant ...
Gene synthesisEdit. As the cost of DNA oligonucleotides synthesis falls, artificial synthesis of a complete gene is now a ... The uracil deglycosidase deficiency prevents the removal of uracil from newly synthesized DNA. As the double-mutant E. coli ... Here, the uracil-containing parental DNA strand is degraded, so that nearly all of the resulting DNA consists of the mutated ... The basic procedure requires the synthesis of a short DNA primer. This synthetic primer contains the desired mutation and is ...
Amino Acid SynthesisEdit. Pathways that form each amino acid. Amino Acid R-group‡ Pathway* ... Uracil will be used instead of Thymine). The new nucleotide bases are bonded to each other covalently. The new bases ... "Amino Acid Synthesis". homepages.rpi.edu. Retrieved 2019-02-20.. *^ Brown TA (2002). Genomes (2nd ed.). Oxford: Bios. ISBN 978- ... Protein synthesisEdit. Main article: Protein biosynthesis. Protein anabolism is the process by which protein are formed from ...
"Uracil". Genome.gov. Retrieved 21 November 2019.. *^ Russell P (2001). iGenetics. New York: Benjamin Cummings. ISBN 0-8053-4553 ... Verma S, Eckstein F (1998). "Modified oligonucleotides: synthesis and strategy for users". Annual Review of Biochemistry. 67: ... Here, the polymerase recognizes the occasional mistakes in the synthesis reaction by the lack of base pairing between the ... uracil (U), usually takes the place of thymine in RNA and differs from thymine by lacking a methyl group on its ring. In ...
... a chemical synthesis starting with 1,3-dimethyluric acid was described by Emil Fischer and Lorenz Ach. The Traube purine ... synthesis, an alternative method to synthesize theophylline, was introduced in 1900 by another German scientist, Wilhelm Traube ... synthesis, and reduces inflammation and innate immunity ... Uracil. *Uridine. *UMP. *UDP. *UTP. *Others: Chrysophanol ( ...
Polymerase chain reaction
Assembly PCR or Polymerase Cycling Assembly (PCA): artificial synthesis of long DNA sequences by performing PCR on a pool of ... DNA is first treated with sodium bisulfite, which converts unmethylated cytosine bases to uracil, which is recognized by PCR ... Dial-out PCR: a highly parallel method for retrieving accurate DNA molecules for gene synthesis. A complex library of DNA ... The use of primers in an in vitro assay to allow DNA synthesis was a major innovation that allowed the development of PCR. ...
마르틴 카르플루스 - 위키백과, 우리 모두의 백과사전
Adenín - Wikipédia
The most common nitrogenous bases are adenine, cytosine, guanine, thymine, and uracil. The nitrogenous bases of each strand of ... In this dehydration synthesis, a water molecule is removed and the peptide bond connects the nitrogen of one amino acid's amino ... When monomers are linked together to synthesize a biological polymer, they undergo a process called dehydration synthesis. ... The study of the chemistry behind biological processes and the synthesis of biologically active molecules are examples of ...
a b c d e f g Kirsch, Peer Modern fluoroorganic chemistry: synthesis, reactivity, applications. Wiley-VCH, 2004. ... For example, both uracil and 5-fluorouracil are colourless, high-melting crystalline solids, but the latter is a potent anti- ... "Organic Syntheses.. ; Collective Volume, 2, p. 295. *^ a b William R. Dolbier, Jr. (2005). "Fluorine Chemistry at the ... "Organic Syntheses. 80: 184.. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link). *^ E.G. Hopea, A.P. Abbotta, D.L. Daviesa, G.A. ...
Formation of Okazaki fragments in polyoma DNA synthesis caused by misincorporation of uracil
Addition of uracil, a known inhibitor of the enzyme u … ... Addition of uracil, a known inhibitor of the enzyme uracil-DNA ... Formation of Okazaki fragments in polyoma DNA synthesis caused by misincorporation of uracil Cell. 1978 Mar;13(3):573-80. doi: ... This effect was reversed completely by uracil. The short strands formed from dUTP could be chased efficiently into long strands ... contain an excision-repair system which by removal of uracil causes strand breakage and under certain circumstances may ...
Synthesis of a Water-Soluble o-Carborane Bearing Uracil Moiety Via Palladium Catalyzed Reaction under Essentially Neutral...
Synthesis of a Water-Soluble o-Carborane Bearing Uracil Moiety Via Palladium Catalyzed Reaction under Essentially Neutral ... Nemoto H., Cai J., Yamamoto Y. (1996) Synthesis of a Water-Soluble o-Carborane Bearing Uracil Moiety Via Palladium Catalyzed ... Application to the synthesis of 10B carriers, J. Org. Chem.,55:6065- (1990). The previous allylation of carboranes was carried ... A. K. M. Anisuzzaman, F. Alam, and A. H. Soloway, Synthesis of a carboranyl nucleoside for potential use in neutron capture ...
Enzymatic synthesis of uracil glucuronide, labeling with 125/131I, and in vitro evaluation on adenocarcinoma cells.
The glucuronide ligands were defined as uracil-n-glucuronide (UNG) and uracil-o-glucuronide (UOG). These were then analyzed by ... 18359049 - Translesion synthesis of 7,8-dihydro-8-oxo-2-deoxyguanosine by dna polymerase eta in v.... 16581849 - Analysis of a ... 15049 - Synthesis of acetylcholine by excitatory motoneurons in central nervous system of the l.... 6116349 - Effects of puva ... In this study, uracil glucuronide was enzymatically synthesized using a UGT-rich microsome preparate, which was separated from ...
Uracil in Addressable Protein Targeting
DNA synthesis: Oligodeoxynucleotides were synthesized on a Cyclone Plus DNA Synthesizer (Millipore, Marlborough, MA) using ... Ab initio Methods: We performed ab initio calculations on a number of variants of cytosine and uracil structures which we ... Uracil as an Alternative. to 5-Fluorocytosine in Addressable Protein Targeting by John A. Wendel and Steven S. Smith ... Molecular Manufacturing: Adding Positional Control to Chemical Synthesis. *Osterman, D.G.; DePillis, G.D.; Wu, J.C.; Matsuda, A ...
Backbone 1H, 13C and 15N chemical shift assignment of full-length human uracil DNA glycosylase UNG2 | SpringerLink
Human uracil N-glycosylase isoform 2-UNG2 consists of an N-terminal intrinsically disordered regulatory domain (UNG2 residues 1 ... In: Peccoud J (ed) Gene synthesis: methods and protocols. Humana Press, Totowa, pp 51-59. doi: 10.1007/978-1-61779-564-0_5 ... Uracil-DNA glycosylase Uracil N-glycosylase isoform 2 UNG2 DNA repair Intrinsically disordered domain ... Kavli B et al (2002) hUNG2 Is the Major repair enzyme for removal of uracil from U:A matches, U:G mismatches, and U in single- ...
Synthesis and Evaluation of Antitumor Activities of Novel Fused Uracil Derivatives | Open Access Journals
A simple one-pot synthesis of indenopyrrolopyrimidines and indolopyrrolopyrimidines through the cyclocondensation reaction of 6 ... Synthesis and Evaluation of Antitumor Activities of Novel Fused Uracil Derivatives. Samar A El-Kalyoubi* and Eman A Fayed ... One pot synthesis, DNA binding and fragmentation in vitro of new fused uracil derivatives for anticancer properties. ... synthesis of a new series of fused uracils starting from 6-aminouracil derivative  which have been converted into the ...
Synthesis of novel uracil-5sulphonamide derivatives of possible biological activity | Virtual Health Sciences Library
Keywords: Uracil Board Subjects: Biological Availability Citation: Z. M. Nofal , Synthesis of novel uracil-5sulphonamide ... Synthesis of novel uracil-5sulphonamide derivatives of possible biological activity Nofal Z. M.; Affiliation. National Research ... It has been reported that several uracil derivatives possess useful applications as anticancer agents. Also many uracil ... Based on these findings, it was of interest to prepare some novel uracil-5-sulphonamides linked to different heterocyclic ...
Wholesale Acid Synthesis, China Wholesale Acid Synthesis Manufacturers & Suppliers | Made-in-China.com
Select 2017 high quality Wholesale Acid Synthesis products in best price from certified Chinese Hyaluronic Acid Gel ... High Quality Uracil 66-22-8 with Good Price FOB Price: $1200 - $2500 / Ton Min. Order: 1 Ton ... Effective Weight Loss Drug Orlistat CAS 96829-58-2 Fermented and Synthesis FOB Price: US $1 / g Min. Order: 1 g ... 7524-50-7 S-Pheny Alanine Methyl Ester Custom Synthesis FOB Price: $1 - $1000 / KG Min. Order: 1 KG ...
Whether uracil was an amino acid or not | Physics Forums - The Fusion of Science and Community
Thymine is present in DNA - the encoded information for synthesis of proteins, while it is replaced by uracil in mRNA/tRNA/rRNA ... and uracil holds some advantage in attracting the anticodons carrying amino acids to the ribosomes. Perhaps uracil exhibits a ... Uracil is a base found in RNA and is derived from pyrimidine, it contains nitrogen but no amino group (NH2) so its not an ... Similar Discussions: Whether uracil was an amino acid or not * Essential Amino Acids (Replies: 4) ...
Principles of Biochemistry/Nucleic acid III: Sythesis of nucleotides - Wikibooks, open books for an open world
Chemical synthesis. Pyrimidines can also be prepared within the laboratory by organic synthesis. One method is the ... uracil phosphoribosyltransferase. uracil. UMP In de novo generation of purines, the enzyme amidophosphoribosyltransferase acts ... It is not the committed step to purine synthesis because PRPP is also used in pyrimidine synthesis and salvage pathways. The ... Inosinate synthesis. The biosynthetic origins of purine ring atoms. N1 arises from the amine group of Asp. C2 and C8 ...
Human Metabolome Database: Showing metabocard for Uracil (HMDB0000300)
Synthesis Reference. Burckhalter, J. H.; Scarborough, Homer C. The synthesis of uracils as anticonvulsants. Journal of the ... This could make uracil a potential biomarker for the consumption of these foods. Uracil is a potentially toxic compound. Uracil ... Uracils use in the body is to help carry out the synthesis of many enzymes necessary for cell function through bonding with ... Uracil. Description. Uracil, also known as U or hybar X, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as pyrimidones. ...
Uracil - Wikipedia
Uracil can also be used in the synthesis of caffeine. Uracil can be used to determine microbial contamination of tomatoes. The ... There are many laboratory syntheses of uracil available. The first reaction is the simplest of the syntheses, by adding water ... In DNA, the uracil nucleobase is replaced by thymine. Uracil is a demethylated form of thymine. Uracil is a common and ... during DNA synthesis. Uracil-DNA glycosylase excises uracil bases from double-stranded DNA. This enzyme would therefore ...
DNA, RNA and Protein Synthesis - Part 1 Flashcards by Ariane s | Brainscape
US8765948B2 - Processes for the preparation of uracil derivatives - Google Patents
Xia et al., "Microwave-assisted rapid synthesis of 5-iodouracil derivatives," Huaxue Shiji 29(12):756-758, 2007. (English ... Included are intermediates such as 5-iodo substituted uracils and processes which are useful in preparing uracils of formulas ( ... US8765948B2 - Processes for the preparation of uracil derivatives - Google Patents. Processes for the preparation of uracil ... Processes for the preparation of uracil derivatives US14309732 Active US9382214B2 (en) 2007-11-07. 2014-06-19. Processes for ...
Insertional mutagenesis and marker rescue in a protozoan parasite: cloning of the uracil phosphoribosyltransferase locus from...
Phosphatidylethanolamine Synthesis in the Parasite Mitochondrion Is Required for Efficient Growth but Dispensable for Survival ... Uracil salvage is necessary for early Arabidopsis development. Samuel E. Mainguet, Bertrand Gakière, Amel Majira, Sandra ... Coexpression of the Uracil Phosphoribosyltransferase Gene with a Chimeric Human Nerve Growth Factor Receptor/Cytosine Deaminase ... Coexpression of the Uracil Phosphoribosyltransferase Gene with a Chimeric Human Nerve Growth Factor Receptor/Cytosine Deaminase ...
Protein Synthesis Quiz - By egallardo
DNA and Protein Synthesis | Smore Newsletters
Chemistry for Biologists: Nucleic acids
Uracil - click on image to open Adenine, guanine, thymine, cytosine and uracil are bases because of the presence of one or more ... This allows RNA to carry out its important function in protein synthesis. ... The base thymine is replaced by the base uracil Although RNA is single stranded it can form helical loops by folding back on ... In RNA the four bases are the same except for thymine which is replaced by uracil (U), a pyrimidine base. ...
Further evidence for involvement of a noncanonical function of uracil DNA glycosylase in class switch recombination | PNAS
2005) DNA cleavage in immunoglobulin somatic hypermutation depends on de novo protein synthesis but not on uracil DNA ... B) Uracil-removing activity of mSMUG1 and mUNG (Top) and Western blot of expressed proteins (Bottom). WT and indicated mutants ... 2007) Uracil in DNA-General mutagen, but normal intermediate in acquired immunity. DNA Repair (Amst) 6:505-516. ... The uracil DNA glycosylase assay in single-stranded DNA substrate was carried out using a 5′-FITC-labeled oligonucleotide of 30 ...
Free Science Flashcards about Protein Syn/Mutation
Free flashcards to help memorize facts about Science Quiz Review for Protein Synthesis and Mutations. Other activities to help ... Science Quiz Review for Protein Synthesis and Mutations. Question. Answer. What is the only way mutations be passed on to ... Uracil. (remember G goes to C, A goes to U in RNA). ... What is protein synthesis?. Ribosomes read the genetic codes ... What is messenger RNA (mRNA) responsible for during protein synthesis?. copying the gene and carrying the information out of ...
Synthesis and Biological Activity of Reversed Pyrimidine Nucleosides
An efficient approach to reversed nucleosides which enables their synthesis in gram quantities is described. N-1′-Pyrimidine ... uracil; 5-halogenuracil; D-ribose; reversed nucleosides; antitumor activity. Hrčak ID: 139128 ... "Synthesis and Biological Activity of Reversed Pyrimidine Nucleosides." Croatica Chemica Acta, vol. 88, br. 1, 2015, str. 43-52 ... 2015). Synthesis and Biological Activity of Reversed Pyrimidine Nucleosides, Croatica Chemica Acta, 88(1), str. 43-52. https ...
Ectopic restriction of DNA repair reveals that UNG2 excises AID-induced uracils predominantly or exclusively during G1 phase.
... in Ig genes into uracils (U). This alone produces C:G to T:A transition mutations. Processing of U:G base pairs via U N- ... Diaz M.,Lawrence C.. Year: 2005An update on the role of translesion synthesis DNA polymerases in Ig hypermutation. Trends ... Di Noia J.M.,Rada C.,Neuberger M.S.. Year: 2006SMUG1 is able to excise uracil from immunoglobulin genes: insight into mutation ... Rada C.,Di Noia J.M.,Neuberger M.S.. Year: 2004Mismatch recognition and uracil excision provide complementary paths to both Ig ...
What are codons? | Reference.com
The RNA codons utilize uracil instead of thymine. DNA codons are read in the 5 to 3 direction, and RNA codons are read in the ... This allows the same amino acids to be included in DNA and protein synthesis. The DNA codons utilize the nucleotides thymine, ... A: The genetic code is important because it provides instructions for protein synthesis. All organisms on Earth utilize ...
What replaces thymine in RNA? | Reference.com
Both uracil and thymine bond with adenine, the complementary base found in both the RNA and DNA... ... Uracil in RNA replaces thymine in DNA, according to ScienceDaily. ... ScienceDaily states that the reason may be that uracil synthesis requires less energy from the body. Uracil also occurs in ... Uracil in RNA replaces thymine in DNA, according to ScienceDaily. Both uracil and thymine bond with adenine, the complementary ...
DNA Computing Using Carbon Nanotube-DNA Hybrid Nanostructure: Computer Science & IT Book Chapter | IGI Global
Uracil: The term "uracil" was first coined by German chemist Robert Behrend in 1885 during uric acid derivative synthesis. In ... In DNA molecule, thymine is present instead of uracil.. MWCNT: Multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) has a diameter of 2-100 nm ... Thymine (T) and cytosine (C) are pyrimidines present in DNA and in RNA uracil (U) replaces T. In DNA molecule, purine binds ... It is used as a functional component in synthesis of protein and as a chemical constituent part of adenosine triphosphate (ATP ...
Abiogenesis - Wikipedia
As of 1994[update], there were difficulties in the explanation of the abiotic synthesis of the nucleotides cytosine and uracil ... Robertson, Michael P.; Miller, Stanley L. (29 June 1995). "An efficient prebiotic synthesis of cytosine and uracil". Nature. ... If biosynthesis recapitulates biopoiesis, then the synthesis of amino acids preceded the synthesis of the purine and pyrimidine ... Miller and colleagues suggested that while adenine and guanine require freezing conditions for synthesis, cytosine and uracil ...
Home Page ::: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of uracil derivatives as novel VEGFR-2 inhibitors. Jingwei Liang, Xinyang Li , Su ... Synthesis of Novel Derivatives of Quinazoline Schiff base Compound Promotes Epithelial Wound Healing. Elham Bagheri, Kamelia ... Purine and Pyrimidine Phosphoribosyltransferases: A Versatile Tool for Enzymatic Synthesis of Nucleoside-5-monophosphates. , ...
Ectopic restriction of DNA repair reveals that UNG2 excises AID-induced uracils predominantly or exclusively during G1 phase |...
An update on the role of translesion synthesis DNA polymerases in Ig hypermutation. Trends Immunol. 26:215-220. doi:10.1016/j. ... single-strand selective monofunctional uracil DNA glycosylase. U. uracil. ugi. U glycosylase inhibitor. UNG2. U N-glycosylase 2 ... Uracil-DNA glycosylase (UNG)-deficient mice reveal a primary role of the enzyme during DNA replication. Mol. Cell. 5:1059-1065. ... SMUG1 is able to excise uracil from immunoglobulin genes: insight into mutation versus repair. EMBO J. 25:585-595. doi:10.1038/ ...
Exam #4 First Aid USMLE Flashcards by Jonathan Kallevang | Brainscape
CytosineAdenineMRNAGuanineNucleotidesInstead of thymineDerivativesRibosomesProteinsRiboseEnzymePyrimidinesPhosphoribosyltransferaseNucleotide synthesisUridineRRNAGlycosylaseBasesBiosynthesisMoleculesNucleobaseTranscriptionRemoval of uracilPhosphateRibosomeReplaced by thymineMethylationSynthesizes uracilGeneticAmino acidReplicationCodonTegafurSequenceTotal synthesisGenesOccursDihydropyrimidinePurine synthesisRole in protein synthesisBiological activityNovo synthesisReplacesAnticancer agentsDerivativeEnzymatic reactions2019StrandReversed nucleosidesMoleculeUNG2Translation
- Adenine, guanine, thymine, cytosine and uracil are bases because of the presence of one or more of the following groups: - NH 2 , - NH - and = N - groups. (rsc.org)
- CYTOSINE , THYMINE and URACIL ) and a phosphate group (see Fig. 232 ). (thefreedictionary.com)
- Uracil /ˈjʊərəsɪl/ (U) is one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid of RNA that are represented by the letters A, G, C and U. The others are adenine (A), cytosine (C), and guanine (G). In RNA, uracil binds to adenine via two hydrogen bonds. (wikipedia.org)
- This is because cytosine can deaminate spontaneously to produce uracil through hydrolytic deamination. (wikipedia.org)
- Therefore, if there were an organism that used uracil in its DNA, the deamination of cytosine (which undergoes base pairing with guanine) would lead to formation of uracil (which would base pair with adenine) during DNA synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
- This enzyme would therefore recognize and cut out both types of uracil - the one incorporated naturally, and the one formed due to cytosine deamination, which would trigger unnecessary and inappropriate repair processes. (wikipedia.org)
- The pyrimidine ring of thymine, uracil, and cytosine is also quite stable. (google.co.uk)
- Derivatives of pyrimidine are widely distributed in nature, including vitamin B1, uracil, thymine, and cytosine which all containing a pyrimidine structure. (chemicalbook.com)
- NDB ID: AR0003 Throughtout the site, in all RNA nucleotide block models, adenine is red, cytosine is yellow, guanine is green, and uracil is cyan. (rutgers.edu)
- protein synthesis DNA in the cell nucleus carries a genetic code, which consists of sequences of adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C) (Figure 1). (britannica.com)
- Uracil, cytosine, uridine or cytidine all satisfied the absolute pyrimidine requirement. (unt.edu)
- When cytidine was incubated with cell extracts of Rhizobium wild type, uridine, uracil and cytosine were produced. (unt.edu)
- Cytosine, thymine and uracil are all pyrimidines , which all share the common foundation of a single ring (see below). (science20.com)
- Adenine matches with uracil, guanine matches with cytosine, and vice versa. (brighthub.com)
- Normally, adenine matches up to uracil, and guanine matches up to cytosine. (brighthub.com)
- Uracil is a common naturally occurring pyrimidine found in RNA, it base pairs with adenine and is replaced by thymine in DNA. (hmdb.ca)
- Both uracil and thymine bond with adenine, the complementary base found in both the RNA and DNA structures. (reference.com)
- In RNA, uracil base-pairs with adenine and replaces thymine during DNA transcription. (wikipedia.org)
- Uracil pairs with adenine through hydrogen bonding. (wikipedia.org)
- When base pairing with adenine, uracil acts as both a hydrogen bond acceptor and a hydrogen bond donor. (wikipedia.org)
- It should be noted that Uracil of RNA is paired with Adenine of DNA. (wikibooks.org)
- Nucleotide bases are normal nitrogenous bases which go to make up the DNA strand, adenine is an example of a nucleotide and uracil is a base found only in RNA. (abpischools.org.uk)
- UNG, which is homologous to the Escherichia coli Ung enzyme, is associated with DNA replication forks and corrects uracil misincorporated opposite adenine. (sciencemag.org)
- Thus, adenine complementary base pairs with uracil in RNAs. (biology-online.org)
- Uracil can hydrogen bond with adenine just like thymine. (dnalc.org)
- Thymine is present in DNA - the encoded information for synthesis of proteins, while it is replaced by uracil in mRNA/tRNA/rRNA. (physicsforums.com)
- What is messenger RNA (mRNA) responsible for during protein synthesis? (studystack.com)
- Transcription - Synthesis of mRNA molecule. (eduref.org)
- mRNA is generated from DNA and is the template for protein synthesis. (rutgers.edu)
- Messenger RNA (mRNA) , molecule in cells that carries codes from the DNA in the nucleus to the sites of protein synthesis in the cytoplasm (the ribosomes ). (britannica.com)
- Messenger RNA (mRNA) then travels to the ribosomes in the cell cytoplasm, where protein synthesis occurs (Figure 3). (britannica.com)
- In essence, it has two major regions important in protein synthesis, i.e. one that connects with the codon of the mRNA via tRNA anticodon and the other that serves as attachment site for specific amino acid. (biology-online.org)
- When DNA is transcribed into mRNA, thymine is replaced by uracil, but otherwise the sequence of nucleotides stays the same. (brighthub.com)
- As protein synthesis occurs, tRNA molecules take turns matching up to the mRNA codons and transferring their amino acids to the forming polypeptide chain that will eventually become a protein. (brighthub.com)
- Uracil also recycles itself to form nucleotides by undergoing a series of phosphoribosyltransferase reactions. (wikipedia.org)
- Ribose replaces Deoxyribose RNA Structure and Function RNA Structure and Function DNA RNA uracil OH Other differences: RNA is shorter: 100-10,000 nucleotides vs. millions of nucleotides RNA usually is single-stranded and can adopt complex shapes Many RNAs are unstable and are degraded within minutes. (coursehero.com)
- Because DNA is the hereditary molecule of the cell, we reasoned that the sequence of nucleotides in the molecule must function as a code, able to direct the synthesis of proteins. (dnalc.org)
- All five nucleotides (including the RNA base "uracil") are synthesized through complex metabolic pathways involving several multi-subunit enzymes. (wikiversity.org)
- Mechanisms that may be affected include the maintenance of genomic CpG methylation patterns for regulated gene expression and the proficient synthesis of nucleotides to prevent DNA strand breakage. (bmj.com)
Instead of thymine4
- The RNA codons utilize uracil instead of thymine. (reference.com)
- RNA, which contains uracil (U) instead of thymine, carries the code to protein-making sites in the cell. (britannica.com)
- RNA is similar to DNA, but contains the sugar ribose instead of deoxyribose and the base uracil (U) instead of thymine. (factmonster.com)
- If the metabolism lacks folate it installs uracil instead of thymine in the DNA. (doccheck.com)
- On the other hand, 6-aminouracils undergo nitrosation followed by reduction afforded 5,6-diaminouracil derivatives which used as a direct starting material for the synthesis of indenopteridines and indolopteridines via the reaction with ninhydrin and isatin respectively. (rroij.com)
- In continuation to our interest in the chemical and biological activities of fused uracil derivatives, we report herein the synthesis of a new series of fused uracils starting from 6-aminouracil derivative [ 23 ] which have been converted into the nitrosoanalog by nitrosation. (rroij.com)
- The synthesis of dihydroxyindenopyrrolopyrimidine derivatives 4-6 based on the addition reaction occurred in the reaction of ninhydrin and 6-aminouracils 1 in the presence of acetic acid. (rroij.com)
- It has been reported that several uracil derivatives possess useful applications as anticancer agents. (who.int)
- The present invention relates to processes for the preparation of uracil derivatives which may be useful as gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor antagonists. (google.com)
- Due to its striking applications, scientists developed useful methods for the synthesis of quinone derivatives. (intechopen.com)
- Consequently, several methods were developed for the synthesis of quinone derivatives. (intechopen.com)
- The name "uracil" was coined in 1885 by the German chemist Robert Behrend, who was attempting to synthesize derivatives of uric acid. (wikipedia.org)
- A. Pałasz and D. Cież, "In search of uracil derivatives as bioactive agents. (hindawi.com)
- Synthesis and Characterization of Naphthalenediimide-Functionalized Flavin Derivatives. (mdpi.com)
- Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of some novel 5-alkyl-6-substituted uracils and related derivatives. (semanticscholar.org)
- While i'm not sure of the reason for it i would expect thymine possibly holds the DNA together in a more stable manner (as it is storage) and uracil holds some advantage in attracting the anticodons carrying amino acids to the ribosomes. (physicsforums.com)
- rRNA are components of the ribosomes which are the sites of protein synthesis. (rutgers.edu)
- Ribosomes on the outer surface of the endoplasmic reticulum play an important role in protein synthesis within cells. (britannica.com)
- The primary classes of RNA molecules either provide information that is used to convert the genetic information in DNA into functional proteins, or are important players in the translational process , in which the actual process of protein synthesis (on ribosomes ) occurs. (encyclopedia.com)
- i. sugars, salts, pigments (e.g. red pigment in beets and purple onions, acids (lemon acids) e. ribosomes - site of protein synthesis- see also this site i. many different proteins have to be made by the cell- the proteins that a cell makes directs the cell's function and identity ii. (umd.edu)
- ribosomes use the information coded in the DNA of the nucleus to produce proteins f. endoplasmic reticulum (ER) - a network of folded membranes throughout the cytoplasm i. rough ER has attached ribosomes, active in protein synthesis ii. (umd.edu)
- smooth ER lacks ribosomes and functions in the transport and packaging of proteins as well as the synthesis of lipids g. golgi apparatus - membranous hollow sacs arranged in a stack i. modifies proteins, lipids, and other substances from the ER ii. (umd.edu)
- Finally, let's look at the events in the synthesis of new proteins. (howstuffworks.com)
- Protein Synthesis The production (synthesis) of proteins. (powershow.com)
- But the incontestable central engine of life is the general purpose construction process called protein synthesis, wherein the plans packed away in the great libraries of our genes (DNA) are turned into the working molecules (proteins) of the cell. (starchamber.com)
- Protein synthesis can be thought of as a translation from the language of DNA to the language of proteins. (starchamber.com)
- View all proteins of this organism that are known to be involved in the subpathway that synthesizes uracil from uridine (phosphorylase route) , the pathway UMP biosynthesis via salvage pathway and in Pyrimidine metabolism . (uniprot.org)
- One puzzle we had to figure out was how DNA, which is found mainly in the cell's nucleus, can direct the synthesis of proteins that are made exclusively in the cell's cytoplasm. (dnalc.org)
- In RNA, uracil binds with a ribose sugar to form the ribonucleoside uridine. (wikipedia.org)
- 3') synthesis OH RNA polymerase (RNAP) Ribose OH OH ALL nucleic acid polymerases can ONLY act in one direction, 5' → 3' (because they all use 5'-triphosphates as a substrate for synthesis). (coursehero.com)
- Catalyzes the reversible phosphorylytic cleavage of uridine and deoxyuridine to uracil and ribose- or deoxyribose-1-phosphate. (uniprot.org)
- Uridine + phosphate = uracil + alpha-D-ribose 1-phosphate. (uniprot.org)
- Reaction Mechanism 1: The purine synthesis pathway begins with 5-phosphoribosyl 1-pyrophosphate (synthesized from ribose 5-phosphate). (wikiversity.org)
- Addition of uracil, a known inhibitor of the enzyme uracil-DNA glycosidase (Lindahl et al. (nih.gov)
- Kavli B et al (2002) hUNG2 Is the Major repair enzyme for removal of uracil from U:A matches, U:G mismatches, and U in single-stranded DNA, with hSMUG1 as a broad specificity backup. (springer.com)
- Phosphoribosylaminoimidazole carboxylase (or AIR carboxylase) is an enzyme involved in nucleotide synthesis. (wikibooks.org)
- Immunoglobulin (Ig) affinity maturation requires the enzyme AID, which converts cytosines (C) in Ig genes into uracils (U). This alone produces C:G to T:A transition mutations. (biomedsearch.com)
- Once part of RNA, Protein & Enzyme synthesis occurs which provide the tools necessary for efficient cellular function. (essentialdayspa.com)
- Mutants resistant to 5-fluorouracil lacked the enzyme uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (upp ) and could no longer use uracil to satisfy their pyrimidine requirement. (unt.edu)
- Metabolic regulation has been studied to determine how the genes that control enzyme synthesis can be switched on and off when certain substances are present. (factmonster.com)
- It is an antineoplastic agent which acts as an antimetabolite - following conversion to the active deoxynucleotide, it inhibits DNA synthesis (by blocking the conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid by the cellular enzyme thymidylate synthetase) and so slows tumour growth. (ebi.ac.uk)
- Synthesis and anti-human immunodeficiency virus activity of substituted ( o,o-difluorophenyl)-linked-pyrimidines as potent non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. (nih.gov)
- In all organisms, carbamoylphosphate (CP) is a precursor common to the synthesis of arginine and pyrimidines. (springer.com)
- This particular situation generates the need for a complex and tight control of CP production and its utilization for the de novo synthesis of arginine and pyrimidines in function of the cellular needs. (springer.com)
- The pathways differ for both purines and pyrimidines (uracil falling in the pyrimidine category since it is thymine's counterpart. (wikiversity.org)
- Practitioners interested in treating the root cause of illness are especially interested in learning about this pathway because nucleotide synthesis, neurotransmitter function, detoxification, and numerous other processes are greatly improved once these mutations have been compensated for, leading to much better patient outcomes. (greatplainslaboratory.com)
- The produced molecules are then utilized as carbon and energy sources or in the rescue of pyrimidine bases for nucleotide synthesis. (uniprot.org)
- The DNA deamination model assumes that AID deaminates cytidine (C) on DNA and generates uridine (U), resulting in DNA cleavage after removal of U by uracil DNA glycosylase (UNG). (pnas.org)
- uridine diphosphate (UDP) a nucleotide that participates in glycogen metabolism and in some processes of nucleic acid synthesis. (thefreedictionary.com)
- By dialyzing the extract and reincubating it with cytidine, uridine and uracil still appeared. (unt.edu)
- This protein is involved in step 1 of the subpathway that synthesizes uracil from uridine (phosphorylase route). (uniprot.org)
- Human uracil N -glycosylase isoform 2-UNG2 consists of an N-terminal intrinsically disordered regulatory domain (UNG2 residues 1-92, 9.3 kDa) and a C-terminal structured catalytic domain (UNG2 residues 93-313, 25.1 kDa). (springer.com)
- Assefa NG, Niiranen L, Willassen NP, Smalås A, Moe E (2012) Thermal unfolding studies of cold adapted uracil-DNA N -glycosylase (UNG) from Atlantic cod ( Gadus morhua ). (springer.com)
- Mol CD, Arvai AS, Slupphaug G, Kavli B, Alseth I, Krokan HE, Tainer JA (1995) Crystal structure and mutational analysis of human uracil-DNA glycosylase: structural basis for specificity and catalysis. (springer.com)
- Slupphaug G, Mol CD, Kavli B, Arvai AS, Krokan HE, Tainer JA (1996) A nucleotide-flipping mechanism from the structure of human uracil-DNA glycosylase bound to DNA. (springer.com)
- The majority of Us are proposed to be processed by uracil DNA glycosylase (UNG) and an apurinic/apyrimidic endonuclease, generating single-stranded nicks and staggered double-strand breaks (DSBs) in CSR. (pnas.org)
- Uracil-DNA glycosylase excises uracil bases from double-stranded DNA. (wikipedia.org)
- Human cytomegalovirus UL114 encodes a uracil-DNA glycosylase homolog that is highly conserved in all characterized herpesviruses that infect mammals. (nih.gov)
- In RNA the four bases are the same except for thymine which is replaced by uracil (U), a pyrimidine base. (rsc.org)
- Uracil is an organic alkali, and is one of the four major bases in RNA. (chemicalbook.com)
- The correct answer is c) dideoxynucleotide bases - when they are added at random the terminate the synthesis sequence. (abpischools.org.uk)
- DNA and RNA use the same nitrogenous bases except that DNA uses the nucleotide base thymine, whereas RNA uses uracil. (dnalc.org)
- Which of these nucleotide bases is present in DNA but is replaced by Uracil in RNA? (medialab.com)
- Based on 12C/13C isotopic ratios of organic compounds found in the Murchison meteorite, it is believed that uracil, xanthine and related molecules can also be formed extraterrestrially. (wikipedia.org)
- CP synthetase (CPS) catalyzes the synthesis of CP from bicarbonate, glutamine, and two molecules of ATP via a complex reaction mechanism that leads to several unstable intermediates. (asm.org)
- Background: Hybrid molecules combining uracil skeleton with methylidene exo-cyclic group were designed in the search for novel anticancer drug candidates. (eurekaselect.com)
- Instead of being destroyed, many of the molecules took on new forms, such as the RNA component uracil, which is found in the genetic make-up of all living organisms on Earth. (science20.com)
- This Review describes the development of the nitrosocarbonyl HDA reaction and the utility of the resulting oxazine ring in the synthesis of a variety of important, biologically active molecules. (docme.ru)
- an important step in the synthesis of natural products and biological molecules. (docme.ru)
- We wanted to test whether pyrimidine can survive in space, and whether it can undergo reactions that turn it into more complicated organic species, such as the nucleobase uracil. (science20.com)
- A nucleobase analogue that is uracil in which the hydrogen at position 5 is replaced by fluorine. (ebi.ac.uk)
- BioMI 290, Fall 2007, Lecture 22 1 Lecture 22 Lecture 22 Transcription (Synthesis of RNA using a DNA template) Transcription (Synthesis of RNA using a DNA template) BBOM 11e Sec. 7.8 - 7.13 How is the information stored in DNA retrieved and expressed? (coursehero.com)
- Transcription, also known as RNA synthesis, is a method in which a DNA nucleotide sequence is transcribed into RNA information. (wikibooks.org)
- The final step of transcription is termination of synthesis. (wikibooks.org)
Removal of uracil1
- uracil has also been linked to the inborn metabolic disorder carbamoyl phosphate synthetase deficiency. (hmdb.ca)
- This is followed by cleavage of the sugar-phosphate chain, excision of the abasic residue, and local DNA synthesis and ligation. (sciencemag.org)
- The project was on the design, synthesis and development of nucleoside analogues and their phosphate prodrugs (Phosphoramidates) as potential antiviral and anticancer therapies. (cardiff.ac.uk)
- Ribosome , particle that is present in large numbers in all living cells and serves as the site of protein synthesis. (britannica.com)
- During protein synthesis, transfer RNA transports specific amino acid to the ribosome to be added onto the growing polypeptide chain. (biology-online.org)
- Each of the soluble RNAs could pair to its partner amino acid and ferry the amino acid to the ribosome for protein synthesis. (dnalc.org)
- Each ribosome is the site of synthesis of a polypeptide chain. (factmonster.com)
- The genetic code is important because it provides instructions for protein synthesis. (reference.com)
- Uracil is rarely found in DNA, and this may have been an evolutionary change to increase genetic stability. (wikipedia.org)
- This genetic information is passed on from one generation to the next and is required for protein synthesis. (rutgers.edu)
- SEMI-CONSERVATIVE REPLICATION Protein Synthesis The Genetic Code How can a single type of molecule control all of the activities of a cell? (prezi.com)
- The determination of the mechanism of protein synthesis has increased understanding of many genetic processes and permitted such developments as bioengineering. (factmonster.com)
- we were studying amino acids in chemistry, and I asked my chemistry teacher whether uracil was an amino acid or not. (physicsforums.com)
- Is uracil an amino acid? (physicsforums.com)
- Compound4g showed significant 2D interaction with amino acid residue of urate oxidase fromAspergillus flavus complexed with uracil. (medworm.com)
- Replication - Synthesis of an identical copy of a DNA strand. (eduref.org)
- In DNA, the evolutionary substitution of thymine for uracil may have increased DNA stability and improved the efficiency of DNA replication (discussed below). (wikipedia.org)
- Previous studies demonstrated that the deletion of this nonessential gene delays significantly the onset of viral DNA synthesis and results in a prolonged replication cycle. (nih.gov)
- however they retained the phenotype of poor growth in normal fibroblasts suggesting that poor replication was unrelated to uracil content of input genomes. (nih.gov)
- An analysis of DNA replication kinetics revealed that the initial rate of DNA synthesis and the accumulation of progeny viral genomes were significantly reduced compared to the parent virus. (nih.gov)
- These data suggest that pUL114 associates with ppUL44 and that it functions as part of the viral DNA replication complex to increase the efficiency of both early and late phase viral DNA synthesis. (nih.gov)
- Uracil can block the degradation effect of tegafur, and thus increasing the concentration of fluorouracil which enhance the anti-cancer effects. (chemicalbook.com)
- The purpose of this study is to assess the inhibitory action of uracil-tegafur (UFT) and cis -diamminedichloroplatinum(II) (CDDP) on lymphatic metastasis and life span prolongation in our lymphogenous metastatic model system using SCID mice. (aacrjournals.org)
- Tegafur-uracil is an anti-tumor compound containing tegafur (1-(2-tetrahydrofuryl)-5-fluorouracil) and uracil in a molar ratio of 1:4. (drugbank.ca)
- Tegafur-uracil is indicated for the first line treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer with concomitant administration of calcium folinate. (drugbank.ca)
- The use of the combination of tegafur and uracil allows increasing the oral bioavailability, improving the pharmacokinetic behavior of the delivered 5-fluoruracil and increasing the half-life of tegafur. (drugbank.ca)
- There is no significant long-term accumulation of either uracil, tegafur or 5-fluorouracil. (drugbank.ca)
- The serum binding protein of tegafur is of 52% while the protein binding of uracil is negligible. (drugbank.ca)
- The presence of uracil generates an increase in the half-life of tegafur and it is registered to be of 11 hours. (drugbank.ca)
- Synthesis and Sequence-Specific DNA Specific DNA Binding of a Topoisomerase Inhibitory Analog of Hoechst 33258 Designed for Altered Base and Sequence Recognition", Chem. (freepatentsonline.com)
- Promoter sites on the DNA sequence provide these starting points for the synthesis of specific RNA sequences from specific genes on the DNA strand. (wikibooks.org)
- To initiate the process of information transfer, one strand of the double-stranded DNA chain serves as a template for the synthesis of a single strand of RNA that is complementary to the DNA strand (e.g., the DNA sequence AGTC will specify an RNA sequence UCAG). (factmonster.com)
- It is not the committed step to purine synthesis because PRPP is also used in pyrimidine synthesis and salvage pathways. (wikibooks.org)
- As seen in the first step of purine synthesis, sugars usually attach themselves to a base very early on in the process if not in the middle (as with pyrimidine synthesis). (wikiversity.org)
- 2015). 'Synthesis and Biological Activity of Reversed Pyrimidine Nucleosides', Croatica Chemica Acta , 88(1), str. (srce.hr)
- Župančić N, Ban Ž, Matić J, Saftić D, Glavaš-Obrovac Lj, Žinić B. Synthesis and Biological Activity of Reversed Pyrimidine Nucleosides. (srce.hr)
- Glavaš-Obrovac i B. Žinić, "Synthesis and Biological Activity of Reversed Pyrimidine Nucleosides", Croatica Chemica Acta , vol.88, br. (srce.hr)
- They can either be synthesized in a process called "de novo" synthesis--which means "beginning again" in Latin--or they can be recycled through salvage pathways after the RNA or DNA harboring them has been degraded (most likely via DNase or RNase). (wikiversity.org)
- This article will specifically cover de novo synthesis. (wikiversity.org)
- Uracil undergoes amide-imidic acid tautomeric shifts because any nuclear instability the molecule may have from the lack of formal aromaticity is compensated by the cyclic-amidic stability. (wikipedia.org)
- If you look closely, you can see uracil and thymine are almost the same molecule, except thymine has an attached methyl group (CH 3 ). (science20.com)