SesquiterpenesSesquiterpenes, Germacrane: SESQUITERPENES cyclized to one 10-carbon ring.Sesquiterpenes, Guaiane: SESQUITERPENES cyclized into two adjoining rings, one being 7-carbons and the other is 5-carbons.Sesquiterpenes, Eudesmane: SESQUITERPENES cyclized into two adjoining cyclohexane rings but with a different configuration from the ARTEMISININS.Celastraceae: A plant family of the order Celastrales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida.Zingiberaceae: A plant family of the order Zingiberales, subclass Zingiberidae, class Liliopsida. It includes plants which have both flavoring and medicinal properties such as GINGER; turmeric (CURCUMA), and cardamom (ELETTARIA).Oils, Volatile: Oils which evaporate readily. The volatile oils occur in aromatic plants, to which they give odor and other characteristics. Most volatile oils consist of a mixture of two or more TERPENES or of a mixture of an eleoptene (the more volatile constituent of a volatile oil) with a stearopten (the more solid constituent). The synonym essential oils refers to the essence of a plant, as its perfume or scent, and not to its indispensability.Asteraceae: A large plant family of the order Asterales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida. The family is also known as Compositae. Flower petals are joined near the base and stamens alternate with the corolla lobes. The common name of "daisy" refers to several genera of this family including Aster; CHRYSANTHEMUM; RUDBECKIA; TANACETUM.Illicium: A plant genus of the family Illiciaceae, order Illiciales, subclass Magnoliidae, class Magnoliopsida. They have evergreen, aromatic leaves and bisexual flowers. The female portion of the flower consists of 7 to 15 carpels.Monoterpenes: Compounds with a core of 10 carbons generally formed via the mevalonate pathway from the combination of 3,3-dimethylallyl pyrophosphate and isopentenyl pyrophosphate. They are cyclized and oxidized in a variety of ways. Due to the low molecular weight many of them exist in the form of essential oils (OILS, VOLATILE).Euonymus: A plant genus of the family CELASTRACEAE.Polyketide Synthases: Large enzyme complexes composed of a number of component enzymes that are found in STREPTOMYCES which biosynthesize MACROLIDES and other polyketides.Thymelaeaceae: A plant family of the order Myrtales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida. They are mainly trees and shrubs. Many members contain mucilage and COUMARINS.Drimys: A plant genus of the family WINTERACEAE. They have leathery, elliptic-shaped leaves; red-tinged shoots; and jasmine-scented, cream-colored, 8- to 12-petaled, 2.5-centimeter (1-inch) flowers in clusters.Terpenes: A class of compounds composed of repeating 5-carbon units of HEMITERPENES.Alkyl and Aryl Transferases: A somewhat heterogeneous class of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of alkyl or related groups (excluding methyl groups). EC 2.5.Pulicaria: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Members contain pulicanadienes and other cytotoxic SESQUITERPENES.Rhizome: Root-like underground horizontal stem of plants that produces shoots above and roots below. Distinguished from true roots which don't have buds and nodes. Similar to true roots in being underground and thickened by storage deposits.Valerian: A plant genus of the family VALERIANACEAE, order Dipsacales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida. It is best known for the sedative use and valepotriate content of the roots. It is sometimes called Garden Heliotrope but is unrelated to true Heliotrope (HELIOTROPIUM).Lindera: A plant genus in the LAURACEAE family. Lindera benzoin is a source of a balsamic resin called benzoin which is up to 1/3 BENZOIC ACID. This should not be confused with the chemical BENZOIN or the plant STYRAX BENZOIDES.Inula: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Members contain INULIN, alantol, helenin, alantic acid, and acrid resin.Magnoliaceae: A plant family of the order Magnoliales, subclass Magnoliidae, class Magnoliopsida. They are trees and shrubs having an elongated conelike floral axis with fragrant flowers that have six tepals (sepals and petals that are not distinctly different) and many spirally arranged stamens.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Curcuma: A plant genus of the family ZINGIBERACEAE that contains CURCUMIN and curcuminoids.Eremophila Plant: A plant genus of the family MYOPORACEAE. Members have been used in FOLK MEDICINE.Chrysanthemum: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. The common names of daisy or marguerite are easily confused with other plants. Some species in this genus have been reclassified to TANACETUM.Volatilization: A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.Actinidia: A plant species of the family ACTINIDIACEAE, order Theales.Xylariales: An order of ascomycetous FUNGI which includes many economically important plant parasites as well as saprophytes.Laurencia: A genus of RED ALGAE in the family Rhodomelaceae. Some species are a rich source of chlorine-and bromine-containing metabolites which show significant antibacterial activity.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Cryptomeria: A plant genus of the family TAXODIACEAE. Its POLLEN is one of the major ALLERGENS.Membrane Transport Modulators: Agents that affect ION PUMPS; ION CHANNELS; ABC TRANSPORTERS; and other MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS.Spectrophotometry, Infrared: Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Polyisoprenyl Phosphates: Phosphoric or pyrophosphoric acid esters of polyisoprenoids.Cupressaceae: A plant family of the order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta (conifers). They are mainly resinous, aromatic evergreen trees.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Salvia: A genus in the mint family (LAMIACEAE).Apiaceae: A large plant family in the order Apiales, also known as Umbelliferae. Most are aromatic herbs with alternate, feather-divided leaves that are sheathed at the base. The flowers often form a conspicuous flat-topped umbel. Each small individual flower is usually bisexual, with five sepals, five petals, and an enlarged disk at the base of the style. The fruits are ridged and are composed of two parts that split open at maturity.Volatile Organic Compounds: Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.Lippia: A plant genus of the family VERBENACEAE. Lippsidoquinone; TRITERPENES; SESQUITERPENES; and THYMOL have been found in this genus. Plant extracts have cytotoxic activity. It is sometimes called Mexican oregano but that confuses it with real oregano (ORIGANUM).Dendrobium: A plant genus of the family ORCHIDACEAE that contains dihydroayapin (COUMARINS) and phenanthraquinones.Spectrometry, Mass, Fast Atom Bombardment: A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of a wide range of biomolecules, such as glycoalkaloids, glycoproteins, polysaccharides, and peptides. Positive and negative fast atom bombardment spectra are recorded on a mass spectrometer fitted with an atom gun with xenon as the customary beam. The mass spectra obtained contain molecular weight recognition as well as sequence information.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Lactones: Cyclic esters of hydroxy carboxylic acids, containing a 1-oxacycloalkan-2-one structure. Large cyclic lactones of over a dozen atoms are MACROLIDES.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Plant Bark: The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization: A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.Plant Components, Aerial: The above-ground plant without the roots.Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Chitin Synthase: An enzyme that converts UDP glucosamine into chitin and UDP. EC 2.4.1.16.Plant Oils: Oils derived from plants or plant products.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Plants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular: NMR spectroscopy on small- to medium-size biological macromolecules. This is often used for structural investigation of proteins and nucleic acids, and often involves more than one isotope.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Photoaffinity Labels: Biologically active molecules which are covalently bound to the enzymes or binding proteins normally acting on them. Binding occurs due to activation of the label by ultraviolet light. These labels are used primarily to identify binding sites on proteins.Peptide Synthases: Ligases that catalyze the joining of adjacent AMINO ACIDS by the formation of carbon-nitrogen bonds between their carboxylic acid groups and amine groups.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor: Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Intramolecular Lyases: Enzymes of the isomerase class that catalyze reactions in which a group can be regarded as eliminated from one part of a molecule, leaving a double bond, while remaining covalently attached to the molecule. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 5.5.Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic: Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Nitric Oxide Synthase Type I: A CALCIUM-dependent, constitutively-expressed form of nitric oxide synthase found primarily in NERVE TISSUE.Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared: A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.Acyltransferases: Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.Fatty Acid Synthases: Enzymes that catalyze the synthesis of FATTY ACIDS from acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA derivatives.Nitric Oxide Synthase: An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.Polyketides: Natural compounds containing alternating carbonyl and methylene groups (beta-polyketones), bioenergenetically derived from repeated condensation of acetyl coenzyme A via malonyl coenzyme A, in a process similar to fatty acid synthesis.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases: Enzyme complexes that catalyze the formation of PROSTAGLANDINS from the appropriate unsaturated FATTY ACIDS, molecular OXYGEN, and a reduced acceptor.Acyl Carrier Protein: Consists of a polypeptide chain and 4'-phosphopantetheine linked to a serine residue by a phosphodiester bond. Acyl groups are bound as thiol esters to the pantothenyl group. Acyl carrier protein is involved in every step of fatty acid synthesis by the cytoplasmic system.Intramolecular Transferases: Enzymes of the isomerase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl-, phospho-, amino- or other groups from one position within a molecule to another. EC 5.4.Intramolecular Oxidoreductases: Enzymes of the isomerase class that catalyze the oxidation of one part of a molecule with a corresponding reduction of another part of the same molecule. They include enzymes converting aldoses to ketoses (ALDOSE-KETOSE ISOMERASES), enzymes shifting a carbon-carbon double bond (CARBON-CARBON DOUBLE BOND ISOMERASES), and enzymes transposing S-S bonds (SULFUR-SULFUR BOND ISOMERASES). (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 5.3.3-Oxoacyl-(Acyl-Carrier-Protein) Synthase: An enzyme of long-chain fatty acid synthesis, that adds a two-carbon unit from malonyl-(acyl carrier protein) to another molecule of fatty acyl-(acyl carrier protein), giving a beta-ketoacyl-(acyl carrier protein) with the release of carbon dioxide. EC 2.3.1.41.Starch Synthase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of glucose from ADPglucose to glucose-containing polysaccharides in 1,4-alpha-linkages. EC 2.4.1.21.Glucosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glucose from a nucleoside diphosphate glucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.Geranyltranstransferase: An enzyme involved in the MEVALONATE pathway, it catalyses the synthesis of farnesyl diphosphate from isopentenyl diphosphate and dimethylallyl diphosphate.PseudouridineSequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Transferases: Transferases are enzymes transferring a group, for example, the methyl group or a glycosyl group, from one compound (generally regarded as donor) to another compound (generally regarded as acceptor). The classification is based on the scheme "donor:acceptor group transferase". (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.
Retrieved January 24, 2017 Miller, DJ Allemann, RJ (2012). "Sesquiterpene synthases: Passive catalysts or active players?". ... He has pioneered detailed mechanistic investigations of terpene synthases such as aristolochene synthase, germacrene-A synthase ... and delta-cadinene synthase, leading to insights into how the diversity of the terpenome (terpene and terpenoid natural ...
The first sesquiterpene to be formed, (E)-α-bisabolene (formed by (E)-α-bisabolene synthase), can be further transformed into ... The transcription of sesquiterpene synthases was shown to begin on the third day following insect attack. Sesquiterpenoid JHAs ... Steele, C. L.; Crock, J.; Bohlmann, J., Croteau, R. (1998). "Sesquiterpene Synthases from Grand Fir (Abies grandis)". J. Biol. ... They occur naturally as part of a mixture of sesquiterpenes based upon the bisabolane scaffold. Sesquiterpenes of this family ...
"Quantitative exploration of the catalytic landscape separating divergent plant sesquiterpene synthases". Nature Chemical ... The rapid evolvability of chemical diversity in terpene synthases were demonstrated through processes akin to both Darwinian ...
... d-cadinene synthase. The (+)-d-cadinene (2) is involved in making the basic aromatic sesquiterpene unit, homigossypol, by ... Sesquiterpene dimer undergoes a radical coupling reaction to form gossypol. The biosynthesis begins when geranyl pyrophosphate ... GPP) and isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) are combined to make the sesquiterpene precursor farnesyl diphosphate (FPP). Cadinyl ...
"Purification and characterization of the sesquiterpene cyclase aristolochene synthase from Penicillium roqueforti". Archives of ... An example of such a conformational disease is ALAD porphyria, which results from a mutation of porphobilinogen synthase that ... The one protein that is established to function as a morpheein is porphobilinogen synthase, though there are suggestions ... An inhibitor of porphobilinogen synthase with this mechanism of action has been documented. The morpheein model of allosteric ...
... germacrene A by a sesquiterpene synthase. (+)-germacrene A hydroxylase then hydroxylates the isopropenyl side chain. The ... involved in sesquiterpene lactone biosynthesis". (2001). Plant Physiol. 125(4): 1930-40. Barton, D.H.R.; Moss, G.P.; Whittle, J ...
... is correlated with a limited number of sesquiterpene synthases". Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics. 454 (2): 123-136. doi ... Patchoulol or patchouli alcohol (C15H26O) is a sesquiterpene alcohol found in patchouli. Patchouli oil is an important material ... Norpatchoulenol Deguerry, F.; Pastore, L.; Wu, S.; Clark, A.; Chappell, J.; Schalk, M. (2006). "The diverse sesquiterpene ...
It is biosynthesized from farnesyl pyrophosphate by aristolochene synthase and is the parent hydrocarbon of a large variety of ... Aristolochene is a bicyclic sesquiterpene produced by certain fungi including the cheese mold Penicillium roqueforti. ... "Aristolochene synthase. Isolation, characterization, and bacterial expression of a sesquiterpenoid biosynthetic gene (Ari1) ...
... and sesquiterpenes. Herout, Vlastimil; Benesova, Vera; Pliva, Josef (1953). "Terpenes. XLI. Sesquiterpenes of ginger oil". ... Zingiberene synthase is the enzyme responsible for catalyzing the reaction forming zingiberene as well as other mono- ... Zingiberene is a monocyclic sesquiterpene that is the predominant constituent of the oil of ginger (Zingiber officinale), from ...
... directed mutagenesis and truncation of the multiple-product sesquiterpene synthases δ-selinene synthase and γ-humulene synthase ... Steele, C.L., Crock, J., Bohlmann, J. and Croteau, R. (1998). "Sesquiterpene synthases from grand fir (Abies grandis). ... and bacterial expression of δ-selinene synthase and γ-humulene synthase". J. Biol. Chem. 273: 2078-2089. PMID 9442047. ...
... a sesquiterpene cyclase, is considered the critical step in capsidiol biosynthesis. Aristolochene synthase enzymes from ... Crystal structures of recombinant tobacco 5-epi-aristolochene synthase (TEAS), alone and also complexed with two FPP analogues ... the Nicotiana tabacum enzyme 5-epi-aristolochene synthase produces the diastereoisomeric product by way of (R)-germacrene A. ... Maldonado-Bonilla LD, Betancourt-Jiménez M,Lozoya-Gloria E (2008) "Local and systemic gene expression of sesquiterpene ...
... which is mediated by a sesquiterpene cyclase, (+)-germacrene A synthase, to form compound 2, (+)-germacryl cation. Inside this ... Costunolide is a naturally occurring sesquiterpene lactone, first isolated in Saussurea costus roots in 1960. It is also found ... The cyctochrome P450 enzyme, (+)-costunolide synthase, which is a NADPH and O2 dependent enzyme, then oxidizes germacrene acid ... Demonstration of Cytochrome P450-Catalyzed Formation of the Lactone Ring Present in Sesquiterpene Lactones of Chicory". Plant ...
demonstrated that BcBOT2 is in fact a sesquiterpene synthase by incubation of FPP with recombinant BcBOT2 protein, which ... Botrydial is a phytotoxic sesquiterpene metabolite secreted by the fungus Botrytis cinerea. Botrydial was first isolated and ... For this reason, botrydial, as well as other Botrytis Cinerea originated sesquiterpene metabolites, represent an economically ...
In this regard, directed evolution has been used on γ-humulene synthase, an enzyme that creates over 50 different ... sesquiterpenes, to create enzymes that selectively synthesize individual products. Similarly, completely new functions can be ...
Urbina JA, Concepcion JL, Rangel S, Visbal G, Lira R (2002). "Squalene synthase as a chemotherapeutic target in Trypanosoma ... Brengio SD, Belmonte SA, Guerreiro E, Giordano OS, Pietrobon EO, Sosa MA (April 2000). "The sesquiterpene lactone ... These include inhibitors of oxidosqualene cyclase and squalene synthase, cysteine protease inhibitors, dermaseptins collected ... from frogs in the genus Phyllomedusa (P. oreades and P. distincta), the sesquiterpene lactone dehydroleucodine (DhL), which ...
... a Cotton Transcription Factor That Regulates the Sesquiterpene Synthase Gene (+)-δ-Cadinene Synthase-A. Plant Physiology. 135(1 ... 2012) Dual-Level Regulation of ACC Synthase Activity by MPK3/MPK6 Cascade and Its Downstream WRKY Transcription Factor during ... 11-diene Synthase Gene, a Key Gene of Artemisinin Biosynthesis. Plant and Cell Physiology. 50(12). 2146-2161, Kato, Dubouzet, ...
... sesquiterpenes, diterpenes, sesterterpenes, triterpenes, and tetraterpenes, all synthesized by terpene synthase. Isoprene ... Sesquiterpenes consist of three isoprene units and have the molecular formula C15H24. Examples of sesquiterpenes and ... The aroma and flavor of hops comes, in part, from sesquiterpenes (mainly alpha-humulene and beta-caryophyllene), which affect ... The genomes of 17 plant species contain genes that encode terpenoid synthase enzymes imparting terpenes with their basic ...
... is correlated with a limited number of sesquiterpene synthases. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2006 Oct 15;454(2):123-36. Omura H, Honda ... Deguerry F, Pastore L, Wu S, Clark A, Chappell J, Schalk M. The diverse sesquiterpene profile of patchouli, Pogostemon cablin, ... Point mutation of (+)-germacrene A synthase from Ixeris dentata. Biotechnol Lett. 2005 Mar;27(5):285-8. Rivero-Cruz B, Rivero- ... Mechanism and stereochemistry of the germacradienol/germacrene D synthase of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). J Am Chem Soc. 2004 ...
To transform from GGPP to abietenyl cation 5, a single bifunctional enzyme abietadiene synthase E1 is required. However, due to ... The end product of bilobalide contains sesquiterpenes and three lactones units. Bilobalide is important for producing several ... to form a C15 sesquiterpene. Such formation went through the mevalonate pathway (MVA) and methylerythritol phosphate MEP ...
Farnesyl diphosphate departure via a generic sesquiterpene synthase Ring closure via a generic sesquiterpene synthase (as for # ... While no synthases specific to Artemisia absinthium have been sufficiently isolated to recreate this particular sesquiterpene ... Diphosphate departure (1) generates a carbo-cation within the synthase, which can then be attacked by a carbon-carbon double ... Absinthin's (1) complex structure is classified as a sesquiterpene lactone, meaning it belongs to a large category of natural ...
... a sesquiterpene synthase) from Abies grandis that is known to produce 52 different sesquiterpenes from farnesyl diphosphate ... For example, if a tRNA synthases loaded an incorrect amino acid onto a tRNA, the resulting peptide would have unexpectedly ... Similar in reaction to tRNA synthases, the first subunit of tyrocidine synthetase (tyrA) from Bacillus brevis adenylates a ... Codexis). Another example is the possibility of using the promiscuous activities of cysteine synthase (cysM) towards ...
Munck, S.L.; Croteau, R. (1990). "Purification and characterization of the sesquiterpene cyclase patchoulol synthase from ... Patchoulol synthase (EC 4.2.3.70) is an enzyme with systematic name (2E,6E)-farnesyl-diphosphate diphosphate-lyase (patchoulol- ... Patchoulol synthase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Molecular and Cellular Biology ... "Biosynthesis of the sesquiterpene patchoulol from farnesyl pyrophosphate in leaf extracts of Pogostemon cablin (patchouli): ...
Yoshioka H, Yamada N, Doke N (1999). "cDNA cloning of sesquiterpene cyclase and squalene synthase, and expression of the genes ... Mathis JR, Back K, Starks C, Noel J, Poulter CD, Chappell J (1997). "Pre-steady-state study of recombinant sesquiterpene ... In enzymology, a vetispiradiene synthase (EC 4.2.3.21) is an enzyme of Egyptian henbane that catalyzes the following chemical ... Chappell J, Ricci P, Marco Y (1998). "Sesquiterpene cyclase is not a determining factor for elicitor- and pathogen-induced ...
Cane DE (1983). "Cell-free studies of monoterpene and sesquiterpene biosynthesis". Biochem. Soc. Trans. 11 (5): 510-5. PMID ... In enzymology, a pentalenene synthase (EC 4.2.3.7) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction 2-trans,6-trans-farnesyl ... "Pentalenene synthase. Purification, molecular cloning, sequencing, and high-level expression in Escherichia coli of a terpenoid ...
Hohn TM, Plattner RD (1989). "Purification and characterization of the sesquiterpene cyclase aristolochene synthase from ... In enzymology, an aristolochene synthase (EC 4.2.3.9) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction 2-trans,6-trans- ... Calvert MJ, Ashton PR, Allemann RK (2002). "Germacrene A is a product of the aristolochene synthase-mediated conversion of ... Proctor RH, Hohn TM (1993). "Aristolochene synthase. Isolation, characterization, and bacterial expression of a sesquiterpenoid ...
Treimer JF, Zenk MH (November 1979). "Purification and properties of strictosidine synthase, the key enzyme in indole alkaloid ... In the first step of quinine biosynthesis, the enzyme strictosidine synthase catalyzes a stereoselective Pictet-Spengler ...
These in turn are produced by a diverse range of sesquiterpene synthases. A comprehensive analysis of these enzymes in terms of ... An analysis of characterized plant sesquiterpene synthases. Durairaj, Janani; Girolamo, Alice Di; Bouwmeester, Harro J.; Ridder ... To address this, we have gathered 262 plant sesquiterpene synthase sequences with experimentally characterized products. The ... terpene synthase sequences were obtained from various resources and compared with the annotated sesquiterpene synthases. This ...
... exhibited the catalytic activities of sesquiterpene biosynthesis. Among these three δ-guaiene synthases, two isoforms were ... These results suggest that two types of δ-guaiene synthase; α-, δ-guaiene, β-elemene-producing type, and α-, δ-guaiene, β- ... acid residues at C-terminal of the synthase protein are essential to exhibit the catalytic activities as the sesquiterpene ... a sesquiterpene cyclase, were isolated from tissue cultures of Aquilaria microcarpa, and data mining analysis of the ...
Q55012) (8) identified putative sesquiterpene synthases in a number of bacterial sequences (Fig. 2). Sesquiterpene synthase ... Two other typical single-domain sesquiterpene synthases, pentalenene synthase and epi-isozizaene synthase, have also been ... N. punctiforme has both types of sesquiterpene synthases, while Nostoc sp. has one single-domain terpene synthase. The fact ... Cloning and characterization of fusion-type terpene synthase NP2.The second sesquiterpene synthase gene homolog identified in ...
Home » Topics » Enzymes » Research » Discovery of three novel sesquiterpene synthases from Streptomyces chartreusis NRRL 3882 ... Discovery of three novel sesquiterpene synthases from Streptomyces chartreusis NRRL 3882 and crystal structure of an α-eudesmol ... Summary of "Discovery of three novel sesquiterpene synthases from Streptomyces chartreusis NRRL 3882 and crystal structure of ... This study describes the discovery of three novel sesquiterpene synthases from Streptomyces chartreusis with preference for the ...
Discovery of germacrene A synthases in Barnadesia spinosa: The first committed step in sesquiterpene lactone biosynthesis in ... Discovery of germacrene A synthases in Barnadesia spinosa: The first committed step in sesquiterpene lactone biosynthesis in ... The biosynthesis of STLs requires the intimate expression and functional integration of germacrene A synthase (GAS) and ... Herein we isolated two terpene synthases (BsGAS1/BsGAS2) from the basal Barnadesia spinosa (Barnadesioideae) that displayed ...
2009b) Monoterpene and sesquiterpene synthases and the origin of terpene skeletal diversity in plants. Phytochemistry 70: 1621- ... Ectopic Terpene Synthase Expression Enhances Sesquiterpene Emission in Nicotiana attenuata without Altering Defense or ... Ectopic Terpene Synthase Expression Enhances Sesquiterpene Emission in Nicotiana attenuata without Altering Defense or ... Ectopic Terpene Synthase Expression Enhances Sesquiterpene Emission in Nicotiana attenuata without Altering Defense or ...
Fusion of farnesyldiphosphate synthase and epi-aristolochene synthase, a sesquiterpene cyclase involved in capsidiol ... Fusion of farnesyldiphosphate synthase and epi-aristolochene synthase, a sesquiterpene cyclase involved in capsidiol ... A clone encoding farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FPPS) was obtained by PCR from a cDNA library made from young leaves of ... A clone encoding farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FPPS) was obtained by PCR from a cDNA library made from young leaves of ...
The four sesquiterpene synthases may be involved in responsiveness of A. annua to herbivory. Methyl jasmonate treatment ... Studies on the Expression of Sesquiterpene Synthases Using Promoter-b-Glucuronidase Fusions in Transgenic Artemisia annua L. ... In order to better understand the influence of sesquiterpene synthases on artemisinin yield in Artemisia annua, the expression ... of some sesquiterpene synthases has been studied using transgenic plants expressing promoter-GUS fusions. The cloned promoter ...
The role of pyrophosphate (OPP−) in the penultimate deprotonation step leading to olefinic sesquiterpenes is also examined. , ... Santalene and bergamotene are the major olefinic sesquiterpenes responsible for the fragrance of sandalwood oil. Herein we ... Novel sesquiterpene synthases (SaSQS1 and SaSQS2) were characterized as isoforms of sesquisabinene synthase with varying ... Novel sesquiterpene synthases (SaSQS1 and SaSQS2) were characterized as isoforms of sesquisabinene synthase with varying ...
This prompted us to investigate whether Medtr5g073200 indeed encodes an active sesquiterpene synthase. Sesquiterpene synthases ... we identified and characterized a gene encoding a sesquiterpene synthase (M. truncatula TERPENE SYNTHASE 10 [MtTPS10]), which ... MtTPS10 can be regarded as a multiproduct terpene synthase like other identified monoterpene and sesquiterpene synthases, which ... Medtr5g073200 was annotated as a sesquiterpene synthase and was classified as MtTPS10, belonging to subfamily A of the terpene ...
alpha-terpineol synthase. Santalum album (White sandalwood). Loading... B5A435 Sesquiterpene synthase. Santalum album (White ... Similar proteins: Bifunctional dolabella-3,7-dien-18-ol synthase/dolathalia-3,7,11-triene synthase TPS20, chloroplastic ( ...
The monoterpene synthase Ccglinoh and the sesquiterpene synthase AgfEαbis most closely resemble conifer diterpene synthase ... Z97341) is a sesquiterpene synthase; if A2 is correct, then Atlim (accession no. Z97341) is a monoterpene synthase. In the ... The symbols C10, C15, and C20 represent the enzyme class corresponding to monoterpene synthases, sesquiterpene synthases, and ... Characteristically, class II type terpene synthase genes encode conifer monoterpene and sesquiterpene synthases involved in ...
... sesquiterpene, transferase, catalysis, chemistry, enzyme active site, Escherichia coli, genetics, mass fragmentography, ... Abdallah, I. I., van Merkerk, R., Klumpenaar, E., & Quax, W. J. (2018). Catalysis of amorpha-4,11-diene synthase unraveled and ... Abdallah, II, van Merkerk, R, Klumpenaar, E & Quax, WJ 2018, Catalysis of amorpha-4,11-diene synthase unraveled and improved ... N2 - Amorpha-4,11-diene synthase (ADS) cyclizes the substrate farnesyl pyrophosphate to produce amorpha-4,11-diene as a major ...
All three sesquiterpene synthases were solely upregulated during the biosynthetically active stages of the trichomes. ... By combination of in vitro and in vivo characterization of sesquiterpene synthase gene products in Escherichia coli and ... Young roots with root hairs showed expression of the sesquiterpene synthase genes as well. This study functionally identified ... Evidence for the transcriptional regulation of sesquiterpene synthase genes in trichome cells suggest a potential use for these ...
Four of the cDNAs encode for synthases catalyzing the biosynthesis of one major sesquiterpene, including a γ-curcumene synthase ... To determine if this complex mixture of sesquiterpenes arises from an equal number of unique sesquiterpene synthases, we ... two germacrene D synthases, and a germacrene A synthase. The fifth cDNA encodes for a patchoulol synthase, which catalyzes the ... Unexpectedly, only five terpene synthase cDNA genes were isolated. ...
Sandalwood fragrance biosynthesis involves sesquiterpene synthases of both the terpene synthase (TPS)-a and TPS-b subfamilies, ... Sandalwood fragrance biosynthesis involves sesquiterpene synthases of both the terpene synthase (TPS)-a and TPS-b subfamilies, ... An orthologous set of TPS-a synthases responsible for formation of macrocyclic and bicyclic sesquiterpenes were characterized. ... Both the santalene synthases and the bisabolene/bisabolol synthases reside in the TPS-b phylogenetic clade, which is more ...
Chapter 2: Discovery and characterization of mono- and sesquiterpene synthases from Solanum lycopersicum. ... Chapter 3: A yeast-one-hybrid screen identifies a putative transcription factor that interacts with a tomato terpene synthase ... Transcription factors regulating terpene synthases in tomato trichomes. Supervisors. M.A. Haring. ... Ze identificeerde twee transcriptiefactoren die interacteren met de promoter van terpeen-synthases. Opvallend is dat deze twee ...
... directed mutagenesis and truncation of the multiple-product sesquiterpene synthases δ-selinene synthase and γ-humulene synthase ... "Sesquiterpene synthases from grand fir (Abies grandis). Comparison of constitutive and wound-induced activities, and cDNA ... and bacterial expression of δ-selinene synthase and γ-humulene synthase". J. Biol. Chem. 273: 2078-2089. doi:10.1074/jbc.273.4. ... Gamma-humulene synthase (EC 4.2.3.56, humulene cyclase) is an enzyme with systematic name (2E,6E)-farnesyl-diphosphate ...
Retrieved January 24, 2017 Miller, DJ Allemann, RJ (2012). "Sesquiterpene synthases: Passive catalysts or active players?". ... He has pioneered detailed mechanistic investigations of terpene synthases such as aristolochene synthase, germacrene-A synthase ... and delta-cadinene synthase, leading to insights into how the diversity of the terpenome (terpene and terpenoid natural ...
... we review some aspects of the biosynthesis of sesquiterpene lactones and its regulation in different medicinal and aromatic ... Tholl D, Chen F, Petri J et al (2005) Two sesquiterpene synthases are responsible for the complex mixture of sesquiterpenes ... Sandalwood fragrance biosynthesis involves sesquiterpene synthases of both the terpene synthase (TPS)-a and TPS-b subfamilies, ... Pyle BW, Tran HT, Pickel B et al (2012) Enzymatic synthesis of valerena-4,7(11)-diene by a unique sesquiterpene synthase from ...
Conversion of Sf-CinS1 to a Sesquiterpene Synthase. With very few exceptions, monoterpene synthases use GPP as a substrate, and ... 2006) on a pair of sesquiterpene synthases. Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) 5-epi-aristolochene synthase (TEAS) and Hyoscyamus ... The maize gene terpene synthase 1 encodes a sesquiterpene synthase catalyzing the formation of (E)-beta-farnesene, (E)- ... In sesquiterpene synthases, a kink also appears to be present in helix G of tobacco TEAS (Starks et al., 1997) (Figure 5B; PDB ...
3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase (HMGS) is one of the rate-limiting enzymes in the mevalonate pathway as it catalyzes ... Recently, two genes encoding (E,E)-farnesol and α-bisabolene synthases involved in sesquiterpene were cloned and functionally ... 4-cyclo-diphosphate synthase [25], 1-hydroxy-2-methyl-2-(E)-butenyl-4-diphosphate synthase [26], and 1-hydroxy-2-methyl-2-(E)- ... Tholl, D. Terpene synthases and the regulation, diversity and biological roles of terpene metabolism. Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. ...
... a sesquiterpene lactone present in Costus speciosus root exerts a variety of pharmacological activity but its effects on ... Costunolide, a sesquiterpene lactone present in Costus speciosus root exerts a variety of pharmacological activity but its ... Costunolide attenuated the expression of tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1,6, inducible nitric oxide synthase, ...
Sesquiterpene synthases: Passive catalysts or active players?. Natural Product Reports 29(1), pp. 60-71. (10.1039/c1np00060h) ... Sesquiterpene synthases: Passive catalysts or active players?. Natural Product Reports 29(1), pp. 60-71. (10.1039/c1np00060h) ... Sesquiterpene synthase-catalysed formation of a new medium-sized cyclic terpenoid ether from farnesyl diphosphate analogues. ... Sesquiterpene synthase-catalysed formation of a new medium-sized cyclic terpenoid ether from farnesyl diphosphate analogues. ...
Consists of 2 homologous sesquiterpene synthase domains. The Asp-Asp-Xaa-Xaa-Asp/Glu (DDXXD/E) motif is important for the ... 15 mixture of the sesquiterpene alcohol germacradienol and the sesquiterpene hydrocarbon germacrene D. The C-terminal domain ...
  • We show that five root-expressed TPSs of an expanded subfamily-a type clade in the Arabidopsis TPS family function as class I diterpene synthases that predominantly convert geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) to different semi-volatile diterpene products, which are in part detectable at low levels in the ecotypes Columbia (Col) and Cape Verde Island (Cvi). (frontiersin.org)
  • Additional cDNAs that encode bisabolene/bisabolol synthases were also cloned and functionally characterized from these three species. (edu.au)
  • A cDNA encoding ( E )-α-bisabolene synthase was isolated from a wound-induced grand fir stem library by a PCR-based strategy and was functionally expressed in Escherichia coli and shown to produce ( E )-α-bisabolene as the sole product from farnesyl diphosphate. (pnas.org)
  • In order to unravel the transcriptional regulation of the Solanum lycopersicum linalool synthase (SlMTS1, recently renamed SlTPS5) gene in glandular trichomes, we functionally dissected its promoter. (deepdyve.com)
  • These results clearly indicate that mevalonate pathway-engineered E. coli cells showed an appreciable δ-guaiene producing activity in the en- riched medium in the presence of appropriate isoprene precursors. (scirp.org)
  • Cyclic sesquiterpenes are more common than cyclic monoterpenes because of the increased chain length and additional double bond in the sesquiterpene precursors. (rug.nl)
  • Sesquiterpene synthases from grand fir (Abies grandis). (wikipedia.org)
  • E )-α-Bisabolene synthase is one of two wound-inducible sesquiterpene synthases of grand fir ( Abies grandis ), and the olefin product of this cyclization reaction is considered to be the precursor in Abies species of todomatuic acid, juvabione, and related insect juvenile hormone mimics. (pnas.org)
  • In grand fir ( Abies grandis ), increased formation of oleoresin monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes and diterpenes is induced by insect attack ( 7 - 10 ), and this inducible defense response is mimicked by mechanically wounding sapling stems ( 8 , 9 , 11 ). (pnas.org)
  • Juvabione [the methyl ester of todomatuic acid (Fig. 1 )] is a component of "paper factor," a mixture of oxygenated bisabolane sesquiterpenes that is responsible for the failure of certain insects to molt into adults when reared in contact with paper made from fir species (genus Abies ) ( 22 - 25 ). (pnas.org)
  • Strict functionality and limited sequence divergence in the santalene and bisabolene synthases are in contrast to the TPS-a synthases, suggesting these compounds have played a significant role in the evolution of the Santalum genus. (edu.au)
  • These tissues produce a variety of sesquiterpene compounds with aroma such as δ-guaiene, α-guaiene and α-humulene, and, therefore, they have been used as a scent, perfume and traditional medicines. (scirp.org)
  • Predicted biosynthetic pathway of guaiene-type sesquiterpene compounds of Aquilaria plants. (scirp.org)
  • Marine algae, like the red algae Kersten found, are often rich in compounds called sesquiterpenes, some of which have been shown to have potential medicinal attributes. (mit.edu)
  • Moreover, a single amino acid substitution enlarged the active-site cavity enough to accommodate the larger farnesyl pyrophosphate substrate and led to the efficient synthesis of sesquiterpenes, while alternate single substitutions of this critical amino acid yielded five additional terpene synthases. (plantcell.org)
  • 1. Of the five sesquiterpene antibiotics tested and found to inhibit protein synthesis in yeast spheroplasts, trichothecin, trichodermol or trichodermin stabilized polyribosomes whereas, in contrast, verrucarin A or T-2 toxin induced 'run off' of polyribosomes with a corresponding increase in 80S monoribosomes. (portlandpress.com)
  • Biosynthetically prepared ( E )-α-[ 3 H]bisabolene was converted to todomatuic acid in induced grand fir cells, and the time course of appearance of bisabolene synthase mRNA was shown by Northern hybridization to lag behind that of mRNAs responsible for production of induced oleoresin monoterpenes. (pnas.org)
  • E )-α-Bisabolene synthase is one of the two inducible sesquiterpene synthases of grand fir that, after stem wounding, is responsible for a dramatic shift in product composition as determined by in vitro assay ( 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • Costunolide attenuated the expression of tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1,6, inducible nitric oxide synthase, monocyte chemotactic protein 1 and cyclooxygenase 2 in activated microglia. (nih.gov)
  • Induced sesquiterpenes could form a second line of chemical defense against insect herbivores and fungal pathogens that is distinct from the initial defense provided by inducible monoterpene production. (pnas.org)
  • The contents of nitric oxide, inducible nitric oxide synthase and neuronal nitric oxide synthase in the serum and brain tissue of the mice were measured. (ijpsonline.com)
  • Essential oil intervention significantly reduced the scratching number and decreased the levels of nitric oxide, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and nuclear factor-kappa B compared to the untreated group. (ijpsonline.com)
  • Essential oil of camphor leaves has significant analgesic action on migraine by inhibiting the nuclear factor-kappa B/inducible nitric oxide synthase/nitric oxide pathway. (ijpsonline.com)
  • Isolation and bacterial expression of a sesquiterpene synthase cDNA clone from peppermint (Mentha x piperita, L.) that produces the aphid alarm pheromone (E)-beta-farnesene. (genome.jp)
  • Costunolide, a sesquiterpene lactone present in Costus speciosus root exerts a variety of pharmacological activity but its effects on neuroinflammation have not been studied. (nih.gov)