Synovitis: Inflammation of a synovial membrane. It is usually painful, particularly on motion, and is characterized by a fluctuating swelling due to effusion within a synovial sac. (Dorland, 27th ed)Synovitis, Pigmented Villonodular: Outgrowths of synovial membrane composed of villi and fibrous nodules characterized histologically by hemosiderin- and lipid-containing macrophages and multinucleated giant cells. It usually occurs in the knee.Metacarpophalangeal Joint: The articulation between a metacarpal bone and a phalanx.Synovial Membrane: The inner membrane of a joint capsule surrounding a freely movable joint. It is loosely attached to the external fibrous capsule and secretes SYNOVIAL FLUID.Arthritis, Rheumatoid: A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.Knee Joint: A synovial hinge connection formed between the bones of the FEMUR; TIBIA; and PATELLA.Finger Joint: The articulation between the head of one phalanx and the base of the one distal to it, in each finger.Tenosynovitis: Inflammation of the synovial lining of a tendon sheath. Causes include trauma, tendon stress, bacterial disease (gonorrhea, tuberculosis), rheumatic disease, and gout. Common sites are the hand, wrist, shoulder capsule, hip capsule, hamstring muscles, and Achilles tendon. The tendon sheaths become inflamed and painful, and accumulate fluid. Joint mobility is usually reduced.Wrist Joint: The joint that is formed by the distal end of the RADIUS, the articular disc of the distal radioulnar joint, and the proximal row of CARPAL BONES; (SCAPHOID BONE; LUNATE BONE; triquetral bone).Osteitis: Inflammation of the bone.Injections, Intra-Articular: Methods of delivering drugs into a joint space.Acquired Hyperostosis Syndrome: Syndrome consisting of SYNOVITIS; ACNE CONGLOBATA; PALMOPLANTAR PUSTULOSIS; HYPEROSTOSIS; and OSTEITIS. The most common site of the disease is the upper anterior chest wall, characterized by predominantly osteosclerotic lesions, hyperostosis, and arthritis of the adjacent joints. The association of sterile inflammatory bone lesions and neutrophilic skin eruptions is indicative of this syndrome.Synovial Fluid: The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE. It contains mucin, albumin, fat, and mineral salts and serves to lubricate joints.Carpal Joints: The articulations between the various CARPAL BONES. This does not include the WRIST JOINT which consists of the articulations between the RADIUS; ULNA; and proximal CARPAL BONES.Hand Joints: The articulations extending from the WRIST distally to the FINGERS. These include the WRIST JOINT; CARPAL JOINTS; METACARPOPHALANGEAL JOINT; and FINGER JOINT.ArthritisJoints: Also known as articulations, these are points of connection between the ends of certain separate bones, or where the borders of other bones are juxtaposed.Spondylarthropathies: Heterogeneous group of arthritic diseases sharing clinical and radiologic features. They are associated with the HLA-B27 ANTIGEN and some with a triggering infection. Most involve the axial joints in the SPINE, particularly the SACROILIAC JOINT, but can also involve asymmetric peripheral joints. Subsets include ANKYLOSING SPONDYLITIS; REACTIVE ARTHRITIS; PSORIATIC ARTHRITIS; and others.Arthroscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy and surgery of the joint.Osteoarthritis: A progressive, degenerative joint disease, the most common form of arthritis, especially in older persons. The disease is thought to result not from the aging process but from biochemical changes and biomechanical stresses affecting articular cartilage. In the foreign literature it is often called osteoarthrosis deformans.Joint DiseasesArthritis, Psoriatic: A type of inflammatory arthritis associated with PSORIASIS, often involving the axial joints and the peripheral terminal interphalangeal joints. It is characterized by the presence of HLA-B27-associated SPONDYLARTHROPATHY, and the absence of rheumatoid factor.Cartilage, Articular: A protective layer of firm, flexible cartilage over the articulating ends of bones. It provides a smooth surface for joint movement, protecting the ends of long bones from wear at points of contact.Samarium: Samarium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Sm, atomic number 62, and atomic weight 150.36. The oxide is used in the control rods of some nuclear reactors.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Metatarsophalangeal Joint: The articulation between a metatarsal bone (METATARSAL BONES) and a phalanx.Foot Joints: The articulations extending from the ANKLE distally to the TOES. These include the ANKLE JOINT; TARSAL JOINTS; METATARSOPHALANGEAL JOINT; and TOE JOINT.Popliteal Cyst: A SYNOVIAL CYST located in the back of the knee, in the popliteal space arising from the semimembranous bursa or the knee joint.Edema: Abnormal fluid accumulation in TISSUES or body cavities. Most cases of edema are present under the SKIN in SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE.Exudates and Transudates: Exudates are fluids, CELLS, or other cellular substances that are slowly discharged from BLOOD VESSELS usually from inflamed tissues. Transudates are fluids that pass through a membrane or squeeze through tissue or into the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE of TISSUES. Transudates are thin and watery and contain few cells or PROTEINS.Arthralgia: Pain in the joint.Antirheumatic Agents: Drugs that are used to treat RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS.Osteoarthritis, Knee: Noninflammatory degenerative disease of the knee joint consisting of three large categories: conditions that block normal synchronous movement, conditions that produce abnormal pathways of motion, and conditions that cause stress concentration resulting in changes to articular cartilage. (Crenshaw, Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics, 8th ed, p2019)Arthritis, Experimental: ARTHRITIS that is induced in experimental animals. Immunological methods and infectious agents can be used to develop experimental arthritis models. These methods include injections of stimulators of the immune response, such as an adjuvant (ADJUVANTS, IMMUNOLOGIC) or COLLAGEN.Polymyalgia Rheumatica: A syndrome in the elderly characterized by proximal joint and muscle pain, high erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and a self-limiting course. Pain is usually accompanied by evidence of an inflammatory reaction. Women are affected twice as commonly as men and Caucasians more frequently than other groups. The condition is frequently associated with GIANT CELL ARTERITIS and some theories pose the possibility that the two diseases arise from a single etiology or even that they are the same entity.Rheumatoid Factor: Antibodies found in adult RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS patients that are directed against GAMMA-CHAIN IMMUNOGLOBULINS.Ultrasonography, Doppler: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with frequency-shifted ultrasound reflections produced by moving targets (usually red blood cells) in the bloodstream along the ultrasound axis in direct proportion to the velocity of movement of the targets, to determine both direction and velocity of blood flow. (Stedman, 25th ed)Toe Joint: The articulation between the head of one phalanx and the base of the one distal to it, in each toe.Spondylarthritis: Inflammation of the joints of the SPINE, the intervertebral articulations.Triamcinolone Acetonide: An esterified form of TRIAMCINOLONE. It is an anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid used topically in the treatment of various skin disorders. Intralesional, intramuscular, and intra-articular injections are also administered under certain conditions.Hyperostosis, Sternocostoclavicular: A rare, benign rheumatologic disorder or syndrome characterized by hyperostosis and soft tissue ossification between the clavicles and the anterior part of the upper ribs. It is often associated with the dermatologic disorder palmoplantar pustulosis, particularly in Japan. Careful diagnosis is required to distinguish it from psoriatic arthritis, OSTEITIS DEFORMANS, and other diseases. Spondylitis of pustulosis palmaris et plantaris is one of the possible causes; also, evidence suggests one origin may be bone infection. Bone imaging is especially useful for diagnosis. It was originally described by Sonozaki in 1974.Bursa, Synovial: A fluid-filled sac lined with SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE that provides a cushion between bones, tendons and/or muscles around a joint.Carpus, Animal: The region corresponding to the human WRIST in non-human ANIMALS.De Lange Syndrome: A syndrome characterized by growth retardation, severe MENTAL RETARDATION, short stature, a low-pitched growling cry, brachycephaly, low-set ears, webbed neck, carp mouth, depressed nasal bridge, bushy eyebrows meeting at the midline, hirsutism, and malformations of the hands. The condition may occur sporadically or be associated with an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance or duplication of the long arm of chromosome 3. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p231)Cell Communication: Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.Giant Cell Tumors: Tumors of bone tissue or synovial or other soft tissue characterized by the presence of giant cells. The most common are giant cell tumor of tendon sheath and GIANT CELL TUMOR OF BONE.Chondroblastoma: A usually benign tumor composed of cells which arise from chondroblasts or their precursors and which tend to differentiate into cartilage cells. It occurs primarily in the epiphyses of adolescents. It is relatively rare and represents less than 2% of all primary bone tumors. The peak incidence is in the second decade of life; it is about twice as common in males as in females. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1846)HemosiderinWriting: The act or practice of literary composition, the occupation of writer, or producing or engaging in literary work as a profession.Sound: A type of non-ionizing radiation in which energy is transmitted through solid, liquid, or gas as compression waves. Sound (acoustic or sonic) radiation with frequencies above the audible range is classified as ultrasonic. Sound radiation below the audible range is classified as infrasonic.Pulmonary Edema: Excessive accumulation of extravascular fluid in the lung, an indication of a serious underlying disease or disorder. Pulmonary edema prevents efficient PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE in the PULMONARY ALVEOLI, and can be life-threatening.Brain Edema: Increased intracellular or extracellular fluid in brain tissue. Cytotoxic brain edema (swelling due to increased intracellular fluid) is indicative of a disturbance in cell metabolism, and is commonly associated with hypoxic or ischemic injuries (see HYPOXIA, BRAIN). An increase in extracellular fluid may be caused by increased brain capillary permeability (vasogenic edema), an osmotic gradient, local blockages in interstitial fluid pathways, or by obstruction of CSF flow (e.g., obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS). (From Childs Nerv Syst 1992 Sep; 8(6):301-6)

Distribution of yttrium 90 ferric hydroxide colloid and gold 198 colloid after injection into knee. (1/735)

Thirteen knees were injected with yttrium 90(90Y) ferric hydroxide colloid, and 12 with gold 198(198Au) colloid for treatment of persistent synovitis. Retention in the knee and uptake in lymph nodes and liver were measured by a quantitative scanning technique. There was no significant difference in the retention in the knee of the two different colloids. A tendency towards higher lymph node uptake was observed with 198Au compared with 90y. The inflammatory activity of the knee at the time of treatment may have influenced the subsequent lymph node uptake of 198Au, but not that of the 90Y, nor the overall leakage of either from the knee. 90Yferric hydroxide colloid was retained in the treated knee at least as well as other colloids which have been used for this purpose.  (+info)

IL-16 as an anti-inflammatory cytokine in rheumatoid synovitis. (2/735)

T lymphocytes are a major component of the inflammatory infiltrate in rheumatoid synovitis, but their exact role in the disease process is not understood. Functional activities of synovial T cells were examined by adoptive transfer experiments in human synovium-SCID mouse chimeras. Adoptive transfer of tissue-derived autologous CD8+ T cells induced a marked reduction in the activity of lesional T cells and macrophages. Injection of CD8+, but not CD4+, T cells decreased the production of tissue IFN-gamma, IL-1beta, and TNF-alpha by >90%. The down-regulatory effect of adoptively transferred CD8+ T cells was not associated with depletion of synovial CD3+ T cells or synovial CD68+ macrophages, and it could be blocked by Abs against IL-16, a CD8+ T cell-derived cytokine. In the synovial tissue, CD8+ T cells were the major source of IL-16, a natural ligand of the CD4 molecule that can anergize CD4-expressing cells. The anti-inflammatory activity of IL-16 in rheumatoid synovitis was confirmed by treating synovium-SCID mouse chimeras with IL-16. Therapy for 14 days with recombinant human IL-16 significantly inhibited the production of IFN-gamma, IL-1beta, and TNF-alpha in the synovium. We propose that tissue-infiltrating CD8+ T cells in rheumatoid synovitis have anti-inflammatory activity that is at least partially mediated by the release of IL-16. Spontaneous production of IL-16 in synovial lesions impairs the functional activity of CD4+ T cells but is insufficient to completely abrogate their stimulation. Supplemental therapy with IL-16 may be a novel and effective treatment for rheumatoid arthritis.  (+info)

Blood-induced joint damage: a canine in vivo study. (3/735)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the direct and indirect (via synovial inflammation) effects of intraarticular bleeding on cartilage in vivo. METHODS: Right knees of 14 beagle dogs were injected with autologous blood on days 0 and 2. Cartilage matrix proteoglycan turnover, collagen damage, and synovial inflammation of these knees, including the cartilage-destructive properties of the synovial tissue, were determined and compared with those of the left control knees on day 4 (short-term effects; n = 7) and day 16 (long-term effects; n = 7). RESULTS: Injected knees had a diminished content of proteoglycans in the cartilage matrix, and release of proteoglycans was enhanced (days 4 and 16). The synthesis of proteoglycans was significantly inhibited on day 4 but was enhanced on day 16. On day 4 more collagen was denatured in the injected joint than in the control joint; this effect was no longer detectable on day 16. Synovial tissue showed signs of inflammation on day 4 and day 16 but had cartilage-destructive properties only on day 16. CONCLUSION: In vivo exposure of articular cartilage to blood for a relatively short time results in lasting changes in chondrocyte activity and in cartilage matrix integrity, changes that may predict lasting joint damage over time. Interestingly, the direct effect of blood on cartilage precedes the indirect effect via synovial inflammation.  (+info)

Finger joint synovitis in rheumatoid arthritis: quantitative assessment by magnetic resonance imaging. (4/735)

OBJECTIVE: To assess quantitatively, by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the synovial membrane volume in second to fifth metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and healthy controls, and to compare the synovial membrane volumes with a more easily obtained semi-quantitative score for hypertrophic synovial membrane. PATIENTS AND METHODS: MCP joints of the dominant hand of 37 patients and five controls were examined clinically and by MRI. Laboratory assessments were performed. RESULTS: Median synovial membrane volumes were considerably larger in clinically active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) joints (e.g. 0.97 ml in the second MCP joint) than in clinically inactive joints (0.54 ml) and control joints (0.04 ml). Nevertheless, group distributions overlapped and marked volume differences were found within clinically uniform groups. The semi-quantitative score was highly correlated with the synovial volumes (Spearman rho = 0.79; P < 0.00001). Synovial membrane volumes were poorly related to the presence of rheumatoid factor and to laboratory markers of inflammation. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that synovial membrane volumes, as determined by MRI, in finger joints are related to clinical signs of synovitis, but also that the volumes may vary more than what can be accounted for by the clinical appearances. A semi-quantitative score may be sufficient for more routine purposes.  (+info)

Intra-articular primatised anti-CD4: efficacy in resistant rheumatoid knees. A study of combined arthroscopy, magnetic resonance imaging, and histology. (5/735)

OBJECTIVES: CD4+ T cells sustain the chronic synovial inflammatory response in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). SB-210396/CE 9.1 is an anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody that has documented efficacy in RA when given intravenously. This study aimed to establish the safety and efficacy of the intra-articular administration of SB-210396/CE 9.1 compared with placebo, examining its mode of action using a combined imaging approach of arthroscopy, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and histology. METHODS: Thirteen RA patients with active, resistant knee synovitis, were randomised to intra-articular injection of placebo (n=3), 0.4 mg (n=3) or 40 mg (n=7) of anti-CD4 after sequential dynamic gadolinium enhanced MRI, followed by same day arthroscopy and synovial membrane biopsy. Imaging and arthroscopic synovial membrane sampling were repeated at six weeks. This study used a unique region of interest (ROI) analysis mapping the MRI area analysed to the specific biopsy site identified arthroscopically, thus providing data for all three modalities at the same synovial membrane site. RESULTS: 12 patients completed the study (one placebo treated patient refused further MRI). Arthroscopic improvement was observed in 0 of 2 placebo patients but in 10 of 10 patients receiving active drug (>20% in 6 of 10). Improvement in MRI was consistently observed in all patients of the 40 mg group but not in the other two groups. A reduction in SM CD4+ score was noted in the 40 mg group and in the 0.4 mg group. Strong correlations both before and after treatment, were identified between the three imaging modalities. Intra-articular delivery of SB-210396/CE 9.1 was well tolerated. CONCLUSIONS: SB-210396/CE 9.1 is safe when administered by intra-articular injection. A trend toward efficacy was found by coordinated MRI, arthroscopic, and histological imaging, not seen in the placebo group. The value of ROI analysis was demonstrated.  (+info)

Changes in articular synovial lining volume measured by magnetic resonance in a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial of intra-articular samarium-153 particulate hydroxyapatite for chronic knee synovitis. (6/735)

OBJECTIVE: Magnetic resonance techniques have recently been investigated as tools with which to monitor inflammatory joint disease. Our aim was to use a contrast-enhanced T1-weighted protocol to monitor the short-term changes in knee synovial lining volume in a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial of intra-articular samarium-153 particulate hydroxyapatite (Sm-153 PHYP). METHODS: Twenty-four out-patients with chronic knee synovitis, from a cohort who had been recruited to a long-term clinical efficacy trial, were recruited for this study. Patients received either intra-articular Sm-153 PHYP combined with 40 mg triamcinolone hexacetonide or 40 mg intra-articular triamcinolone hexacetonide alone. Synovial lining volumes were calculated from three-dimensional T1-weighted contrast-enhanced images made before and after contrast enhancement with thresholding and pixel counting, immediately before and 3 months after treatment. RESULTS: Paired pre- and post-treatment magnetic resonance data were obtained for 18/24 (75%) patients. There was no significant difference in mean pre-treatment synovial volume between the two treatment groups (139 vs 127 ml). A mean reduction in synovial lining volume was detected in the Sm-153 PHYP/steroid-treated group (139 to 110 ml, P = 0.07) and in the steroid-treated group (127 to 58 ml, P < 0.001). The reduction was significantly greater in the steroid-treated group (-61% vs -23%, P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Short-term changes in articular synovial lining in response to intra-articular treatment for chronic synovitis may be monitored by magnetic resonance imaging. After 3 months, a greater mean reduction in synovial lining volume had occurred in response to intra-articular steroid alone compared to combined Sm-153 PHYP/steroid injection.  (+info)

The long-term course of shoulder complaints: a prospective study in general practice. (7/735)

OBJECTIVE: Assessment of the long-term course of shoulder complaints in patients in general practice with special focus on changes in diagnostic category and fluctuations in the severity of the complaints. DESIGN: Prospective descriptive study. SETTING: Four general practices in The Netherlands. METHOD: All patients (101) with shoulder complaints seen in a 5 month period were included. Assessment took place 26 weeks and 12-18 months after inclusion in the study with a pain questionnaire and a physical examination. RESULTS: A total of 51% of the patients experienced (mostly recurrent) complaints after 26 weeks and 41% after 12-18 months. Diagnostic changes were found over the course of time, mostly from synovial disorders towards functional disorders of the structures of the shoulder girdle, but also the other way round. Although 52 of the 101 patients experienced complaints in week 26, 62% of those patients considered themselves 'cured'. After 12-18 months, 51% of the 39 patients experiencing complaints felt 'cured'. CONCLUSION: Many patients seen with shoulder complaints in general practice have recurrent complaints. The nature of these complaints varies considerably over the course of time, leading to changes in diagnostic category. Because of the fluctuating severity of the complaints over time, feeling 'cured' or not 'cured' is also subject to change over time.  (+info)

Remitting seronegative symmetrical synovitis with pitting oedema (RS3PE) syndrome: a prospective follow up and magnetic resonance imaging study. (8/735)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical characteristics of patients with "pure" remitting seronegative symmetrical synovitis with pitting oedema (RS3PE) syndrome, and to investigate its relation with polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to describe the anatomical structures affected by inflammation in pure RS3PE syndrome. METHODS: A prospective follow up study of 23 consecutive patients with pure RS3PE syndrome and 177 consecutive patients with PMR diagnosed over a five year period in two Italian secondary referral centres of rheumatology. Hands or feet MRI, or both, was performed at diagnosis in 7 of 23 patients. RESULTS: At inspection evidence of hand and/or foot tenosynovitis was present in all the 23 patients with pure RS3PE syndrome. Twenty one (12%) patients with PMR associated distal extremity swelling with pitting oedema. No significant differences in the sex, age at onset of disease, acute phase reactant values at diagnosis, frequency of peripheral synovitis and carpal tunnel syndrome and frequency of HLA-B7 antigen were present between patients with pure RS3PE and PMR. In both conditions no patient under 50 was observed, the disease frequency increased significantly with age and the highest frequency was present in the age group 70-79 years. Clinical symptoms for both conditions responded promptly to corticosteroids and no patient developed rheumatoid arthritis during the follow up. However, the patients with pure RS3PE syndrome were characterised by shorter duration of treatment, lower cumulative corticosteroid dose and lower frequency of systemic signs/symptoms and relapse/recurrence. Hands and feet MRI showed evidence of tenosynovitis in five patients and joint synovitis in three patients. CONCLUSION: The similarities of demographic, clinical, and MRI findings between RS3PE syndrome and PMR and the concurrence of the two syndromes suggest that these conditions may be part of the same disease and that the diagnostic labels of PMR and RS3PE syndrome may not indicate a real difference. The presence of distal oedema seems to indicate a better prognosis.  (+info)

  • METHODS: 58 patients with clinically apparent synovitis of at least one joint and symptom duration of ≤3 months underwent clinical, laboratory, radiographic and 38 joint ultrasound assessments and were followed prospectively for 18 months, determining outcome by 1987 American College of Rheumatology (ACR) and 2010 ACR/European League Against Rheumatism criteria. (
  • The goal of our study was to assess the association of fasting plasma phospholipid n-6 and n-3 PUFAs with synovitis as measured by synovial thickening on contrast enhanced ( CE ) knee MRI and cartilage damage among subjects in the Multicenter Osteoarthritis Study (MOST). (
  • Normally only a few cell layers thick, the synovium can become thickened, more cellular, and engorged with fluid in the condition called synovitis. (
  • We found an inverse relation between total n-3 PUFAs and the specific n-3, docosahexaenoic acid with patellofemoral cartilage loss, but not tibiofemoral cartilage loss or synovitis. (
  • Conclusion: Synovitis severity on CE-MRI assessed by a new whole knee scoring system by Guermazi etal. (
  • Synovitis can affect one small, localized area (known as localized synovitis), or can spread throughout the knee joint and become more difficult to treat (known as diffuse synovitis). (
  • Cultures remained negative and specific staining and histological evaluation conducted to evaluate a cause for the granulomatous synovitis failed to identify mycobacteria or fungal elements. (
  • The precise cause for the granulomatous synovitis observed within the hip joint at this stage was not determined but was felt possibly to be due to a reaction secondary to the adipose derived stem cell therapy. (
  • Acute injection related synovitis is observed in approximately 5-10% of patients undertaking this treatment, but these reactions are characteristically transient without longer-term clinical effects [ 10 - 15 ]. (
  • Acute synovitis was induced by intra-articular injection of in vitro preformed, complement activating bovine serum albumin (BSA)-anti-BSA IC. (
  • The global Pigmented Villonodular Synovitis Drug market is valued at USD XX million in 2017 and is expected to reach USD XX million by the end of 2025, growing at a CAGR of XX% between 2018 and 2025. (
  • Signs of toxic synovitis include limping, walking on the tips of the toes, complaining of leg or hip pain, and being reluctant to walk. (
  • However, there are some cases where the cause of synovitis is not known, with the affected individual possibly sustaining a minor injury or not recalling having an injury at all, yet the signs of synovitis inflammatory condition are appreciated. (
  • CONCLUSION: Consensus exercises for swollen joint assessment is worthwhile and may potentially improve agreement between clinicians in clinical synovitis and disease activity state, benefit was mostly observed in newly qualified rheumatologists. (
  • In flocks with clinical synovitis, morbidity varies from 2 to 75%, with 5 to 15% morbidity being most usual ( 22 ). (
  • Remitting Seronegative Symmetrical Synovitis with Pitting Edema? (
  • Remitting seronegative symmetrical synovitis with pitting edema is a rare syndrom of undetermined etiology up to this time. (
  • Remitting seronegative symmetrical synovitis with pitting edema syndrome is characterized by symmetrical synovitis with pitting edema in the dorsum of the hands or feet. (
  • Most cases of remitting seronegative symmetrical synovitis with pitting edema syndrome are idiopathic, but some are secondary to malignancy, autoimmune disease, or neurodegenerative disorders. (
  • Pleural and pericardial effusions are unusual complications in idiopathic remitting seronegative symmetrical synovitis with pitting edema syndrome. (
  • These findings suggested that she had idiopathic remitting seronegative symmetrical synovitis with pitting edema syndrome. (
  • Here we report the case of a patient with idiopathic remitting seronegative symmetrical synovitis with pitting edema syndrome associated with life-threatening complications, including bilateral pleural and pericardial effusions during the course of the illness, which led to respiratory failure and atrial fibrillation. (
  • Elevated vascular endothelial growth factor and interleukin-6 may be associated with the cause of pleural and pericardial effusions in idiopathic remitting seronegative symmetrical synovitis with pitting edema syndrome. (
  • Musculoskeletal ultrasound (US) is more sensitive than physical examination in detecting synovitis and helps physicians to understand its pathophysiology. (
  • Treatment for synovitis includes rest, ice, immobilization and oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen, and may include steroid injections into the joint. (
  • Synovitis can affect one small, localized area (known as localized synovitis), or can spread throughout the knee joint and become more difficult to treat (known as diffuse synovitis). (