The inner membrane of a joint capsule surrounding a freely movable joint. It is loosely attached to the external fibrous capsule and secretes SYNOVIAL FLUID.
Inflammation of a synovial membrane. It is usually painful, particularly on motion, and is characterized by a fluctuating swelling due to effusion within a synovial sac. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.
The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE. It contains mucin, albumin, fat, and mineral salts and serves to lubricate joints.
A progressive, degenerative joint disease, the most common form of arthritis, especially in older persons. The disease is thought to result not from the aging process but from biochemical changes and biomechanical stresses affecting articular cartilage. In the foreign literature it is often called osteoarthrosis deformans.
Subcutaneous nodules seen in 20-30% of rheumatoid arthritis patients. They may arise anywhere on the body, but are most frequently found over the bony prominences. The nodules are characterized histologically by dense areas of fibrinoid necrosis with basophilic streaks and granules, surrounded by a palisade of cells, mainly fibroblasts and histiocytes.
An articulation between the condyle of the mandible and the articular tubercle of the temporal bone.
Thin layers of tissue which cover parts of the body, separate adjacent cavities, or connect adjacent structures.
A synovial hinge connection formed between the bones of the FEMUR; TIBIA; and PATELLA.
Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus ovine-caprine lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, OVINE-CAPRINE), closely related to VISNA-MAEDI VIRUS and causing acute encephalomyelitis; chronic arthritis; PNEUMONIA; MASTITIS; and GLOMERULONEPHRITIS in goats. It is transmitted mainly in the colostrum and milk.
Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.
An aseptic, inflammatory arthritis developing secondary to a primary extra-articular infection, most typically of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT or UROGENITAL SYSTEM. The initiating trigger pathogens are usually SHIGELLA; SALMONELLA; YERSINIA; CAMPYLOBACTER; or CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS. Reactive arthritis is strongly associated with HLA-B27 ANTIGEN.
A variable mixture of the mono- and disodium salts of gold thiomalic acid used mainly for its anti-inflammatory action in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. It is most effective in active progressive rheumatoid arthritis and of little or no value in the presence of extensive deformities or in the treatment of other forms of arthritis.
A protective layer of firm, flexible cartilage over the articulating ends of bones. It provides a smooth surface for joint movement, protecting the ends of long bones from wear at points of contact.
Endoscopic examination, therapy and surgery of the joint.
The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.
The motion of phospholipid molecules within the lipid bilayer, dependent on the classes of phospholipids present, their fatty acid composition and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains, the cholesterol concentration, and temperature.
Rare, benign, chronic, progressive metaplasia in which cartilage is formed in the synovial membranes of joints, tendon sheaths, or bursae. Some of the metaplastic foci can become detached producing loose bodies. When the loose bodies undergo secondary calcification, the condition is called synovial osteochondromatosis.
ARTHRITIS that is induced in experimental animals. Immunological methods and infectious agents can be used to develop experimental arthritis models. These methods include injections of stimulators of the immune response, such as an adjuvant (ADJUVANTS, IMMUNOLOGIC) or COLLAGEN.
Methods of delivering drugs into a joint space.
Also known as articulations, these are points of connection between the ends of certain separate bones, or where the borders of other bones are juxtaposed.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
The sac enclosing a joint. It is composed of an outer fibrous articular capsule and an inner SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
Virus diseases caused by the Lentivirus genus. They are multi-organ diseases characterized by long incubation periods and persistent infection.
The joint that is formed by the distal end of the RADIUS, the articular disc of the distal radioulnar joint, and the proximal row of CARPAL BONES; (SCAPHOID BONE; LUNATE BONE; triquetral bone).
Arthritis caused by BACTERIA; RICKETTSIA; MYCOPLASMA; VIRUSES; FUNGI; or PARASITES.
A darkly stained mat-like EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM) that separates cell layers, such as EPITHELIUM from ENDOTHELIUM or a layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The ECM layer that supports an overlying EPITHELIUM or ENDOTHELIUM is called basal lamina. Basement membrane (BM) can be formed by the fusion of either two adjacent basal laminae or a basal lamina with an adjacent reticular lamina of connective tissue. BM, composed mainly of TYPE IV COLLAGEN; glycoprotein LAMININ; and PROTEOGLYCAN, provides barriers as well as channels between interacting cell layers.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A chronic inflammatory condition affecting the axial joints, such as the SACROILIAC JOINT and other intervertebral or costovertebral joints. It occurs predominantly in young males and is characterized by pain and stiffness of joints (ANKYLOSIS) with inflammation at tendon insertions.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
A symptom complex consisting of pain, muscle tenderness, clicking in the joint, and limitation or alteration of mandibular movement. The symptoms are subjective and manifested primarily in the masticatory muscles rather than the temporomandibular joint itself. Etiologic factors are uncertain but include occlusal dysharmony and psychophysiologic factors.
A type of inflammatory arthritis associated with PSORIASIS, often involving the axial joints and the peripheral terminal interphalangeal joints. It is characterized by the presence of HLA-B27-associated SPONDYLARTHROPATHY, and the absence of rheumatoid factor.
Noninflammatory degenerative disease of the knee joint consisting of three large categories: conditions that block normal synchronous movement, conditions that produce abnormal pathways of motion, and conditions that cause stress concentration resulting in changes to articular cartilage. (Crenshaw, Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics, 8th ed, p2019)
A secreted matrix metalloproteinase that plays a physiological role in the degradation of extracellular matrix found in skeletal tissues. It is synthesized as an inactive precursor that is activated by the proteolytic cleavage of its N-terminal propeptide.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus ovine-caprine lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, OVINE-CAPRINE), that can cause chronic pneumonia (maedi), mastitis, arthritis, and encephalomyelitis (visna) in sheep. Maedi is a progressive pneumonia of sheep which is similar to but not the same as jaagsiekte (PULMONARY ADENOMATOSIS, OVINE). Visna is a demyelinating leukoencephalomyelitis of sheep which is similar to but not the same as SCRAPIE.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
A ligand that binds to but fails to activate the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR. It plays an inhibitory role in the regulation of INFLAMMATION and FEVER. Several isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of its mRNA.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Enzymes that catalyze the degradation of collagen by acting on the peptide bonds.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
A complex of gadolinium with a chelating agent, diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid (DTPA see PENTETIC ACID), that is given to enhance the image in cranial and spinal MRIs. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p706)
A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.
Glycoproteins which contain sialic acid as one of their carbohydrates. They are often found on or in the cell or tissue membranes and participate in a variety of biological activities.
Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.
A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.
Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
The two lipoprotein layers in the MITOCHONDRION. The outer membrane encloses the entire mitochondrion and contains channels with TRANSPORT PROTEINS to move molecules and ions in and out of the organelle. The inner membrane folds into cristae and contains many ENZYMES important to cell METABOLISM and energy production (MITOCHONDRIAL ATP SYNTHASE).
A member of the metalloproteinase family of enzymes that is principally responsible for cleaving FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. It can degrade interstitial collagens, types I, II and III.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Cell membranes associated with synapses. Both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes are included along with their integral or tightly associated specializations for the release or reception of transmitters.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Drugs that are used to treat RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
Polymorphic cells that form cartilage.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.
Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The thin layers of tissue that surround the developing embryo. There are four extra-embryonic membranes commonly found in VERTEBRATES, such as REPTILES; BIRDS; and MAMMALS. They are the YOLK SAC, the ALLANTOIS, the AMNION, and the CHORION. These membranes provide protection and means to transport nutrients and wastes.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.
A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Preparation for electron microscopy of minute replicas of exposed surfaces of the cell which have been ruptured in the frozen state. The specimen is frozen, then cleaved under high vacuum at the same temperature. The exposed surface is shadowed with carbon and platinum and coated with carbon to obtain a carbon replica.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
Structures which are part of the CELL MEMBRANE or have cell membrane as a major part of their structure.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The voltage difference, normally maintained at approximately -180mV, across the INNER MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANE, by a net movement of positive charge across the membrane. It is a major component of the PROTON MOTIVE FORCE in MITOCHONDRIA used to drive the synthesis of ATP.
Functionally and structurally differentiated, purple-pigmented regions of the cytoplasmic membrane of some strains of Halobacterium halobium. The membrane develops under anaerobic conditions and is made almost entirely of the purple pigment BACTERIORHODOPSINS. (From Singleton & Sainsbury Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)

Prevention of collagen-induced arthritis by gene delivery of soluble p75 tumour necrosis factor receptor. (1/3207)

Collagen type II-induced arthritis (CIA) in DBA/1 mice can be passively transferred to SCID mice with spleen B- and T-lymphocytes. In the present study, we show that infection ex vivo of splenocytes from arthritic DBA/1 mice with a retroviral vector, containing cDNA for the soluble form of human p75 receptor of tumour necrosis factor (TNF-R) before transfer, prevents the development of arthritis, bone erosion and joint inflammation in the SCID recipients. Assessment of IgG subclass levels and studies of synovial histology suggest that down-regulating the effector functions of T helper-type 1 (Th1) cells may, at least in part, explain the inhibition of arthritis in the SCID recipients. In contrast, the transfer of splenocytes infected with mouse TNF-alpha gene construct resulted in exacerbated arthritis and enhancement of IgG2a antibody levels. Intriguingly, infection of splenocytes from arthritic DBA/1 mice with a construct for mouse IL-10 had no modulating effect on the transfer of arthritis. The data suggest that manipulation of the immune system with cytokines, or cytokine inhibitors using gene transfer protocols can be an effective approach to ameliorate arthritis.  (+info)

Overexpression of human homologs of the bacterial DnaJ chaperone in the synovial tissue of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. (2/3207)

OBJECTIVE: To study the expression of the chaperone family of J proteins in the synovial tissue of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or osteoarthritis. METHODS: Rabbit antibodies specific for a synthetic peptide (pHSJ1: EAYEVLSDKHKREIYD), representing the most conserved part of all J domains thus far identified--among them the Drosophila tumor suppressor Tid56--were used in immunohistochemical analyses of frozen sections of synovial tissue and immunoblotting of protein extracts of adherent synovial cells. IgG specific for Tid56 was also used. RESULTS: Both antisera predominantly and intensely stained synovial lining cells from RA patients; other cells did not stain or stained only faintly. In immunoblots, anti-pHSJ1 specifically detected several bands with molecular weights of >74 kd (type I), 57-64 kd (type II), 41-48 kd (type III), and < or =36 kd (type IV). The strongest band detected in RA adherent synovial cells was the type II band, whereas in a B cell line, a type I band was prominent. CONCLUSION: Several potentially new members of the J family are described. The type II band represents the human homolog of the Drosophila Tid56 protein and is strongly expressed in RA synovial tissue.  (+info)

Establishment and characterization of nurse cell-like stromal cell lines from synovial tissues of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. (3/3207)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the features of synovial stromal cells established from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and to define these cells as nurse cells. METHODS: Synovial nurse-like stromal cell lines (RA-SNCs) were established from patients with RA. These cell lines were examined for morphology, pseudoemperipolesis activity, cell surface markers, and cytokine production. The interaction between these RA-SNCs and a synovial tissue B cell clone was also examined. RESULTS: RA-SNCs had nurse cell activity. They spontaneously produced interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Furthermore, they produced IL-1beta and tumor necrosis factor alpha and expressed higher levels of the other cytokines after coculture with the B cell clone. Proliferation and Ig production by the B cell clone were dependent on direct contact with RA-SNCs. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that the RA-SNCs were nurse cells. The findings suggest that RA-SNCs may play an important role in the pathogenesis of RA by producing large amounts of cytokines and maintaining infiltrating lymphocytes.  (+info)

Serum response elements activate and cAMP responsive elements inhibit expression of transcription factor Egr-1 in synovial fibroblasts of rheumatoid arthritis patients. (4/3207)

Analyzing the induction kinetics and promoter elements regulating the expression of the transcription factor Egr-1, we found elevated levels of Egr-1-encoding mRNA in synovial fibroblasts of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients when compared to controls. By contrast, synovial lymphocytes and macrophages do not show an elevated Egr-1 transcription. Therefore, the overexpression of Egr-1 may serve as a diagnostic marker to characterize synovial fibroblasts of RA patients. To study the regulatory mechanisms controlling Egr-1 expression we analyzed the function of transcription factor binding sites located in the Egr-1 promoter. Individual transcription factor binding sites within the Egr-1 promoter were specifically mutated and Egr-1 promoter activity was tested using reporter gene constructs. Our experiments demonstrate that serum response elements are the main positive regulators and binding to a cAMP responsive element represents the major negative regulator for Egr-1 expression in synovial fibroblasts. In addition, we functionally defined a new element, which was not yet described in the human Egr-1 promoter and which serves as a second negative regulatory element for Egr-1 expression. Therefore increased serum response factor activity or failure of Egr-1 repressing signals may account for Egr-1 overexpression in RA synovial fibroblasts.  (+info)

Inhibition of IL-6 and IL-8 induction from cultured rheumatoid synovial fibroblasts by treatment with aurothioglucose. (5/3207)

Gold compounds have long been used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, their actions in RA have not been clarified. In this study, we examined the effect of one of the monovalent gold compounds, aurothioglucose (AuTG), on the IL-1-induced production of IL-6, IL-8 and granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) from rheumatoid synovial fibroblasts (RSF) isolated from three RA patients. IL-6 and IL-8 induction but not GM-CSF induction was inhibited in most of the RSF after pretreatment with AuTG. Since gene expression of these cytokines is known to be under the control of a common transcription factor, NF-kappaB, the effect of AuTG on the cellular localization of NF-kappaB (p65 subunit) and on NF-kappaB-DNA binding was examined. Although AuTG treatment did not prevent NF-kappaB nuclear translocation, AuTG blocked the DNA-binding activity of NF-kappaB when examined in vitro. Morphologically, both metal-specific cell staining using p-dimethylaminobenzylidene rhodamine and transmission electron microscopic examinations demonstrated the accumulation of metal gold in the cytoplama and some organella (mitochondria and lysosomes) of the AuTG-treated RSF. These results indicate that one of the anti-rheumatic actions of AuTG might be through its inhibitory action on NF-kappaB.  (+info)

Nuclear factor-kappa B activity in T cells from patients with rheumatic diseases: a preliminary report. (6/3207)

OBJECTIVE: The NF-kappa B/Rel family of transcription factors regulates the expression of many genes involved in the immune or inflammatory response at the transcriptional level. The aim of this study was to determine whether distinctive patterns of NF-kappa B activation are seen in different forms of joint disease. METHODS: The DNA binding activity of these nucleoproteins was examined in purified synovial and peripheral T cells from patients with various chronic rheumatic diseases (12: four with rheumatoid arthritis; five with spondyloarthropathies; and three with osteoarthritis). RESULTS: Electrophoretic mobility shift assays disclosed two specific complexes bound to a NF-kappa B specific 32P-labelled oligonucleotide in nucleoproteins extracted from purified T cells isolated from synovial fluid and peripheral blood of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The complexes consisted of p50/p50 homodimers and p50/p65 heterodimers. Increased NF-kappa B binding to DNA in synovial T cells was observed relative to peripheral T cells. In non-rheumatoid arthritis, binding of NF-kappa B in synovial T cells was exclusively mediated by p50/p50 homodimers. CONCLUSION: Overall, the results suggest that NF-kappa B may play a central part in the activation of infiltrating T cells in chronic rheumatoid arthritis. The activation of this nuclear factor is qualitatively different in rheumatoid synovial T cells to that in other forms of non-rheumatoid arthritis (for example, osteoarthritis, spondyloarthropathies).  (+info)

Down regulation by iron of prostaglandin E2 production by human synovial fibroblasts. (7/3207)

OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of iron on the prostaglandin (PG) E2 production by human synovial fibroblasts in vitro. METHODS: Human synovial fibroblasts were isolated from synovial tissue of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA) patients and cultured in medium. Synovial fibroblasts were stimulated by human recombinant interleukin (IL) 1 beta (0.1-10 ng/ml) with or without ferric citrate (Fe-citrate, 0.01-1 mM). The amount of PGE2 in the culture medium was measured by an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: The production of PGE2 by the synovial fibroblasts was increased by stimulation with IL1 beta at all concentrations tested. Fe-citrate but not sodium citrate (Na-citrate) down regulated the production of PGE2 by the synovial fibroblasts, both with and without stimulation by IL1 beta. Fe-citrate inhibited the spontaneous PGE2 production by the cells in a dose dependent manner, and a maximum inhibition by Fe-citrate was observed at the concentration of 0.1 mM with IL1 beta stimulation. The down regulation by iron was reversed by the co-addition of desferrioxamine (100 micrograms/ml), an iron chelator. CONCLUSION: Iron down regulates the PGE2 production by synovial fibroblasts in vitro.  (+info)

Plasma cell development in synovial germinal centers in patients with rheumatoid and reactive arthritis. (8/3207)

Plasma cells are found surrounding the inflammatory infiltrates of macrophages, T, and B cells in the synovial tissue of patients with rheumatoid and reactive arthritis. This characteristic arrangement suggests that in the synovial tissue CD20+ B cells differentiate into plasma cells. To examine clonal relationships, we have used micromanipulation to separately isolate CD20+ B cells and plasma cells from single infiltrates. DNA was extracted, and from both populations the VH/VL gene repertoires was determined. The data show that in the inflamed synovial tissue activated B cells are clonally expanded. During proliferation in the network of follicular dendritic cells, V gene variants are generated by the hypermutation mechanism. Surprisingly, we do not find identical rearrangements between CD20+ B cells and plasma cells. Nevertheless, the finding of clonally related plasma cells within single infiltrates suggests that these cells underwent terminal differentiation in the synovial tissue. These results indicate that B cell differentiation in the synovial tissue is a dynamic process. Whereas CD20+ B cells may turnover rapidly, plasma cells may well be long lived and thus accumulate in the synovial tissue. The analysis of individual B cells recovered from synovial tissue opens a new way to determine the specificity of those cells that take part in the local immune reaction. This will provide new insights into the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory diseases like rheumatoid or reactive arthritis.  (+info)

We previously reported that sialyl Lewisy, synthesized by fucosyltransferases, is involved in angiogenesis. Fucosyltransferase 1 (fut1) is an α(1,2)-fucosyltransferase responsible for synthesis of the H blood group and Lewisy antigens. However, the angiogenic involvement of fut 1 in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis synovial tissue (RA ST) has not been clearly defined. Assay of α(1,2)-linked fucosylated proteins in RA was performed by enzyme-linked lectin assay. Fut1 expression was determined in RA ST samples by immunohistological staining. We performed angiogenic Matrigel assays using a co-culture system of human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HMVECs) and fut1 small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfected RA synovial fibroblasts. To determine if fut1 played a role in leukocyte retention and cell proliferation in the RA synovium, myeloid THP-1 cell adhesion assays and fut1 siRNA transfected RA synovial fibroblast proliferation assays were performed. Total α(1,2)-linked fucosylated
We previously reported that sialyl Lewisy, synthesized by fucosyltransferases, is involved in angiogenesis. Fucosyltransferase 1 (fut1) is an α(1,2)-fucosyltransferase responsible for synthesis of the H blood group and Lewisy antigens. However, the angiogenic involvement of fut 1 in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis synovial tissue (RA ST) has not been clearly defined. Assay of α(1,2)-linked fucosylated proteins in RA was performed by enzyme-linked lectin assay. Fut1 expression was determined in RA ST samples by immunohistological staining. We performed angiogenic Matrigel assays using a co-culture system of human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HMVECs) and fut1 small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfected RA synovial fibroblasts. To determine if fut1 played a role in leukocyte retention and cell proliferation in the RA synovium, myeloid THP-1 cell adhesion assays and fut1 siRNA transfected RA synovial fibroblast proliferation assays were performed. Total α(1,2)-linked fucosylated
TY - JOUR. T1 - Annexin-1 mediates TNF-α-stimulated matrix metalloproteinase secretion from rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts. AU - Tagoe, Clement E.. AU - Marjanovic, Nada. AU - Park, Jean Y.. AU - Chan, Edwin S.. AU - Abeles, Aryeh M.. AU - Attur, Mukundan. AU - Abramson, Steven B.. AU - Pillinger, Michael H.. PY - 2008/8/15. Y1 - 2008/8/15. N2 - Annexins are intracellular molecules implicated in the down-regulation of inflammation. Recently, annexin-1 has also been identified as a secreted molecule, suggesting it may have more complex effects on inflammation than previously appreciated. We studied the role of annexin-1 in mediating MMP-1 secretion from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synovial fibroblasts (SF) stimulated with TNF-α. TNF-α induced a biphasic secretion of annexin-1 from RA SF. Early (≤60 min), cycloheximide-independent secretion from preformed intracellular pools was followed by late (24 h) cycloheximide-inhibitable secretion requiring new protein synthesis. Exogenous ...
Results Expression of IL-36R and its ligands IL-36α and IL-36Ra was detected in the synovial lining layer and cellular infiltrates of patients with inflammatory arthritis. IL-36α was expressed significantly higher in PsA and RA than in OA synovium. CD138-positive plasma cells were identified as the main cellular source of IL-36α. No differences were observed for the expression of IL-36R and IL-36Ra between PsA, RA and OA. Functionally, IL-36α induced the expression of IL-6 and IL-8 in FLS through p38/NFkB activation.. ...
High-density lipoproteins downregulate CCL2 production in human fibroblast-like synoviocytes stimulated by urate crystals. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Hyperoside is a flavonol glycoside mainly found in plants of the genera Hypericum and Crataegus, which has shown anti-oxidant, anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory activities. In this study, we investigated the effects of hyperoside on human rheumatoid fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs) in vitro and on mouse collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in vivo. FLSs were isolated from primary synovial tissues obtained from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and exposed to LPS (1 μg/mL). Cell viability and proliferation were measured with MTT and BrdU assay. Cell migration was assessed using wound-healing assay and Transwell assay. DNA binding of NF-κB was measured using a TransAM-NFkappaB kit. The localization of p65 subunit was detected with immunocytochemistry. CIA was induced in mice by primary immunization with Bovine Type II collagen (CII) emulsified in CFA, followed by a booster injection 3 weeks later. The arthritic mice were treated with hyperoside (25, 50 mg·kg−1·d−1, ip) for 3 weeks, and the joint
Our data suggest that modulation of class 3 semaphorin signaling could be a novel therapeutic strategy for modulating the invasive behaviour of FLS in RA.
OBJECTIVE--The effects were studied of interleukin 4 (IL-4) on T cell-synovial cell adhesion and on the expression of adhesion molecules on the surface of synovial fibroblast-like cells. METHODS--The adhesion of T cells toward the synovial cells were measured by 51chromium-labelled adhesion assay. The expression of adhesion molecules on synovial cells were analysed by flowcytometry. RESULTS--Stimulation of synovial cells with IL-4 increased T cell-synovial cells adhesion in a time- and dose-dependent manner. IL-4 considerably enhanced the expression of VCAM-1 on the surface of synovial cells, but not the expression of ICAM-1 and ELAM-1. The combination of IL-1 beta and IL-4 had no effect on the expression of ICAM-1 or VCAM-1 on the surface of synovial cells. The increased adhesion of T cells to IL-4 stimulated synovial cells was inhibited significantly by adding anti-VCAM-1 or anti-CD29 monoclonal antibody. Furthermore, anti-VLA-4 alpha or the combination of anti-VLA-4 alpha and anti-VCAM-1 ...
PubMed journal article: Reduction of synovial sublining layer inflammation and proinflammatory cytokine expression in psoriatic arthritis treated with methotrexate. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta has been shown to promote tissue repair and have immunosuppressive actions, and has been proposed to have a role in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Using immunohistochemical techniques with rabbit F(ab)2 antibodies raised against recombinant human TGF-beta 1, we have detected TGF-beta 1 in the synovial tissue and cartilage/pannus junction (CPJ) from 18/18 patients with RA. TGF-beta 1 was found predominantly in the thickened synovial lining layer in RA, but also detected in a perivascular pattern in the synovial interstitium as well as in occasional cells in the lymphoid aggregates. At the CPJ it was found both in cells at the distinct junction as well as in the transitional region of the diffuse fibroblastic zone. The cells staining for TGF-beta 1 were identified by double immunofluorescence staining as being from the monocyte/macrophage series as well as the type B synovial lining cells. TGF-beta 1 was also detected in the synovial membrane sections from 4/4 patients
Title:α-Mangostin, A Natural Xanthone, Induces Apoptosis and ROS Accumulation in Human Rheumatoid Fibroblast-Like Synoviocyte MH7A Cells. VOLUME: 17 ISSUE: 5. Author(s):J. Zhang*, Q. Chen, S. Wang, T. Li, Z. Xiao, W. Lan, G. Huang and X. Cai*. Affiliation:The First Affiliated Hospital of Jinan University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, Department of Rheumatology, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, Department of Rheumatology, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, Department of Orthopaedics, Guangdong Provincial Hospital of Traditional Chinese ...
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Authors: Tang CH, Hsu CJ, Yang WH, Fong YC. Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are at increased risk of developing infections and appear to be particularly susceptible to septic arthritis. Lipoteichoic acid (LTA), a cell wall component of Gram-positive bacteria is an amphiphilic, negatively charged glycolipid. However, the effects of LTA on human synovial fibroblasts are largely unknown. We investigated the signaling pathway involved in IL-6 production stimulated by LTA in rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts (RASF). LTA caused concentration- and time-dependent increases in IL-6 production. LTA-mediated IL-6 production was attenuated by Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) monoclonal antibody or siRNA. Pretreatment with PKCdelta inhibitor (rottlerin), c-Src inhibitor (PP2), AP-1 inhibitor (tanshinone IIA) and NF-kappaB inhibitor (PDTC and TPCK) also inhibited the potentiating action of LTA. However, focal adhesion kinase (FAK) mutant and siRNA did not affect LTA-mediated IL-6 production. ...
Synovial fibroblasts isolated from human synovium. High quality synovial fibroblasts from human synovium cryopreserved and provided as frozen aliquots. Human synovial fibroblasts can be from patients with osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, or with no
Previously, using transcriptome analysis, we detected increased E2F2 expression in RA synovial tissue and confirmed this finding using Western blot analysis. We also identified E2F2 expression in RA synovial cells with immunohistochemistry [9]. In the present study, we used siRNA to inhibit E2F2 expression in RASF. We found that suppressed E2F2 expression stimulated apoptosis and deduced migration and tube-like structure formation ability in RASF. On the other hand, we observed significantly increased migration and tube-like structure formation and decreased apoptosis in RASF with transfection of E2F2 overexpressing plasmids. This observation indicates that E2F2 expression mediates RASF phenotypes and activities. Abnormal synovial fibroblast proliferation, apoptosis and migration mainly contribute to RA progression. Thus, our studies suggest that the high E2F2 expression in RA synovium contributes to the pathogenic process of this disease. E2F2 promotes cell mitosis at the transcriptional level ...
Synovial fibroblasts isolated from human synovium. High quality synovial fibroblasts from human synovium cryopreserved and provided as frozen aliquots. Human synovial fibroblasts can be from patients with osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, or with no
The mechanisms responsible for the accumulation and persistence of T cell infiltrates within the rheumatoid synovium are poorly understood. In this study we set out to explore whether the aberrant expression of chemokine receptors on synovial T cells contributes to their persistence in chronic rheumatoid synovitis. Rheumatoid synovial T cells are highly differentiated primed cells that express high levels of β1 and β2 integrins as well as the inflammatory chemokine receptors CXCR3 and CCR5 (5, 7, 8, 14). Surprisingly, they also express high levels of the constitutive chemokine receptor CXCR4, whose expression has previously been thought to be confined to unprimed CD45RA+ T cells (19, 23). Removal of T cells from the synovial microenvironment led to loss of CXCR4 expression, which was regained after exposure to autologous SF, suggesting that the synovial microenvironment directly modifies the character of infiltrating T cells in the joint.. CXCR4 is expressed on a wide variety of cells and ...
The synovial membrane in osteoarthritis (OA) often exhibits inflammatory infiltrates, but the role of T cells in these infiltrates is not known. Mouse monoclonal to TNFRSF11B versus 10 of 13 individuals with RA (not significant), whereas IL-10 transcripts were found in nearly all individuals. IL-4 and IL-5 were not detected in any individuals. The levels of IFN- and IL-2 transcripts, normalized for T-cell quantity equivalents, were not statistically different between OA and RA, but the levels of IFN-, normalized for total cell number equivalents, were reduced OA than in RA (= 0.01). Synovial membranes that indicated IL-2 and IFN- transcripts were more likely to have heavier infiltrations of T cells and cells bearing activation markers than synovial membranes that did not communicate these cytokines. The current presence of buy TG-101348 turned on T cells and TH1 cytokine transcripts in persistent joint lesions of sufferers with OA shows that T cells donate to persistent inflammation in a big ...
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a persistent autoimmune disease. Fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) are a key component of invasive pannus and a pathogenetic mechanism in RA. Expression of bone morphogenetic protein 3 (BMP3) mRNA is reportedly decreased in the arthritic synovium. We previously showed that BMP3 expression is significantly downregulated in the synovial tissues of RA patients and models of adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA). In the present study, we explored the association between BMP3 and FLS migration and secretion of proinflammatory factors in RA. We found that inhibition of BMP3 expression using BMP3 siRNA increased the proinflammatory chemokines and migration of FLS stimulated with TNF-α. Inhibition of BMP3 expression also increased expression of IL-6, IL-1β, IL-17A, CCL-2, CCL-3, VCAM-1, MMP-3, and MMP-9, but not TIMP-1, in AIA and RA FLS. Correspondingly, induction of BMP3 overexpression through intra-articular injection of ad-BMP3 diminished arthritis severity in AIA rats.
It has a discontinuous surface and is not connected to a basement membrane; therefore, the synovial membrane is not an epithelium. It has many blood vessels, nerves and lymphatic vessels.. Synovial fluid (LS) is produced by the synovial membrane, which lubricates the articular surface of the joint and provides nutrients to the articular cartilage. The synovial fluid is composed mainly of hyaluronic acid, glycoproteins and transudate capillaries within the synovial membrane. ...
Nature Reviews Nephrology. fibroblast synovial cells and chondrocytes [13]. Obese osteoarthritis patients exhibit an inflammatory synovial fibroblast phenotype, which is regulated by the long non coding RNA MALAT1 November 2019 Arthritis and Rheumatology 72(4) Because we focused on the synovium, mTOR and lysophosphatidic acid were not described in greater detail, as these factors were only found to be elevated in chondrocytes/cartilage and not in synovial fibroblasts or the synovium. eCollection 2019. Bank RA Verzijl N Lafeber FP Tekoppele JM. In the past, OA was considered a disease of the cartilage only. The Smad-independent TAK-1 pathway has been shown to have profibrotic effects in regulating the expression of ECM proteins, including collagens and fibronectin [41]. OBJECTIVE: Changes in rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblast (RASF) gene expression are usually defined by a comparison to osteoarthritis synovial fibroblasts (OASFs). CTGF, like TGF-β, is found to be elevated in many fibrotic ...
INTRODUCTION: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune inflammatory disease that mainly affects synovial joints. Biologics directed against tumor-necrosis-factor (TNF)-alpha are efficacious in the treatment of RA. However, the role of TNF receptor-1 (TNFR1) in mediating the TNFalpha effects in RA has not been elucidated and conflicting data exist in experimental arthritis models. The objective is to investigate the role of TNFR1 in the synovial lining cells (SLC) and the reticuloendothelial system (RES) during experimental arthritis. METHODS: Third generation of adenovirus serotype 5 were either injected locally in the knee joint cavity or systemically by intravenous injection into the retro-orbital venous sinus to specifically target SLC and RES, respectively. Transduction of organs was detected by immunohistochemistry of the eGFP transgene. An adenoviral vector containing a short hairpin (sh) RNA directed against TNFR1 (HpTNFR1) was constructed and functionally evaluated in vitro using a ...
Background: To examine the association between mitochondrial mutagenesis and the proinflammatory microenvironment in patients with inflammatory arthritis. Methods: Fifty patients with inflammatory arthritis underwent arthroscopy and synovial tissue biopsies, synovial fluid and clinical assessment were obtained. Fifteen patients pre/post-TNFi therapy were also recruited. Normal synovial biopsies were obtained from 10 subjects undergoing interventional arthroscopy. Macroscopic synovitis/vascularity was measured by visual analogue scale. Cell-specific markers CD3 (T cells) and CD68 (macrophages) were quantified by immunohistology. TNF?, IL-6, IFN? and IL-1? were measured in synovial fluids by MSD multiplex assays. Synovial tissue mitochondrial mutagenesis was quantified using a mitochondrial random mutation capture assay (RMCA). The direct effect of TNF? on oxidative stress and mitochondrial function was assessed in primary cultures of rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblast cells (RASFCs). ...
Our study focused on elucidating the in vitro effects of HA of differing molecular weights on fibroblast-like synovial cells in the face of a LPS challenge. Notably, the higher molecular weight HA product significantly reduced the morphologic change of synovial cells in vitro following a 2-hour challenge with 20 ng/ml LPS when compared with the lower molecular weight HA product (Table 1 and Figure 1). Higher molecular weight HA may preserve normal/healthy cell morphology due to a number of factors. Our results suggested that one probable mechanism to explain this finding is related to the ability of higher molecular weight HA to maintain hysteresis, compliance, and fluid exchange by reducing or dissipating stress associated with mechanical forces [42]. This facility may have enabled the fibroblast-like synovial cells in group 4 to resist contraction from the cell culture flasks when reacting to the cellular effects induced by LPS. It is also possible that pretreatment with the higher molecular ...
To investigate the effect of gentiopicrin on the expressions of inflammatory factors in human fibroblast-like synoviocytes (HFLS) and the underlying mechanism. Human fibroblast-like synoviocytes (HFLS) were cultured in vitro at 37 °C in Dulbeccos modified Eagles medium (DMEM) supplemented with 5 % fetal bovine serum (FBS) in a humidified incubator containing 5 % CO2. Cell viability was determined using 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, while real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to determine the expressions of interleukin 1ß (IL-1ß) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) mRNAs. The expressions of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) and nuclear factor kappa light chain enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) were determined using Western blotting. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to determine the levels of IL-1ß and IL-6 in cell lysate. Treatment with 5-25 µM gentiopicrin did not significantly affect the number ...
Fibroblast-like synoviocytes (type B synoviocytes) are found in the joints, where they produce glycoproteins that comprise most of the synovial fluid, essential for joint lubrication. As the name suggests, these cells are related to fibroblasts, sharing origins and markers with them. During rheumatoid arthritis (RA), the joint becomes constantly inflamed, and, concurrently, synoviocytes acquire abnormal features and altered gene expression, contributing to tissue destruction. Although there is usually less inflammation in the joints of patients with osteoarthritis (OA), there are also signs of synoviocytes activation which may contribute to the disease progression. Arthritis research shows proinflammatory cytokines induce HFLS proliferation and stimulate their production of erosive enzymes like collagenase, aggrecanase, GM-CSF and metalloproteinases, contributing to cartilage degradation and joint destruction.We offer three types of HFLS derived from joints of healthy donors and donors
Objectives: An important feature of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is hypoxia-driven synovial angiogenesis, but the relationship between change in vascularity, as measured by power Doppler ultrasound (PDUS), and oxygen tensions is unaddressed. Methods: Metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint PDUS was assessed in 23 patients with RA, alongside arthroscopic synovitis and oxygen tension measurements, at baseline and 4 weeks after anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors. Results: Anti-TNF reduced PDUS scores, which were negatively correlated with rise in oxygen tensions. The latter was related to good EULAR response at week 52. Conclusions: Anti-TNF results in rapid reduction in synovial blood flow, with a corresponding rise in oxygen tension most marked in EULAR good responders. ...
There is increasing evidence that TNF-alpha is a cytokine of major importance in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. Since TNF-alpha mediates its effects via high affinity receptors, we were interested in investigating their expression and function in cells from rheumatoid tissue. Synovial fibroblasts derived from rheumatoid synovial tissue are stimulated by TNF-alpha to proliferate and release cytokines, prostaglandins, proteases and protease inhibitors. We have evaluated through which receptor stimulation of DNA synthesis and the release of the proinflammatory agents, IL-6, IL-8 and PGE2 are induced. It was found that rheumatoid synovial fibroblasts express both the p55 and p75 TNF receptor, in a ratio of 4:1. TNF-alpha-stimulated synovial fibroblast DNA synthesis and the release of IL-6, IL-8 and PGE2 was inhibited by antagonist monoclonal antibodies against either the p55 or the p75 TNF receptor, although the blockade of the p55 TNF receptor had a more potent effect than inhibition of the p75
Affiliation:徳島大学,病院,助教, Research Field:Orthopaedic surgery,Radiation science, Keywords:protease activated receptor,CT,人工股関節,IL-8,mast cell tryptase,rheumatoid arthritis,synovial fibroblast-like cell,CT,滑膜,関節液, # of Research Projects:2, # of Research Products:5
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative disorder characterized by chondrocyte apoptosis and degeneration of articular cartilage resulting in loss of mobility and pain. Inflammation plays a key role in the development and progression of OA both on the side of apoptosis and repair, while its exact role in pathogenesis has yet to be fully elucidated. Few studies have examined the cellular composition (inflammatory cells and/or progenitor cells) in the synovium of patients with pre-OA (asymptomatic with cartilage damage). Therefore, in the current study, mesenchymal progenitor cells (MPCs) and macrophages were enumerated within normal, pre-OA and OA synovium. No differences were observed between MPCs in normal vs. pre-OA, however, fewer macrophages were observed in pre-OA vs. normal synovium. Osteoarthritic synovium contained greater numbers of both MPCs and macrophages. Interestingly, the localization of MPCs and macrophages was affected by disease severity. In normal and pre-OA synovium, MPCs and
Targeting human fibroblast-like synoviocytes for RA therapies: an established in vitro cytokine-stimulated synoviocyte preclinical assay.
Looking for synovial biopsy? Find out information about synovial biopsy. examination of cells or tissues removed from a living organism. Excised material may be studied in order to diagnose disease or to confirm findings of... Explanation of synovial biopsy
The blood supply of a synovial joint comes from the arteries sharing in anastomosis around the joint. The articular and epiphyseal branches of the neighboring arteries form a periarticular arterial plexus. The articular capsule is highly innervated but avascular (lacking blood and lymph vessels), and receives nutrition from the surrounding blood supply via either the slow process of diffusion or convection, a far more efficient process.. Numerous vessels from this plexus pierce the fibrous capsule and form a rich vascular plexus in the deeper part of the synovial membrane. The blood vessels of the synovial membrane terminate around the articular margins in a fringe of looped anastomoses termed the circulus vasculosus (circulus articularis vasculosus). It supplies the capsule, synovial membrane, and the epiphyses. After epiphyseal fusion in the growth of long bones, communication between the circulosus vasculosus and the end arteries of the metaphysis is established. This minimizes the chances of ...
To examine critical interactions between juvenile idiopathic arthritis synovial fibroblasts (JFLS) and chondrocytes (Ch), and their role in bony overgrowth seen in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Control (CFLS) and JFLS were cultured in synoviocyte media containing recombinant BMP4. Ch were cultured in either CFLS or JFLS conditioned-media without stimulation. Media supernatants were analyzed by ELISA. RNA from conditioned media experiment was analyzed by ClariomS microarray. As expected, genes expressed in untreated JFLS and CFLS cultured in synoviocyte media were similar to each other and this expression differed from untreated Ch cultured in chondrocyte media. JFLS favor BMP ligand gene expression while downregulating TGFβ receptors expression. Noggin and chordin, antagonists with high affinity for BMP4, are JFLS- but not Ch-preferred regulators of BMP signaling. Compared to Ch, JFLS overexpress collagen X (COLX), a marker of chondrocyte hypertrophy. Exogenous BMP4 causes JFLS to
Studies in humans have shown that haemostatic and inflammatory pathways both play important roles in the pathogenesis of joint disease. The aim of this study was to assess mRNA expression of haemostatic and inflammatory factors in cultured equine fibroblast-like synoviocytes exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), fibrinogen and thrombin. Synovial membranes were collected from metacarpo-phalangeal joints of 6 skeletally mature horses euthanized for non-orthopaedic reasons. Passage 4 fibroblast-like synoviocytes were left non-treated or treated with either 0.1 μg/ml LPS, 5 mg/ml fibrinogen or 5 U/ml thrombin and harvested at time points 0, 6, 24 and 48 h. mRNA expression of serum amyloid A (SAA), interleukin-6 (IL-6), monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), tissue factor (TF), plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and protease activator receptor 1 (PAR-1) was assessed using quantitative real time reverse transcriptase PCR
There is a growing body of evidence that implicates matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) as major players in numerous diseased conditions. The articular cartilage degradation that is characteristic of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is believed to be mediated by the collagenase subfamily of matrix metalloprot …
In this study, we analyzed the methylation status of human promoters in rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts (RASF). Differentially methylated genes between RASF and osteoarthritis synovial fibroblasts (OASF) were identified by methylated DNA immunoprecipitation and hybridization to human promoter tiling arrays. The methylation status was confirmed by pyrosequencing. Gene and protein expression of differentially methylated genes was evaluated with real-time PCR, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry. Chromatin immunoprecipitation was used to measure the gene promoter-associated acetylation and methylation of histones. Transcription factor-specific targets were identified with microarray and luciferase assays. We found that the transcription factor T-box transcription factor 5 (TBX5) was less methylated in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synovium and RASF than in osteoarthritis (OA) samples. Demethylation of the TBX5 promoter in RASF and RA synovium was accompanied by higher TBX5 expression than ...
Objective. Many studies presented some evidence that EBV might play a role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. Still, there are conflicting reports concerning the existence of EBV in the synovial tissue of patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis. Material and methods. Takeda et al. designed a study to detected EBV DNA is synovial tissues obtained at synovectomy or arthroplasty from 32 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and 30 control patients (no rheumatoid arthritis). In this study, the data as published by Takeda et al. were re-analysed. Results. EBV infection of human synovial tissues is a condition per quam of rheumatoid arthritis. And much more than this. There is a highly significant causal relationship between an EBV infection of human synovial tissues and rheumatoid arthritis (k= +0,546993718, p-value = 0,00001655). Conclusion. These findings suggest that EBV infection of human synovial tissues is a main cause of rheumatoid arthritis. ...
Recent work has shown that the gap junction protein connexin43 (Cx43) is upregulated in cells of the joint during osteoarthritis (OA). Here we examined if the OA-associated increase in Cx43 expression impacts the function of synovial fibroblasts by contributing to the production of catabolic and inflammatory factors that exacerbate joint destruction in arthritic disease. Using rabbit and human synovial fibroblast cell lines, we examined the effects of Cx43 overexpression and Cx43 siRNA-mediated knockdown on the gene expression of OA-associated matrix metalloproteinases (MMP1 and MMP13), aggrecanases (ADAMTS4 and ADAMTS5), and inflammatory factors (IL1, IL6 and PTGS2) by quantitative real time RT-PCR. We examined collagenase activity in conditioned media of cultured synovial cells following Cx43 overexpression. Lastly, we assessed the interplay between Cx43 and the NFκB cascade by western blotting and gene expression studies. Increasing Cx43 expression enhanced the gene expression of MMP1, MMP13,
The great success of targeted biologic therapy against rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in recent years has meant that much research has been devoted to investigating the pathophysiology of osteoarthritis (OA) in the hope of defining novel therapeutic targets. In contrast to RA, with its pannus and erosions, OA has long been thought of as a degenerative disease of cartilage, with secondary bony damage and osteophytes. But in recent years, the importance of the synovium, and in particular the synovial macrophages, in OA, has been highlighted in both in vitro and in vivo studies. This review will discuss the potential of synovial macrophages and their mediators, in particular the proinflammatory cytokines tumour necrosis factor α and interleukin-1, as potential therapeutic targets in OA.. ...
New research shows that rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts help spread destructive arthritis to other joints in the body, according to research by Lefevre and colleagues published online on the 8th November in the journal Nature Immunology. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, systemic inflammatory disease that can affect many tissues and organs, but mainly causes…
The phenotypic tissue immunoregulatory index in rheumatoid synovitis is locally different and varies significantly between given areas. Ectopic lymphoid follicles show normal to high T4∶T8 ratios,...
Objective: To define the expression and pattern of the synovial distribution of adhesion molecules such as E-selectin, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 and of TNFα and TNFβ cytokines in psoriatic arthritis (PsA), according to the synovitis duration. Methods: Cryostatic sections of the synovial membrane tissue samples were stained for the different antibodies using a standard three-stage-immunoperoxidase-labeling technique. Results: E-selectin grade of staining was higher in those patients with a shorter disease duration compared to longstanding synovitic specimens, as well as ICAM-1 expression. On the contrary a higher VCAM-1 positivity was mainly found in longstanding PsA patients. Anti-TNFa positivity was found almost in all the specimens with no difference among the two groups, while the intensity of anti-TNFβ positivity was globally higher in longstanding cases. Conclusions: Different adhesion molecules may separately participate to the synovitic process in the different phases of PsA, leading to the ...
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) target cells positive for phosphorylated (P-)SMAD1/5, in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synovium. METHODS: Synovial biopsies were obtained by needle arthroscopy. Anti-P-SMAD1/5 antibodies were used for Western blot (WB) on protein extracts from RA and normal synovium and for immunostaining of synovial biopsy sections. Positive cells were further identified by double staining for CD3, CD20, CD68, CD138, CD90, alpha smooth muscle actin (SMA), endoglin (CD105) and von Willebrand factor (VWF). In sections from early RA patients taken before and under antirheumatic treatment, the degree of inflammation and activation of the BMP pathway were quantified. RESULTS: P-SMAD1/5 protein was detected by WB in RA and to a lesser extent in normal synovium. Different P-SMAD1/5 positive cell populations were identified in RA synovium, mainly in perivascular and sublining cells. P-SMAD1/5 positive perivascular cells were alpha SMA positive and located ...
Objective The multikinase inhibitor META060 has been shown to inhibit NF-,B activation and expression of markers of inflammation. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of META060 on biomarkers associated with bone and cartilage degradation in vitro and its antiinflammatory efficacy in vivo in both acute and chronic inflammation models. Methods Glycogen synthase kinase 3, (GSK3,),dependent ,-catenin phosphorylation was evaluated in RAW 264.7 macrophages to assess kinase inhibition. The inhibition of osteoclastogenesis and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity was evaluated in RANKL-treated RAW 264.7 cells. The inhibition of interleukin-1, (IL-1,),mediated markers of inflammation was analyzed in human rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts (RASFs). Mice with carrageenan-induced acute inflammation and collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) were used to assess efficacy. Results META060 inhibited the activity of kinases (spleen tyrosine kinase [Syk], Brutons tyrosine kinase ...
Lunasin, a peptide with 43 amino acid residues and initially isolated and identified in soybean cotyledon, has gained extensive attention due to its anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties. However, its treatment efficacy on rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and corresponding mechanisms have not been reported. Herein, the synovial fibroblasts harvested and isolated from patients with RA were treated with lunasin at various concentrations to examine the proliferation, apoptosis status, and corresponding cell cycle of cultured RA synovial fibroblasts. Meanwhile, the underlying mechanisms of lunasin for RA treatment are explored through Western blot, real-time PCR, ELISA, and luciferase reporter assays. Lunasin significantly inhibited the proliferation and induced the apoptosis of cultured RA synovial fibroblasts. In addition, lunasin reduced the production of interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, and matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) and suppressed the activation of NF-|i|κ|/i|B in cultured RA synovial
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) afflicts nearly 1% of the worldwide adult population. Cytokines released from immune cells cause chronic inflammation and stimulate the proliferation of synovial cells that destroy bone and cartilage of joints. But nearly 25% of RA patients do not respond to anti-cytokine therapy. This may be because synovial cell growth is also controlled by an enzyme called synoviolin. Amano et al. detected elevated synoviolin expression in the synovial tissue of RA patients. Mice overexpressing this molecule exhibited spontaneous arthropathy and a progressive synovial cell hyperplasia characteristic of RA patients. Reduced expression of synoviolin in mice correlated with protection from arthritis. This resistance was not due to an impaired cytokine response or reduced inflammatory cell infiltration, but to an increase in synovial cell apoptosis. Knockdown of synoviolin expression in rheumatoid synovial cells by RNA interference suppressed growth responses to cytokines. ...
(HealthDay)-Combined inhibition of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) ? and interleukin (IL)-17 is more effective than single blockade in cultures of human fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS), according to an experimental study published in the January issue of Arthritis Rheumatology. Jens A.A. F… Combined inhibition of TNF-alpha, IL-17 effective in RA model
Accumulation of senescent cells has been associated with pro-inflammatory effects with deleterious consequences in different human diseases. The purpose of this study was to analyze cell senescence in human synovial tissues (ST), and its impact on the pro-inflammatory function of synovial fibroblasts (SF). The expression of the senescence marker p16INK4a (p16) was analyzed by immunohistochemistry in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), osteoarthritis (OA), and normal ST from variably aged donors. The proportion of p16(+) senescent cells in normal ST from older donors was higher than from younger ones. Although older RA and OA ST showed proportions of senescent cells similar to older normal ST, senescence was increased in younger RA ST compared to age-matched normal ST. The percentage of senescent SA-β-gal(+) SF after 14 days in culture positively correlated with donors age. Initial exposure to H2O2 or TNFα enhanced SF senescence and increased mRNA expression of IL6, CXCL8, CCL2 and MMP3 and proteins secretion.
6. Multiplexed bead-based immunoassays used reagents purchased from Bio-Rad and R&D Systems and were analyzed on a Flexmap 3D using xPONENT software (Luminex Corp.). The levels of secreted cytokines were measured using two sets of Bio-Rad detection panels: group I 27-plex (Bio-Rad, cat. no. M500KCAF0Y) and group II 21-plex (Bio-Rad, cat. no. MF0005KMII) human cytokine panels. Levels of MMP-1, -2, and -3 were measured using the Luminex Peformance Human MMP Panel (R&D Systems, cat. nos. LMP901B, LMP901C, and LMP513B). Supernatants either were diluted 1:3 with 1xPBS / 0.05% BSA / 0.05% Tween-20 (for the Bio-Rad cytokine kits) or diluted 1:5 with Calibrator Diluent RD5-37 buffer (for the R&D Systems MMP Panel; this buffer is from the Human MMP Base Kit, cat. no. LMP000B) and assayed according to the suppliers instructions alongside a 10-point standard serial dilution to establish the dynamic range of the assay for each analyte. The immunoassay results are reported as the median fluorescent ...
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Immunohistochemical synovial tissue biomarkers are used increasingly to classify arthropathies, study their pathogenesis, and to measure disease activity in clinical trials. We have used receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis to quantify the discriminatory abilities of markers for common inflammatory cells (subintimal CD15, CD68, CD3, CD20, CD38, and lining CD68), proliferating cells (Ki-67) and blood vessels (von Willebrand factor, vWF) among inflammatory (chronic septic arthritis, early arthritis and rheumatoid arthritis (RA)) and degenerative arthropathies (osteoarthritis (OA) and orthopedic arthropathies) and normal synovium. Six of the eight markers distinguished accurately between RA and the degenerative arthropathies (area under the curve (AUC) 0.91-0.97), whereas subintimal CD68 (AUC 0.92) and Ki-67 (AUC 0.87) distinguished best between OA and normal synovium. Fold differences in mean expression correlated only modestly with AUCs (r2 = 0.44). Multicategory ROC analysis ranked ...
What is a synovial biopsy? Each joint in the human body contains synovial fluid. The synovial membrane secretes this fluid in the joint cavity. Lubricates joints and allows ease of movement. The synovial membrane is also the main place where inflammation occurs in joint diseases such as arthritis. Your doctor may recommend that you perform a synovial biopsy if you can not give a diagnosis based on routine measures. They may also order a biopsy if they think you might have a synovial infection… ...Read more ...
In examining the synovial membranes pertaining to the foot, as well as those connected with all other parts of the body, their relative importance to the sense under consideration, must not be measured by the superficial area any particular sac may present, but by the apparent amount of sensibility upon injury or in disease. Thus, for instance, from the few scanty opportunities the writer has had of observing indications of pain, during operations, etc., upon the foot, he is disposed to think that the calcaneo-cuboid and scaphoid synovial membranes, and the synovial sac dipping between the scaphoid and cuneiform bones, possess very little sensibility, if any; but that those connected with either extremity of the metatarsal bone of the great toe, possess considerably more. Indeed, many of the smaller synovial membranes placed in the phalangeal joints, and ako those in the tarsal and metatarsal joints, saving those connected with the great toe, appear, from the effects of continued pressure and ...
|p|Background: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is characterized by a tumor-like expansion of the synovium and the subsequent destruction of adjacent articular cartilage and bone. Recent studies have shown that phosphatase and tension homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) might contribute to the survi
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Celastrol, a natural triterpene, exhibits potential anti-inflammatory activity in a variety of inflammatory diseases. The present study aimed to investigate its biological effect on activated fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs) from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The primary FLSs of the synovial tissues were obtained from synovial biopsies of patients with RA. The normal human FLS line (HFLS) was used as a control. After the RA-FLSs and HFLSs were treated with or without celastrol, various approaches, including the WST-1 assay, transwell assay, real-time PCR and ELISA analysis, were performed to estimate proliferation, invasion and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines of the RA-FLSs ...
Inflammatory cytokines induce synthesis and secretion of gro protein and a neutrophil chemotactic factor but not beta 2-microglobulin in human synovial cells an
four). Even though the helpful outcome of CB1 receptor antagonism in collagen-induced arthritis in mice was attributed to βtwo-receptor activation on splenocytes, numerous other mechanisms may add for the therapeutic outcomes. CB1 antagonism at sympathetic terminals bordering the synovium may need unique results depending on the magnitude of Restoration of norepinephrine stages in the joint. If βtwo signaling is restored in synovial tissue, nearby concentrations of IFN-γ and TNF may decrease, bringing about an General lower in joint destruction, synovial inflammation and pain [102, 103] (Fig. two). On the other hand, considering the fact that we shown a boost of sympathetic fibers in human synovial adipose tissue, increased norepinephrine release may well even further improve lipolysis and thereby fuel inflammation [91]. Therefore, it truly is very important to maintain norepinephrine concentrations more than a certain βtwo activation threshold in the synovium, which might only be attained ...
The aetiology of rheumatoid arthritis is still unknown. A genetic disorder triggered by an environmental factor may induce a defective immune response, mostly in the synovial membrane.
Wittenberg, HR; Kleemeyer, K; Peskar, BM; Peskar, BA Effect of sulfasalazine and its metabolites on prostaglandin and leukotriene liberation from human synovial tissue ...
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DISEASE: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) [MIM:180300]: An inflammatory disease with autoimmune features and a complex genetic component. It primarily affects the joints and is characterized by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Note=Disease susceptibility is associated with variations affecting the gene represented in this entry ...
Synovial membraneEdit. The synovial membrane of the elbow joint is very extensive. On the humerus, it extends up from the ... The elbow joint[1] is the synovial hinge joint[2] between the humerus in the upper arm and the radius and ulna in the forearm ... Several synovial folds project into the recesses of the joint.[8] These folds or plicae are remnants of normal embryonic ... Deep fibres of the brachialis muscle insert anteriorly into the capsule and act to pull it and the underlying membrane during ...
Occasionally the coccyx is freely movable on the sacrum, most notably during pregnancy; in such cases a synovial membrane is ...
The synovial membranes get irritated and synovitis occurs. Eventually, the bare surfaces of the joint bones are exposed to each ... The CMC1 joint is a synovial joint between the trapezium bone of the wrist and the metacarpal bone at the base of the thumb. ...
... with the interarticular ligament and synovial membranes. In the case of the first rib, this ligament is not divided into three ...
It is lined by a thin, smooth synovial membrane.[citation needed] The bones of the shoulder are held in place by muscles, ... There is also a lack of synovial fluid, which normally lubricates the gap between the arm bone and socket to help the shoulder ...
It is lined by a thin, smooth synovial membrane. The rotator cuff is a group of four muscles that surround the shoulder joint ... It is lined by a thin, smooth synovial membrane. This capsule is strengthened by the coracohumeral ligament which attaches the ... and the joint space is surrounded by a synovial membrane. Around the joint space are muscles - the rotator cuff, which directly ...
The fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS), highly specialized mesenchymal cells found in the synovial membrane, have an active and ... Arthritis of joints involves inflammation of the synovial membrane. Joints become swollen, tender and warm, and stiffness ... The clinical manifestations of disease are primarily inflammation of the synovial membrane and joint damage, and the fibroblast ... Color Doppler and power Doppler ultrasound are useful in assessing the degree of synovial inflammation as they can show ...
The synovial membrane of the elbow joint is very extensive. On the humerus, it extends up from the articular margins and covers ... The elbow joint is the synovial hinge joint between the humerus in the upper arm and the radius and ulna in the forearm which ... Several synovial folds project into the recesses of the joint. These folds or plicae are remnants of normal embryonic ... by a thinner intermediate part and their distal attachments are united by a transverse band below which the synovial membrane ...
The capsule consists of an inner synovial membrane, and an outer fibrous membrane separated by fatty deposits anteriorly and ... Between these, the synovial membrane passes in front of the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments, why these ligaments are ... Above and in front, beneath the tendon of the Quadriceps femoris, it is represented only by the synovial membrane. Its chief ... Anteriorly, the reflection of the synovial membrane lies on the femur; located at some distance from the cartilage because of ...
Its insertion is on the synovial membrane of the knee-joint. It is supplied by the lateral femoral circumflex artery. It is ... and prevents impingement of the synovial membrane between the patella and the femur. This article incorporates text in the ...
Synovectomy is the removal of the synovial membrane of a synovial joint. Thrombectomy is the removal of thrombi (blood clots). ... Bursectomy is the removal of a bursa, a small sac filled with synovial fluid. Cardiectomy is the removal of the cardia of the ...
... is also up-regulated in synovial membranes of human rheumatoid arthritis. Adipocyte Metrnl antagonizes obesity-induced ...
A tendon sheath is a layer of synovial membrane around a tendon. It permits the tendon to stretch and not adhere to the ... It has two layers: synovial sheath fibrous tendon sheath Fibroma of the tendon sheath has been described. "Anatomy and ...
It also supplies the synovial membrane at the bottom of the knee. The middle genicular artery may be damaged during knee ...
The synovial membrane is a continuation of that of the intercarpal joints. Occasionally, the joint between the hamate and the ... fourth and fifth metacarpal bones has a separate synovial membrane.[citation needed] The synovial membranes of the wrist and ... Occasionally the fourth and fifth carpometacarpal joints have a separate synovial membrane.[citation needed] Osteoarthritis of ... The second to fifth joints are synovial ellipsoidal joints with a nominal degree of freedom (flexion/extension). The second and ...
They are lined with a synovial membrane that secretes a lubricating synovial fluid. There are more than 150 bursae in the human ... Bursitis is the inflammation of one or more bursae (fluid filled sacs) of synovial fluid in the body. ...
It is in relation, in front, with the articular disk and synovial membranes; behind, with the Sternohyoideus and ...
The underlying mechanism is believed to involve an outpouching of the synovial membrane. Risk factors include gymnastics. ... The microscopic anatomy of the cyst resembles that of tenosynovial tissue, the fluid being similar in composition to synovial ...
2003). "Antimicrobial peptides are expressed and produced in healthy and inflamed human synovial membranes". J. Pathol. 198 (3 ... Its interaction with plasma membranes of Xenopus oocytes and the induction of macrophage chemoattraction". Cell Tissue Res. 306 ...
The synovial membrane for these joints is continuous with that of the carpometacarpal joints. The bones in the hand The carpal ...
The synovial membrane of this joints is part of the great tarsal synovial membrane. Mere gliding movements are permitted ...
The synovial membrane of these joints is part of the great tarsal synovial membrane. Mere gliding movements are permitted ...
The articular capsule has a synovial and a fibrous membrane separated by fatty deposits. Anteriorly, the synovial membrane is ... The joint is bathed in synovial fluid which is contained inside the synovial membrane called the joint capsule. The ... Behind, the synovial membrane is attached to the margins of the two femoral condyles which produces two extensions similar to ... The menisci are flattened at the center of the knee joint, fused with the synovial membrane laterally, and can move over the ...
The synovial membrane of these joints is part of the great tarsal synovial membrane. The movements permitted between these ...
an inner (synovial membrane, synovial stratum) which is a secreting layer. On the inside of the capsule, articular cartilage ... Membranes[edit]. Each capsule consists of two layers or membranes: *an outer (fibrous membrane, fibrous stratum) composed of ... an outer fibrous layer or membrane, and an inner synovial layer or membrane. ... Fibrous membrane[edit]. The fibrous membrane of the joint capsule is attached to the whole circumference of the articular end ...
It requires general anesthesia, but allows thorough visualization of the synovial membrane and articular cartilage. Treatment ... Blood and synovial fluid may be tested for pathogens in the case of infected synovial structures. Both cytology and bacterial ... Bog spavin: excessive synovial fluid in the tarsocrural joint, which leads to a large, soft, cool distention on the dorsal ... Nerve blocks involve injecting a small amount of local anesthetic around a nerve or into a synovial structure (such as a joint ...
It is ensheathed by the synovial membrane, and varies greatly in strength in different subjects; occasionally only the synovial ...
The synovial membrane between the first cuneiform and the first metatarsal forms a distinct sac. The synovial membrane between ... The synovial membrane between the cuboid and the fourth and fifth metatarsal bones forms a distinct sac. From it a prolongation ... is part of the great tarsal synovial membrane. Two prolongations are sent forward from it, one between the adjacent sides of ...
The middle genicular artery supplies the cruciate ligaments and the synovial membrane of knee joint. The fibular artery ...
Synovial membrane is divided into two compartments - the outer layer (subintima) and the inner layer (intima). The inner layer ... The inner lining of the joint consists of the synovium (also called the synovial membrane), a thin layer located between the ... During the progression of this disease the synovial membrane becomes a place where constant inflammatory processes take place, ... Synovial hyperplasia (an increase in cell number) is a typical feature of the autoimmune disease called rheumatoid arthritis ( ...
Because of their double-membrane envelope, Borrelia bacteria are often mistakenly described as Gram negative despite the ... because it is a highly sensitive way of detecting ospA DNA in synovial fluid.[116] Although sensitivity of PCR in CSF is low, ... Spirochetes are surrounded by peptidoglycan and flagella, along with an outer membrane similar to Gram-negative bacteria. ... "Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi DNA by polymerase chain reaction in synovial fluid from patients with Lyme arthritis". The ...
early endosome membrane. • membrane. • bicellular tight junction. • Golgi membrane. • plasma membrane. • cell surface. • early ... 2004). "Synovial density of frizzled 5-positive cells does not differ between patients with RA and OA and is independent of ... integral component of membrane. Biological process. • G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway. • T cell differentiation in ... clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle membrane. • Golgi apparatus. • ...
ঘ্রাণজ উপঝিল্লি (Olfactory membrane). *জিহ্বা (Tongue) *স্বাদ কোরক (Taste bud). *স্বাদগ্রহণ তন্ত্র (Gustatory system) ... রসময় সন্ধি (Synovial joint). *সন্ধিবন্ধনী (Ligament). *করোটি (Skull). *করোটিকা (Cranium). *মুখমণ্ডলের অস্থিসমূহ (Facial bones) ...
membrane. • cell surface. • specific granule membrane. • tertiary granule membrane. • cytosol. • plasma membrane. ... "Myeloid DAP12-associating lectin (MDL)-1 regulates synovial inflammation and bone erosion associated with autoimmune arthritis ... integral component of membrane. • integral component of plasma membrane. • ...
Tendon sheath, a synovial membrane surrounding a tendon in, for example, the fingers ...
Underlying the mucous membrane in the mouth is a thin layer of smooth muscle tissue and the loose connection to the membrane ... The mucous membrane in the mouth continues as the thin mucosa which lines the bases of the teeth. The main component of mucus ... Most of the oral cavity is lined with oral mucosa, a mucous membrane that produces a lubricating mucus, of which only a small ... Mucous membranes vary in structure in the different regions of the body but they all produce a lubricating mucus, which is ...
... viral antigen and viral RNA were found in macrophages in the synovial joint of a person experiencing a relapse of ... dissociates from E2 and initiates membrane fusion that allows the release of nucleocapsids into the host cytoplasm, promoting ...
... infections of mucosal membranes can cause swelling, itching, pain, and the formation of pus.[11] The time from ... Synovial fluid should be collected in cases of septic arthritis.[34] ... Petousis-Harris, Helen (2017). "Effectiveness of a group B outer membrane vesicle meningococcal vaccine against gonorrhoea in ...
Angular motions occur over synovial joints and causes them to either increase or decrease angles between bones.[1] ... Synovial membrane. *Fibrous membrane. *Synovial fluid. *Synovial bursa. *Articular disk/Meniscus. *extracapsular: Ligament ...
Ligaments: obturator membrane, inguinal ligament (lacunar ligament, iliopectineal arch) Alternatively, the pelvis is divided ... and synovial joints between the articular processes of the two bones. In addition to these ligaments the joint is strengthened ... within which a non-synovial cavity might be present. Two ligaments, the superior and inferior pubic ligaments, reinforce the ... providing attachment for external reproductive organs and associated muscles and membranes. The pelvic girdle consists of the ...
membrane. *Aphthous stomatitis. *oral candidiasis. *lichen planus. *leukoplakia. *pemphigus vulgaris. *mucous membrane ...
membrane. • കോശസ്തരം. • integral component of plasma membrane. • integral component of membrane. Biological process. • G- ... "Induction of IL-6 via the EP3 subtype of prostaglandin E receptor in rat adjuvant-arthritic synovial cells". Inflammation ...
In the human female, the urethra is about 1.9 inches (4.8 cm) to 2 inches (5.1 cm) long and exits the body between the clitoris and the vagina, extending from the internal to the external urethral orifice. The meatus is located below the clitoris. It is placed behind the symphysis pubis, embedded in the anterior wall of the vagina, and its direction is obliquely downward and forward; it is slightly curved with the concavity directed forward. The proximal 2/3rds is lined by transitional epithelium cells while distal 1/3rd is lined by stratified squamous epithelium cells.[10] The urethra consists of three coats: muscular, erectile, and mucous, the muscular layer being a continuation of that of the bladder. Between the superior and inferior fascia of the urogenital diaphragm, the female urethra is surrounded by the urethral sphincter. Somatic (conscious) innervation of the external urethral sphincter is supplied by the pudendal nerve. ...
B. recurrentis infects the person via mucous membranes and then invades the bloodstream. ... or synovial fluid. Two-tiered serological testing is performed for differential diagnosis of Borrelia infection. The first-tier ...
The human esophagus has a mucous membrane consisting of a tough stratified squamous epithelium without keratin, a smooth lamina ...
Synovial joint. Atlanto-axial. *Medial: Cruciate ligament of atlas (Transverse ligament of atlas) ... Tectorial membrane of atlanto-axial joint. *Lateral: no ligaments. *anterior atlantoaxial ligament ...
... a membrane potential. The three primary types of photoreceptors are: Cones are photoreceptors which respond significantly to ...
The carpal bones that make up the wrist form an arch which is convex on the dorsal side of the hand and concave on the palmar side. The groove on the palmar side, the sulcus carpi, is covered by the flexor retinaculum, a sheath of tough connective tissue, thus forming the carpal tunnel. On the side of the radius, the flexor retinaculum is attached to the scaphoid bone, more precisely its tubercle, as well as the ridge of trapezium. On the ulnar side it is attached to the pisiform and hook of hamate.[3] The narrowest section of the tunnel is located a centimetre beyond the mid-line of the distal row of carpal bones where the sectional area is limited to 1.6 cm2.[2] The tendons of the flexor digitorum superficialis and profundus pass through a common ulnar sheath, while the tendon of the flexor pollicis longus passes through a separate radial sheath. The mesotendon shared by these tendons is attached to the radial and palmar walls of the carpal tunnel.[3] Superficial to the carpal tunnel and the ...
It is unique among glycosaminoglycans in that it is nonsulfated, forms in the plasma membrane instead of the Golgi apparatus, ... The average molecular weight in human synovial fluid is 3-4 million Da, and hyaluronic acid purified from human umbilical cord ... Smith, MM; Ghosh, P (1987). "The synthesis of hyaluronic acid by human synovial fibroblasts is influenced by the nature of the ... Hyaluronic acid is synthesized by a class of integral membrane proteins called hyaluronan synthases, of which vertebrates have ...
The two terms are often used in describing a membrane or piece of connective tissue, referring to the opposing sides.[citation ...
These various parts are separated by meningial membranes, suggesting that the pituitary of other vertebrates may have formed ...
Enhancement of the synovial membrane at the third and fourth proximal interphalangeal (PIP) and distal interphalangeal (DIP) ... inflammation of the synovial membrane; large arrows). There is joint space narrowing with bone proliferation at the third PIP ...
Less commonly, it can cause GI bleeds, dry mucous membranes and gingivitis. Rarely it can cause: aplastic anaemia, ulcerative ... I. Human plasma and synovial fluid concentration and urinary excretion of gold during and following treatment with gold sodium ... Iqbal, M. S.; Saeed, M.; Taqi, S. G. (2008). "Erythrocyte Membrane Gold Levels After Treatment with Auranofin and Sodium ...
The CV-I complexes are washed from the gram-negative cell along with the outer membrane.[14][citation needed] In contrast, a ... examples are cerebrospinal fluid for meningitis and synovial fluid for septic arthritis.[4][8] ... These ions penetrate through the cell wall and cell membrane of both gram-positive and gram-negative cells. The CV+. ion ... When a decolorizer such as alcohol or acetone is added, it interacts with the lipids of the cell membrane.[13] A gram-negative ...
It consists of two portions, an anterior and posterior united by a thinner intermediate portion. Note that this ligament is also referred to as the medial collateral ligament[1] and should not be confused with the lateral ulnar collateral ligament (LUCL).[2] The anterior portion, directed obliquely forward, is attached, above, by its apex, to the front part of the medial epicondyle of the humerus; and, below, by its broad base to the medial margin of the coronoid process of the ulna. The posterior portion, also of triangular form, is attached, above, by its apex, to the lower and back part of the medial epicondyle; below, to the medial margin of the olecranon. Between these two bands a few intermediate fibers descend from the medial epicondyle to blend with a transverse band which bridges across the notch between the olecranon and the coronoid process. This ligament is in relation with the triceps brachii and flexor carpi ulnaris and the ulnar nerve, and gives origin to part of the flexor ...
11). This process occurs by simple diffusion,[17] across a very thin membrane (known as the blood-air barrier), which forms the ... 23). Back-flow into the gill chamber during the inhalatory phase is prevented by a membrane along the ventroposterior border of ... 10). It consisting of the alveolar epithelial cells, their basement membranes and the endothelial cells of the alveolar ... Most of the respiratory system is lined with mucous membranes that contain mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue, which produces ...
... a labyrinthine cavity bounded by an epithelium-like monolayer of fibroblastic reticular cells anchored to basement membrane- ...
As tendons pass near bony prominences, they are protected by a fluid filled synovial structure, either a tendon sheath or a sac ... which is thought to equalize air pressure on the tympanic membrane. Located between the mandibles but below the occiput, it ...
Synovial membrane definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Look it ... synovial membrane in Medicine Expand. synovial membrane n. The connective-tissue membrane that lines the cavity of a synovial ... synovial membrane in Science Expand. synovial membrane The connective-tissue membrane that lines the cavity of a joint and ... Most of the ligaments are found exterior to the synovial membrane. A Treatise on Anatomy, Physiology, and Hygiene (Revised ...
The great tarsal synovial membrane is a synovial membrane in the foot. The synovial membranes between the second and third, and ... that between the fourth and fifth metatarsal bones is a prolongation of the synovial membrane of the cuboideometatarsal joint. ... the third and fourth metatarsal bones are part of the great tarsal synovial membrane; ...
... patients were used for the ultrastructural investigation of capillary cellular components and basement membranes (BM). ... Basement membranes Basement membrane thickening Synovial capillaries Rheumatoid arthritis Endothelial cells This is a preview ... Schumacher HR Jr (1975) Synovial membrane and fluid morphologic alterations in early rheumatoid arthritis. Microvascular injury ... Light and electron microscopy study of capillaries in normal and inflammatory human synovial membrane. J Clin Pathol 30:556-562 ...
Section of synovial membrane. Labels: a, endothelial covering of the elevations of the membrane; b, subserous tissue containing ... fat and blood vessels; c, ligament covered by the synovial membrane. ...
Studies of isolated synovial living cells of rheumatoid and nonrheumatoid synovial membranes.. Kinsella TD, Baum J, Ziff M. ...
Multiple samples of synovial membrane were obtained by needle biopsy from 24 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) before, ... Changes in lymphocyte infiltration of the synovial membrane and the clinical course of rheumatoid arthritis.. Rooney M1, Whelan ... Changes in the immunohistologic features of the synovial membrane (read blindly) were compared with the clinical course of RA ...
Minglu Yan, Xin Liu, Qiujie Dang, He Huang, Fan Yang, and Yang Li, "Intra-Articular Injection of Human Synovial Membrane- ... Intra-Articular Injection of Human Synovial Membrane-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Murine Collagen-Induced Arthritis: ...
Background Manual outlining of the synovial membrane on MR images in inflammatory joint diseases is too time consuming for ... Objectives The purpose was to introduce a less time-consuming stereologic method for measuring synovial volume by MRI in ... A significant correlation between manual and stereologic estimations of synovial volumes was found (Spearman rho = 0.71, P = ... Conclusion Stereologic volume estimation can provide measures of synovial volumes comparable to the manual outlining method and ...
The synovial membrane lines the joint capsule and helps maintain synovial fluid in joints. Inflammation of the synovial ... The hostile knee environment: Synovial membrane and cartilage destruction. The synovial fluid is a thick gel-like liquid that ... suggest that knee joint instability leads to destructive alterations in the synovial membranes and cartilage. Their research ... membrane, synovitis, is found in both rheumatoid and osteoarthritis patients. Doctors use synovial fluid as a means to ...
We have previously shown that in rheumatoid synovial membrane … ... We have previously shown that in rheumatoid synovial membrane ... Modulation of proinflammatory cytokine release in rheumatoid synovial membrane cell cultures. Comparison of monoclonal anti TNF ... whereas treatment of the rheumatoid synovial membrane cells with a neutralizing concentration of the IL-1 receptor antagonist ( ...
Immunohistological examination of synovial membrane biopsies may provide further insight into early disease processes in JIA. ... Synovial membrane immunohistology in early untreated juvenile idiopathic arthritis: differences between clinical subgroups ... Synovial membrane immunohistology in early untreated juvenile idiopathic arthritis: differences between clinical subgroups ... This study of the synovial membrane characterises the immunohistochemical features in early untreated, newly diagnosed JIA and ...
Changes in the Collagen of Synovial Membrane in Rheumatoid Arthritis and Effect of d-Penicillamine C. R. Lovell C. R. Lovell ... C. R. Lovell, A. C. Nicholls, M. I. V. Jayson, A. J. Bailey; Changes in the Collagen of Synovial Membrane in Rheumatoid ... 1. Normal synovial membrane contains approximately equal proportions of two genetically distinct forms of collagen, types I and ... Synovial Fluid and Plasma Fibronectin Levels in Rheumatoid Arthritis Clin Sci (Lond) (January, 1982) ...
Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi by polymerase chain reaction in synovial membrane, but not in synovial fluid from patients ... in synovial membrane (SM) when PCR results from synovial fluid (SF) had become negative after antibiotic therapy.. METHODS: ... Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi by polymerase chain reaction in synovial membrane, but not in synovial fluid from patients ...
Outcome of patients with arthritis and parvovirus B19 DNA in synovial membranes ... Outcome of patients with arthritis and parvovirus B19 DNA in synovial membranes. Rheumatology international, 27(8):747-751. ... However, no definitive diagnosis is possible even in the presence of parvovirus B19 DNA in synovial tissue ... However, no definitive diagnosis is possible even in the presence of parvovirus B19 DNA in synovial tissue ...
This study has identified IgG and IgM anticoagulant antibodies in the synovial membranes of patients suffering from haemophilia ... Anticoagulant antibodies in the synovial membranes of patients suffering from haemophilia, rheumatoid arthritis and other ... Anticoagulant antibodies in the synovial membranes of patients suffering from haemophilia, rheumatoid arthritis and other ... and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) but not in synovial tissues from normal subjects or in patients with other arthritides. In the ...
Results: All PDE4 inhibitors dose-dependently reduced the release of TNF alpha from primary synovial membrane cultures (n=5), ... Phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) regulation of proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine release from rheumatoid synovial membrane ... regulation of proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine release from rheumatoid synovial membrane. Annals of the Rheumatic ... To date, few data have directly addressed whether synovial cytokine and chemokine production is modified by PDE4. Objective: ...
constructed, retroviral, matrix, invasiveness, typed, membranes, reduced, antisense, transfer, arthritis, genes, synovial, ... Expression of membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase in rheumatoid synovial cells. Clin Exp Immunol 2001;126:131-6. Pap T, ... It has also been demonstrated that MT1-MMP is expressed at elevated levels in the RA synovial membrane and particularly at ... Membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) is expressed prominently in rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts (RASFs ...
... affects spontaneous proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine production in ex vivo-cultured human rheumatoid arthritis synovial ... membrane mononuclear cells (MNCs) and to compare this response to that of TNF ... factor receptor I inhibits proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine production in human rheumatoid arthritis synovial membrane ... spontaneous proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine production in ex vivo-cultured human rheumatoid arthritis synovial membrane ...
The main function of the synovial membrane is to act as a padding and lubricant between bones. Problems with the synovial ... The synovial membrane is found only in synovial joints, which are the most common body joints in humans. Types of synovial ... As the synovial membrane also functions as a seal to keep the fluid in the joint, a damaged membrane can result in leakage into ... When the synovial membrane is subjected to such an attack, it cannot produce sufficient synovial fluid, resulting in decreased ...
Owing to the histologic similarity of the synovial membrane of the tendon sheaths and that of the joints,1 it was felt that ... XANTHOMA OF TENDON SHEATHS AND SYNOVIAL MEMBRANESA CLINICAL AND PATHOLOGIC STUDY. Arch Surg. 1940;40(3):485-538. doi:10.1001/ ... XANTHOMA OF TENDON SHEATHS AND SYNOVIAL MEMBRANESA CLINICAL AND PATHOLOGIC STUDY. ...
In this study, we aimed to compare the effectiveness of exosomes secreted by synovial membrane MSCs (SMMSC-Exos) and exosomes ... Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived MSCs and synovial membrane MSCs were characterized by flow cytometry. iMSC-Exos and SMMSC ... From: Comparison of exosomes secreted by induced pluripotent stem cell-derived mesenchymal stem cells and synovial membrane- ...
In this study, we aimed to compare the effectiveness of exosomes secreted by synovial membrane MSCs (SMMSC-Exos) and exosomes ... Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived MSCs and synovial membrane MSCs were characterized by flow cytometry. iMSC-Exos and SMMSC ... The harvested synovial membrane specimens were kept in high-glucose DMEM at 4 °C. Within 1 h, the specimen was rinsed with ... In this study, we aimed to compare the effectiveness of exosomes secreted by synovial membrane MSCs (SMMSC-Exos) and exosomes ...
In the present study we investigated the ability of TNF to activate MAPKs in the synovial membrane in vivo. We studied human ... In vivo, overexpression of TNF induced activation of p38MAPKα and ERK in the synovial membrane, whereas activation of JNK was ... These data indicate that TNF preferentially activates p38MAPKα and ERK in synovial membrane exposed to TNF. This not only ... Activated p38MAPKα was predominantly found in synovial macrophages, whereas ERK activation was present in both synovial ...
Sections of synovial membrane from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) were stained with these antibodies, using an ... Double-staining techniques with mouse monoclonal antibodies against cell subset markers in five RA synovial membranes showed ... immunoperoxidase technique, and cells containing IL-6 were domonstrated in the thickened synovial lining layer and also in a ... Sections of synovial membrane from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) were stained with these antibodies, using an ...
Treatment Synovial membrane. Symptoms and causes Synovial membrane Prophylaxis Synovial membrane ... synovial membrane - definition of synovial membrane in the .... membrane /mem·brane/ (mem´brÄ n) a thin layer of tissue that ... For More Information «Synovial membrane». *. Synovial membrane: Definition from Answers.com. A layer of connective tissue which ... Medcyclopaedia - Synovial membrane - Medcyclopaedia .... Home, library, topics, volume iii 1, s, synovial membrane ... ...
A synovial biopsy is the removal of a piece of tissue lining a joint for examination. The tissue is called the synovial ... Biopsy - synovial membrane; Rheumatoid arthritis - synovial biopsy; Gout - synovial biopsy; Joint infection - synovial biopsy; ... Synovial biopsy may identify the following conditions:. *Long-term (chronic) synovitis (inflammation of the synovial membrane) ... El-Gabalawy HS, Tanner S. Synovial fluid analyses, synovial biopsy, and synovial pathology. In: Firestein GS, Budd RC, Gabriel ...
As explained by Johns Hopkins, the synovial membrane is tissue that lines the joint and seals it into... ... The synovial membrane of a synovial joint produces and maintains proper levels of synovial fluid. ... A: The different types of membranes in the human body are the meninges membrane, mucous membrane, serous membrane and synovial ... What is a synovial membrane?. A: A synovial membrane is a layer of soft connective tissue that lines tendon sheaths, movable ...
... present in the rheumatoid synovial membranes.. Sequential extractions of synovial membranes from RA patients using increasingly ... To biochemically characterize the deiminated proteins of the RA synovial membranes, fragments of synovial tissue from four RA ... Fibrin and fibronectin in rheumatoid synovial membrane and rheumatoid synovial fluid. Arthritis Rheum. 31: 479. ... their ratio to global IgG is increased in the synovial membrane interstitium with regard to the serum or the synovial fluid, ...
Synovial Membrane / pathology* Substances * Biomarkers * Cytokines Grant support * R01 AR048852-03/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/United ... Acute joint pathology and synovial inflammation is associated with increased intra-articular fracture severity in the mouse ... The acute effect of articular fracture severity on synovial inflammation, bone morphology, liberated fracture area, cartilage ... including synovial inflammation, cortical comminution, and bone morphology. Further characterization of the early events ...
  • Inflammation of the synovial membrane, synovitis, is found in both rheumatoid and osteoarthritis patients. (getprolo.com)
  • Doctors at the University of Calgary, publishing in the medical journal Osteoarthritis and Cartilage , suggest that knee joint instability leads to destructive alterations in the synovial membranes and cartilage. (getprolo.com)
  • New research is out testing the theory that synovial inflammation of the knee is a main and unrecognized player is the development of knee osteoarthritis. (getprolo.com)
  • Approximately after the 2nd PRP injection, significant decreases in synovial fluid total protein concentrations and volumes (signifying a decrease in inflammation), and Lequesne index values (this is a value given to measure the severity of knee osteoarthritis) were observed. (getprolo.com)
  • Doctors at the University of Toronto tested the effects of stem cell in early and late-stage knee osteoarthritis by measuring the stem cell cytokine secretion (small proteins which initiate healing and rebuilding of damaged tissue) after it was exposed to arthritic synovial fluid obtained from early- vs late-stage knee osteoarthritis patients. (getprolo.com)
  • Comparative study of the synovial histology in rheumatoid arthritis, spondyloarthropathy and osteoarthritis: influence of disease duration and activity. (springer.com)
  • Reference : Expression of specific pathways in the inflamed synovial membrane of osteoarthritis p. (uliege.be)
  • The synovial membrane in osteoarthritis (OA) often exhibits inflammatory infiltrates, but the role of T cells in these infiltrates is not known. (nu7026.com)
  • Objective To observe the effect of advanced oxidation protein products ( AOPPs ) on articular and synovial in a rabbit model of osteoarthritis (OA). (bvsalud.org)
  • [email protected]#To study role of TLR4/NF-κB pathway for early change of synovial membrane in knee osteoarthritis rats. (bvsalud.org)
  • TGF-beta 1 was also detected in the synovial membrane sections from 4/4 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus/mixed connective tissue disease and 5/8 patients with osteoarthritis, in a similar distribution to that seen in RA, and in the lining layer of 1/7 normal synovial membranes. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The most common symptoms of synovial chondromatosis are similar to those of osteoarthritis. (aaos.org)
  • It is important to seek treatment for synovial chondromatosis as early as possible to help relieve painful symptoms and prevent the progression of osteoarthritis in the joint. (aaos.org)
  • Imaging studies will also help your doctor differentiate synovial chondromatosis from osteoarthritis. (aaos.org)
  • Synovial Joint Arthritis (Osteoarthritis). (smartimagebase.com)
  • Intermediate fibronectin levels were found in synovial fluid from six patients with psoriatic arthritis, eight patients with osteoarthritis and seven with seronegative arthritis. (portlandpress.com)
  • Other synovial fluid findings that aid in the differentiation of osteoarthritis from other conditions are negative Gram stains and cultures, as well as the absence of crystals when fluid is viewed under a polarized microscope. (medscape.com)
  • The principal structures which unite in the formation of a joint are: bone, cartilage, synovial membrane , and ligaments. (dictionary.com)
  • Membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) is expressed prominently in rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts (RASFs), but the specific contribution of MT1-MMP to fibroblastmediated destruction of articular cartilage is incompletely understood. (docme.ru)
  • Within the joint capsule, synovial fluid, produced by the synovial membrane, lubricates the ends of the bones and the cartilage between them. (wisegeekhealth.com)
  • If the leakage is too great, or the synovial membrane is damaged too severely, the cartilage in the joint may not receive an adequate supply of blood and other nutrients. (wisegeekhealth.com)
  • Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are progenitor cells of mesodermal lineages that are present in different tissues such as the fat pads and the bone marrow (BM) but also in the cartilage and the synovial membrane (SM). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The articular cartilage soaks up synovial fluid like a sponge, explains Dr. Joseph M. Mansour. (reference.com)
  • The fluid in articular cartilage effectively acts as a reserve of synovial fluid. (reference.com)
  • During movement, synovial fluid is squeezed out mechanically, maintaining a level of fluid in the joint cavity and on the cartilage surface. (reference.com)
  • In this study, we investigated the altered tissue balance of cartilage, synovial membrane, and connective tissue in collagen induced arthritis (CIA) in rats. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Synovial fluid (LS) is produced by the synovial membrane, which lubricates the articular surface of the joint and provides nutrients to the articular cartilage. (scopeheal.com)
  • Synovial macrophages are positioned throughout the sub-lining layer and lining layer at the cartilage-pannus junction and mediate articular destruction. (frontiersin.org)
  • Articular cartilage is said to contain no hyaluronic acid, and the sulphated mucopolysaccharide it does contain is not found in appreciable quantity in synovial fluid. (nature.com)
  • OBJECTIVE: A hallmark of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is invasion of the synovial pannus into cartilage, and this process requires degradation of the collagen matrix. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Synovial fibroblasts also invaded into cartilage in an MT1-MMP-dependent manner. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Enhanced TIMP-4 gene expression in OA synovial membranes and cartilage may be due to induction by TGF-β1, OSM and IL-17, suggesting its pathophysiological role in tissue remodeling in human joints. (openrheumatologyjournal.com)
  • Transforming growth factor-beta 1 in rheumatoid synovial membrane and cartilage/pannus junction. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Using immunohistochemical techniques with rabbit F(ab')2 antibodies raised against recombinant human TGF-beta 1, we have detected TGF-beta 1 in the synovial tissue and cartilage/pannus junction (CPJ) from 18/18 patients with RA. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In synovial chondromatosis, the synovium grows abnormally and produces nodules made of cartilage. (aaos.org)
  • [3] White hyaline cartilage on the ends of the bones (called articular cartilage) allows the bones to glide and move on each other, and the joint space is surrounded by a synovial membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • [ 2 ] It can be thought of as a degenerative disorder arising from the biochemical breakdown of articular (hyaline) cartilage in the synovial joints. (medscape.com)
  • This is a constitutional inflammatory affection of the joints, affecting the fibrous tissue and serous, or synovial membrane . (dictionary.com)
  • The synovial membrane lines the joint capsule and helps maintain synovial fluid in joints. (getprolo.com)
  • The synovial membrane is found only in synovial joints, which are the most common body joints in humans. (wisegeekhealth.com)
  • Although some synovial joints have a greater range of motion than others do, they are all able to move to some degree. (wisegeekhealth.com)
  • As their structure is representative of all synovial joints, an explanation of the structure of knees may be helpful. (wisegeekhealth.com)
  • Owing to the histologic similarity of the synovial membrane of the tendon sheaths and that of the joints, 1 it was felt that growths involving both these structures should be considered. (jamanetwork.com)
  • A synovial membrane is a layer of soft connective tissue that lines tendon sheaths, movable joints, and bursae, the fluid-filled sacs between tendons and b. (reference.com)
  • Evaluation of in vitro growth factor treatments on fibrochondrogenesis by synovial membrane cells from osteoarthritic and nonosteoarthritic joints of dogs. (oregonstate.edu)
  • To determine the in vitro effects of selected growth factors on fibrochondrogenesis by synovial membrane cells from nonosteoarthritic (normal) and osteoarthritic joints of dogs. (oregonstate.edu)
  • A layer of connective tissue that lines the cavities of joints, tendon sheaths, and bursae and makes synovial fluid, which has a lubricating function. (drugline.org)
  • What is the structure of synovial joints? (brainscape.com)
  • Any additional features of Synovial Joints? (brainscape.com)
  • Rheumatoid arthritis is a disease affecting the extracellular matrix of especially synovial joints. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This indicates unbalanced turnover of the surrounding tissues of the synovial joints, leading to increased pain and degeneration of the synovial joints. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To investigate the stability over 2 weeks of ultrasonographic assessments of synovial thickness and vascularity in all 10 metacarpophalangeal joints of subjects with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with a range of disease activities as measured by the validated Disease Activity Score-28 joint score (DAS28-ESR). (jrheum.org)
  • High-frequency (grey-scale) ultrasonography (HFUS) can reproducibly delineate synovial thickening in small joints of the hands in patients with active RA, but the analysis of such images does not necessarily demonstrate a clear relationship with clinical assessments of disease activity 4 . (jrheum.org)
  • In turn, the synovial vascular signal on PD is closely correlated with the rates of early synovial enhancement, calculated from dynamic contrast enhanced MRI on the same day, in RA metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints 11 , 12 . (jrheum.org)
  • PDUS signal intensity in rheumatoid knee joints has been compared directly with histological assessment of synovial membrane microvascular density 13 and it correlated well. (jrheum.org)
  • Microarchitecture and protective mechanisms in synovial tissue from clinically and arthroscopically normal knee joints. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Synovial chondromatosis (also called synovial osteochondromatosis) is a rare, benign (noncancerous) condition that involves the synovium, which is the thin layer of tissue that lines the joints. (aaos.org)
  • We tried to establish the culture synovial celllines from the internalderangement of TMJ.At first, we tried just the same method as the synovial cell culture method on knee joint by Dayr JC.With this method, in the end of the screening the synovial tissue materials, the number of rest of synoviocytes was very little and it's activity was not so hight as synoviocytes of rheumatism arthritis on knee joints. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Neoplasms of the synovium are uncommon and can involve the synovial lining of joints, bursae, and tendons. (orthogate.org)
  • The synovium is a thin membrane that lines the inner surfaces of joints. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • This membrane produces synovial fluid, which helps lubricate and protect joints from wear and tear. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • However, more than 90 percent of synovial cysts affect the facet joints of the lumbar spine. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Synovial cysts develop on the spine when the facet joints degenerate and produce excess synovial fluid. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In these people, the facet joints may degenerate at a faster rate, producing synovial cysts. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • This form of arthritis targets the synovial membrane, the tissue that lines joints. (healthcentral.com)
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) rates of early synovial enhancement after injection of gadolinium have been shown to correlate closely with the histological grade of synovitis 9 , 10 . (jrheum.org)
  • Objective: To define the expression and pattern of the synovial distribution of adhesion molecules such as E-selectin, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 and of TNFα and TNFβ cytokines in psoriatic arthritis (PsA), according to the synovitis duration. (reumatismo.org)
  • 7. Jaffe HL, Lichtenstein L, Sutro CJ: Pigmented villonodular synovitis, bursitis, and tenosynovitis: A discussion of the synovial and bursal equivalents of the tenosynovial lesion commonly denoted as xanthoma, xanthogranuloma, giant cell tumor or myeloplaxoma of the tendon sheath, with some consideration of this tendon sheath lesion itself. (orthogate.org)
  • joint (the synovial membrane) is referred to as synovitis. (britannica.com)
  • The different types of membranes in the human body are the meninges membrane, mucous membrane, serous membrane and synovial membrane. (reference.com)
  • The fibrinous false membrane on the mucous surfaces in diphtheria. (tabers.com)
  • A membrane of fibrinous exudate on a mucous surface of a membrane, as in croup or diphtheria. (tabers.com)
  • impaired oral mucous membrane a nursing diagnosis approved by the North American Nursing Diagnosis Association, defined as disruptions of the lips and soft tissue of the oral cavity. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Changes in the integrity and health of the oral mucous membrane can occur as a characteristic of such medical disorders as periodontal disease, uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, oral cancer, and infection with herpes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Synovial tissues from seven rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients were used for the ultrastructural investigation of capillary cellular components and basement membranes (BM). (springer.com)
  • This study has identified IgG and IgM anticoagulant antibodies in the synovial membranes of patients suffering from haemophilia and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) but not in synovial tissues from normal subjects or in patients with other arthritides. (bmj.com)
  • The thickness of the synovial membrane increases and surrounding tissue degrades, leading to altered collagen balance in the tissues. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The synovial membrane is composed of adipose and fibrous tissue, they have a smooth non-adherent surface that allows easy movement between tissues. (scopeheal.com)
  • The presence of the SYT-SSX fusion transcript enables specific and sensitive molecular diagnosis of synovial sarcoma, being detectable in almost all synovial sarcoma tissues [ 9 , 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) converting enzyme contributes to production of TNF-alpha in synovial tissues from patients with rheumatoid arthritis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A two-part extracellular membrane found at the interface between some tissues, e.g., skin and dermis. (tabers.com)
  • MSCs can be obtained from several tissues including bone marrow, synovial membrane, blood, adipose tissue and periosteum. (cellbiopharm.com)
  • In severe cases of synovial chondromatosis, the loose bodies may grow large enough to occupy the entire joint space or penetrate into adjacent tissues. (aaos.org)
  • The other hand, on the hyperplastic synovial tissues in these disease m-RNA production could be recognized with in-situ-hybridization. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Septic arthritis is an infection in the joint (synovial) fluid and joint tissues. (stlouischildrens.org)
  • The text describes the neoplasms of synovial membrane and tendon sheaths. (elsevier.com)
  • The opposed surfaces are lined with synovial membrane , the secretion from which oils the sheaths in which the tendons move. (dictionary.com)
  • Kanwar YS, Farquhar MG (1979) Presence of heparan sulfate in the glomerular basement membrane. (springer.com)
  • Ashworth CT, Erdmann RR, Arnold NJ (1960) Age changes in the renal basement membrane in rats. (springer.com)
  • Kilo C, Vogler N, Williamson JR (1972) Muscle capillary basement membrane changes related to aging and to diabetes mellitus. (springer.com)
  • The proportion of these two collagens is unchanged in rheumatoid synovium but in addition a small amount of basement membrane collagen is present. (portlandpress.com)
  • The basement membrane is made of a basal lamina along the cell surfaces, coated by a stronger collagen-rich layer (reticular lamina). (tabers.com)
  • Bowman's membrane a thin layer of basement membrane between the outer layer of stratified epithelium and the substantia propria of the cornea. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Schumacher HR Jr (1975) Synovial membrane and fluid morphologic alterations in early rheumatoid arthritis. (springer.com)
  • Simmling-Annefeld M, Fassbender HG (1979) Transformation of the capillary wall elements in synovial tissue in rheumatoid arthritis. (springer.com)
  • Changes in lymphocyte infiltration of the synovial membrane and the clinical course of rheumatoid arthritis. (nih.gov)
  • Multiple samples of synovial membrane were obtained by needle biopsy from 24 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) before, and 1 year after, standard antirheumatic drug therapy was given. (nih.gov)
  • To evaluate the synovial membrane volume, determined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), as a marker of joint disease activity and a predictor of progressive joint destruction in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). (nih.gov)
  • The mode of action of d-penicillamine in rheumatoid arthritis does not appear to involve a direct effect on the synovial membrane collagen. (portlandpress.com)
  • To investigate the follow-up of the 17 patients during the period of 1995-2001 of the outpatient Clinic for Rheumatology at the University Hospital of Zurich with arthritis and the presence of parvovirus B19 DNA demonstrated by PCR in synovial biopsies. (uzh.ch)
  • Seventeen patients of 163 with arthritis, which were routinely examined by needle arthroscopy during 1995-2001 with a positive parvovirus B19 DNA by PCR of synovial biopsy were reevaluated. (uzh.ch)
  • The presence of parvovirus B19 DNA in synovial tissue of patients with joint inflammation does not allow the diagnosis of parvovirus induced arthritis. (uzh.ch)
  • Anticoagulant antibodies in the synovial membranes of patients suffering from haemophilia, rheumatoid arthritis and other rheumatic disorders. (bmj.com)
  • Objective: Using specific PDE4 inhibitors, roflumilast plus two novel inhibitors, INH 0061 and INH 0062, the authors studied the effect of PDE4 inhibition on proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine release from primary rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synovial digest suspensions and in a macrophage T cell co-culture assay system. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Retroviral gene transfer of an antisense construct against membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase reduces the invasiveness of rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts. (docme.ru)
  • Selective blockade of tumor necrosis factor receptor I inhibits proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine production in human rheumatoid arthritis synovial membrane cell cultures. (ox.ac.uk)
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine whether selective blockade of tumor necrosis factor receptor I (TNFRI) affects spontaneous proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine production in ex vivo-cultured human rheumatoid arthritis synovial membrane mononuclear cells (MNCs) and to compare this response to that of TNF ligand blockade using etanercept. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Interleukin-6 localisation in the synovial membrane in rheumatoid arthritis. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Sections of synovial membrane from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) were stained with these antibodies, using an immunoperoxidase technique, and cells containing IL-6 were domonstrated in the thickened synovial lining layer and also in a perivascular distribution in the deeper synovium. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Synovial histopathology of psoriatic arthritis, both oligo-and polyarticular, resembles spondyloarthropathy more than it does rheumatoid arthritis. (springer.com)
  • Analysis of the cellular infiltrates and expression of cytokines in synovial tissue from patients with rheumatoid arthritis and reactive arthritis. (springer.com)
  • Detailed analysis of the cell infiltrate and the expression of mediators of synovial inflammation and joint destruction in the synovium of patients with psoriatic arthritis: implications for treatment. (springer.com)
  • Diagnostic usefulness of synovial vascular morphology in chronic arthritis. (springer.com)
  • Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) 4 is characterized by the persistent accumulation of T cells within the synovial compartment ( 1 , 2 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Tumor necrosis factor-inhibiting therapy preferentially targets bone destruction but not synovial inflammation in a tumor necrosis factor-driven model of rheumatoid arthritis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In the hTNF-transgenic mouse model of destructive arthritis, low-dose TNF-inhibiting therapy with adalimumab had no effect on synovial inflammation but significantly inhibited local bone destruction and the generation of osteoclasts. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Detection of tumor necrosis factor a but not tumor necrosis factor $\beta$ in rheumatoid arthritis synovial fluid and serum. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • A decreased amount of glucose in the synovial fluid can be associated with joint diseases, especially septic and immune-mediated arthritis. (scopeheal.com)
  • Synovial membranes are subject to diseases and injuries and are the main target in rheumatoid arthritis. (scopeheal.com)
  • Fibrin deimination in synovial tissue is not specific for rheumatoid arthritis but commonly occurs during synovitides. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Determination of the synovial membrane volume in the rheumatoid arthritis (RA) wrist by gadolinium-DTPA-enhanced MRI is introduced. (ku.dk)
  • Membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase is a crucial promoter of synovial invasion in human rheumatoid arthritis. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Introduction Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory and destructive joint disease characterized by overexpression of pro-inflammatory/pro-destructive genes and other activating genes (for example, proto-oncogenes) in the synovial membrane (SM). (exlibrisgroup.com)
  • This membrane of granulated tissue forms most often as a result of rheumatoid arthritis, in which the condition is called a rheumatoid pannus . (upmc.com)
  • 5. These findings suggest that there is local production of fibronectin by the synovium and suggest that measurement of fibronectin levels in the synovial fluid may serve as an indicator of the tissue response to rheumatoid arthritis. (portlandpress.com)
  • Synovial cysts are more common in older adults and people with joint conditions such as arthritis . (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The synovial fluid is composed mainly of hyaluronic acid, glycoproteins and transudate capillaries within the synovial membrane. (scopeheal.com)
  • Hyaluronic acid is a major component of synovial fluid that coats and lubricates joint surfaces to reduce friction between bones during movement. (platinumperformance.com)
  • JOINT synovial fluid is considered to be a dialysate of blood with added mucin, which consists of hyaluronic acid 1 . (nature.com)
  • [ 4 ] The latter theory postulated that local tissue trauma or irritation causes production of hyaluronic acid at the synovial-capsular interface. (medscape.com)
  • Macrophages (Mɸ) are one of the resident cell types in synovial tissue, along with fibroblasts. (frontiersin.org)
  • Synovial membrane is not lined by an epithelium, but is composed of fine, compact connective tissue of variable cellularity 2 , the cells being indistinguishable from fibroblasts by electron microscopy 3 . (nature.com)
  • Freshly isolated rheumatoid synovial tissue and isolated RA synovial fibroblasts invaded into a 3-D collagen matrix in an MT1-MMP-dependent manner. (ox.ac.uk)
  • These results suggest that the persistent induction of CXCR4 on synovial T cells by TGF-β1 leads to their active, SDF-1-mediated retention in a perivascular distribution within the rheumatoid synovium. (jimmunol.org)
  • These observations led us to propose that failure of synovial T cell apoptosis coupled to enhanced recruitment leads to accumulation of these cells within the rheumatoid synovium ( 5 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The undersurface of the joint capsule is lined by a thin membrane called the synovium . (aaos.org)
  • Definition: The synovial membrane (MS) covers the internal surface of the fibrous joint capsule and only 4 deep cells. (scopeheal.com)
  • The other membrane is the outer fibrous tendon sheath. (wikipedia.org)
  • This observation probably reflects that HFUS identifies synovial thickening without differentiating actively inflamed or fibrous tissue. (jrheum.org)
  • 1. a membrane between the outer root sheath and inner fibrous layer of a hair follicle. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • hyoglossal membrane a fibrous lamina connecting the undersurface of the tongue with the hyoid bone. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • G, Histologic section of the synovial membrane shows a partial transformation from the fibrous connective tissue to the cartilaginous tissue, or chondrometaplasia (hematoxylin-eosin, original magnification × 300). (ajnr.org)
  • [1] Each joint capsule has two parts: an outer fibrous layer or membrane, and an inner synovial layer or membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fibrous membrane of the joint capsule is attached to the whole circumference of the articular end of each bone entering into the joint, and thus entirely surrounds the articulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • These complaints are often caused by the excessive amount of synovial fluid accumulated in the bursae around the knee joint. (getprolo.com)
  • 2 Gómez-Aristizábal A, Sharma A, Bakooshli MA, Kapoor M, Gilbert PM, Viswanathan S, Gandhi R. Stage-specific differences in secretory profile of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) subjected to early- vs late-stage OA synovial fluid. (getprolo.com)
  • Culture of mesenchymal stem cells derived from equine synovial membrane in alginate hydrogel microcapsules. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The connective-tissue membrane that lines the cavity of a synovial joint and produces the synovial fluid. (dictionary.com)
  • Any of several membranes formed of elastic connective tissue fibers. (tabers.com)
  • it contains a small amount of synovial fluid. (drugs.com)
  • Summary: Two cases of synovial chondromatosis of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) are presented, including correlation of CT and MR imaging characteristics with surgical and pathologic findings. (ajnr.org)
  • Publications] Shigeyuki Fujita: 'Transforming growth factor and tenascin in synovial chondromatosis of the temporomandibular joint' Int.J.Oral Maxillofac Surg. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Dryll A, Lansaman J, Cazalis P, Peltier AP, DeSeze S (1977) Light and electron microscopy study of capillaries in normal and inflammatory human synovial membrane. (springer.com)
  • Background Manual outlining of the synovial membrane on MR images in inflammatory joint diseases is too time consuming for clinical use. (bmj.com)
  • Objectives The purpose was to introduce a less time-consuming stereologic method for measuring synovial volume by MRI in inflammatory joint diseases. (bmj.com)
  • We have previously shown that in rheumatoid synovial membrane cultures, a complex, but pathophysiologically relevant mixture of cells, the addition of a neutralizing anti TNF-alpha antibody inhibits the production of IL-1 and GM-CSF, indicating the presence of a cytokine 'cascade' in this inflammatory tissue. (nih.gov)
  • Conclusion: These data provide direct evidence of PDE4-dependent pathways in human RA synovial inflammatory cytokine and chemokine release and may provide a novel approach in treating chronic autoimmune conditions such as RA. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Synovial macrophages are one of the resident cell types in synovial tissue and while they remain relatively quiescent in the healthy joint, they become activated in the inflamed joint and, along with infiltrating monocytes/macrophages, regulate secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and enzymes involved in driving the inflammatory response and joint destruction. (frontiersin.org)
  • Whereas inflammatory synovial macrophages have not yet been classified into one phenotype or another it is widely known that TNFα and IL-l, characteristically released by M1 macrophages, are abundant in RA while IL-10 activity, characteristic of M2 macrophages, is somewhat diminished. (frontiersin.org)
  • Nevertheless, in addition to the fairly rare kind of erosive inflammatory OA which obviously shows a solid inflammatory component, specific sufferers with OA display inflammatory infiltrates in the synovial membrane (SM) (15, buy TG-101348 17, 23, 28). (nu7026.com)
  • Since simvastatin has been reported to have anti-inflammatory effects in RA patients and TLR8 signalling contributes to TNF production in human RA synovial tissue in culture, simvastatin was tested in these cultures. (sussex.ac.uk)
  • 3. Plasma and synovial fluid fibronectin levels were not related to indices of inflammatory activity such as the erythrocyte sedimentation rate, the Ritchie articular index or synovial fluid cell counts. (portlandpress.com)
  • Histological analysis of rheumatoid synovial membranes with an Ab to citrulline showed labeling of interstitial amorphous deposits and mononuclear cells of various types. (jimmunol.org)
  • These results add to histological evidence confirming that TGF-beta 1 is present in RA synovial cells and those from other arthritides. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Wick G, Honigsmann H, Timpl R (1979) Immunofluorescence demonstration of type IV collagen and a noncollagenous glycoprotein in thickened vascular basal membranes in protoporphyria. (springer.com)
  • 1. Normal synovial membrane contains approximately equal proportions of two genetically distinct forms of collagen, types I and III. (portlandpress.com)
  • It comprises two layers, the basal lamina and the reticular lamina , and is composed of Type IV collagen (which is unique to basement membranes), laminin, fibronectin, and heparan sulfate proteoglycans. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The aim of this study was to explore the role of one of the collagen-degrading matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), membrane type 1 MMP (MT1-MMP), in synovial pannus invasiveness. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The ingrowth of synovial membrane may fill up the cavity of the joint, or may divide it up into compartments. (dictionary.com)
  • membrane /mem·brane/ (mem´brÄ n) a thin layer of tissue that covers a surface, lines a cavity, or divides a space or organ. (drugline.org)
  • The synovial membrane has the function of providing joint lubrication, limiting friction and cleaning the joint cavity, determining what can enter the joint cavity and which must remain outside. (scopeheal.com)
  • In the embryo, the membrane that separates the oral cavity from the foregut until the fourth week of development. (tabers.com)
  • To date, few data have directly addressed whether synovial cytokine and chemokine production is modified by PDE4. (gla.ac.uk)
  • TGF-beta 1 was found predominantly in the thickened synovial lining layer in RA, but also detected in a perivascular pattern in the synovial interstitium as well as in occasional cells in the lymphoid aggregates. (ox.ac.uk)
  • As explained by Johns Hopkins, the synovial membrane is tissue that lines the joint and seals it into a joint capsule. (reference.com)
  • The synovial membrane is the inner membrane of tissue that lines a joint. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Measurement of cytokine and adhesion molecule expression in synovial tissue by digital image analysis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Expression of the activation antigen CD97 and its ligand CD55 in rheumatoid synovial tissue. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Studies of isolated synovial living cells of rheumatoid and nonrheumatoid synovial membranes. (nih.gov)
  • Following exposure to the osteoarthritic synovial fluid and a three day culture period, the stem cells secreted proteins involved in tissue repair, angiogenesis (development of new blood vessels), chemotaxis (migration of cells to the injured tissue), matrix remodeling (wound healing) and the clotting process. (getprolo.com)
  • The cytokine interactions are unidirectional, in that neutralization of TNF-alpha reduced IL-1 beta, IL-6 and IL-8 production, whereas treatment of the rheumatoid synovial membrane cells with a neutralizing concentration of the IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) reduced IL-6 and IL-8 production but not TNF-alpha production. (nih.gov)
  • Double-staining techniques with mouse monoclonal antibodies against cell subset markers in five RA synovial membranes showed that up to 13% of T-cells and 19% of antibody-producing cells stained for IL-6. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Infiltration of the synovival membrane with macrophage subsets and polymorphonuclear cells reflects global disease activity in spondyloarthropathy. (springer.com)
  • We show that synovial T cells, which are primed CD45RO + CD45RB dull cells and consequently not expected to express constitutive chemokine receptors, have high levels of the chemokine receptor CXCR4. (jimmunol.org)
  • Sustained expression of CXCR4 was maintained on synovial T cells by specific factors present within the synovial microenvironment. (jimmunol.org)
  • We found SDF-1 on synovial endothelial cells and showed that SDF-1 was able to induce strong integrin-mediated adhesion of synovial fluid T cells to fibronectin and ICAM-1, confirming that CXCR4 expressed on synovial T cells was functional. (jimmunol.org)
  • Synovial T cells are highly differentiated and are almost exclusively of the primed CD45RO + CD45RB dull phenotype ( 3 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Synovial T cells synthesize few cytokines at very low levels and respond poorly to stimulation in vitro ( 2 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Rheumatoid synovial T cells are highly susceptible to apoptosis in vitro, which reflects their advanced state of differentiation ( 4 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • This inhibition was accompanied by a reduction in the number of c-Fms-positive osteoclast precursor cells in the bone marrow and a reduction of the osteoclast precursor pools in the blood and inflamed synovial membrane of hTNF-transgenic mice. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the Effects of Trachelospermum caulis extract on SNP-induced infla mMatory responses in rabbit HIG-82 synovial membrane cells. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Methods Anti-infla mMatory effects of the extract of Trachelospermum caulis were investigated using rabbit HIG-82 synovial membrane cells. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Results The aqueous extract of Trachelospermum caulis exerted cytotoxicity and suppressed PGE2 synthesis and NO production in rabbit HIG-82 synovial membrane cells. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • The aqueous extract of Trachelospermum caulis also inhibited the SNP-induced expressions of COX-2, iNOS, and TNF- $\alpha$ in rabbit HIG-82 synovial membrane cells. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Conclusions These results showed that the extract of Trachelospermum caulis exerts the anti-infla mMatory effect by suppressing COX-2, iNOS, and TNF- $\alpha$ expressions in the synovial membrane cells. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Microvesicle release of synovial sarcoma cells was examined by transmission electron microscopy. (hindawi.com)
  • Whole blood RNA, RNA of mononuclear cells, and microvesicle RNA of synovial sarcoma patients were analyzed for the presence of the fusion gene transcripts. (hindawi.com)
  • Electron microscopic analysis revealed synovial sarcoma cells releasing membrane-enclosed microvesicles. (hindawi.com)
  • In vitro , the SYT-SSX fusion gene transcript was detected in both synovial sarcoma cells and microvesicles. (hindawi.com)
  • In contrast, the fusion gene transcript was not detected in peripheral blood cells and microvesicles of synovial sarcoma patients. (hindawi.com)
  • Synovial sarcoma cells release microvesicles harboring the SYT-SSX fusion transcript. (hindawi.com)
  • This fusion transcript competes for assembly with wild-type SS18, forming an altered complex lacking the tumor suppressor BAF47 (hSNF5), resulting in Sox2 activation and leading to proliferation of synovial sarcoma tumor cells [ 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Interestingly, while expression of the SYT-SSX2 oncoprotein leads to induction of synovial sarcoma with 100% penetrance in immature myoblasts, its expression in more differentiated cells induces myopathy without tumor induction in a mouse model [ 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Synovial membranes that indicated IL-2 and IFN- transcripts were more likely to have heavier infiltrations of T cells and cells bearing activation markers than synovial membranes that did not communicate these cytokines. (nu7026.com)
  • Although bone marrow is considered a good and acceptable source of stem cells, the synovial membrane and its fluid are tissue-specific, which leads to a chondrogenic and expansion potential greater than other sources. (beds.ac.uk)
  • The arachnoid membrane is 5-6 cells thick. (tabers.com)
  • It may be primary (formed by egg itself, as in vitelline membrane), secondary (formed by follicle cells, as in zona pellucida), or tertiary (formed by oviduct or uterus, as in albumin and shell of hen's egg). (tabers.com)
  • A membrane formed from excessive proliferation of retinal pigment epithelial cells and extracellular proteins on the retinal surface. (tabers.com)
  • METHODS: The expression and localization of MT1-MMP in human RA pannus were investigated by Western blot analysis of primary synovial cells and immunohistochemical analysis of RA joint specimens. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The cells staining for TGF-beta 1 were identified by double immunofluorescence staining as being from the monocyte/macrophage series as well as the type B synovial lining cells. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The distributions of TGF-beta 1 in RA synovial membrane reflects its known actions, as it can be detected at the CPJ, where it could induce repair, and close to activated cells upon which it may exert an immunosuppressive action. (ox.ac.uk)
  • it is a thin hyaline membrane between the substantia propria and the endothelial layer of the cornea. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A synovial biopsy is the removal of a piece of tissue lining a joint for examination. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Synovial biopsy helps diagnose gout and bacterial infections, or rule out other infections. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Synovial fluid analyses, synovial biopsy, and synovial pathology. (floridahealthfinder.gov)
  • Technical validation of cDNA based microarray as screening technique to identify candidate genes in synovial tissue biopsy specimens from patients with spondyloarthropathy. (semanticscholar.org)
  • It is a tissue that acts as a cushion, but more importantly, the membrane secretes a lubricant that allows the two bones to move freely against each other. (wisegeekhealth.com)
  • The synovial membrane secretes synovial fluid which serves to lubricate the joint. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The synovial membrane secretes synovial fluid (a clear, sticky fluid) around the joint to lubricate it. (rochester.edu)
  • Conversely, disease in the synovial membrane may spread to the bone in relation to it. (dictionary.com)
  • Bone erosion (by MRI and radiography) and synovial membrane volumes (by MRI) were assessed. (nih.gov)
  • The synovial fluid nourishes the loose bodies and they may grow, calcify (harden), or ossify (turn into bone). (aaos.org)
  • This tissue will spread from the synovial membrane, causing considerable destruction as it invades the subchondral bone. (upmc.com)
  • The knee joint is the most common location for synovial chondromatosis. (aaos.org)
  • 6. Moon NF: Synovial hemangioma of the knee joint: A review of previously reported cases and inclusion of two new cases. (orthogate.org)
  • What is an epiretinal membrane? (reference.com)
  • An epiretinal membrane is a thin sheet of tissue that can grow on the macula, according to the Eye Institute. (reference.com)
  • The volume is related to clinical signs of inflammation, but may also give information about the cumulated synovial proliferation in the joint. (ku.dk)
  • The aim of this study was to determine the differentiation, characterization and proliferation of synovial membrane-derived MSCs (SM-MSCs). (cellbiopharm.com)
  • An example is the common synovial sheath for the flexor tendons of the hand. (wikipedia.org)
  • The synovial membrane is thickened and there is an exudation of serum. (dictionary.com)
  • Synovial tissue and serum was extracted at 4 and 21 d after operation. (bvsalud.org)
  • after that, we found that DMEM medium with 10% fetal bovine serum (BSA) was best to culture TMJ synovial cell. (nii.ac.jp)
  • 11. McCarthy EF, Dorfman HD: Primary synovial chondromatosis: An ultrastructural study. (orthogate.org)
  • Ortho-Chon® HA is a potent joint support formula that also helps maintain the synovial fluid that lubricates. (platinumperformance.com)
  • Modulation of proinflammatory cytokine release in rheumatoid synovial membrane cell cultures. (nih.gov)
  • Most of the ligaments are found exterior to the synovial membrane . (dictionary.com)
  • The synovial membrane swells and produces extra fluid that causes the ligaments to stretch around the joint. (scopeheal.com)
  • abstract = "This paper describes the immunohistochemical techniques which can be used to detect cytokines and cell adhesion molecules in synovial membrane tissue, including a list of reagents and possible problems in each technique. (edu.au)
  • alveolar-capillary membrane ( alveolocapillary membrane ) a thin tissue barrier through which gases are exchanged between the alveolar air and the blood in the pulmonary capillaries. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The membrane through which gases must pass as they diffuse from air to blood (oxygen) or blood to air (carbon dioxide), including the alveolar fluid and surfactant, cell of the alveolar wall, interstitial space (tissue fluid), and cell of the capillary wall. (tabers.com)
  • c, ligament covered by the synovial membrane. (usf.edu)
  • The membrane extending from the tympanic lip of the osseous spiral lamina to the crest of the spiral ligament in the cochlea of the ear. (tabers.com)
  • The synovial membrane is thickened, slightly injected, and its fringes hypertrophied and more vascular than normally. (dictionary.com)
  • In regard to the MSCs derived from synovial fluid (SF) or membrane (SM), there is data available for humans, dogs, pigs, goats and horses. (beds.ac.uk)
  • 4. Coventry MB, Harrison EG Jr., Martin JF: Benign synovial tumors of the knee: A diagnostic problem. (orthogate.org)
  • Synovial chondromatosis is a benign tumorlike disorder of the joint characterized by chondrometaplasia of the synovial membrane, in which cartilaginous nodules form and may become pedunculated and/or detach from the synovial membrane, becoming loose bodies within the joint space. (ajnr.org)
  • These histopathologic findings were consistent with a diagnosis of synovial chondromatosis. (ajnr.org)
  • A series of clinical and radiologic findings supported a diagnosis of synovial chondromatosis of the left TMJ. (ajnr.org)