Cell membranes associated with synapses. Both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes are included along with their integral or tightly associated specializations for the release or reception of transmitters.
Thin layers of tissue which cover parts of the body, separate adjacent cavities, or connect adjacent structures.
Pinched-off nerve endings and their contents of vesicles and cytoplasm together with the attached subsynaptic area of the membrane of the post-synaptic cell. They are largely artificial structures produced by fractionation after selective centrifugation of nervous tissue homogenates.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
Cell surface receptors that bind signalling molecules released by neurons and convert these signals into intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Neurotransmitter is used here in its most general sense, including not only messengers that act to regulate ion channels, but also those which act on second messenger systems and those which may act at a distance from their release sites. Included are receptors for neuromodulators, neuroregulators, neuromediators, and neurohumors, whether or not located at synapses.
One of the endogenous pentapeptides with morphine-like activity. It differs from MET-ENKEPHALIN in the LEUCINE at position 5. Its first four amino acid sequence is identical to the tetrapeptide sequence at the N-terminal of BETA-ENDORPHIN.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Venoms from animals of the phylum Arthropoda. Those most investigated are from scorpions and spiders of the class Arachnidae and from ant, bee, and wasp families of the Insecta order Hymenoptera. The venoms contain protein toxins, enzymes, and other bioactive substances and may be lethal to man.
Enzyme that is a major constituent of kidney brush-border membranes and is also present to a lesser degree in the brain and other tissues. It preferentially catalyzes cleavage at the amino group of hydrophobic residues of the B-chain of insulin as well as opioid peptides and other biologically active peptides. The enzyme is inhibited primarily by EDTA, phosphoramidon, and thiorphan and is reactivated by zinc. Neprilysin is identical to common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen (CALLA Antigen), an important marker in the diagnosis of human acute lymphocytic leukemia. There is no relationship with CALLA PLANT.
Membrane-bound compartments which contain transmitter molecules. Synaptic vesicles are concentrated at presynaptic terminals. They actively sequester transmitter molecules from the cytoplasm. In at least some synapses, transmitter release occurs by fusion of these vesicles with the presynaptic membrane, followed by exocytosis of their contents.
The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
The motion of phospholipid molecules within the lipid bilayer, dependent on the classes of phospholipids present, their fatty acid composition and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains, the cholesterol concentration, and temperature.
Derivatives of GLUTAMIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-aminopentanedioic acid structure.
Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.
Venoms from snakes of the family Elapidae, including cobras, kraits, mambas, coral, tiger, and Australian snakes. The venoms contain polypeptide toxins of various kinds, cytolytic, hemolytic, and neurotoxic factors, but fewer enzymes than viper or crotalid venoms. Many of the toxins have been characterized.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
Cell-surface proteins that bind glutamate and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glutamate receptors include ionotropic receptors (AMPA, kainate, and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors), which directly control ion channels, and metabotropic receptors which act through second messenger systems. Glutamate receptors are the most common mediators of fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. They have also been implicated in the mechanisms of memory and of many diseases.
A darkly stained mat-like EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM) that separates cell layers, such as EPITHELIUM from ENDOTHELIUM or a layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The ECM layer that supports an overlying EPITHELIUM or ENDOTHELIUM is called basal lamina. Basement membrane (BM) can be formed by the fusion of either two adjacent basal laminae or a basal lamina with an adjacent reticular lamina of connective tissue. BM, composed mainly of TYPE IV COLLAGEN; glycoprotein LAMININ; and PROTEOGLYCAN, provides barriers as well as channels between interacting cell layers.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
A benzodiazepine with pharmacologic actions similar to those of DIAZEPAM that can cause ANTEROGRADE AMNESIA. Some reports indicate that it is used as a date rape drug and suggest that it may precipitate violent behavior. The United States Government has banned the importation of this drug.
A salt used to replenish calcium levels, as an acid-producing diuretic, and as an antidote for magnesium poisoning.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
Cell surface proteins that bind acetylcholine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Cholinergic receptors are divided into two major classes, muscarinic and nicotinic, based originally on their affinity for nicotine and muscarine. Each group is further subdivided based on pharmacology, location, mode of action, and/or molecular biology.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by their affinity for the agonist AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid).
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
A group of fatty acids that contain 18 carbon atoms and a double bond at the omega 9 carbon.
Neurotoxic proteins from the venom of the banded or Formosan krait (Bungarus multicinctus, an elapid snake). alpha-Bungarotoxin blocks nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and has been used to isolate and study them; beta- and gamma-bungarotoxins act presynaptically causing acetylcholine release and depletion. Both alpha and beta forms have been characterized, the alpha being similar to the large, long or Type II neurotoxins from other elapid venoms.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphoglycerides or glycerophosphatidates. EC 3.1.-.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Proteins which contain carbohydrate groups attached covalently to the polypeptide chain. The protein moiety is the predominant group with the carbohydrate making up only a small percentage of the total weight.
Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The two lipoprotein layers in the MITOCHONDRION. The outer membrane encloses the entire mitochondrion and contains channels with TRANSPORT PROTEINS to move molecules and ions in and out of the organelle. The inner membrane folds into cristae and contains many ENZYMES important to cell METABOLISM and energy production (MITOCHONDRIAL ATP SYNTHASE).
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.
Quantitative determination of receptor (binding) proteins in body fluids or tissue using radioactively labeled binding reagents (e.g., antibodies, intracellular receptors, plasma binders).
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and contain an integral membrane chloride channel. Each receptor is assembled as a pentamer from a pool of at least 19 different possible subunits. The receptors belong to a superfamily that share a common CYSTEINE loop.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize biosynthesis or actions of proteases (ENDOPEPTIDASES).
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
The distal terminations of axons which are specialized for the release of neurotransmitters. Also included are varicosities along the course of axons which have similar specializations and also release transmitters. Presynaptic terminals in both the central and peripheral nervous systems are included.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The thin layers of tissue that surround the developing embryo. There are four extra-embryonic membranes commonly found in VERTEBRATES, such as REPTILES; BIRDS; and MAMMALS. They are the YOLK SAC, the ALLANTOIS, the AMNION, and the CHORION. These membranes provide protection and means to transport nutrients and wastes.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.

Bound forms of Ca taken up by the synaptic plasma membrane. (1/900)

Temperature dependent Ca-binding by the synaptic plasma membrane was increased in the presence of ATP and Mg++. Apparent Km for ATP was about 2.8 X 10(-5) M and optimal concentration of Mg++ was 2 mM in the presence of 2 mM ATP. After preincubation with nonradioactive Ca++, ATP and Mg++ to attain a steady state, addition of 45Ca resulted in remarkable labelling of the membrane, indicating rapid turnover of most of the membrane bound Ca. The presence of oxalate (60 mM) greatly increased Ca up-take on prolonged incubation. The Ca uptake in presence and absence of oxalate had similar substrate specificity and was similarly influenced by various monovalent cations. Furthermore, activities for Ca-uptake in the presence and absence of oxalate could not be separated by sucrose density gradient centrifugation of the synaptic plasma membrane fraction. Accordingly, it was considered that Ca++ in the medium was taken up by surface of the membrane, ATP- and temperature-dependently and then transferred into a cavity where the Ca-oxalate complex is formed.  (+info)

Rapid dendritic morphogenesis in CA1 hippocampal dendrites induced by synaptic activity. (2/900)

Activity shapes the structure of neurons and their circuits. Two-photon imaging of CA1 neurons expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein in developing hippocampal slices from rat brains was used to characterize dendritic morphogenesis in response to synaptic activity. High-frequency focal synaptic stimulation induced a period (longer than 30 minutes) of enhanced growth of small filopodia-like protrusions (typically less than 5 micrometers long). Synaptically evoked growth was long-lasting and localized to dendritic regions close (less than 50 micrometers) to the stimulating electrode and was prevented by blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. Thus, synaptic activation can produce rapid input-specific changes in dendritic structure. Such persistent structural changes could contribute to the development of neural circuitry.  (+info)

In vivo modulation of rodent glutathione and its role in peroxynitrite-induced neocortical synaptosomal membrane protein damage. (3/900)

Peroxynitrite, formed by the reaction between nitric oxide and superoxide, leads to the oxidation of proteins, lipids, and DNA, and nitrates thiols such as cysteine and glutathione, and amino acids like tyrosine. Previous in vitro studies have shown glutathione to be an efficient scavenger of peroxynitrite, protecting synaptosomal membranes from protein oxidation, the enzyme glutamine synthetase from inactivation, and preventing the death of hippocampal neurons in culture. The current study was undertaken to see if in vivo modulation of glutathione levels would affect brain cortical synaptosomal membrane proteins and their subsequent reaction with peroxynitrite. Glutathione levels were depleted, in vivo, by injecting animals with 2-cyclohexen-1-one (CHX, 100 mg/kg body weight), and levels of glutathione were enhanced by injecting animals with N-acetylcysteine (NAC, 200 mg/kg body weight), which gets metabolized to cysteine, a precursor of glutathione. Changes in membrane protein conformation and structure in synaptosomes subsequently isolated from these animals were examined using electron paramagnetic resonance, before and after in vitro addition of peroxynitrite. The animals injected with the glutathione depletant CHX showed greater damage to the membrane proteins both before and after peroxynitrite treatment, compared to the non-injected controls. The membrane proteins from animals injected with NAC were comparable to controls before peroxynitrite treatment and were partially protected against peroxynitrite-induced damage. This study showed that modulation of endogenous glutathione levels can affect the degree of peroxynitrite-induced brain membrane damage and may have potential therapeutic significance for oxidative stress-associated neurodegenerative disorders.  (+info)

Diversity of thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptors in the pituitary and discrete brain regions of rats. (4/900)

In order to analyze the receptor properties of central nervous system (CNS)-stimulant thyrotropin-releasing hormone (L-pyroglutamyl-L-histidyl-L-prolinamide, TRH), we evaluated the binding of TRH and its analog taltirelin hydrate ((-)-N-[(S)-hexahydro-1-methyl-2,6-dioxo-4-pyrimidinylcarbonyl]-L- histidyl-L-prolinamide tetrahydrate; taltirelin, TA-0910) in rat anterior pituitary and several brain regions. There was a specific binding of [3H]methyl TRH (MeTRH) in the anterior pituitary, hypothalamus, brain stem, cerebral cortex and cerebellum with Kd values of 1.0-1.6 nM. The inhibition of [3H]MeTRH binding by TRH and taltirelin was monophasic in the anterior pituitary, hypothalamus and brain stem with Ki values of 6.3-8.0 nM and 145.5-170.4 nM for TRH and taltirelin, respectively. In contrast, the biphasic inhibition was revealed in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum. The Ki values for TRH and taltirelin were 4.1-4.3 nM and 67.8-73.4 nM for the high affinity binding site and 3.6-4.2 microM and 82.3-197.5 microM for the low affinity binding site, respectively. Addition of 100 microM GTP or its analog 5'-guanylylimidodiphosphate (Gpp[NH]p) affected neither the biphasic inhibition by TRH nor that by taltirelin. Thus the results suggest the presence of distinct high and low affinity TRH receptors in the CNS in contrast to the pituitary.  (+info)

Studies of excitable membranes. II. A comparison of specializations at neuromuscular junctions and nonjunctional sarcolemmas of mammalian fast and slow twitch muscle fibers. (5/900)

Mammalian fast and slow twitch skeletal muscles are compared by freeze-fracture, thick and thin sectioning, and histochemical techniques using conventional and high voltage electron microscopy. Despite gross morphological differences in endplate structure visualized at relatively low magnifications in this sections, rat extensor digitorum longus (EDL) (fast twitch) and soleus (slow twitch) fibers cannot be distinguished on the basis of size, number, or distribution of molecular specializations of the pre- and postsynaptic junctional membranes exposed by freeze fracturing. Specializations in the cortex of the juxtaneuronal portions of the junctional folds are revealed by high voltage electron stereomicroscopy as a branching, ladder-like filamentous network associated with the putative acetylcholline receptor complexes. These filaments are considered to be involved in restricting the mobility of receptor proteins to the perineuronal aspects of the postynaptic membrane. Although the junctional membranes of both EDL and soleus appear similar, a differential specialization of the secondary synaptic cleft was noted. The extracellular matrix in the bottom of soleus clefts was observed as an ordered system of filamentous "combs," These filamentous arrays have not been detected in EDL junctions. Examination of the extrajunctional sarcolemmas of EDL and soleus reveal additional differences which may be correlated with variations in electrical and contractile properties. For example, particle aggregates termed "square arrays" previously described in the sarcolemmas of some fibers of the rat diaphragm were observed in large numbers in sarcolemmas of EDL fibers but were seldom encountered in soleus fibers. These gross compositional differences in the membranes are discussed in the light of functional differences between fiber types.  (+info)

Effects of specific modifications of several hydroxyls of tetrodotoxin on its affinity to rat brain membrane. (6/900)

The widely used sodium channel blocker tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a compound that has six hydroxyl residues at the C-4, C-6, C-8, C-9, C-10, and C-11 positions in addition to a guanidinium group, which is positively charged in biological pH range. Thirteen analogs of this toxin with structural modifications involving one or more of these hydroxyls were examined on their affinity to a rat brain membrane preparation, which is known to contain sodium channels abundantly. The equilibrium dissociation constants associated with the binding of TTX and its analogs to the sodium channels were estimated, from their ability to inhibit the binding of [3H]saxitoxin, as follows (in nM): TTX, 1.8; chiriquitoxin, 1.0; 11-oxoTTX, 1.5; 11-norTTX-6,6-diol, 1.6; 11-norTTX-6(S)-ol, 23; 11-norTTX-6(R)-ol, 31; 11-deoxyTTX, 37; 6-epiTTX, 39; 4-epiTTX, 68; 4,9-anhydroTTX, 180; TTX-8-O-hemisuccinate, >380; TTX-11-carboxylic acid, >2300; tetrodonic acid, >3600; 5,6,11-trideoxyTTX, >5000. The reduction of the affinity observed with the analogs involving reduction or translocation of the hydroxyls at C-6 and C-11 is indicative of the contribution of these residues to the binding to sodium channels as hydrogen bond donors. The especially large value of the dissociation constant for TTX-11-carboxylic acid is consistent with the idea that the C-11-hydroxyl forms a hydrogen bond with a carboxylic acid residue of the channel protein. The markedly low affinity of TTX-8-O-hemisuccinate may possibly be ascribable to intramolecular salt-bridge formation, which neutralizes the positive charge of the guanidinium group.  (+info)

Empty synaptic vesicles recycle and undergo exocytosis at vesamicol-treated motor nerve terminals. (7/900)

We investigated whether recycled cholinergic synaptic vesicles, which were not refilled with ACh, would join other synaptic vesicles in the readily releasable store near active zones, dock, and continue to undergo exocytosis during prolonged stimulation. Snake nerve-muscle preparations were treated with 5 microM vesamicol to inhibit the vesicular ACh transporter and then were exposed to an elevated potassium solution, 35 mM potassium propionate (35 KP), to release all preformed quanta of ACh. At vesamicol-treated endplates, miniature endplate current (MEPC) frequency increased initially from 0.4 to >300 s-1 in 35 KP but then declined to <1 s-1 by 90 min. The decrease in frequency was not accompanied by a decrease in MEPC average amplitude. Nerve terminals accumulated the activity-dependent dye FM1-43 when exposed to the dye for the final 6 min of a 120-min exposure to 35 KP. Thus synaptic membrane endocytosis continued at a high rate, although MEPCs occurred infrequently. After a 120-min exposure in 35 KP, nerve terminals accumulated FM1-43 and then destained, confirming that exocytosis also still occurred at a high rate. These results demonstrate that recycled cholinergic synaptic vesicles that were not refilled with ACh continued to dock and undergo exocytosis after membrane retrieval. Thus transport of ACh into recycled cholinergic vesicles is not a requirement for repeated cycles of exocytosis and retrieval of synaptic vesicle membrane during prolonged stimulation of motor nerve terminals.  (+info)

The subcellular localizations of atypical synaptotagmins III and VI. Synaptotagmin III is enriched in synapses and synaptic plasma membranes but not in synaptic vesicles. (8/900)

Multiple synaptotagmins are expressed in brain, but only synaptotagmins I and II have known functions in fast, synchronous Ca2+-triggered neurotransmitter release. Synaptotagmin III was proposed to regulate other aspects of synaptic vesicle exocytosis, particularly its slow component. Such a function predicts that synaptotagmin III should be an obligatory synaptic vesicle protein, as would also be anticipated from its high homology to synaptotagmins I and II. To test this hypothesis, we studied the distribution, developmental expression, and localization of synaptotagmin III and its closest homolog, synaptotagmin VI. We find that synaptotagmins III and VI are present in all brain regions in heterogeneous distributions and that their levels increase during development in parallel with synaptogenesis. Furthermore, we show by immunocytochemistry that synaptotagmin III is concentrated in synapses, as expected. Surprisingly, however, we observed that synaptotagmin III is highly enriched in synaptic plasma membranes but not in synaptic vesicles. Synaptotagmin VI was also found to be relatively excluded from synaptic vesicles. Our data suggest that synaptotagmins III and VI perform roles in neurons that are not linked to synaptic vesicle exocytosis but to other Ca2+-related nerve terminal events, indicating that the functions of synaptotagmins are more diverse than originally thought.  (+info)

The property of solutions of Triton X-114 to separate into detergent-rich and detergent-poor phases at 30 degrees C has been exploited to investigate the identities of the aminopeptidases in synaptic membrane preparations from pig striatum. When titrated with an antiserum to aminopeptidase N (EC 3.4.11.2), synaptic membranes solubilized with Triton X-100 revealed that this enzyme apparently comprises no more than 5% of the activity releasing tyrosine from [Leu]enkephalin. When assayed in the presence of puromycin, this proportion increased to 20%. Three integral membrane proteins were fractionated by phase separation in Triton X-114. Aminopeptidase activity, endopeptidase-24.11 and peptidyl dipeptidase A partitioned predominantly into the detergent-rich phase when kidney microvillar membranes were so treated. However, only 5.5% of synaptic membrane aminopeptidase activity partitioned into this phase, although the other peptidases behaved predictably. About half of the aminopeptidase activity in ...
In the present study, serotonin 2C (5-HT2c) receptor binding parameters in the brainstem and cerebral cortex were investigated during liver generation after partial hepatectomy (PH) and N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) induced hepatic neoplasia in male Wistar rats. The serotonin content increased significantly (p,0.01) in the cerebral cortex after PH and in NDEA induced hepatic neoplasia. Brain stem serotonin content increased significantly (p,0.05) after PH and (p,0.001) in NDEA induced hepatic neoplasia. The number and affinity of the 5-HT2c receptors in the crude synaptic membrane preparations of the brain stem showed a significant (p,0.001) increase after PH and in NDEA induced hepatic neoplasia. The number and affinity of 5-HT2c receptors increased significantly (p,0.001) in NDEA induced hepatic neoplasia in the crude synaptic membrane preparations of the cerebral cortex. There was a significant (p,0.01) increase in plasma norepinephrine in PH and (p,0.001) in NDEA induced hepatic neoplasia, ...
Precise regulation of free intracellular Ca2+ concentrations [Ca2+]i is critical for normal neuronal function, and alterations in Ca2+ homeostasis are associated with brain aging and neurodegenerative diseases. One of the most important proteins controlling [Ca2+]i is the plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase (PMCA), the high affinity transporter that fine tunes the cytosolic nanomolar levels of Ca2+. We previously found that PMCA protein in synaptic plasma membranes (SPMs) is decreased with advancing age and the decrease in enzyme activity is much greater than that in protein levels. In the present study, we isolated raft and non-raft fractions from rat brain SPMs and used quantitative mass spectrometry to show that the specialized lipid microdomains in SPMs, the rafts, contain 60% of total PMCA, comprised of all four isoforms. The raft PMCA pool had the highest specific activity and this decreased progressively with age. The reduction in PMCA protein could not account for the dramatic activity loss. ...
Experimental animals. The animals used for these experiments were Prnp0/0 mice (Büeler et al., 1992) and wild-type C57Bl/6J×129/sv(ev) hybrids. Also included in the analysis were mice overexpressing the mouse Prnp-b allele (tg35) and the mouse Prnp-a allele (tg20) on a Prnp0/0 background, as described previously (Fischer et al., 1996).. Subcellular fractionation. Synaptic plasma membranes (SPMs), synaptic vesicle (SV) fractions, and cytosolic synaptosomal (CS) fractions were prepared following standard protocols (Huttner et al., 1983; Brose et al., 1989). All procedures were performed at 4°C. Twenty brains of adult wild-type, Prnp0/0, and tg35 mice were collected in 80 ml of ice-cold 0.32m sucrose and homogenized using a glass-Teflon homogenizer. The resulting homogenate was centrifuged at 800 × g for 10 min. The supernatant was pelleted again at 9200 × g for 15 min. The resulting crude synaptosomal pellet was washed by resuspension and recentrifugation (9200 × g for 15 min), resuspended ...
Ral mediates activity-dependent growth of postsynaptic membranes via recruitment of the exocyst. EMBO J. 2013 Jul 17; 32(14):2039-55 ...
Complete information for RIMS2 gene (Protein Coding), Regulating Synaptic Membrane Exocytosis 2, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
These links are probably not what we want and we should consider revising how the linking script handles them in the future. 1) Paper ID(s): 131227 Linked Term: synaptic membrane Problem: The link links to a WormBase GO term search page 2) Paper ID(s): 128421 Linked Term: transactivation Problem: The link links to a WormBase GO term search page 3) Paper ID(s): 128421 Linked Term: core promoter binding Problem: The link links to a WormBase GO term search page 4) Paper ID(s): 128421, 128389 Linked Term: dimerization Problem: This term should link to the general protein dimerization activity, but instead links to the more specific protein homodimerization activity 5) Paper ID(s): 128389 Linked Term: E-box binding Problem: The link links to a WormBase GO term search page 6) Paper ID(s): 129064, 129486, 110338 Linked Term: embryogenesis Problem: This term is linked to the GO term embryonic development ending in seed dormancy which is too specific and irrelevant to C. elegans. Should ...
def: A protein complex that spans the synaptic cleft and has parts in both the pre- and post-synaptic membranes. [PMID:20200227 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Sulfated Glycoproteins, Glycolipids, and Glycosaminoglycans from Synaptic Plasma and Myelin Membranes. T2 - Isolation and Characterization of Sulfated Glycopeptides. AU - Simpson, David L.. AU - Thorne, Donald R.. AU - Loh, Horace H. PY - 1976/12/1. Y1 - 1976/12/1. N2 - In this report we provide biochemical evidence that a highly purified synaptic plasma membrane fraction derived from rat brain, after intraventricular injection of 35S-labeled sodium sulfate, is enriched in a number of large sulfated glycoproteins compared with a purified myelin fraction studied concurrently. A fraction of the detergent-solubilized sulfated glycoprotein bound specifically to concanavalin A-Sepharose. In addition, we have identified the 35S-labeled lipid-soluble material in these membrane fractions as cerebroside sulfate. The sulfated protein in the lipid-extracted membranes was shown to consist predominantly of a class of glycoproteins containing sulfate in ester linkage to oligosaccharide chains, ...
Accumulation of the transport carriers is followed by transformation of the contact sites into a functional synapse (Ahmari et al., 2000; Washbourne et al., 2002; Sytnyk et al., 2002; Zhai et al., 2001). This probably includes fusion of the carriers with the synaptic plasma membrane, which inserts membrane proteins such as Ca2+ channels and NMDA/AMPA receptors into the presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes, respectively. There is also the possibility that fusion of carriers with the plasma membrane occurs at least partially extrasynaptically. Limited delivery of synaptic proteins to the plasma membrane seems to occur constitutively at early stages of neuronal development before synapse formation. In isolated axons, synaptic precursor vesicles undergo multiple cycles of exo- and endocytosis that are believed to be important for synaptic vesicle biogenesis. The precursor vesicles represent immature recycling machinery (Matteoli et al., 1992; Kraszewski et al., 1995; Zakharenko et al., 1999; Dai ...
Previous studies have led to the hypothesis that some proteins of the postsynaptic membrane are locally synthesized at postsynaptic sites. To evaluate this hypothesis, synaptosome fractions that included fragments of dendrites were allowed to incorporate labeled amino acid into protein. The labeled synaptosomes were then subfractionated to the level of the synaptic plasma membrane (SPM) and then the synaptic junctional complex (SJC). The specific activity (cpm/microgram protein) of the synaptosome fraction and its subfractions was assessed by scintillation counting and protein assay, and labeled polypeptides were characterized by SDS-PAGE and fluorography. The contribution of mitochondrial and eucaryotic protein synthesis to the overall incorporation was evaluated using cycloheximide (CYC), a eucaryotic protein synthesis inhibitor, and chloramphenicol (CAP), a mitochondrial protein synthesis inhibitor. Both the SPM and the SJC subfractions obtained from labeled synaptosomes contained labeled ...
Long-term potentiation (LTP) has been studied extensively at CA1 synapses of the hippocampus, and there is evidence implicating both postsynaptic and presynaptic changes in this process. These changes include (i) addition of AMPA channels to the extrasynaptic membrane and diffusional equilibrium of extrasynaptic receptors with synaptic receptors, (ii) sudden addition of AMPA channels to the synapse in large groups, (iii) a change in the mode of glutamate release (presumably from kiss-and-run to full fusion), and (iv) a delayed increase in the number of vesicles released. However, it remains unclear whether (or how) these changes work together. We have incorporated all of these processes into a structural model of the synapse. We propose that the synapse is composed of transsynaptic modules that function quasi-independently in AMPA-mediated transmission. Under basal conditions, synapses are partially silent; some modules are AMPA-silent (but contribute to NMDA-mediated transmission), whereas ...
In this animation, neurotransmitter synapse is illustrated. Within the presynaptic nerve terminal, vesicles containing neurotransmitter are localized near the synaptic membrane.
BioAssay record AID 145519 submitted by ChEMBL: Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor binding activity was determined by ability to displace [3H]- (-) cytisine binding from whole rat brain synaptic membranes..
TY - JOUR. T1 - Influence of tetanus toxin on synaptic plasma membrane calcium transport. AU - Gill, D. L.. AU - Dyer, S. A.. AU - Kohn, L. D.. AU - Grollman, E. F.. PY - 1981/1/1. Y1 - 1981/1/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0019509268&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0019509268&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:0019509268. VL - 40. JO - Federation Proceedings. JF - Federation Proceedings. SN - 0014-9446. IS - 6. ER - ...
The plasticity of synaptosomal non-mitochondrial ATPases was evaluated in cerebral cortex from 3-month-old normoxic rats and rats subjected to either mild or severe intermittent normobaric hypoxia [12 hr daily exposure to N2:O2 (90:10 or 91.5:8.5) for four weeks]. The activities of Na+, K(+)-ATPase, low- and high-affinity Ca(2+)-ATPase, Mg(2+)-ATPase, and Ca2+,Mg(2+)-ATPase were assayed in synaptosomes and synaptosomal subfractions, namely synaptosomal plasma membranes and synaptic vesicles. The evaluations were performed after a 4-week treatment with saline (controls) or alpha-adrenergic agents (delta-yohimbine, clonidine), a vasodilator compound (papaverine), and an oxygen-partial pressure increasing agent (almitrine). These treatments differently changed the adaptation to chronic intermittent hypoxia characterized by a decrease in the activity of Na+,K(+)-ATPase, Ca2+,Mg(2+)-ATPase, and high-affinity Ca(2+)-ATPase, concomitant with a modification in the activity of Mg(2+)-ATPase supported in ...
Background Neurexins and neuroligins, which have recently been associated with neurological disorders such as autism in humans, are highly conserved adhesive proteins found on synaptic membranes of neurons. that experienced lateralised sensory input after antennal amputation showed a specific increase in manifestation compared to control bees, which only happened over time. Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest that (1) there is a lack of synaptic pruning during sensory deprivation; (2) manifestation raises with sensory activation; (3) concomitant changes in gene manifestation suggests interacts with all neuroligins; (4) there CAY10505 is evidence for synaptic payment after lateralised injury. Introduction Sensory input arising from environmental stimuli, learning experiences, and social relationships manifests itself in-part through cell-to-cell contact of neurons via synapses. The neurexin/neuroligin adhesion system of synapses is definitely highly conserved across varieties, actually ...
Understanding the processes that dictate the distribution, maintenance and dynamics of neurotransmitter receptors is of fundamental importance to the molecular basis of fast excitatory transmission and synaptic plasticity - functions of the brain that, when disrupted, are implicated in disorders such as epilepsy and Alzheimer´s disease.. AMPA receptors are one of the family of neurotransmitter receptors that bind to glutamate, the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the CNS.. The response of a neuron to glutamate depends critically on the organised localisation of receptors in the post-synaptic membrane. Until recently it was thought that AMPA receptors in the post-synaptic membrane had a relatively slow turnover of hours to days. However, we have shown that certain AMPA receptors undergo cycles of removal and reinsertion that takes place on a timescale of minutes. We have shown that this cycling depends on the synaptic protein NSF.. Our work focuses on identifying and defining the importance ...
Matsas, R., Fulcher, I.S., Kenny, A.J. and Turner, A.J. (1983). „Substance P and [Leu]enkephalin are hydrolyzed by an enzyme in pig caudate synaptic membranes that is identical with the endopeptidase of kidney microvilli. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA. 80: 3111-3115. PMID 6190172 ...
A subclass of alpha-adrenergic receptors found on both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes where they signal through Gi-Go G-PROTEINS. While postsynaptic alpha-2 receptors play a traditional role in mediating the effects of ADRENERGIC AGONISTS, the subset of alpha-2 receptors found on presynaptic membranes signal the feedback inhibition of NEUROTRANSMITTER release ...
Targum Pseudo-Johnathan: And Abram said to Sara, Behold, thy handmaid is under thy authority: do to her what is right in thine eyes. And Sara afflicted her, and she escaped from before her. And the Angel of the Lord found her at the fountain of waters in the desert; at the fountain of waters which is in the way to Chagra. And He said, Hagar, handmaid of Sara, whence comest thou, and whither does thou go? And she said, From before Sara my mistress I have escaped. And the Angel of the Lord said to her, Return to thy mistress, and be subject under her hand. And the Angel of the Lord said to her, Multiplying I will multiply thy sons, and they shall not be numbered for multitude. And the Angel of the Lord said to her, Behold, thou art with child, and thou wilt bear a son, and thou shalt call his name Ishmael, because thy affliction is revealed before the Lord. And he shall be like the wild ass among men: his hands shall take vengeance of his adversaries, and the hands of his adversaries be put forth ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Irreversible inhibition of [125I]-α-bungarotoxin and [3H] phencyclidine binding to torpedo postsynaptic membranes by trifluoperazine. AU - Epstein, P. M.. AU - Lambert, J. J.. AU - Adami, G. R.. PY - 1982/1/1. Y1 - 1982/1/1. M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:0020078656. VL - 41. JO - Federation Proceedings. JF - Federation Proceedings. SN - 0014-9446. IS - 4. ER - ...
A series of monoclonal antibodies binding to different epitopes shared by a 14 × 10(3)Mr membrane-bound polypeptide has been obtained. By indirect immuno-fluorescence, it was shown that the 14 × 10(3)Mr antigen is present in various cell types in Torpedo electric organ and muscle, especially fibroblasts, capillary endothelial cells, axonal cuff cells and, to a lesser extent, Schwann cells. At the electron-microscope level, after immunogold labelling, the antigen was found associated with the external surface of the plasma membrane of these cells, with the exception of the axonal cuff cells where part of the labelling was intracellular. The possible biological role of this 14 × 10(3)Mr protein is unknown but preliminary experiments suggest that this antigen has affinity for other Torpedo electric organ membrane proteins.. ...
Monies et al. (2017) investigated the genomic landscape of Saudi Arabia based on the findings of 1000 diagnostic panels and exomes. One patient, a 6-year-old female, presented with lower limb muscle weakness and spasticity with periventricular leukomalacia. Tests revealed that she had normal levels of serum creatine kinase. Whole exome sequencing helped identify a heterozygous mutation (c.418C,T, p.R140C) in exon 2 of the patients RIMS2 gene. This gene mutation was considered a candidate for pathogenicity as it was a novel variant predicted to be deleterious; and the RIMS2 gene has an established role in synapse formation. Further, the gene has a pLI score of 1.0, indicating that it was highly likely to be intolerant of loss-of-function mutations. The authors noted the need for independent confirmation of this association. ...
Electron micrographs are presented of synaptic regions encountered in sections of frog sympathetic ganglia and earthworm nerve cord neuropile. Pre- and postsynaptic neuronal elements each appear to have a membrane 70 to 100 A thick, separated from each other over the synaptic area by an intermembranal space 100 to 150 A across. A granular or vesicular component, here designated the synaptic vesicles, is encountered on the presynaptic side of the synapse and consists of numerous oval or spherical bodies 200 to 500 A in diameter, with dense circumferences and lighter centers. Synaptic vesicles are encountered in close relationship to the synaptic membrane. In the earthworm neuropile elongated vesicles are found extending through perforations or gaps in the presynaptic membrane, with portions of vesicles appearing in the intermembranal space. Mitochondria are encountered in the vicinity of the synapse, and in the frog, a submicroscopic filamentary component can be seen in the presynaptic member ...
Within cerebral cortex synaptosomes, S-100 protein can be recovered in two forms: soluble and membrane-bound. Synaptosomal S-100 is mainly a soluble protein (85 percent). The membrane-bound S-100 is differently distributed in the synaptosomal membranes, intraterminal mitochondria, and synaptic vesicles. S-100 binds to a specific receptor. The binding is time-dependent, reversible and saturable with respect to S-100. The number of receptors is calculated to be about 9 times 10(12)/mg protein, since saturation is achieved at 31 ng [125I]S-100/0.1 mg protein of disrupted synaptosomes. The rate constant for association of S-100 with its receptor at 37 degrees C, k1, is 4.74 times 10(4) M(-1) sec(-1), and the rate constant for dissociation, k-1, 9.24 times 10(-4) sec(-1).. ...
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
BRADFORD B. WALTERS, ANDREW I. MATUS; Proteins of the Synaptic Junction. Biochem Soc Trans 1 February 1975; 3 (1): 109-112. doi: https://doi.org/10.1042/bst0030109. Download citation file:. ...
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We used electron tomography of frog saccular hair cells to reconstruct presynaptic ultrastructure at synapses specialized for sustained transmitter release. Synaptic vesicles at inhibited synapses were abundant in the cytoplasm and covered the synaptic body at high density. Continuous maximal stimul …
The active zone is present in all chemical synapses examined so far and is present in all animal species. The active zones examined so far have at least two features in common, they all have protein dense material that project from the membrane and tethers synaptic vesicles close to the membrane and they have long filamentous projections originating at the membrane and terminating at vesicles slightly farther from the presynaptic membrane. The protein dense projections vary in size and shape depending on the type of synapse examined. One striking example of the dense projection is the ribbon synapse (see below) which contains a ribbon of protein dense material that is surrounded by a halo of synaptic vesicles and extends perpendicular to the presynaptic membrane and can be as long as 500 nm.[3] The glutamate synapse contains smaller pyramid like structures that extend about 50 nm from the membrane.[4] The neuromuscular synapse contains two rows of vesicles with a long proteinaceous band ...
Heroin is an illegal opiate and is extremely dangerous because of it is often cut with unknown substances. All opiates are derived from the opium poppy, and are addictive because of their euphoric effect they give the user.. How Opiates Work for Pain. Opiates attach themselves to mu receptors which are reside on the sub synaptic membrane which are neurons that transmit pain signals, thus suppressing those signals from reaching the body. The problem is that long-term use of opiates can cause brain damage including suppressing the brains ability to create natural pain reducers like dopamine.. Risks. Other risks to opiate use are tolerance and addiction. Tolerance is when you need to take more than originally prescribed to achieve the desired effects, and addiction is when you are no longer using the drug solely for medical purposes, but are also using it recreationally and have gained a tolerance to it. If you are using an opiate, such as heroin, intravenously you are also putting yourself at ...
The resolved X-ray crystal structures of the glutamate-binding domain (S1/S2 domains) of the GluR2 and NR1 glutamate receptor subunits were used to model the homologous regions of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors NR2 subunits. To test the predictive value of these models, all four stereoisomers of the antagonist 1-(phenanthren-2-carbonyl) piperazine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid (PPDA) were docked into the NR2B glutamate-binding site model. This analysis suggested an affinity order for the PPDA isomers of d-cis , l-cis , l-trans = d-trans and predicted that the 2-position carboxylate group of the cis-PPDA isomers, but not of the trans-PPDA isomers, may be interacting with histidine 486 in NR2B. Consistent with these predictions, cis-PPDA displays a 35-fold higher affinity for NR2B-containing NMDA receptors than trans-PPDA. In addition, mutating NR2Bs H486 to phenylalanine decreased cis-PPDA affinity 8-fold but had no effect on trans-PPDA affinity. In contrast, the NR2B H486F mutation ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Partial purification of presynaptic plasma membrane by immunoadsorption. AU - Miljanich, G. P.. AU - Brasier, A. R.. AU - Kelly, R. B.. PY - 1982. Y1 - 1982. N2 - During transmitter release, synaptic vesicle membrane is specifically inserted into the nerve terminal plasma membrane only at specialized sites or active zones. In an attempt to obtain a membrane fraction enriched in active zones, we have utilized the electric organ of the marine ray. From this organ, a fraction enriched in nerve terminals (synaptosomes) was prepared by conventional means. These synaptosomes were bound to microscopic beads by an antiserum to purified electric organ synaptic vesicles (anti-SV). The success of this immunoadsorption procedure was demonstrated by increased specific activities of bead-bound nerve terminal cytoplasmic markers and decreased specific activities of markers for contaminating membranes. To obtain a presynaptic plasma membrane (PSPM) fraction, we lysed the bead-bound ...
Synaptotagmins (Syts) are brain-specific Ca2+/phospholipid-binding proteins. In hippocampal synapses, Syt I is essential for fast Ca(2+)-dependent synaptic vesicle exocytosis but not for Ca(2+)-independent exocytosis. In vertebrates and invertebrates, Syt may therefore participate in Ca(2+)-dependent synaptic membrane fusion, either by serving as the Ca2+ sensor in the last step of fast Ca(2+)-triggered neurotransmitter release, or by collaborating with an additional Ca2+ sensor. While Syt I binds Ca2+ (refs 10, 11), its phospholipid binding is triggered at lower calcium concentrations (EC50 = 3-6 microM) than those required for exocytosis. Furthermore, Syts bind clathrin-AP2 with high affinity, indicating that they may play a general role in endocytosis rather than being confined to a specialized function in regulated exocytosis. Here we resolve this apparent contradiction by describing four Syts, three of which (Syt VI, VII and VIII) are widely expressed in non-neural tissues. All Syts tested ...
Synaptotagmins (Syts) are brain-specific Ca2+/phospholipid-binding proteins. In hippocampal synapses, Syt I is essential for fast Ca(2+)-dependent synaptic vesicle exocytosis but not for Ca(2+)-independent exocytosis. In vertebrates and invertebrates, Syt may therefore participate in Ca(2+)-dependent synaptic membrane fusion, either by serving as the Ca2+ sensor in the last step of fast Ca(2+)-triggered neurotransmitter release, or by collaborating with an additional Ca2+ sensor. While Syt I binds Ca2+ (refs 10, 11), its phospholipid binding is triggered at lower calcium concentrations (EC50 = 3-6 microM) than those required for exocytosis. Furthermore, Syts bind clathrin-AP2 with high affinity, indicating that they may play a general role in endocytosis rather than being confined to a specialized function in regulated exocytosis. Here we resolve this apparent contradiction by describing four Syts, three of which (Syt VI, VII and VIII) are widely expressed in non-neural tissues. All Syts tested ...
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playing a putative role in cell-cell interactions critical in the development of the central nervous system, mediating adhesion in synaptic junctions through lack-in ...
In the present work, we have investigated mechanisms involved in the nucleotide-dependent regulation of clathrin-coated pit nucleation at the synapse. Our results implicate ARF6 in this process and demonstrate two effects of the GTP-bound form of this small GTPase; stimulation of the recruitment of clathrin/AP-2 to presynaptic membranes and binding plus activation of PIPKIγ. They also suggest that the two effects are related and that PI(4,5)P2 production by PIPKIγ stimulation represents the major mechanism through which ARF6 enhances clathrin/AP-2 recruitment. The action of GTP-ARF6 on clathrin/AP-2 recruitment mimics the effect of GTPγs, and its effects are antagonized by experimental manipulations that prevent either ARF activation (i.e., dominant-negative ARF6) or PI(4,5)P2 production and availability (i.e., kinase inhibition, PIPKIγ depletion, and PI(4,5)P2 hydrolysis by synaptojanins inositol 5′-phosphatase domain). These results strongly indicate that enhanced clathrin coat ...
Perhaps I wasnt clear. There may be mechanisms for locking receptors in regions, but within those regions they may be relatively mobile. I suspect it comes down to whether or not specific proteins are connected to the cytoskelaton. Some of the membrane proteins probably are connected to maintain the shape of the cell. My guess would be that the membrane-cytoskeleton links create barriers that confine the diffusable proteins within specific regions of the cell surface. You have got to maintain the shape of a synaptic junction and presumably you want to confine the neurotransmitter receptors to the synaptic junction and not have them wandering all over the surface of the neuron. But I really doubt there is an addressing and/or locking system for the receptors at specific locations within a synaptic junction (that would involve a huge amount of information to be managed). , ...
Supplementary MaterialsSupplementary Desk?1 mmc1. neurons with AOs for 1C2?times inhibited the upsurge in GluA1 amount and GluA1 exocytosis regularity in both extrasynaptic and postsynaptic membranes during LTP. In contrast, AOs didnt inhibit the upsurge in GluA2 true amount or exocytosis regularity. Discussion These outcomes claim that AOs mainly inhibit the upsurge in the amount of GluA1 homomers and suppress hippocampal LTP appearance. check (N?=?7-8?cells, *P?
KEYWORD: 3D-structure Alternative splicing Glycoprotein Ionic channel Phosphorylation Postsynaptic membrane Receptor RNA editing Signal Transmembrane ...
Chemical synapses are among the most elaborate junctions existing between two cells, enabling communication between neurons through chemical neurotransmission within milliseconds
I got ten mosquito bites in the time it took me to check my rs309375 genotype. wp.me/pqWMQ-18g via @wordpressdotcom 2 years ago ...
Acoustic torpedo definition, a torpedo guided by sound that either emanates from the target or is emitted by the torpedo and bounces off the target. See more.
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2015 Elsevier Inc. Myasthenia gravis (MG), the most common autoimmune disease of neuromuscular junction (NMJ), is heterogeneous in terms of pathophysiology, which is determined by the pathogenic antigen of autoantibodies targeting to synaptic proteins at the NMJs. Currently, patients suspected with MG are routinely screened for the presence of autoantibodies against acetylcholine receptor (AChR) or muscle-specific kinase (MuSK) using a cell-based assay (CBA) that involves the expression of target synaptic membrane protein in heterologous cell lines. However, some autoantibodies may only show reactivity for binding to densely clustered AChR in the physiological conformation, while AChR clustering is known to involve signaling events orchestrated by over a dozen of postsynaptic proteins. To improve the existing serological diagnosis of MG, this study explored the possibility of using the well-established Xenopus primary culture system as a novel CBA for MG. Here, by examining the pathogenic ...
Myasthenia gravis (MG), the most common autoimmune disease of neuromuscular junction (NMJ), is heterogeneous in terms of pathophysiology, which is determined by the pathogenic antigen of autoantibodies targeting to synaptic proteins at the NMJs. Currently, patients suspected with MG are routinely screened for the presence of autoantibodies against acetylcholine receptor (AChR) or muscle-specific kinase (MuSK) using a cell-based assay (CBA) that involves the expression of target synaptic membrane protein in heterologous cell lines. However, some autoantibodies may only show reactivity for binding to densely clustered AChR in the physiological conformation, while AChR clustering is known to involve signaling events orchestrated by over a dozen of postsynaptic proteins. To improve the existing serological diagnosis of MG, this study explored the possibility of using the well-established Xenopus primary culture system as a novel CBA for MG. Here, by examining the pathogenic effects of four MG human ...
The electric organ has evolved independently from muscle in at least six lineages of fish. How does a differentiated muscle cell change its fate to become an electrocyte? Is the process by which this occurs similar in different lineages? We have begun to answer these questions by studying the formation and maintenance of electrocytes in the genus Sternopygus, a weakly electric teleost. Electrocytes arise from the fusion of fully differentiated muscle fibers, mainly those expressing fast isoforms of myosin. Electrocytes briefly co-express sarcomeric proteins, such as myosin and tropomyosin, and keratin, a protein not found in mature muscle. The sarcomeric proteins are subsequently down-regulated, but keratin expression persists. We investigated whether the maintenance of the electrocyte phenotype depends on innervation. We found that, after spinal cord transection, which silences the electromotor neurons that innervate the electrocytes, or destruction of the spinal cord, which denervates the ...
Synaptobrevin interacts with synaptophysin in membranes of adult small synaptic vesicles and forms the synaptophysin/synaptobrevin complex. In contrast to the SNARE complex the synaptophysin/synaptobrevin complex only occurs in adult rat brain but is absent in embryonic brain. Changes in the binding properties of synaptophysin are probably induced by a factor of low molecular weight and correlate with posttranslational modifications of the protein. The synaptophysin/synaptobrevin complex plays an important role within the presynaptic terminal promoting synaptobrevin to bind its SNARE partners at the plasma membrane. In times of increased synaptic activity at the synapse the synaptophysin/synaptobrevin complex accelerates the recruitment of synaptobrevin to form new SNARE complexes and allows for fast exocytotic/endocytotic cycles. The synaptophysin/synaptobrevin complex and the SNARE complex are mutually exclusive. Major constituents of synaptic membranes are lipids and proteins which are ...
Synaptobrevin interacts with synaptophysin in membranes of adult small synaptic vesicles and forms the synaptophysin/synaptobrevin complex. In contrast to the SNARE complex the synaptophysin/synaptobrevin complex only occurs in adult rat brain but is absent in embryonic brain. Changes in the binding properties of synaptophysin are probably induced by a factor of low molecular weight and correlate with posttranslational modifications of the protein. The synaptophysin/synaptobrevin complex plays an important role within the presynaptic terminal promoting synaptobrevin to bind its SNARE partners at the plasma membrane. In times of increased synaptic activity at the synapse the synaptophysin/synaptobrevin complex accelerates the recruitment of synaptobrevin to form new SNARE complexes and allows for fast exocytotic/endocytotic cycles. The synaptophysin/synaptobrevin complex and the SNARE complex are mutually exclusive. Major constituents of synaptic membranes are lipids and proteins which are ...
The Musculoskeletal system is the muscle system and skeletal system working in conjunction to help movement, support and blood flow in the body. Muscles contract and relax by using ATP, this is produced when oxygen is transported to muscles by hemoglobin for respiration to occur. Muscle activity is regulated by the nervous system where neurotransmitters released by the pre-synaptic membrane bind to the post synaptic membrane of motor neurons - causing a release of calcium ions, which pass a threshold to produce a muscle twitch.There are three types of muscles involved: smooth, cardiac and skeletal.. Smooth muscles are controlled by the parasympathetic nervous system, which is in control of involuntary activities like digestion. They are present in the walls of hollow vessels like the small intestine, bladder, or even blood vessels - called smooth muscles because they lack striated muscle fibers in their structure. ...
Author Summary Memory is understood as strengthened synaptic connections among neurons. Paradoxically components of synaptic membranes are relatively short-lived and frequently re-cycled while memories can last a lifetime. This suggests synaptic information is encoded at a deeper, finer-grained scale of molecular information within post-synaptic neurons. Long-term memory requires genetic expression, protein synthesis, and delivery of new synaptic components. How are these changes guided on the molecular level? The calcium-calmodulin dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) has been heavily implicated in the strengthening of active neural connections. CaMKII interacts with various substrates including microtubules (MTs). MTs maintain cellular structure, and facilitate cellular cargo transport, effectively controlling neural architecture. Memory formation requires reorientation of this network. Could CaMKII-MT interactions be the molecular level encoding required to orchestrate neural plasticity? Using
Neuronal Transmission BN Fall 2011 Julia Sobesky • Types of synapses • Electrical • Chemical Outline • Neurotransmitters • • • • Criteria Types Release Inactivation • Receptor types • Ionotropic • Metabotropic • Ligand binding • Plasticity Electrical synapse: gap junctions • ~3nm apart • Very fast communication • Direct pore between cells, allows bidirectional flow of ions • 6 connexins= 1 connexon • Allows rapid and synchronous firing of interconnected cells Why would we need anything more? • Why dont our brains just use electrical transmission? Benefits of Chemical signaling • 60+ different NTs and neuromodulators • Each NT can have up to 15 different receptors • Co-localization of several NTs in one synapse • One neuron can have TONS of different synapses • Simple or complex post-synaptic responses The chemical synapse • ~20-50 nm apart • NTs released by presynaptic cell bind receptors on post-synaptic membrane • EPSP, IPSP or complex ...
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Abstract With the simplicity of the synaptic structure and physiology at neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) of crayfish and the given transmitter being released in quantal packets, a d..
Video created by Duke University for the course Medical Neuroscience. Lets continue our studies of neural signaling by learning about what happens at synaptic junctions, where the terminal ending of one neuron meets a complementary process of ...
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Regulating synaptic membrane exocytosis protein 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RIMS2 gene. RIMS2 has been ... "Entrez Gene: RIMS2 regulating synaptic membrane exocytosis 2". Sun, Lei; Bittner Mary A; Holz Ronald W (October 2003). "Rim, a ... Wang Y, Südhof TC (2003). "Genomic definition of RIM proteins: evolutionary amplification of a family of synaptic regulatory ...
Regulating synaptic membrane exocytosis protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RIMS1 gene. RAB3A (MIM 179490 ... "Entrez Gene: RIMS1 regulating synaptic membrane exocytosis 1". Ohtsuka T, Takao-Rikitsu E, Inoue E, Inoue M, Takeuchi M, ... a member of the Ras superfamily of genes, is a synaptic vesicle protein that regulates synaptic vesicle exocytosis. MUNC13 ( ... Wang Y, Südhof TC (2003). "Genomic definition of RIM proteins: evolutionary amplification of a family of synaptic regulatory ...
Zhang B, Zelhof AC (July 2002). "Amphiphysins: raising the BAR for synaptic vesicle recycling and membrane dynamics. Bin- ... Mathew D, Popescu A, Budnik V (November 2003). "Drosophila amphiphysin functions during synaptic Fasciclin II membrane cycling ... "Drosophila Amphiphysin is implicated in protein localization and membrane morphogenesis but not in synaptic vesicle endocytosis ... December 1993). "The synaptic vesicle-associated protein amphiphysin is the 128-kD autoantigen of Stiff-Man syndrome with ...
Geumann, U.; C. Schäfer; D. Riedel; R. Jahn; S. O. Rizzoli (2010). "Synaptic membrane proteins form stable microdomains in ... Unfortunately, the only way for cells to be studied was to label the plasma membrane with organic dyes. Combining STED with ... Opazo, F.; A. Punge; J. Buckers; P. Hoopmann; L. Kastrup; S. W. Hell; S. O. Rizzoli (2010). "Limited intermixing of synaptic ... Lang, Sieber (April 2006). "The SNARE Motif Is Essential for the Formation of Syntaxin Clusters in the Plasma Membrane". ...
Zhang B, Zelhof AC (July 2002). "Amphiphysins: raising the BAR for synaptic vesicle recycling and membrane dynamics. Bin- ... Mathew D, Popescu A, Budnik V (November 2003). "Drosophila amphiphysin functions during synaptic Fasciclin II membrane cycling ... The BAR domain is banana-shaped and binds to membrane via its concave face. It is capable of sensing membrane curvature by ... "Drosophila Amphiphysin is implicated in protein localization and membrane morphogenesis but not in synaptic vesicle endocytosis ...
Trimble WS, Cowan DM, Scheller RH (June 1988). "VAMP-1: a synaptic vesicle-associated integral membrane protein". Proceedings ... The use of a tethered bilayer lipid membrane (t-BLM) further increases the stability of supported membranes by chemically ... Detergent micelles are another class of model membranes that are commonly used to purify and study membrane proteins, although ... The limitation of the intra-membrane mobility of supported lipid bilayers can be overcome by introducing half-membrane spanning ...
VAT1: encoding protein Synaptic vesicle membrane protein VAT-1 homolog. *VPS25: encoding protein Vacuolar protein-sorting- ...
The membrane-bound form of ChAT is associated with synaptic vesicles. There exist two isoforms of ChAT, both encoded by the ... Carroll PT (1994). "Membrane-bound choline-O-acetyltransferase in rat hippocampal tissue is associated with synaptic vesicles ... The soluble form accounts for 80-90% of the total enzyme activity while the membrane-bound form is responsible for the rest of ... However, there has long been a debate on how the latter form of ChAT is bound to the membrane. ...
Holcman, D.; Schuss, Z. (2004). "Escape Through a Small Opening: Receptor Trafficking in a Synaptic Membrane". Journal of ...
This linearity does not hold for changes in synaptic membrane conductance.. ... The larger the membrane resistance r m {\displaystyle r_{m}} , the harder it is for a current to induce a change in membrane ... That means, membrane potential (voltage across the membrane) lags more behind current injections. Response times vary from 1-2 ... the greater the area for charge to escape through its membrane, and therefore the lower the membrane resistance (dividing Rm by ...
The synaptic membranes appear traced in B (violet - TC, orange - lymphocyte). The distances between membranes are shown in C. ... The blue rectangle shows the synaptic 'kiss and run' region. ... suggestive for a possible role in synaptic Ca2+ homeostasis. ...
February 2014). "Membrane lipids tune synaptic transmission by direct modulation of presynaptic potassium channels". Neuron. 81 ... Matthies, H. (1988). "Long-Term Synaptic Potentiation and Macromolecular Changes in Memory Formation". Synaptic Plasticity in ... Because normal synaptic transmission occurs in a presynaptic to postsynaptic direction, postsynaptic to presynaptic ... Alger BE (November 2002). "Retrograde signaling in the regulation of synaptic transmission: focus on endocannabinoids". ...
"Characteristics of GABAB receptor binding sites on rat whole brain synaptic membranes". British Journal of Pharmacology. 78 (1 ...
Synaptic inputs to a neuron cause the membrane to depolarize or hyperpolarize; that is, they cause the membrane potential to ... the membrane voltage Vm. Thus, the membrane potential affects the permeability, which then further affects the membrane ... How much the membrane potential of a neuron changes as the result of a current impulse is a function of the membrane input ... A mature neuron also undergoes shorter changes in membrane potential in response to synaptic currents. Neurons from a ferret ...
Bowery NG, Hill DR, Hudson AL (1983). "Characteristics of GABAB receptor binding sites on rat whole brain synaptic membranes". ...
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are found in the post-synaptic membranes of nerve cells. They propagate neurotransmission in ... This depolarizes the post-synaptic membrane, inducing an action potential that propagates the signal. This signal will ... When neurotransmitters bind to these receptors, ion channels open, allowing Na+ and Ca2+ ions to move across the membrane. ...
Clausen J, Formby B (1967). "Effect of noradrenaline on phosphatase activity in synaptic membrane of the rat brain". Nature. ...
Stancampiano R, Melis MR, Argiolas A (1991). "Proteolytic conversion of oxytocin by brain synaptic membranes: role of ...
As such, expression of this enzyme may affect synaptic transmission and membrane trafficking. Multiple transcript variants ... This gene encodes a phosphoinositide phosphatase that regulates levels of membrane phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate. ...
Cannabinoid receptors are G-protein coupled receptors located on the pre-synaptic membrane. While there have been some papers ... During neurotransmission, the pre-synaptic neuron releases neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft which bind to cognate ... Evidence suggests that the depolarization-induced influx of calcium into the post-synaptic neuron causes the activation of an ... The molecular mechanisms of CB1-mediated changes to the membrane voltage have also been studied in detail. Cannabinoids reduce ...
... containing vesicle membrane. This causes the fusion of the vesicle with the neuronal post synaptic membrane. Subsequent release ... Embedded into the cell membrane are stretch inactivated cation channels (SICs), which when the cell shrinks in size, open and ... Osmoreceptors have aquaporin 4 proteins spanning through their plasma membranes in which water can diffuse, from an area of ...
Takeuchi A, Takeuchi N (August 1967). "Anion permeability of the inhibitory post-synaptic membrane of the crayfish ... After this period of development, a chloride pump is upregulated and inserted into the cell membrane, pumping Cl− ions into the ... The increased chloride conductance drives the membrane potential towards the reversal potential of the Cl¯ ion which is about - ... Later ligand-binding studies provided direct evidence of binding sites for baclofen on central neuronal membranes. cDNA cloning ...
"Synaptic membrane glycoproteins gp65 and gp55 are new members of the immunoglobulin superfamily". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (2): 821-7 ... 2007). "The immunolocalization of the synaptic glycoprotein neuroplastin differs substantially between the human and the rodent ...
The skelion will bind to other ones attached to the membrane to form a polyhedral lattice, skelion, which pulls the membrane ... Synaptic vesicle. References[edit]. *^ Pearse BM (1976). "Clathrin: a unique protein associated with intracellular transfer of ... It recruits clathrin to membranes and also promotes its polymerization. Epsin also recruits clathrin to membranes and promotes ... linking one of its three feet to the membrane at a time. Clathrin cannot bind to membrane or cargo directly and instead uses ...
Stancampiano R, Melis MR, Argiolas A (1991). "Proteolytic conversion of oxytocin by brain synaptic membranes: role of ... positive regulation of synaptic transmission. • response to electrical stimulus. • positive regulation of uterine smooth muscle ...
"Purification and characterization of a novel neurotensin-degrading peptidase from rat brain synaptic membranes". The Journal of ...
growth cone membrane. • synapse. • axon. • cell junction. • cell periphery. • filopodium membrane. • plasma membrane. ... Phosphorylation of serine-41 on GAP-43 by PKC regulates neurite formation, regeneration, and synaptic plasticity.[7] ... GAP43, the consensus choice for its designation,[9] is a nervous system-specific protein that is attached to the membrane via a ... GAP43, is a nervous tissue-specific cytoplasmic protein that can be attached to the membrane via a dual palmitoylation sequence ...
Memory and synaptic plasticity[edit]. Main article: Synaptic plasticity. Earlier models of memory are primarily based on the ... from membrane currents, proteins, and chemical coupling to network oscillations, columnar and topographic architecture, and ... Chklovskii DB (2004). "Synaptic connectivity and neuronal morphology: two sides of the same coin". Neuron. 43 (5): 609-17. doi: ... Some models are also tracking biochemical pathways at very small scales such as spines or synaptic clefts. ...
Rhythmogenesis, the generation of rhythm, is modulated by membrane properties and synaptic interactions occurring in ... which allows for active expiration to be produced by synaptic inhibition within the respiratory network. Synaptic inhibition is ... A decrease in synaptic transmission is also seen with hypoxia. There are several inward currents that help produce action ... The neuron can receive synaptic inputs and different amounts of inward and outward currents to regulate the time between each ...
chemical synaptic transmission. • regulation of membrane potential. • nervous system process. • synaptic transmission, ... membrane. • synapse. • integral component of plasma membrane. • chloride channel complex. • cell junction. • plasma membrane. • ... integral component of membrane. • GABA-A receptor complex. • postsynaptic membrane. • ... integral component of postsynaptic specialization membrane. • dendrite membrane. • neuron projection. • postsynapse. Biological ...
... post-synaptic cells compensate for the loss of adequate neurotransmitter by increasing the expression of post-synaptic ... Its receptor - the neurokinin type 1 - is distributed over cytoplasmic and nuclear membranes of many cell types (neurons, glia ... This, ultimately, leads to a condition known as denervation supersensitivity as the post-synaptic nerves will become ... hypersensitive to any release of substance P into the synaptic cleft.. Male aggressionEdit. A suggestion of a link to male ...
Stacks of membrane-enclosed disks are unattached to cell membrane directly Disks are attached to outer membrane ... Less neurotransmitter in the synaptic cleft between a photoreceptor and bipolar cell will serve to either excite (depolarize) ... The rhodopsin or iodopsin in the disc membrane of the outer segment absorbs a photon, changing the configuration of a retinal ... This results in a series of unstable intermediates, the last of which binds stronger to a G protein in the membrane, called ...
Other solutions entail an incubator with an impermeable membrane that has a specific mix of gases (air with 5% CO2 is typical) ... Chao ZC, Wagenaar DA, Potter SM (2005). "Effects of Random External Background Stimulation on Network Synaptic Stability after ... This chamber serves as a non-humidified incubator that is enclosed by a fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) membrane that is ... To eliminate aberrant activity, researchers commonly use magnesium or synaptic blockers to quiet the network. However, this ...
Lang F, Alevizopoulos K, Stournaras C (2013). "Targeting membrane androgen receptors in tumors". Expert Opin. Ther. Targets. 17 ... NMDA induces a calcium flux that allows for synaptic plasticity which is crucial for AHN. ... Androgens have also been found to signal through membrane androgen receptors, which are distinct from the classical nuclear ...
synaptic membrane. • integral component of presynaptic membrane. • endosome. • early endosome membrane. • cell projection. ... nuclear outer membrane. • endoplasmic reticulum membrane. • Golgi membrane. • integral component of plasma membrane. • smooth ... plasma membrane. • cell cortex. • integral component of membrane. • azurophil granule membrane. • Z disc. • neuronal cell body ... nuclear membrane. • membrane. • mitochondrion. • ciliary rootlet. • neuron projection. • gamma-secretase complex. • cell ...
endoplasmic reticulum membrane. • часть клеточной мембраны. • ciliary membrane. • система эндомембран. • non-motile cilium. • ... long-term synaptic potentiation. • передача сигнала. • synaptic transmission, dopaminergic. • positive regulation of gene ... integral component of postsynaptic membrane. • integral component of presynaptic membrane. • Дендритный шипик. • дендрит. • ... positive regulation of synaptic transmission, glutamatergic. • synapse assembly. • привыкание. • adult walking behavior. • ...
Alcohol's ability to alter behavior and decision-making stems from its impact on synaptic transmission at GABA receptors.[2] ... This hyperpolarization decreases the likelihood that the membrane will send an action potential to neighboring neurons; the ... The increase in concentration of negative charge inside the cell hyperpolarizes the membrane. ... Alcohol's effects on the synaptic level dampen the brain's processing ability and limit attentional capacity.[3] ...
plasma membrane. • membrane. Biological process. • positive regulation of protein kinase activity. • regulation of cyclin- ... Humbert S, Lanier LM, Tsai LH (2001). "Synaptic localization of p39, a neuronal activator of cdk5". NeuroReport. 11 (10): 2213- ...
BDNF is released from the post-synaptic membrane in an activity-dependent manner, allowing it to act on local TrkB receptors ... Actins have a variety of roles in synaptic functioning. In pre-synaptic neurons, actins are involved in synaptic vesicle ... Role in synaptic transmission[edit]. Glutamatergic signaling[edit]. Glutamate is the brain's major excitatory neurotransmitter ... synaptic vesicle. • axon. • dendrite. Biological process. • brain-derived neurotrophic factor receptor signaling pathway. • ...
This process would be similar to the secretion and transmission of infectious particles through the synaptic cleft between ... They prevent macromolecules from navigating the intercellular cleft and limit the lateral diffusion of intrinsic membrane ... junctions are most commonly found in the intercellular cleft and provide for regulation of diffusion through the membranes. ...
Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome is caused by autoantibodies to the presynaptic membrane. Myasthenia gravis is caused by ...
chemical synaptic transmission. • homophilic cell adhesion via plasma membrane adhesion molecules. • synapse assembly. • ... integral component of plasma membrane. • photoreceptor connecting cilium. • تشابك عصبي. • postsynaptic membrane. • ... calcium-dependent cell-cell adhesion via plasma membrane cell adhesion molecules. • التصاق الخلايا. ...
Gengler S, Gault VA, Harriott P, Hölscher C (June 2007). "Impairments of hippocampal synaptic plasticity induced by aggregated ... "Insight into early events in the aggregation of the prion protein on lipid membranes". Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1788 (10): 2245- ... "Kinesin-mediated axonal transport of a membrane compartment containing beta-secretase and presenilin-1 requires APP". Nature ... "Contribution by synaptic zinc to the gender-disparate plaque formation in human Swedish mutant APP transgenic mice". Proc. ...
integral component of postsynaptic specialization membrane. Biological process. • ion transport. • synaptic transmission, ... postsynaptic membrane. • cell projection. • membrane. • plasma membrane. • synapse. • integral component of plasma membrane. • ... This membrane protein-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ...
It is a triazine derivate that inhibits voltage-sensitive sodium channels, leading to stabilization of neuronal membranes. It ... "Lamotrigine reduces spontaneous and evoked GABAA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission in the basolateral amygdala: ...
membrane. • mitochondrion. • integral component of membrane. • cytoplasm. • Golgi apparatus. • plasma membrane. • cell surface ... PrP is present in both the pre- and post-synaptic compartments, with the greatest concentration in the pre-synaptic portion.[42 ... membrane raft. • anchored component of membrane. • extracellular exosome. • cell nucleus. • extrinsic component of membrane. • ... anchored component of external side of plasma membrane. • nuclear membrane. • intracellular membrane-bounded organelle. • ...
Tympanic membrane displacement[edit]. Tympanic membrane displacement (TMD) technique, proposed nearly twenty years ago by ... away from the tympanic membrane, which tenses the membrane. The stapedius, which emerges from the posterior wall of the ... The sound is transmitted to the stapes, and further through the ossicles, to the tympanic membrane from which it can be ... Later on, ICP can be measured by exerting an external pressure to the tympanic membrane and applying simultaneously the same ...
integral component of membrane. • synaptic cleft. • membrane. • plasma membrane. • synaptic membrane. • glutamatergic synapse. ... synaptic transmission, glutamatergic. • homophilic cell adhesion via plasma membrane adhesion molecules. • chemical synaptic ... calcium-dependent cell-cell adhesion via plasma membrane cell adhesion molecules. • cell-cell adhesion mediated by cadherin. • ... This particular cadherin is expressed in brain and is putatively involved in synaptic adhesion, axon outgrowth and guidance.[7] ...
2018-05-23). «The Actin/Spectrin Membrane-Associated Periodic Skeleton in Neurons» Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience 10 doi: ...
anchored to membrane. · neuromuscular junction. · presynaptic membrane. · synaptic cleft. · synapse. · postsynaptic membrane. ... plasma membrane. · cell surface. · membrane. · cell junction. · axon. · dendrite. · ... synaptic transmission. · synaptic transmission, cholinergic. · nervous system development. · synapse assembly. · synapse ... acetylcholine catabolic process in synaptic cleft. · regulation of receptor recycling. · osteoblast development. · DNA ...
... and they are impermeable to the cell membrane.[39] Once within the cell, they must then leave the cell's transport mechanism to ... The mRNA for Arc/Arg3.1 is induced by synaptic activity and localizes selectively near active synapses based on signals ...
plasma membrane. • endoplasmic reticulum. • immunological synapse. • basement membrane. • apical plasma membrane. • neuron ... chemical synaptic transmission. • regulation of ventricular cardiac muscle cell action potential. • regulation of potassium ion ... cytoplasmic side of plasma membrane. • microtubule. • cell nucleus. • cell projection membrane. • membrane raft. • ionotropic ... postsynaptic membrane. • membrane. • cell-cell junction. • bicellular tight junction. • node of Ranvier. • synapse. • ...
Synaptic ribbons are organelles seen in pinealocytes using electron microscopy. Synaptic ribbons are found in pinealocytes in ... Unique to the Type 2 is the presence of vacuoles containing 2 layers of membrane. As Type 1 cells contain serotonin, Type 2 ... At night, synaptic ribbons of rats appear larger and slightly curved, but during the day, they appear smaller and rod-like. A ... In lower vertebrates, synaptic ribbons serve as a photoreceptive organ, but in upper vertebrates, they serve secretory ...
Cell membrane protein disorders (other than Cell surface receptor, enzymes, and cytoskeleton) ...
This integral membrane protein stimulates adenylate cyclase activity in the presence of adenosine. This protein also interacts ... Presynaptically, it reduces synaptic vesicle release while post synaptically it has been found to stabilize the magnesium on ...
Leskawa K.C., Rosenberg A. (1980) Structural Modifications of Gangliosides in Synaptic Membranes. In: Svennerholm L., Mandel P ... gangliosides are to be found concentrated in synaptic membranes. For further information, we have prepared purified intact and ...
Preparation, biological activity and binding properties to rat brain synaptic membranes, J. Biol. Chem. 258:3476-3481.PubMed ... Ventral Tegmental Area Synaptic Membrane Scatchard Analysis Neurotensin Receptor Mesolimbic Dopaminergic System These keywords ... 1986) Effects of Cations and Nucleotides on Neurotensin Binding to Rat Brain Synaptic Membranes. In: Moody T.W. (eds) Neural ... Jones, D. H., and Matus, A. I., 1974, Isolation of synaptic plasma membrane from brain by combined flotation-sedimentation ...
Regulating synaptic membrane exocytosis 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RIMS3 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89 ... "Entrez Gene: Regulating synaptic membrane exocytosis 3". Retrieved 2018-06-13. Weidenhofer J, Scott RJ, Tooney PA (January 2009 ... "A de novo 1p34.2 microdeletion identifies the synaptic vesicle gene RIMS3 as a novel candidate for autism". J. Med. Genet. 47 ( ...
Membrane permeability of trace amines: evidence for a regulated, activity-dependent, nonexocytotic, synaptic release.. Berry MD ... lipid bilayer membranes. Trace amines readily crossed Fluorosome membranes by simple diffusion, p-tyramine (P = 0.01) and ... Both pre- and post-synaptic effects of trace amines have been demonstrated. The putative intracellular location of Trace Amine- ... Associated Receptors necessitate that membrane transport processes be present in order for post-synaptic effects to occur. Here ...
Essential for maintaining normal probability of neurotransmitter release and for regulating release during short-term synaptic ...
... vesicles empty their neurotransmitter content fully into the synaptic cleft by flattening out and becoming part of the ... Several modes of synaptic vesicle release, retrieval and recycling have been identified. In a well-established mode of ... Synaptic vesicle endocytosis: fast and slow modes of membrane retrieval Trends Neurosci. 2008 Nov;31(11):559-68. doi: 10.1016/j ... indicates that during synaptic transmission some vesicles are only briefly connected to the presynaptic membrane by a transient ...
Membrane Potential Changes in Dendritic Spines during Action Potentials and Synaptic Input. Lucy M. Palmer and Greg J. Stuart ... We used data from spines with a clear synaptic response at the resting membrane potential (Fig. 5A; same data as in Fig. 3D, ... 3C). We focused on spines where there was a clear synaptic response at the resting membrane potential, and used the amplitude ... 1985) Synaptic amplification by active membrane in dendritic spines. Brain Res 325:325-330. ...
Dendritic attenuation of synaptic potentials and currents: the role of passive membrane properties.. Spruston N1, Jaffe DB, ... Voltage-gated channels might influence the measurement of passive membrane properties and, reciprocally, passive membrane ... The pattern of activation of these synaptic inputs determines if the neuron will fire an action potential at any given point in ... The authors review recent data from patch-clamp recordings that provide new estimates of the passive membrane properties of ...
Synaptic physiology. To investigate the effect of SD on synaptic properties, Schaffer collateral synaptic input to CA1 ... We next turned to in vitro recording techniques to examine the impact of SD on the membrane excitability and synaptic ... At a cellular level, changes in synaptic efficacy and membrane excitability are thought to be critical for the formation of ... These alterations in the basic membrane and synaptic properties could obviously play an important role in producing the spatial ...
... membrane potential and synaptic transmission. 2000+ courses from schools like Stanford and Yale - no application required. ... 6.4 Ion channel, membrane potential and synaptic transmission I15:12. 6.5 Ion channel, membrane potential and synaptic ... 6.6 Ion channel, membrane potential and synaptic transmission III12:53. 6.7 Ion channel, membrane potential and synaptic ... membrane potential and synaptic transmission. Lets continue with the ion channels, membrane potential and synaptic ...
... techniques to the study of synaptic junctions in the mammalian central nervous system has revealed new aspects of synaptic ... structure that are consistent with and partially explicate advances in synaptic biochemistry and … ... Membrane and cytoplasmic structure at synaptic junctions in the mammalian central nervous system J Electron Microsc Tech. 1988 ... Membrane bound cisterns are a ubiquitous feature of Purkinje cell dendritic spines. Studies of rapidly frozen tissue with ...
To examine whether these effects of HAP1 on GABAAR membrane trafficking were reflected in the efficacy of synaptic inhibition, ... Therefore HAP1 may play a critical role in controlling fast synaptic inhibition by regulating the membrane trafficking of ... providing an effective mechanism for regulating the efficacy of synaptic inhibition (3-10). Under basal conditions, synaptic ... 5C , P , 0.05 in a one-tailed t test, n = 4, individual experiments for each). The single-channel currents for the synaptic ...
Synaptic transmission of graded membrane potential changes and spikes between identified visual interneurons. Authors. *. Diana ... We propose that the control of synaptic transfer of a dynamically complex signal by graded changes in membrane potential and ... The membrane potential in the terminals of the presynaptic neuron is composed of two components, graded membrane potential ... The visual system of the blowfly Calliphora vicina is a good model system to study synaptic transmission in vivo during sensory ...
... a putative synaptic plasma membrane protein exhibits a specific interaction with one of the major membrane proteins of synaptic ... The binding of this protein to synaptic vesicles is competed by synaptophysin, a major integral membrane protein of synaptic ... It is present in synaptic plasma membranes prepared from synaptosomes but not in synaptic vesicles. In solubilization ... This interaction may play a role in docking and/or fusion of synaptic vesicles to the presynaptic plasma membrane. ...
... membrane potential and synaptic transmission. Learn online and earn valuable credentials from top universities like Yale, ... 6.4 Ion channel, membrane potential and synaptic transmission I15:12. 6.5 Ion channel, membrane potential and synaptic ... 6.6 Ion channel, membrane potential and synaptic transmission III12:53. 6.7 Ion channel, membrane potential and synaptic ... membrane potential and synaptic transmission. Lets continue with the ion channels, membrane potential and synaptic ...
RIMS2 has thus been suggested to function as a Rab effector involved in exocytosis, particularly synaptic membrane exocytosis ...
... glutamate from glutamate receptor in rat brain synaptic membrane. ...
Here, we studied the impact of probe and receptor valence on the diffusion and organization of 3 synaptic proteins: neurexin1β ... Progress in super-resolution imaging offers an improved view of the dynamical organization of synaptic proteins. However, a ... and post-synaptic compartments is an adhesive zone ~20 nm thick, containing adhesion proteins and neurotransmitter receptors. ... Effects of ligand and receptor valence on the surface dynamics and nanoscale localization of synaptic membrane proteins. Human ...
Effects of sodium fluoride on the activity of Ca2+Mg(2+)-ATPase in synaptic membrane in rat brain].. Author: Zhao XL, Gao WH, ... Effects of sodium fluoride on Ca2+Mg(2+)-ATPase activity of synaptic membrane in rat brain were studied with in vitro or in ... Activity of Ca2+Mg(2+)-ATPase on synaptic membrane in female rat brain showed a decreasing tendency after feeding with water ...
However, synaptic activity specifically enhanced phosphorylation of PDK1 in the membrane, an important subcellular location for ... However, synaptic activity specifically enhanced phosphorylation of PDK1 in the membrane, an important subcellular location for ... hypothesis that synaptic activity and muscle contraction regulate in parallel PDK1 and cPKCβI phosphorylation in the membrane ... hypothesis that synaptic activity and muscle contraction regulate in parallel PDK1 and cPKCβI phosphorylation in the membrane ...
Synaptic Soluble and Membrane-Bound Choline Acetyltransferase as a Marker of Cholinergic Function In Vitro and In Vivo , ... Synaptic Soluble and Membrane-Bound Choline Acetyltransferase as a Marker of Cholinergic Function In Vitro and In Vivo. By E.I ...
... acetylcholine ______ and calcium ions _____ ... The outer surface of the axon membrane is charged positively, and the inner surface is charged negatively. The membrane itself ... have specific ions cross the membrane through ion channels c. maintain a membrane potential with charged ions on either ... have specific ions cross the membrane through ion channels c. maintain a membrane potential with charged ions on either ...
Synaptic activity‐induced glycolysis facilitates membrane lipid provision and neurite outgrowth. Marc Segarra‐Mondejar, View ... Neuronal membrane expansion required for neurite outgrowth upon synaptic stimulation involves concomitant upregulation of ... Neurite growth requires the addition of new membranes, but the metabolic remodeling necessary to supply lipids for membrane ... Here, we show that synaptic activity, one of the most important inducers of neurite growth, transcriptionally regulates the ...
... ... Decreases in Plasma Membrane Ca2+-ATPase in Brain Synaptic Membrane Rafts from Aged Rats. Journal of Neurochemistry, 123(5), ... Decreases in Plasma Membrane Ca2+-ATPase in Brain Synaptic Membrane Rafts from Aged Rats. Journal of Neurochemistry, 123(5), ... We previously found that PMCA protein in synaptic plasma membranes (SPMs) is decreased with advancing age and the decrease in ...
Binding affinity against glycine binding site of N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptor from rat synaptic plasma membrane(SPM ...
Glucocorticoid interactions with ethanol effects on synaptic plasma membranes: influence on [125I]calmodulin binding.. P Y Sze ... Glucocorticoid interactions with ethanol effects on synaptic plasma membranes: influence on [125I]calmodulin binding.. P Y Sze ... Glucocorticoid interactions with ethanol effects on synaptic plasma membranes: influence on [125I]calmodulin binding.. P Y Sze ... Ca(++)-dependent binding of calmodulin (CaM) to brain synaptic plasma membranes is known to be inhibited by ethanol and ...
So, membrane dynamics at synapses are essential to our life. It turns out that there are only about 300 vesicles at synaptic ... Shigeki Watanabe on Research in Synaptic Membrane Dynamics Dr. Shigeki Watanabe, principle investigator of the department of ... Synaptic vesicles, that contain chemical signals or neurotransmitters, fuse with the membrane to release neurotransmitters. ... Neurons are capable of recycling vesicles at synaptic terminals. There are many proteins that work at the synaptic terminals to ...
यह लेख एक टूटनेवाला sucrose के ढाल पर ultracentrifugation द्वारा synaptic प्लाज्मा झिल्ली के साथ जुड़े प्रोटीन का संवर्धन का ... Bermejo, M. K., Milenkovic, M., Salahpour, A., Ramsey, A. J. Preparation of Synaptic Plasma Membrane and Postsynaptic Density ... यह लेख synaptic प्लाज्मा झिल्ली और बाद synaptic घनत्व एक टूटनेवाला sucrose के ढाल का प्रयोग से जुड़े प्रोटीन का विभाजन विवरण. ... इसके अलावा, synaptic प्रभावकारिता की ताकत में स्थायी परिवर्तन के बाद synaptic घनत्व 1-6 पर अतिरिक्त या रिसेप्टर्स को हटाने के ...
When isolated Golgi membranes were used instead of synaptic membranes, addition of BFA completely blocked clathrin binding to ... 4) is accompanied by an increase of PIP2 levels in synaptic membranes. We stimulated coat recruitment to LP2 membranes with γ[ ... C) PIPKIγ can be cross-linked to ARF6(Q67L) during recruitment of clathrin/AP-2 to synaptic membranes. LP2-membranes were ... ARF6-GTP stimulates clathrin/AP-2 recruitment to synaptic membranes. (A) Coat recruitment to LP2 membranes was performed and ...
Bermejo, M. K., Milenkovic, M., Salahpour, A., Ramsey, A. J. Preparation of Synaptic Plasma Membrane and Postsynaptic Density ... Jones, D. H., Matus, A. I. Isolation of synaptic plasma membrane from brain by combined flotation-sedimentation density ... Bermejo, M. K., Milenkovic, M., Salahpour, A., Ramsey, A. J. Preparation of Synaptic Plasma Membrane and Postsynaptic Density ... Bermejo, M. K., Milenkovic, M., Salahpour, A., Ramsey, A. J. Preparation of Synaptic Plasma Membrane and Postsynaptic Density ...
  • In a well-established mode of exocytosis, termed 'full-collapse fusion', vesicles empty their neurotransmitter content fully into the synaptic cleft by flattening out and becoming part of the presynaptic membrane. (nih.gov)
  • A more fleeting mode of vesicle fusion, termed 'kiss-and-run' exocytosis or 'flicker-fusion', indicates that during synaptic transmission some vesicles are only briefly connected to the presynaptic membrane by a transient fusion pore. (nih.gov)
  • Finally, a mode that retrieves a large amount of membrane, equivalent to that of several fused vesicles, termed 'bulk endocytosis', has been found after prolonged exocytosis. (nih.gov)
  • In the axoplasm adjacent to the presynaptic active zone, synaptic vesicles are linked to large spectrin-like filamentous proteins by shorter proteins that resemble synapsin I in morphology. (nih.gov)
  • This mesh of presynaptic filamentous proteins serves to concentrate synaptic vesicles in the vicinity of the active zone. (nih.gov)
  • The binding of this protein to synaptic vesicles is competed by synaptophysin, a major integral membrane protein of synaptic vesicles, with half-maximal inhibition seen between 10(-8) and 10(-7) M synaptophysin. (rupress.org)
  • It is present in synaptic plasma membranes prepared from synaptosomes but not in synaptic vesicles. (rupress.org)
  • Thus, a putative synaptic plasma membrane protein exhibits a specific interaction with one of the major membrane proteins of synaptic vesicles. (rupress.org)
  • This interaction may play a role in docking and/or fusion of synaptic vesicles to the presynaptic plasma membrane. (rupress.org)
  • A. Vesicles in the postsynaptic membrane release neurotransmitter into the presynaptic terminal. (jiskha.com)
  • B. The presynaptic membrane releases neurotransmitter into postsynaptic vesicles. (jiskha.com)
  • Synaptic vesicles, that contain chemical signals or neurotransmitters, fuse with the membrane to release neurotransmitters. (leica-microsystems.com)
  • It turns out that there are only about 300 vesicles at synaptic terminals but you may be using more than 100 vesicles every second. (leica-microsystems.com)
  • Neurons are capable of recycling vesicles at synaptic terminals. (leica-microsystems.com)
  • There are many proteins that work at the synaptic terminals to regulate these processes, fusion or regeneration of synaptic vesicles. (leica-microsystems.com)
  • We now have data suggesting that synaptojanin implicated in Down syndrome function at the synaptic terminals to regenerate synaptic vesicles. (leica-microsystems.com)
  • Figure 1: Budding of endosomes by clathrin to regenerate synaptic vesicles. (leica-microsystems.com)
  • The ionogenic nature of the synaptic vesicle surface and its calcium adsorption characteristics have been investigated by microelectrophoretic measurements on vesicles isolated from the guinea pig cerebral cortex. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The electrophoretic mobility of synaptic vesicles determined in 0.16 M KCl was -1.31 µm sec -1 cm V -1 , corresponding to a surface ζ potential of -18.2 mV and surface charge density of 5451 esu cm -2 . (aspetjournals.org)
  • Whereas the monovalent cation species of the suspending medium had little effect upon the electrokinetic properties of synaptic vesicles, addition of Ca 2+ , 1-10 mM, markedly decreased the surface charge. (aspetjournals.org)
  • We have shown that Calcium 2 + pumping in synaptic plasma membrane (SPM) vesicles is diminished in a dose-related fashion during exposure in vitro to halothane, isoflurane, xenon, and nitrous oxide at clinically relevant partial pressures. (asahq.org)
  • Here we report that genetic deletion of PS markedly decreases the presynaptic levels of the Ca 2+ sensor synaptotagmin-7 (Syt7) leading to impaired synaptic facilitation and replenishment of synaptic vesicles. (nature.com)
  • The quaternary structure and functional properties of synaptophysin, a major integral membrane protein of small presynaptic vesicles, were investigated. (sciencemag.org)
  • As a result, much effort in molecular neurobiology in the past decades has been spent to identify the proteins present on synaptic vesicles and how they function to control neurotransmitter release. (grantome.com)
  • In addition, synaptic vesicles are also used as a model trafficking organelle to understand the mechanism utilized by the eukaryotic cell to carry out membrane fusion and trafficking. (grantome.com)
  • Because of these central roles synaptic vesicles play in neurotransmission as well as a model system for understanding membrane trafficking in general, it is critically important to develop a detailed and quantitative understanding of the organization of the synaptic vesicle. (grantome.com)
  • In terms of size, therefore, synaptic vesicles are similar in many ways to a very large macromolecular complex, and as such, amenable to high- resolution single-molecule imaging and quantitative biophysical studies. (grantome.com)
  • Single-Molecule Positional Mapping and Counting of Membrane Proteins on Synaptic Vesicles with Photoswitchable Pdots - this study will tell us which proteins are always located at the same positions on the vesicle, which proteins are adjacent to each other, and which are randomly distributed on the vesicle. (grantome.com)
  • Single-Molecule Orientation Mapping of Membrane Proteins on Synaptic Vesicles with Polarized Pdots - we know proteins are extremely crowded on the vesicle, but if proteins are interacting with each other or form a complex, then they are not only in close proximity but also would have the same rotational rate on the membrane or have very limited rotational freedom. (grantome.com)
  • We will use a nanoscale sorter to isolate and study different types of synaptic vesicles. (grantome.com)
  • By means of rapid kinetic techniques applied to native plasma membrane vesicle suspensions, containing synaptic vesicles stained with the amphipathic fluorescent styryl membrane probe N-(3-triethylammoniumpropyl)-4-[4-(dibutylamino)styryl]pyridinium dibromide, we have measured the progress of the release and reuptake of synaptic vesicles in response to Ca 2+ and high-[K + ] depolarization in the 0.0004-100 s range of time. (elsevier.com)
  • Comparison of small GTP-binding proteins from the synaptosome and crude synaptic vesicles (LP2 membranes ) of 2 months and 20 months old rat brain respectively showed no difference in the level of Rab family proteins (Rab3A and Rab5A). (bvsalud.org)
  • Calcium-triggered release of neurotransmitters and hormones entails fusion of cargo-filled vesicles with the plasma membrane (exocytosis). (curie.fr)
  • We find extremely facile membrane flows and tension equilibration at presynaptic plasma membranes, which appear to be tuned for rapid turnover of synaptic vesicles, thus playing a key role in neurotransmission. (curie.fr)
  • This gene encodes a protein associated with the cytoplasmic surface of synaptic vesicles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Involved in the targeting and/or fusion of transport vesicles to their target membrane. (abcam.com)
  • Regulating synaptic membrane exocytosis 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RIMS3 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Synaptophysin binds to physophilin, a putative synaptic plasma membrane protein. (rupress.org)
  • Both adsorbents identify a prominent synaptic vesicle-binding protein of 36 kD in rat brain synaptosomes and mouse brain primary cultures. (rupress.org)
  • In solubilization experiments, physophilin behaves as an integral membrane protein. (rupress.org)
  • It is located exclusively at the nerve terminal and both synaptic activity and muscle contraction modulate its protein levels and phosphorylation. (frontiersin.org)
  • We previously found that PMCA protein in synaptic plasma membranes (SPMs) is decreased with advancing age and the decrease in enzyme activity is much greater than that in protein levels. (ku.edu)
  • We begin to understand what the protein does in the cell and we gain understanding of what the mutations or gene duplications do to synaptic functions. (leica-microsystems.com)
  • GABA type A receptors (GABAARs) are clustered at the synapse by a scaffold with the peripheral membrane protein gephyrin as major postsynaptic protein. (uni-koeln.de)
  • Additionally, the membrane detachment made gephyrin more susceptible to cleavage by the protease calpain I resulting in an accelerated turnover of the protein. (uni-koeln.de)
  • Myristic acid is the NH2-terminal blocking group of the 43-kDa protein of Torpedo nicotinic post-synaptic membranes. (harvard.edu)
  • About half of the aminopeptidase activity in the detergent-rich phase could now be titrated with the antiserum, showing that aminopeptidase N is an integral membrane protein of this preparation. (biochemj.org)
  • The activity of solubilized membranes was more sensitive (IC50 = 1.6 × 10(−5) M) than that of the pure enzyme or the Triton X-114-rich phase (IC50 = 4 × 10(−4) M). We suggest that the puromycin-sensitive aminopeptidase activity that predominates in crude synaptic membrane preparations may be a cytosolic contaminant or peripheral membrane protein rather than an integral membrane component. (biochemj.org)
  • Protein kinase activity stimulated by adenosine 3′:5′-cyclic monophosphate in synaptic-membrane fragments from ox brain. (biochemj.org)
  • 1. Cyclic AMP-stimulated protein kinase activity phosphorylating intrinsic substrates in preparations of synaptic-membrane fragments from ox cerebral cortex was examined in relation to ( a ) the content of membrane-bound Ca 2+ in the preparations and ( b ) added Ca 2+ in the assay medium. (biochemj.org)
  • 2. Centrifugal washing of synaptic-membrane fragments with buffered ethane dioxybis(ethylamine)tetra-acetate solutions decreased bound Ca 2+ from 2.8±0.4 ( s.d. ) to 0.9±0.3nmol/mg of protein. (biochemj.org)
  • Recently, many effectors have been made that supplied new insights in vesicle and protein trafficking that underlies neuronal processes like LTP and synaptic plasticity. (uu.nl)
  • Amyloid beta protein (Abeta) starts to deposit as plasma membrane-bound form in diffuse plaques of brains from hereditary cerebral hemorrhage with amyloidosis-Dutch type, Alzheimer disease and nondemented aged subjects. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The encoded protein can also bind several other synaptic proteins, including UNC-13 homolog B, ELKS/Rab6-interacting/CAST family member 1, and synaptotagmin 1. (nih.gov)
  • This protein is involved in synaptic membrane exocytosis. (nih.gov)
  • Antibodies (Abs) raised against the l‐glutamate‐binding protein (GBP) purified from bovine brain were used to define the possible physiologic activity of GBP in synaptic membranes. (elsevier.com)
  • The interaction of the presynaptic membrane proteins SNAP-25 and syntaxin with the synaptic vesicle protein synaptobrevin (VAMP) plays a key role in the regulated exocytosis of neurotransmitters. (elsevier.com)
  • RIMS2 (Regulating Synaptic Membrane Exocytosis 2) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • Quantum dot-single particle tracking (QD-SPT) is a super-resolution imaging technique that uses semiconductor nanocrystal quantum dots as fluorescent probes, and is a powerful tool for analyzing protein and lipid behavior in the plasma membrane. (elsevier.com)
  • No differences between the protein and glycoprotein composition of the synaptic plasma membranes and microsomes were detected. (elsevier.com)
  • By using biochemical and molecular-biological binding methods, we are detecting the strongest protein-protein interactions and thus identifying key protein players likely to be part of the dysferlin (and otoferlin) protein complexes that are responsible for membrane repair and fusion, as well as for apoptotic and anti-apoptotic processes. (jain-foundation.org)
  • It has now been shown that a membrane phosphoprotein initially studied independently by several laboratories and given different designations, is in fact the same protein. (northwestern.edu)
  • This protein may thus play a general role in the formation of synaptic relationships during development or regeneration, and a continuing role in the functional modulation of certain synapses throughout life. (northwestern.edu)
  • The sulfated protein in the lipid-extracted membranes was shown to consist predominantly of a class of glycoproteins containing sulfate in ester linkage to oligosaccharide chains, which are differentiated structurally from the sulfated glycosaminoglycans of brain. (umn.edu)
  • Amphiphysin is a brain-enriched protein with an N-terminal lipid interaction, dimerisation and membrane bending BAR domain , a middle clathrin and adaptor binding domain and a C-terminal SH3 domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • A similar protein in mice inhibits the calcium channel TRPV6, and is also localized to the inner mitochondrial membrane where it may play a role in mitochondrial DNA maintenance. (genecards.org)
  • Essential for maintaining normal probability of neurotransmitter release and for regulating release during short-term synaptic plasticity. (rcsb.org)
  • Posttranslational lipid modifications of synaptic proteins regulate their trafficking and membrane localization and contribute to synaptic plasticity. (uni-koeln.de)
  • Spines are crucial for synaptic plasticity including long-term potentiation (LTP) and information storage. (uu.nl)
  • Accordingly, the roles of both PS and APP in synaptic transmission and plasticity have been studied in several cellular and mouse models (reviewed in ref. 8 for PS and in ref. 9 for APP). (nature.com)
  • Here, we investigate electrical signaling in dendritic spines using voltage-sensitive dye imaging in cortical pyramidal neurons during backpropagating action potentials and synaptic input. (jneurosci.org)
  • The dendritic trees of neurons are structurally and functionally complex integrative units receiving thousands of synaptic inputs that have excitatory and inhibitory, fast and slow, and electrical and biochemical effects. (nih.gov)
  • The authors review recent data from patch-clamp recordings that provide new estimates of the passive membrane properties of hippocampal neurons, and show, with examples, how these properties affect the shaping and attenuation of synaptic potentials as they propagate in the dendrites, as well as how they affect the measurement of current from synapses located in the dendrites. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we have analyzed the endocytic sorting of GABA A Rs in neurons, revealing that over short time periods internalized GABA A Rs are rapidly recycled to the cell surface membrane, whereas over longer periods receptors are also targeted for lysosomal degradation. (pnas.org)
  • they do not affect the membrane potential of neurons. (jiskha.com)
  • The first part of the study focuses on gephyrin's membrane association in neurons with the aim to elucidate the molecular mechanisms and significance of membrane tethering. (uni-koeln.de)
  • This pathogenic variant acted dominant-negatively on regular gephyrin and disrupted the normal gephyrin scaffold and synaptic GABAAR clustering in hippocampal neurons. (uni-koeln.de)
  • Bulbar respiratory neurons display rhythmic fluctuations of membrane potential in synchrony with the respiratory cycle. (springer.com)
  • However, since these neurons in tissue slices usually lack the spontaneous rhythmic modulation in membrane potential, the identification of the neuron type based upon the spontaneous patterns of firing and membrane potential fluctuations is yet uncertain. (springer.com)
  • The present study was aimed at elucidating the possible synaptic and non-synaptic mechanisms by which the periodic fluctuations of membrane potential are shaped in bulbar respiratory neurons of the ventral respiratory group. (springer.com)
  • Ganglionic parasympathetic neurons located in the airways in several species, including humans, have anatomical and electrophysiological properties that limit transmission of preganglionic synaptic input. (physiology.org)
  • These results provide evidence that in contrast to the characteristics of airway parasympathetic neurons reported in other species, including human, the electrophysiological and synaptic properties, and anatomical characteristics of mouse lower airway ganglionic neurons, are less associated with integration of presynaptic input. (physiology.org)
  • Although the active and passive (electrophysiological) membrane properties of airway ganglionic neurons have been reported for several mammalian species ( 13 ), including humans ( 8 ), no studies have focused on mice, a species commonly used in airway asthma and allergy studies ( 23 ). (physiology.org)
  • In humans ( 9 ) and guinea pigs ( 16 ), airway parasympathetic ganglionic neurons display anatomical and electrophysiological characteristics that contribute to regulation of synaptic activity, including tonic and phasic action potential accommodation patterns, long- and short-action potential afterhyperpolarizations (AHPs), and multiple populations of fast excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs). (physiology.org)
  • In addition, neurons are highly polarized cells with often long axons, extensively branched dendritic trees and many synaptic contacts. (fu-berlin.de)
  • NG2 expressing oligodendrocyte precursor cells stand out from other types of glial cells by receiving classical synaptic contacts from many neurons. (frontiersin.org)
  • In fact, synaptic currents recorded in NG2 cells are so similar to synaptic currents recorded in neurons that even experts have a hard time diagnosing the type of cell when judging the electrophysiological recording only. (frontiersin.org)
  • however, in neurons and glia, specific membrane molecules are concentrated in cellular microdomains to overcome the randomizing effects of free diffusion. (elsevier.com)
  • Recent QD-SPT experiments have provided critical insights into the mechanism and physiological relevance of membrane self-organization in neurons and astrocytes in the brain. (elsevier.com)
  • Based on these findings, we propose that the behavior of membrane molecules reflects the condition of neurons in pathological disease states. (elsevier.com)
  • This study was performed to investigate the actions of the orphan opioid (nociceptin) on the membrane conductances and synaptic transmission in rat MVN neurons . (bvsalud.org)
  • These results suggest that nociceptin modulate neuronal excitability by activating a K+ conductance in postsynaptic neurons , not by modulation of synaptic transmission in MVN neurons . (bvsalud.org)
  • Another crucial factor regulating synaptic transmission by neurons and hormone release by neuroendocrine cells is membrane tension. (curie.fr)
  • Such gradients relax by membrane flows, which are extremely slow in plasma membranes of non-neuronal cells, or non-terminal regions of neurons. (curie.fr)
  • The postsynaptic density, positioned at the site of the maximal depolarization caused by synaptic currents, apparently serves as a supporting framework for a variety of proteins, which respond to and transduce postsynaptic depolarization. (nih.gov)
  • Modifications of GABA A R cell surface number underlie changes in inhibitory postsynaptic current amplitude, providing an effective mechanism for regulating the efficacy of synaptic inhibition ( 3 - 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • D.W. Richter, D. Ballantyne and S. Mifflin, Interaction between postsynaptic activities and membrane properties in medullary respiratory neurones, in: "Neurogenesis of Central Respiratory Rhythm," A.L. Bianchi and M. Denavit-Saubie, ed. (springer.com)
  • The arrival of an impulse at the site of the synapse causes the release of a chemical neurotransmitter which then diffuses across a narrow gap and binds onto the receptors of the postsynaptic neuron, altering the behaviour of the membrane and allowing the movement of ions between the intracellular and extracellular regions. (gla.ac.uk)
  • one example is the accumulation of neurotransmitter receptors at the postsynaptic neuronal membrane, which enables efficient synaptic transmission. (elsevier.com)
  • One prominent postsynaptic feature at neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) is the extensively folded muscular membranes. (elifesciences.org)
  • In addition to membrane specializations, the postsynaptic density (PSD) is also a common element whose size requires proper control. (elifesciences.org)
  • Formations of postsynaptic membrane and PSD are tightly controlled and coordinated yet these processes remain elusive. (elifesciences.org)
  • Both pre- and post-synaptic effects of trace amines have been demonstrated. (nih.gov)
  • The putative intracellular location of Trace Amine-Associated Receptors necessitate that membrane transport processes be present in order for post-synaptic effects to occur. (nih.gov)
  • The synaptic cleft bridging pre- and post-synaptic compartments is an adhesive zone ~20 nm thick, containing adhesion proteins and neurotransmitter receptors. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • The present study was undertaken to characterize the interactions of corticosterone with ethanol effects on [125I]CaM binding in synaptic plasma membranes. (aspetjournals.org)
  • It has been hypothesized that neuronal gangliosides are involved in receptors for biogenic amines (1-3) and certain neuro-toxins (4,5), and it is generally, although not universally (6), believed that, in the central nervous system, gangliosides are to be found concentrated in synaptic membranes. (springer.com)
  • γ-Aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABA A Rs) are the major sites of fast synaptic inhibition in the brain. (pnas.org)
  • G amma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABA A Rs) are critical regulators of neuronal excitability as they represent the major sites of fast synaptic inhibition in the brain ( 1 , 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • Given this constitutive endocytosis, the cellular fate of internalized GABA A receptors is critical as their recycling or degradation will affect the number of receptors on the cell surface, and hence the efficacy of synaptic inhibition. (pnas.org)
  • The results obtained indicated that although the majority of the anti‐GBP Abs were not directed against the glutamate recognition site of the GBP and of presumed synaptic membrane receptors, they were effective in blocking the activation of receptor‐associated ion channels. (elsevier.com)
  • The regulated internalization has been characterized as a principal mechanism for removing cell-surface receptors from the plasma membrane, and signaling to downstream targets of receptors. (springer.com)
  • An essential determinant for the efficacy of synaptic inhibition is the regulation of GABA A R cell surface stability. (pnas.org)
  • Therefore HAP1 may play a critical role in controlling fast synaptic inhibition by regulating the membrane trafficking of internalized GABA A Rs. (pnas.org)
  • Membrane release of gephyrin upon inhibition of palmitoylation led to reduced surface quantities of synaptic GABAAR subunits. (uni-koeln.de)
  • It requires the substrate APP as revealed by the combined genetic invalidation of APP and PS1, and in particular the APP-Cterminal fragments which interact with Syt7 and accumulate in synaptic terminals under pharmacological or genetic inhibition of γ-secretase. (nature.com)
  • Knockdown of PKD1 did not affect NMDAR internalization but prevented the phosphorylation and inhibition of remaining surface NMDARs and NMDAR-mediated synaptic functions. (springer.com)
  • Because the vast majority of excitatory synaptic input in many brain regions is made directly onto dendritic spines, understanding spine physiology and function is critical to understanding synaptic transmission. (jneurosci.org)
  • The data are consistent with an initial release of trace amines by simple diffusion, followed by an activity-dependent regulation of synaptic levels via one or more transporter proteins. (nih.gov)
  • Effects of sodium fluoride on the activity of Ca2+Mg(2+)-ATPase in synaptic membrane in rat brain]. (fluoridealert.org)
  • Activity of Ca2+Mg(2+)-ATPase on synaptic membrane in female rat brain showed a decreasing tendency after feeding with water fluorinated with 5, 15 and 50 mg/L of fluoride during their gestation and lactation for 50 days, and that in their newborn offsprings with 5 and 50 mg/L of fluoride was inhibited by 11.3 and 32.1%, respectively. (fluoridealert.org)
  • Ca(++)-dependent binding of calmodulin (CaM) to brain synaptic plasma membranes is known to be inhibited by ethanol and stimulated by glucocorticoids. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Brain: synaptic plasma membranes. (asahq.org)
  • Aging led to opposite membrane alterations in both mouse brain fractions. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Brain synaptosomal aging: free radicals and membrane fluidity. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Synaptic plasma membranes from the cortices of adult rat brain were isolated from synaptosomes prepared by flotation of a washed mitochondrial pellet (P2) in a discontinuous Ficoll sucrose gradient. (elsevier.com)
  • Moore, W. J. / ISOLATION AND PARTIAL CHARACTERIZATION OF RAT BRAIN SYNAPTIC PLASMA MEMBRANES . (elsevier.com)
  • In this report we provide biochemical evidence that a highly purified synaptic plasma membrane fraction derived from rat brain, after intraventricular injection of 35S-labeled sodium sulfate, is enriched in a number of large sulfated glycoproteins compared with a purified myelin fraction studied concurrently. (umn.edu)
  • However, Rho family proteins such as RhoA and Cdc42 were elevated in LP2 membranes of the aged brain . (bvsalud.org)
  • Ca2+/CaM stimulated phosphorylation of the 22 and 55-kDa proteins in SV membranes from the aged rat brain , and inhibited phosporylation of 30-kDa proteins . (bvsalud.org)
  • The visual system of the blowfly Calliphora vicina is a good model system to study synaptic transmission in vivo during sensory stimulation. (wiley.com)
  • To dissociate the roles of action potentials and graded potential changes in synaptic transmission we used voltage-clamp-controlled current-clamp techniques to suppress the graded membrane potential changes without affecting action potentials. (wiley.com)
  • If you look at the patient e.g. of Alzheimer's disease, you find a lot of aggregates all over the place, but even then in the path of pathogenesis the first thing that happens is the dysfunction of the synapses - something happens at the synaptic terminals and changes the property of the synaptic transmission. (leica-microsystems.com)
  • P.M. Headley and S. Grillner, Excitatory amino acids and synaptic transmission: the evidence for a physiological function, TiPS Special Report 1991 , Elsevier, Cambridge, p30(1991). (springer.com)
  • Vesicle trafficking and remodeling of the cytoskeleton, which are closely linked, are widely accepted to be the pivotal mechanisms of spine growth and contribute to strengthening synaptic transmission. (uu.nl)
  • We use these muscles as well as the superficial, tonic abdominal flexor muscle to demonstrate properties in synaptic transmission. (uky.edu)
  • Three processes were examined for their sensitivity to the Abs: the excitatory amino acid stimulation of thiocyanate (SCN − ) flux, the transport of l‐glutamic acid across the synaptic membrane, and the depolarization‐induced release of l‐glutamate. (elsevier.com)
  • Studies of rapidly frozen tissue with electron probe microanalysis and elemental imaging reveal that these cisterns take up and sequester calcium, which is derived from the extracellular space, and which probably enters the spine as part of the synaptic current. (nih.gov)
  • RIMS2 has thus been suggested to function as a Rab effector involved in exocytosis, particularly synaptic membrane exocytosis and calcium ion-regulated exocytosis of neurotransmitter. (cags.org.ae)
  • In the presence of intracellular calcium, diacylglycerol (DAG) and phosphatidylserine, cPKCs are tethered to the membrane ready for substrate binding, phosphorylation and the activation of downstream signaling effectors ( Colón-González and Kazanietz, 2006 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • 1. Once the synaptic vesticles have fused with the membrane of the axon terminal acetylcholine ______ and calcium ions _____ the synaptic cleft. (jiskha.com)
  • Enzymes: plasma membrane Calcium 2 +-ATPase. (asahq.org)
  • We now report persistent anesthetic alteration of another enzyme system found in synaptosomes, the ubiquitous plasma membrane Calcium 2 +-ATPase pump (PMCA). (asahq.org)
  • 2-5 ] Plasma membrane Calcium 2 +-ATPase plays a critical role in this regulatory process by ejecting Calcium 2 + from the cell. (asahq.org)
  • In this review we focus on two basic and interconnected cell biological mechanisms that are required for synaptic maintenance: endomembrane recycling and calcium (Ca(2+)) homeostasis. (fu-berlin.de)
  • Here we examine the ability of trace amines to cross synthetic (Fluorosomes) and native (synaptosomes) lipid bilayer membranes. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we show that synaptic activity, one of the most important inducers of neurite growth, transcriptionally regulates the expression of neuronal glucose transporter Glut3 and rate‐limiting enzymes of glycolysis, resulting in enhanced glucose uptake and metabolism that is partly used for lipid synthesis. (embopress.org)
  • Analysis of the major raft lipids revealed a slight age-related increase in cholesterol levels and such increases might enhance membrane lipid order and prevent further loss of PMCA activity. (ku.edu)
  • This effect is observed in both intact membranes and bilayers prepared from lipid extracts of the membrane. (elsevier.com)
  • Hitzemann, RJ & Johnson, DA 1983, ' Developmental changes in synaptic membrane lipid composition and fluidity ', Neurochemical Research , vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 121-131. (elsevier.com)
  • Johnson, David A. / Developmental changes in synaptic membrane lipid composition and fluidity . (elsevier.com)
  • In addition, we have identified the 35 S-labeled lipid-soluble material in these membrane fractions as cerebroside sulfate. (umn.edu)
  • abstract = "Synaptic membrane enriched fractions were prepared from 7 and 14 day and adult cortical nerve endings. (elsevier.com)
  • abstract = "Structural and dielectric alteration by ethanol in vitro and chronic ethanol consumption were examined in synaptic plasma membranes (SPM) using diphenylhexatriene and charged diphenylhexatriene derivatives. (umn.edu)
  • abstract = "Several cations were examined for their ability to specifically affect one of the 3 l-glutamate (l-Glu) binding sites in rat forebrain synaptic plasma membranes (i.e. (elsevier.com)
  • Dendritic attenuation of synaptic potentials and currents: the role of passive membrane properties. (nih.gov)
  • Here we review the biophysical characteristics of synaptic currents and membrane properties of NG2 cells and discuss their capabilities to perform complex temporal and spatial signal integration and how this may be important for activity-dependent myelination. (frontiersin.org)
  • Effects of Phorbol Esters on Membrane Currents and Synaptic Efficacy in the Hippocampus. (ucsf.edu)
  • The polypeptide composition of the purified synaptic plasma membranes was compared with the microsomes and mitochondria by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulphate. (elsevier.com)
  • Synaptic boutons are swollen structures of axonal terminals embedded in highly folded muscular membranes called the subsynaptic reticulum (SSR) and each bouton contains tens of neurotransmitter release sites paired with PSDs. (elifesciences.org)
  • Two aspects that influence a cell's membrane potential and which we address in these experiments are: (1) Ion concentration of K + on the outside of the membrane, and (2) the permeability of the membrane to specific ions. (uky.edu)
  • The coaxial multi-barrelled microelectrode technique 6 can partly overcome these difficulties as it allows an in vivo intracellular recording of membrane potential in conjunction with an extracellular iontophoresis of drugs which could block action potentials and synaptic waves in the recorded neuron. (springer.com)
  • The membrane potential in the terminals of the presynaptic neuron is composed of two components, graded membrane potential changes and action potentials. (wiley.com)
  • These undulatory potentials are largely dependent upon the periodically arriving synaptic activities. (springer.com)
  • Intrinsic membrane properties also play a certain important role in the generation or modulation of these potentials. (springer.com)
  • However, we have shown that at least one process, conversion by methyltransferase Iodine of phosphatidylethanolamine to phosphatidyl-N-monomethylethanolamine, remained enhanced twofold in neural membranes of rats killed while anesthetized with halothane or isoflurane. (asahq.org)
  • The specific binding of L-[3H]glutamate to hippocampal synaptic membranes was examined in rats kindled by tetanic stimulation of the angular bundle. (duke.edu)
  • The fused vesicle membrane is then reinternalized via a slow and clathrin-dependent mode of compensatory endocytosis that takes several seconds. (nih.gov)
  • We are of the opinion that both fast and slow modes of endocytosis co-exist at central nervous system nerve terminals and that one mode can predominate depending on stimulus strength, temperature and synaptic maturation. (nih.gov)
  • Under basal conditions, synaptic GABA A Rs are undergoing clathrin-dependent endocytosis ( 8 , 10 , 11 ). (pnas.org)
  • Clathrin-mediated endocytosis of synaptic vesicle membranes involves the recruitment of clathrin and AP-2 adaptor complexes to the presynaptic plasma membrane. (rupress.org)
  • Synaptic vesicle (SV) * membranes are formed and recycled by clathrin-mediated endocytosis at the presynaptic plasmalemma. (rupress.org)
  • After fusion, plasma membrane area returns to its pre-release value via endocytosis over much slower time scales (0.1-10 seconds). (curie.fr)
  • Because exocytosis and endocytosis locally decrease and increase membrane tension, respectively, sustained exo-endocytic activity would lead to membrane tension gradients. (curie.fr)
  • Slow membrane flows could limit spatio-temporal coupling of exo- and endocytosis, but have never been probed in presynaptic terminals. (curie.fr)
  • The purified synaptosome fraction was subjected to osmotic shock, subfractionated on a discontinuous sucrose gradient and the distribution of enzymic and chemical markers for synaptic plasma membranes, microsomal membranes and mitochondria was determined. (elsevier.com)
  • Therefore, enriched preparations of synaptic particles called synaptosome are necessary to study synapse function. (elsevier.com)
  • The cytoplasmic domains of the three membrane proteins join into a tight SDS-resistant complex. (elsevier.com)
  • Selective and reversible increase in the number of quisqualate-sensitive glutamate binding sites on hippocampal synaptic membranes after angular bundle kindling. (duke.edu)
  • To orchestrate neurotransmission, more than one thousand proteins are present at the presynaptic terminal and which either directly or indirectly interact with the synaptic vesicle. (grantome.com)
  • view of neurotransmission that focuses on the synaptic vesicle as the central organelle in synaptic function. (grantome.com)
  • Synaptic vesicle is the central organelle in neurotransmission. (grantome.com)
  • This project aims to develop a quantitative understanding of the organization of the synaptic vesicle, because unraveling how synaptic proteins are organized and constructing a molecularly precise picture of how the synaptic vesicle actually looks like will form the foundation from which to understand neurotransmission and synaptic function. (grantome.com)
  • Bannai, H 2018, ' Molecular membrane dynamics: Insights into synaptic function and neuropathological disease ', Neuroscience Research , 巻. (elsevier.com)
  • The voltage change in dendritic spines during synaptic input ranged from a few millivolts up to ∼20 mV. (jneurosci.org)
  • This observation suggests that voltage-activated channels do not significantly boost the voltage response in dendritic spines during synaptic input. (jneurosci.org)
  • the synaptic voltage response in the majority of dendritic spines is small. (jneurosci.org)
  • Furthermore, based on changes in the amplitude of synaptic responses in dendritic spines during membrane hyperpolarization, we conclude that these responses are not significantly amplified by voltage-activated channels. (jneurosci.org)
  • Membrane bound cisterns are a ubiquitous feature of Purkinje cell dendritic spines. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, the growth-associated proteins, GAP-43 and GAP-48, a phosphoprotein of the growth cone, pp46, a C-kinase substrate related to phosphatidylinositol turnover in synaptic membranes, B-50, and a C-kinase substrate associated with hippocampal long-term potentiation, F1, are identical. (northwestern.edu)
  • The pattern of activation of these synaptic inputs determines if the neuron will fire an action potential at any given point in time and how it will respond to similar inputs in the future. (nih.gov)
  • We recorded extracellularly from an identified motion-sensitive neuron while simultaneously measuring and controlling the membrane potential of individual elements of its presynaptic input ensemble. (wiley.com)
  • Moreover, it is hard to know at what timing any specific ionic conductance becomes active in the respiratory cycle change in membrane potential observed in different types of the respiratory neuron. (springer.com)
  • Genomic definition of RIM proteins: evolutionary amplification of a family of synaptic regulatory proteins. (nih.gov)
  • Regulates synaptic membrane exocytosis. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we sought to localize PDK1 in the NMJ and investigate the hypothesis that synaptic activity and muscle contraction regulate in parallel PDK1 and cPKCβI phosphorylation in the membrane fraction. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, synaptic activity specifically enhanced phosphorylation of PDK1 in the membrane, an important subcellular location for PDK1 function. (frontiersin.org)
  • This increase in pPDK1 coincides with a significant increase in the phosphorylation of its substrate cPKCβI also in the membrane fraction. (frontiersin.org)
  • Together, these results indicate that neuromuscular activity could induce the membrane targeting of pPDK1 in the nerve terminal of the NMJ to promote the phosphorylation of the cPKCβI, which is involved in ACh release. (frontiersin.org)
  • GTPgammaS inhibited phosphorylation of the 100-kDa proteins and stimulated phosphorylation of the 70 kDa in LP2 membranes from both the young and aged rat brains, whereas GDPbetaS caused just the opposite reaction. (bvsalud.org)
  • d) The microviscosity of synaptic membranes, as measured by the fluorescence depolarization technique, increases during development. (elsevier.com)
  • Synaptic vesicle exocytosis, strongly influenced by external [Ca 2+ ], appeared with the kinetics accelerated by depolarization. (elsevier.com)
  • The synaptic vesicle cycle. (nih.gov)
  • Dr. Shigeki Watanabe, principle investigator of the department of Cell Biology at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine in Baltimore, held a workshop in Zürich, Switzerland on methods to study synaptic dynamics with millisecond precision. (leica-microsystems.com)
  • We are pretty unique in using electron microscopy as the primary tool to study synaptic functions. (leica-microsystems.com)
  • Two key factors that regulate release and vesicle recycling are dynamics of the initial nanometer-sized fusion pore and membrane flows. (curie.fr)
  • Understanding membrane dynamics is thought to be of paramount importance here - can you explain why that is? (leica-microsystems.com)
  • So, membrane dynamics at synapses are essential to our life. (leica-microsystems.com)
  • We used multiscale molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the stability of APP-TM dimer in realistic models of the synaptic plasma membrane (SPM). (epfl.ch)
  • We characterized membrane tension dynamics in presynaptic terminals by pulling thin membrane tethers from them. (curie.fr)
  • Although the latter membranes were more rigid than control membranes, the intrinsic rigidity of the interior core of the synaptosomal plasma membrane did not strictly correlate with effects of ethanol in vitro. (umn.edu)
  • These data suggest that clathrin-dependent retrieval of SV membranes may at least in part depend on phosphoinositide metabolism. (rupress.org)
  • The effects of aging and of different amyloid β-peptides (Aβ) on the properties of purified synaptosomal plasma and mitochondrial membranes were studied using different fluorescent dyes. (semanticscholar.org)